You are on page 1of 13

SCIENCE AREA - SECOND GRADE

TEACHER: HANS QUEVEDO


THIRD MARKING PERIOD PLANNING
FROM: MARCH 23rd TO JUNE 18th - 2010
DURATION: 4 HOURS WEEKLY

GRADE MOTTO: “Building up my independence by contributing to the environment and


atmosphere at school and at home”

CONTENT: STRUCTURE AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE ORGANS OF A PLANT


3.1 Structure and function of the root, stem, leaf, flower, fruit and seed.
3.1.1 Photosynthesis.
3.2 Scientific method.

PROJECT: The school garden.


READING: High and Lifted Up” by Mike Krath.

PURPOSE: During this third and last marking period, I look toward the development of
meaningful learning moments recognizing in the school garden an opportunity to observe the
evolution and characteristics of a plant (its structure and functions). Students will begin working
with the different parts of a plant. This involves the opportunity for them to experience through
activities the direct and indirect observation presented by the teacher. Some of these activities
include the soil preparation, sowing, observing and caring activities of plants, building up in the
students investigative/research skills and at the same time providing answers to their hypothesis,
creating a relationship of respect, caring and understanding for the environment. Experimentation
will be carried out in the classrooms/laboratory in order to give them the opportunity to feel,
experiment and create their own conclusions about the parts and functions seen in class.

The goal is to know how plants function and the significance of their structure in determining their
ability to survive, adapt and reproduce. The kids will be explained the link between a plant’s
physiology and its photosynthesis. Through this Third Unit the intention is to encourage the
children to love nature while fostering their sense of stewardship toward their own neighborhoods
and schoolyards and to create an environmentally aware student by laying the foundation in
childhood for a deep appreciation of the environment, making them conscious of the importance
in building a greener and better Cali in which all children can live, grow, learn and play. The
Science Fair will also take place during this marking period. Keeping in mind the school’s “Solid
Residues Management Project”, the importance of recycling will be reinforced.

INSTRUCTION No. 1: “Coming into contact, caring and learning in my school garden”
DIDACTIC: The recycling project (solid residues management) will be discussed and analyzed
through discussions and clips that have been shown throughout the school year. The teacher will
continue with the campaign started at the beginning of the 1st M. Period. At this point clips and
powerpoint presentations will be shown to the students. We also will review the three R’s (with
examples given by the teacher e.g. If I use plastic bags again to go food shopping, which of the 3
r’s does it belong to?) so that they can distinguish three key ways to make their impact on the
environment:
• reduce: this means cutting back on the amount of waste used in everyday life. For
example, reduce waste by teaching kids to use canvas bags at the grocery store instead of
plastic bags.
• reuse: reuse an existing item in your household in order to minimize waste. For example,
reuse gift bags to cut down on paper waste or decorate cans or jars with stickers or glitter to
create a unique pencil holder.
• recycle: recycling means when an object can be shredded, melted, or processed in order
to create new raw materials; for instance, an aluminum can is used to create more cans while
paper and cardboard can be recycled in order to generate more paper products.

At the beginning of our project some common agreements will be done with the kids in order to
agnize the ideas they have about the school garden and their expectations with the different
activities to be done. Their hypothesis will be written in their notebooks as a starting point in their
knowledge and experience process. Clips and powerpoint presentations will be watched in class.
We will start reading the short story “High and Lifted Up” by Mike Krath (This story is a great
example of how a child is able to "believe" he is anything. It captures true imagination so vividly. It
develops their imagination while we could teach them to take care of our environment and to be
responsible with our decisions in life) to induce the students into the topic.

To include the Physics guidelines, I will ask the students questions like: what do you think energy
is? What is energy used for? Can the sun give us energy? Then the teacher will explain and
clarify the term “energy” and its uses, telling the students that as well as providing light, the sun is
a source of energy for plants (photosynthesis), and heat for animals, including humans. A clip and
powerpoint presentation will be shown.

According to the thematic unit and keeping in mind the interdisciplinary learning, I will be working
together with 3 areas: ART-kids will have to create or design a plant or recycling painting or
drawing from their new knowledge. COMPUTER LAB - kids will have to draw a plant and identify
its parts. ENGLISH-In addition to producing short oral and written compositions. In the science
class, they will be given two poems that talk about plants, to learn and recite by lines:

1. Little leaves fall gently down


Red and yellow and orange
Whirling, whirling, round and round
Quietly without a sound
Falling softly to the ground
Down, down, down and down

2. I'm a little brown seed


Rolled up in a tiny ball
I'll wait for the rain and sunshine
To make me big and tall
The kids will plant lettuce, celery and/or carrot seeds in the school garden and will be able to
monitor them as time passes by, how each of the seeds develops one of its parts more than the
other. This observation process will be copied on the sheet handed out to them.

Throughout the classes, the students will be given different examples via presentations, images,
games or videos. The class will be split into 5 or 6 groups for the purpose of receiving feedback.
A permanent evaluation will be done in all activities, in order to check the learning process.

Observe the parts of the plants sowed in the garden:


At the beginning of the activities riddles and questions about fruits and vegetables will be asked
as a means of diversion and previous knowledge (e.g. I am round and red. My meat is also red.
Some people think I am a vegetable but I am really a fruit. People like to use me in a salad, WHO
AM I=tomato) and questions like: How many times do you eat vegetables or fruits in a day? Why
are fruits or vegetables good for you? Do all fruits and vegetables have the same vitamins?

Further on, the kids will continue visiting the school garden and will be able to monitor as time
passes by, how each of the seeds develops one of its parts more than the other. This observation
process will be copied in their notebooks and will be recorded into a workshop that will be handed
out. Throughout the classes, the students will be given different examples via presentations,
images, games or videos. The feedback will be received by Little Scientists teams. A permanent
evaluation will be done in all activities, in order to check the learning process.

Finally, the students will be asked to observe through a magnifying glass the different parts of a
plant. Consequently we will come up with some agreements and conclusions on the functions of
each, which will written down by them on their notebooks. They will also cut out and organize a
booklet “how do plants grow” and identify each stage, to do this they will be handed out a sheet
which the have to fold in 3 parts in order to make a booklet and they will color it too.

3.1 Structure and function of the root, stem, leaf, flower, fruit and seed.

INSTRUCTION No. 2: “I Understand and recognize the different parts of a plant”.


DIDACTIC: The students will asked what parts of a plant do they know about and what is the
importance of each one (this information will be written on the board for them to comment and
write down in their notebooks in the part “ME”). Then the teacher will begin explaining the parts of
a plant and its functions starting with the flower and will contrast it with their answers. Powerpoint
presentations, movie clips and images will be shown in class). Six main plant organs allow the life
processes to take place:

1. THE FLOWER:
We will start off by having a walk around the school searching for fallen flowers so they can
collect them, paste them and identify their parts as we learn about them. The will be explained
that the flower contains the organs of plant sexual reproduction. It attracts insects needed to carry
the pollen between plants to allow pollination. It's really important for reproduction. Flowers
produce seeds which form new plants. Flowers are the reproductive part of most plants. Flowers
contain pollen and tiny eggs called ovules. After pollination of the flower and fertilization of the
ovule, the ovule develops into a fruit. The flower consists of many different parts. Some of the
most important parts are separated into both male and female parts.
Male Parts
• Stamen:This is the male part of the flower. It is made up of the filament and anther, it is
the pollen producing part of the plant. The number of stamen is usually the same as the
number of petals.
• Anther: This is the part of the stamen that produces and contains pollen. It is usually on
top of a long stalk that looks like a fine hair.
• Filament: This is the fine hair-like stalk that the anther sits on top of.
Female Parts
• Pistil: This is the female part of the flower. It is made up of the stigma, style, and ovary.
Each pistil is constructed of one to many rolled leaflike structures.
• Stigma: One of the female parts of the flower. It is the sticky bulb that you see in the
center of the flowers, it is the part of the pistil of a flower which receives the pollen grains
and on which they germinate.
- Style: Another female part of the flower. This is the long stalk that the stigma sits on top
of.
- Ovary: The part of the plant, usually at the bottom of the flower. The mature ovary is a
fruit, and the mature ovule is a seed.
- Ovule: The Ovule is like the egg in animals and once fertilization has taken place will
become the seed.

Other Important Parts of a Flower


- Petal:The colorful, often bright part of the flower. They attract pollinators and are usually
the reason why we buy and enjoy flowers.
- Sepal: The parts that look like little green leaves that cover the outside of a flower bud to
protect the flower before it open.
- Nectary: This is where a sugary solution called nectar is held to attract insects.
To this point the students have learned some parts of a flower and a short clip and presentations
will be shown to make it easier to understand an animated way the reproductive process in a
flower. Questions will be asked as students watch the movie.
Students will be given a coloring sheet of two flowers in order to identify its parts. They will be
asked to research on flowers choosing a favorite one based on its type and color, bringing an
image of it to school, presenting it to the class and labeling it “My favorite flower is…”.

Fallen flowers will be collected and taken to the lab for further observance. A workshop will be
handed out in which students have to complete the growing process of a flower.

FUNCTIONS:
The flower contains the organs of plant reproduction:
• It attracts insects needed to carry the pollen between plants to allow pollination.
• It's really important for reproduction. Flowers produce seeds which form new plants.
Flowers are the reproductive part of most plants. Flowers contain pollen and tiny eggs called
ovules.
• After pollination of the flower and fertilization of the ovule, the ovule develops into a fruit

2. THE FRUIT:
Since most of the students bring a fruit for break time, they will be asked to take it out, name it
and mention which parts do they know about it. Then the teacher will explain that the fruit
provides a covering for seeds. Fruit can be fleshy like an apple or hard like a nut. The fruit is the
ripened ovary of a plant containing the seeds.

Parts of Fruit

Fruit consists of the fertilized and mature ovules, called seeds, and the ovary wall, which may be
fleshy, as in the apple, or dry and hard as in a maple fruit. The only parts of the fruit which are
genetically representative of both the male and female flowers are the seeds (mature ovules).
The rest of the fruit arises from the maternal plant, and is therefore genetically identical to that
parent. Some fruits have seeds enclosed within the ovary (apples, peaches, oranges,
cucumbers). Others have seeds that are situated on the periphery of fruit tissue (corn,
strawberry).

A flower's ovary becomes the fruit wall (called pericarp) that surrounds the seeds. In some fruits,
especially fleshy ones, the pericarp is quite substantial and you can see three distinct layers. The
outermost skin is called the exocarp, the middle flesh that we think of as the fruit is the mesocarp,
and finally, the inner most layer of the ovary is the endocarp.

Kids will be asked to draw 5 different fruits they are familiar with, to choose their favorite one and
to research information about it. Students will be given a coloring sheet of a fruit in order to
identify its parts.

FUNCTIONS:
• PROTECTION: protect developing plant embryo
• DISPERSAL: may be adapted to disperse seeds

3. THE SEED:
Every seed is a tiny plant (embryo) with leaves, stems, and root parts waiting for the right things
to happen to make it germinate and grow. Seeds are protected by a coat. This coat can be thin or
thick and hard. Thin coats don't protect the embryo well. But thick coats can let the embryo
survive some tough conditions.

Seeds contain new plants. Seeds form in fruit. The seed, or matured ovule is made up of three
parts. The embryo is a miniature plant in an arrested state of development. Most seeds contain a
built-in food supply called the endosperm (orchid are an exception). The endosperm can be made
up of proteins, carbohydrates or fats. The third part a hard outer covering called a seed coat. It
protects the seed from disease and insects, and prevents water from entering the seed which
would initiate the germination process before the proper time.

Students will be given a coloring sheet of a seed in order to identify its parts. They will also be
asked to bring in a container so that each of them plants a seed and looks after it during the
marking period. A short story “The lucky seed” will be read in order to demonstrate through the
reading how a seed became a plant by accident in a fun way. Two seed poems will be recited
and practiced in the class.

FUNCTIONS:
A seed has several functions and advantages:
• Contains the embryo which will grow into the new plant.
• Contains a food source to nourish the embryo until it is able to start making its own food.
• Has a seed coat to protect the embryo and food source.
• Can remain dormant until conditions are right for germination and growth.

The students will be taught the parts of a plant and its functions (the school garden,
powerpoint presentations, movie clips and class assignments).
4. THE ROOT:
The root is the organ which provides anchorage for the plant so that it does not blow away or fall
over. With its root hairs it provides a big surface area to help take in water and minerals from the
soil. These are both essential for photosynthesis. The root is therefore important for nutrition.
They take in water and food (mineral salts) from soil and the roots are spread out.

In a typical root we can distinguish the following parts:

1. Primary root - the thickest . It grows downwards.


2. Secondary roots - arise from the primary root. They are not as
thick as the primary one. They go sidewards.
3. Root cap - is a kind of protection the roots end with. It is
designed to drill the soil and it is able to guide the root growth by
perceiving gravity.
4. Root hairs - are minute filaments roots are covered with.
They absorb water and nutrients from the soil.

To divert the topic, we will watch a clip “To the garden”, which provides the students with fun,
laughs and wonder, while expanding their creativity and knowledge in a garden. It also
encourages active viewing and bonding opportunities for students.

The kids will be asked to bring in a root with information about its parts, which will be observed
while identifying them. Cardboard will be handed out to make group presentations. Prior to this
they should have read the information researched and contrast it with the root they brought
keeping this question and points in mind:
• Which are the parts that my root has?
• The kids will paste the roots to the cardboard and label each part found.
• After all the students have pasted their root to the cardboard, they have to check the
comparisons among them. The concepts inferred by the kids will be registered in their
notebooks.

FUNCTIONS:
Roots act like straws absorbing water and minerals from the soil. Tiny root hairs stick out of the
root, helping in the absorption. Roots help to anchor the plant in the soil so it does not fall over.
Roots also store extra food for future use.

The roots of a plant serve 4 important functions:


• i) anchor the plant
• ii) absorb water and mineral from the soil
• iii) act as a site for food storage
• iv) Roots form a passage way for water and dissolved substances from the root into the
stem and also for foods from the stem down into the root.

The students will sow celery in recipients (glass jar) and keep it in the classroom so it can be
observed through its process and be used to make a detailed analysis on it.
The materials needed for this activity are:
• Celery seeds
• Fertilized soil
• Container (jar)
• Permanent Marker

Procedure:

1. We will visit the school garden and sow the celery seeds.
2. When the celery is ready to harvest, the students will do the threshing in very carefully and
observe how it is attached to the ground.
3. Then, the kids will place the plant with roots in the glass jar. They later pour water and mark
where the water level is.
4. On the fourth day, the students will observe and answer the following questions:

 Do the jars have the amount of water left?


 Is water useful to plants? Why?
 Describe the physical characteristics of the root (Color, size and texture).
 Write in my own words the result of this observation.

Finally, we will come up with some agreements and conclusion on the functions of a root and the
students will write them down in their notebooks.

5. STEM
The stem is the organ which holds the leaves upright in the air and facing the light
It carries water and minerals to the leaves, and food around the plant
The stem is important for nutrition, excretion and growth. "Like a straw", transports water through
plant. Raises the height of flowers and leaves. Brings closer to light. The stem is made up of little
tubes.

terminal bud - a bud at the tip of a stem responsible for


terminal growth.
axillary bud or lateral bud - buds along side the axis of
a stem; they were produced by the terminal bud during
growth; once they grow out and form a lateral stem they
become terminal buds of the lateral branch.
flower bud - a bud containing a floral meristem which
develops into flowers; usually larger than vegetative
buds.
leaf scar - a scar marking the former point of attachment
of a leaf or petiole to the stem.
internode - the part of the stem between nodes
node - part of stem marking the point of attachment of
leaves, flowers, fruits, buds and other stems.
lenticel - rough areas on stems (and some fruits, ex.
apple) composed of loosely packed cells extending from
the cortex through the ruptured epidermis; serve as
"breathing pores" for gas exchange. Only occur on
young stems.
growth rings - bud scale scars from the last terminal
bud; they denote flushes of growth (usually per year).
Can be used to age.
We will go to the school garden and look for the
plant with the longest stem. They will also observe
and identify its parts. Once we go back to the
classroom the students will represent a drawing of
the stem observed and its parts in their notebook.
FUNCTIONS:
Stems do many things. They support the plant. They act like the plant's plumbing system,
conducting water and nutrients from the roots and food in the form of glucose from the leaves to
other plant parts. Stems can be herbaceous like the bendable stem of a daisy or woody like the
trunk of an oak tree.

It's easy to see the "pipes" that Here the "pipes" are dyed red so
conduct water, nutrients, and glucose you can easily see them.
in a stalk of celery.

The stem plants exist in a variety of sizes and forms. However, all stems provide a few
important functions:
• i) provide support for the plant
• ii) provide transportation between roots and leaves
• iii) act as a site for food storage

To illustrate the functions of a stem, a cup and a straw will be used by the students to drink water
and cover the top side with a finger and notice how the water is held inside the straw.
Based on what the students have seen in class and this activity, they will answer the following
questions:
 In your words explain what happens when you drink in liquid through a straw?
 What similiarities and differences do you find between the straw and a plant stem absorving
water?
 Which are the substances absorved through the conducting pipes of a stem?
 What are the main functions of a stem?

Materials needed:
• 1 glass jar
• Aniline dye
• 1 flower of any kind

Procedure:
1. Mix the aniline dye in the jar with water
2. Place the flower inside the jar
3. Observe what happens the following day
4. What is the change of color due to? How did this happen?

We will also cut a celery root in class. It will be asked: ¿What do you observe? What function do
the pipes in the stem do? They will be asked to draw what they observe. Conclusions will be
inferred and written in their notebooks.

6. LEAF
The leaves are the organs of photosynthesis. They make all the food that the plant needs. Leaves
contain chlorophyll, which uses light energy to change carbon dioxide and water into glucose.
They have tiny little pores, which allow essential carbon dioxide in and waste gases out. Leaves
are important for nutrition and excretion. Leaves come in different shapes. Almost always green
but sometimes covered with another color such as red. There is a green substance in leaves
called chlorophyll. Leaves make food for the plant. To do this they need the water and mineral
salts obtained from the soil as well as sunshine. They are carried inside little veins in the leaf.

tip the terminal point of the leaf.


blade or lamina the flattened, green, expanded
portion of a leaf.
margin edge of a leaf.
midrib the most prominent central vein in a leaf.
lateral veins secondary veins in a leaf.
petiole the leaf stalk (connects blade to stem).
stipules leaf-like appendages (at the base of
petiole of some leaves).

To this point the students have learned some parts of a leaf: and a short Disney cartoon will be
shown to see the whole picture and understand in an animated way the growing process in a
plant; questions will be asked as students watch the movie.

We will go to the school garden and look for the plant with the biggest leaves. They will also
observe and identify its parts. Once we go back to the classroom the students will represent a
drawing of the leaf observed and its parts in their notebook. All conclusion drawn up this point will
be written in their notebooks.

FUNCTIONS:
Most plants' food is made in their leaves. Leaves are designed to capture sunlight which the plant
uses to make food through a process called photosynthesis.

The leaf of a plant serves two basic functions:


a) photosynthesis, and b) cellular respiration.
i) Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis is a chemical reaction in which plants convert radiant energy (light energy) into
chemical energy (food energy or more specifically, glucose).
ii) Cellular Respiration
Cellular respiration is the chemical reaction in which chemical energy (glucose) is converted into
usable energy for the plant.

Plants use Photosynthesis to create food from sunlight and carbon dioxide. This reaction occurs
because of the chlorophyll within plants, and is what gives them their green color. This
experiment will answer two questions: Why are plants green? Why do plants need sunlight to
remain green?

These are the materials needed to see how important sunlight is to leaves:
-Plant with broad leaves (may be inside or outside)
-Black cardboard
-Transparent material (such as a plastic bag)
-Scissors (teacher will be supervising)
-Tape

Procedure:
1. Cut a piece of black construction paper large enough to cover a broad leaf. (Teacher will
assist the students).
2. Now wrap the construction paper around the leaf and use the tape to secure it.
3. Wait at least a week before removing the construction paper from the leaf. When the
experiment is finished compare your leaf to the other leaves on the plant. You should be
able to see a distinct difference between the leaves.
4. The leaf that had been under the cover of the construction paper should have begun to
lose its green color and wilt. This is because the leaf is unable to continue to make food
without the help of sunlight. Plants grown without any light at all will be pale and spindly.

Once the students have learned a plant’s physiology and structure we will visit the school garden
to perceive the theory seen in class and understand that creating and looking over a garden
requires care. During the visit to the garden many aspects based on the short video “Mickey’s
Garden” will be discussed as well as the movie “The man who planted trees” (which show the
responsibility, dedication and perseverance needed when planting and taking care of plants).

At the end of the marking period a final chart or sketch will be made to register all the conclusions
drawn throughout the classes, which will contain the parts of a plant, its functions and
observations or conclusions.

We will proceed to work on an activity from the module “Growing Things” that begins with a
questionnaire to find out the students previous knowledge. They will be given 2 seeds to draw
them each in a box in the sheet that will be handed out to them in order to observe and identify
the differences.
1.
Seed 1 Seed 2

2. There will also be a drawing of a plant to identify its parts.

3. Why are the roots of a plant important?

4. When you plant a seed,


a) What do you think will happen?
b) Where does the plant take the food from?

4. Name 3 plants you can eat.

5. Name 3 things a plant needs in order to grow.

6. Which of the following shows the best sequence of how a plant grows?

Finally, the students will be taken to the laboratory to observe the plants of a root, stem and leaf.
Consequently we will come up with some agreements and conclusion on the functions of a leaf
and the students will write them down in their notebooks.
INSTRUCTION No. 3: “I pick up some fallen flowers in my school, feel them and share what
I have observed in a class discussion”.
DIDACTIC:
The kids will take a walk around the school and collect fallen flowers. In the classroom the kids
will identify its visible parts and make a drawing of them in their notebook. We will later use a
magnifying glass to carefully observe its parts. Based on this observation the students will
develop a workshop that will allow them to feel and observe directly the flower and its parts
through the magnifying glass. We will later socialize in class the observations done.

Then I will ask students what they know about flowers?


What kind of flowers can you think of?
Does anyone in your family have a garden or flowers?
What kind of flowers?
When you look at or smell a flower, what does it make you think of?

3.1.1 Photosynthesis: The kids will be asked: What do they know about this term? Do you
know what energy is? They will be given the example of when they get hungry, what do they do
about it? You might decide to look in the refrigerator or try to convince your mom to take you to a
restaurant. You do those things because you feel that you need it. Humans need to get their
energy from the foods they eat.

Plants can't just reach in the refrigerator for a quick snack. They have to make their own food.
They have to use light energy from the sun to produce the food they need. To understand how
this works, we need to learn about photosynthesis. Then they will be explained that it is the
process by which plants use the sunlight to produce energy in order to repair and reproduce
themselves. In this process they release oxygen and here comes the importance of plants in our
lives. They will complete a workshop to identify the items that use energy from sunlight.

In one of the classes the students will be blindfolded and given flower and tree part patterns
which they have to paste on the board in their correct place.

3.2 Scientific method:


We will continue emphasizing and learning this method applying it to different examples of the
topics in class. The students will be asked to record the information on a sheet following the
scientific method and based on the Little Scientist Module procedure.

ASSESSMENT:

OUTCOME: To distinguish and describe the parts of the roots, stems and leaves and explain
their functions.

The children will have demonstrated their science understandings when by or when they:
1. Identify the different parts of a plant, its functions and importance on living beings
(50%).
2. To inquire about the importance of plants in the different ecosystems (50%).

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

Science 1. Richmond Publisher. 2006


Science. Diamond edition. Scott Foresman. 2008
http://www.botanical-online.com/lasplantasangles.htm
http://www.urbanext.uiuc.edu/gpe/case1/c1facts2a.html
http://www.mbgnet.net/bioplants/parts.html
http://www.nelsonthornes.com/secondary/science/scinet/scinet/plants/parts/content.htm
TENTATIVE TIME CHART:
WEEK DATE TOPIC
1st March 23rd to 26th Solid residues management project
2nd March 29th to April 2nd RECESS WEEK
3rd April 5th to 9th Introduction to plants physiology and
structure
4th April 12th to 16th The flower
5th April 19th to 23rd The fruit
6th April 26th to 30th Sowing of seeds (school garden) – Science
Fair work
7th May 3rd to May 7th The seed
8th May 10th to 14th The root
9th May 18th to 21st Laboratory work
10th May 24th to 28th The stem
11th May 31st to June 4th The leaf
12th June 8th to 11th Final review
13th June 15th to 18th FINAL EVALUATIONS