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MECH 344/X
Machine Element Design

Time: M _ _ _ _14:45 - 17:30

Lecture 1

Contact Details
Instructor: Dr. S. Narayanswamy
Office Room: EV 004.124
Phone: 848-2424 (7923)

Office Hours: M _ _ _ _ 11:00 12:00 or by appointment


Web site:

About the course

This course covers the basic principles employed in the

design of standard mechanical components subjected

to operating force and moment fields

Lectures - 3 hours each

13 Lectures of all - one is an introductory lecture

2 Term Tests

Final exam

Class logistics

3 Continuous teaching hours/week M---14:45 17:30 @ FGB050

13 lectures + 2 Term Tests + Final

Course Web Page

Text book and other reference

Text Book

Fundamentals of Machine Component Design Robert C. Juvinall and Kurt M,

Marshek, Wiley; 5th edition.


1. Richard G. Budynas and Keith Nisbett, Shigleys

Mechanical Engineering Design, 10th Edition,
McGraw-Hill, 2014.
2. M. F. Spotts, T. E. Shoup and L. E. Hornberger,
Design of Machine Elements, 8th Edition,
Prentice-Hall, 2004.
3. Robert L. Norton, Machine Design An
Integrated Approach, 5th Edition, Prentice Hall,
4. S. R. Schmid, B. J. Hamrock, and B. Jacobson,
Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3rd
Edition, CRC press, 2013.

The Tutorial

There will be 1 and half hour tutorial on Mondays for

2 different sections

Tut XA

M ---- (20:30-22:10)

SGW H-562

Tut XB

M ---- (20:30-22:10)

SGW H-564

There will be TAs who will provide more details on

the problem solving

Attending tutorials is necessary as this will help in

preparing you for the exams

Term Tests

There will be two term tests in all during the term

The tests will be for 75 minutes on the 5th and 11th week during
Tutorial hours

Test #1: Monday October 19, 2015 (Open Book-textbook only)

Test #2: Monday November 30, 2015 (Open Book-textbook only)

Material covered for each test will be given in class one week prior
to the date of the test (definitely not by email)

Duration of the test will be 75 Minutes

Open Book-textbook only

Each term test has 20% weightage towards final grade

Grading Scheme

Grade composition:

Two Term Tests :




To pass the course you have to

Pass the final

Attend the term tests as well as midterm and get good marks

Final Test

The final exam will have problems similar to the ones in


Conducted during the university wide exam period

Duration of the test: 3 hours.

Write the final exam with confidence that you will do

very well

It is IMPERATIVE to pass the final to pass the course


General Notes

In order to pass the course you have to obtain at least 50%

of mark from the Final Exam.

Electronic communication devices (including cell phones)

are not allowed in examination rooms or during lectures.

Only Faculty Approved Calculators will be allowed in

examination rooms.

In the event of extraordinary circumstances beyond the

University's control, the content and/or evaluation scheme
in this course is subject to change

Whatever area you will choose

This course is fundamental.

Outline of the course


week 1

Introduction to Design: An overview of the subject, Machine Design Process

Fundamental Topics from Mechanics of Materials:


week 2


week 3


week 4


week 5


week 6


week 7


week 8

16- Nov

week 9

23- Nov

week 10

30- Nov

week 11


week 12


week 13

Stresses due to Axial, Bending, Direct Shear, Transverse Shear and Torsional Loadings; Curved
Beams; Combined Stresses- Mohr Circle; Stress Concentration Factors; Residual Stresses; Thermal
Static Failure Theories: Failure of Ductile Materials under Static Loading (Maximum Shear Stress
Theory, Maximum Distortion Energy Theory); Failure of Brittle Materials under Static Loading
(Modified Mohr Theory)
Fatigue Failure Theories: Basic Concepts and Standard fatigue Test; Fatigue Strengths for Reversed
Bending, Reversed Axial Loading and Reversed Torsional Loading; Fatigue Strength for Reversed
Biaxial Loading; Influence of Surface and Size on Fatigue Strength; Effect of Mean Stress on Fatigue
Strength; Effect of Stress Concentration; Fatigue Life Prediction with Randomly Varying Loads

Design of Screws and Fasteners: Thread Forms, Terminology and Standards; Power Screws; Screw
Stresses; Threaded Fasteners; Fasteners Materials and Methods of Manufacture; Bolt Tightening
and Initial Tension; Bolt Tension with External Joint-Separating Force; Bolt Selection for Static
Loading; Bolt Selection for Fatigue Loading
Design of Springs: Coil Spring Stress and Deflection; Stress and Strength Analysis for Helical
Compression Springs-Static Loading; End Designs of Helical Compression Springs; Bucking
Analysis of Helical Compression Springs; Design Procedure for Helical Compression Springs-Static
Loading; Design of Helical Compression Springs for Fatigue Loading
Design of Spur Gears: Geometry and Nomenclature; Interference and Contact Ratio; Gear Force
Analysis; Gear-Tooth Strength; Gear-Tooth Bending Fatigue Analysis- Basic Concepts and
Recommended Procedure; Gear Tooth Surface Fatigue Analysis-Basic Concepts and
Recommended Procedure
Design of Shafts and Keys: Shaft Loads; Attachments and Stress Concentrations; Shaft Stresses;
Rotating-Shaft Dynamics; Overall Shaft Design; Keys
Design of Journal and Rolling-Element Bearings: Rolling-Element Bearing Types; Fitting of RollingElement Bearings; Catalogue Information for Rolling-Element Bearings; Bearing Selection based on
Fatigue Life Requirement

4 (must be
reviewed by

(Sections 6.56.12)
(Sections 8.18.12)


(Sections 12.112.8)

(Sections 15.115.12)
(Sections 17.117.6)

Contents of today's lecture

Machine Design
Design Process
Safety Factors

Fundamentals of Machine
Component Design
Fifth Edition
Robert C. Juvinall Kurt M. Marshek

Chapter 1
Mechanical Engineering Design
in Broad Perspective
Copyright 2012 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Engineering design is the process of applying the various
techniques and scientific principles for the purpose of defining a
device, a process, or a system in sufficient detail to permit its

A Machine is:
(1) An apparatus consisting of interrelated units, or
(2) A device that modifies force or motion
A Structure has no moving parts, e.g. bridges, buildings.

A machine is a device that

transforms energy
Has fixed and moving parts
Connects the source of power and
the work to be done
In case of motor and generator
electricity is converted to mechanical
movement and vice versa
In IC engine, connecting rod and
crank shaft transfers energy

The design process

Design involves constrained creation
Technology limits
Human and environment concerns
Durability and reliability
Market requirements

Thedesign process

Basic requirements to be able to
perform a design
All the above interacts in your
judgment even if you are not
aware of it
You have to train your judgment
to be able to perform solutionEMPIRICAL CONCEPT solving based thinking


The design process

A design is created after analysis, full
understanding of requirements and
constraints and synthesis
Two individuals may not come with the
same solution to the same problem
Example: Connect two straight pipes ND 4 to
avoid leaking of the gas and to permit easy
maintenance of the segment

Solutions to the problem

Multiple: flanges, clips, clamps, seals, etc.

1. Problem Defn.
2. Concept and

The design process

3. Solutions
4. Models/Prototype
5. Production and
working drawings

Concurrent engineering

The design process

A Component !










Factor of Safety N =
Material Strength
Design Load

Fundamentals of Machine
Component Design
Fifth Edition
Robert C. Juvinall Kurt M. Marshek

Chapter 2
Load Analysis

Copyright 2012 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.



of Gear C = 2.25
of Gear B = 3.75




The sections chosen for load determination in the previous examples were, by simple
inspection, clearly those subjected to the most critical loading.
In more complicated cases, however, several sections may be critical, and their locations
less obvious.
In such instances it is often helpful to employ an orderly procedure
of following the lines of force (approximate paths taken by the force, determined
by simple inspection) through the various parts, and noting along the way any sections
suspected of being critical. Such a procedure is illustrated in the following example.


1. The weight of the yoke connection can be ignored.
2. The load is divided equally between the two prongs of the fork (the loads and
yoke connection are perfectly symmetrical).
3. The load in each prong is divided equally between the portions on each side of
the hole.
4. Distributed loads are represented as concentrated loads.
5. The effects of pin, blade, and fork deflections on load distribution are negligible.
6. The pin fits snugly in the fork and blade.