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International Journal of Advanced Engineering Applications, Vol.4, Iss.3, pp.

36-41 (2011)

Implementation of Wireless Communication in SCADA System

of a Distribution Transformer using Microcontroller and PC
Harikrishna Paik, Dr. G.N.Swamy, Dr. I.Santiprabha
Lecturer, Department of E&IE, V.R.S.E.C, Vijayawada.
Professor, Department of ECE, GEC, Gudllavaleru.
Professor, Department of ECE, JNTU, Kakinada.
Abstract The objective of this project work is to protect the distribution transformer or any other power transformer from
burning due to the overload, over temperature and input high voltage. Most of the transformers are burning mainly because
of these three reasons; hence by incorporating different monitoring and control circuits, utilization of the transformer can be
achieved in a better way. In addition to the monitoring and control, information about these parameters can be transmitted to
the nearest control station where the transformer parameters can be continuously monitored. For this purpose, wireless
communication has been implemented in this project for better control action. At the transmitting side, a micro-controller is
used to drive the digital display and to drive different relays independently. PC is used at the receiving end to monitor the
parameters. Various transducers are used in this project for monitoring the different parameters such as: Current Transformer
(CT) is used for measuring the load current at transformer secondary, Potential Transformer (PT) for measuring the line
voltage at transformer primary and SL100 semiconductor NPN transistor is used as a temperature sensor for measuring the
transformer body temperature or oil temperature. We have used a small step down transformer of 12 volt, 2 ampere rating as
a distribution transformer and these three parameters are carried over it. The output of the computer through the latch is used
to drive the alarm which is energized automatically, whenever the receiver receives failure information.

Keywords: Distribution Transformer, Current Transformer and Potential Transformer.

Nowadays, with the advancement of technology, all the activities in our day to day life have become a part of
information and we find computers and micro-controllers at each and every application. However, in this project
work the basic signal processing of temperature, load current and input high voltage parameters of the
distribution transformers are monitored and controlled. For this purpose, we have used three different
transducers for measuring transformer parameters and the outputs of these transducers are referred as the control
parameters. The three parameters are converted into digital form by Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) and this
digital information is fed to micro-controller. The output of the micro-controller is used to drive the digital
display, so that the value of each parameter can be displayed. In addition to the digital display, the microcontroller outputs are also used to drive four relays independently. These relays energize and de-energize
automatically according to the condition of the parameter. Out of four relays one relay is treated as common
relay and it is energized automatically whenever any parameter exceeds its preset value. This relay contact is
used to break the supply to the transformer primary. The remaining three relays are used to transmit the
information about the failed parameter. For example, if the load is more than the rated load, then immediately
the micro-controller energizes one relay out of these three relays and this relay contact is used to provide supply
to the low frequency oscillator, which produces a perfect square wave of 1 KHz approximately. This low
frequency is fed to transmitter as a modulating wave, which is super imposed over the carrier and transmitted as
a modulated wave. In the receiver, the received information in the form of low frequency as a modulated wave
is demodulated, amplified and converted into proportionate DC voltage using Frequency to Voltage (F/V)
converter. The output of this F/V converter is again converted into digital pulses, which is fed to the computer.
The output of the computer through the latch is used to drive the alarm which is energized automatically.
2.1 Load Monitoring Circuit
For monitoring the load current continuously, Current Transformer (CT) is used. The current transformer is used
with its primary winding connected in series with load carrying the current to be measured and therefore, the
primary current is dependant upon the load connected to the system and is not determined by the load connected
on the secondary winding of the current transformer. The output of the CT is rectified, filtered and it is
converted into digital form by A/D converter which is then given to the Micro-controller. The current
transformer used in this project work is designed for 5Amps. The CT used in this project work is nothing but a
step-up transformer. This transformer is designed in 1:50 ratio. The secondary AC signal, which is proportional
to the current flowing through the primary, due to transformer action, is rectified with the help of a diode (Half
wave rectification) and then filtered by a capacitor filter. The following is the circuit diagram of load sensing
circuit in figure1:

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International Journal of Advanced Engineering Applications, Vol.4, Iss.3, pp.36-41 (2011)

Fig. 1: Load Monitoring Circuit

2.2 High Voltage Monitoring Circuit

Transformer failures have many causes and one of the main causes is over voltage. The primary of the
distribution transformer or any other transformer primary is designed to operate at certain specific voltage, if
that voltage is more than the rated voltage, then immediately the transformer primary may burn because of over
voltage. To protect the transformer, burning due to over voltage, this voltage monitoring and control circuit is
designed. In this project work for generating high voltage, auto-transformer is used so that the line voltage can
be increased to more than 240V. For monitoring the line voltage, a step-down transformer of 6V-0-6V centertapped secondary is used as a line voltage sensor. As this transformer primary voltage increases, according to
that secondary voltage also raises, and this secondary voltage is rectified, filtered and it is converted into digital
form by ADC. In the prototype module, the line voltage can be increased through the autotransformer and the
output of the line voltage sensing circuit is fed to micro-controller unit through the A/D converter, so that
according to the received digital information form the ADC, the micro-controller energizes relay. This relay
contact is used to break the supply to the feeder cable.
The following is the circuit diagram of the High voltage sensing shown in figure2:

Fig. 2: High Voltage Monitoring Circuit

2.3 Temperature Monitoring Circuit

For monitoring the transformer body temperature, SL100 general purpose NPN switching transistor is used and
it is having TIN metal body, so that it can absorb the heat properly. This transistor can be placed over the
transformer body, where the transformer radiates maximum heat. The exact location where the transistor is to be
installed using suitable clamp should be determined on the ease of access and the degree of accuracy obtainable
at the given point. As the transistor body temperature raises, the base-emitter junction resistance decreases and
this resistance variation is monitored with the help of op-amp circuit, whose feed back resistor is nothing but the
transistor. This differential amplifier output is further amplified using another op-amp circuit and this output is
fed to analog to digital converter for converting the analog information to digital information. The entire circuit
design of the temperature sensing circuit is shown figure3:


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International Journal of Advanced Engineering Applications, Vol.4, Iss.3, pp.36-41 (2011)

Fig. 3: Temperature Sensing Circuit

In this block, two op-amps are used to form two different stages. The first stage is configured as differential
amplifier and the second stage is configured as gain amplifier. In the first stage an NPN General purpose
transistor (SL100) is used as a temperature sensor and this stage is designed in such a way, so that as the
transistor body temperature rises, the base- emitter or basecollector junction resistance decreases which in turn
gives an output voltage and this voltage is amplified by the 2nd stage op-amp circuit. This first stage is
designed to generate 2mv/0C which is not sufficient for the calibration. Hence, using 2 nd stage this voltage is
amplified, so that 20mv per degree centigrade can be obtained at the output of the second stage. This variable
voltage (according to the temperature) from the output of second stage is fed to the analog to digital converter
for converting the analog information in to the digital information and this digital information is fed to the
micro-controller to energize the latch.
The purpose of wireless communication is in this work is to transmitte the failed parameters of the distribution
transformer to nearest control station for monitoring and control action. The transmission and reception of the
signal is accomplished by using Frequency Modulation (FM) transmitter and receiver.
3.1 FM Transmitter
The circuit diagram of FM transmitter is shown in figure4:

Fig. 4: FM Transmitter


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International Journal of Advanced Engineering Applications, Vol.4, Iss.3, pp.36-41 (2011)

In the above circuit, the instantaneous frequency of the carrier is varied directly in accordance with the base
band signal by means of a device known as VCO (Voltage controlled oscillator). One way of implementing such
a device is to use a sinusoidal oscillatory having a relatively high-Q frequency.
3.2 FM Receiver
The FM receiver is located at the remote end. The first stage of this remote end unit is the FM Radio Receiver,
which is designed with Phillips IC TEA 5591A. The F.M. receiver, which operates at 100 MHz, will have an
intermediate frequency of 10.7 MHz and bandwidth of 200 KHz. This IC consists of a in built RF amplification
circuit. It matches the input impedance of the antenna. This IC consists of FM Detector including amplifier of
modulated signal (RF amplification). The circuit diagram of FM receiver is shown in figure5:

Fig. 5: FM Receiver


To begin the programming cycle, the AT 89C051 is powered up with the Reset and XTAL1 pins held low, so
that the program counter is reset. After power up, the first thing we should do is chip erase, to prepare the
control store for the next program (all the control store bytes are loaded with 0FFH). This is accomplished by
setting XTAL1 high and pulsing PROG low for at least 10msec. With the chip erased, the lock bits are used to
limit access to the application in control store of a programmed part. If lock bit1 is programmed, then the flash
control store cannot be updated until it is erased again. If bit2 is programmed, the verify function will return
invalid data again until the control store on the chip is erased. For these reasons, these two bits should not be
programmed until the application programming is complete.


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International Journal of Advanced Engineering Applications, Vol.4, Iss.3, pp.36-41 (2011)

This project work is successfully designed and tested. However, the control circuit designed can be used for the
real time applications in power control industries. Apart from these three parameters, various other parameters,
such as line frequency, power factor, power leakage, Energy measurement etc; can be incorporated in this
project work as future work. A Microprocessor or PC can also be used at the transmitting end, so that the
parameters not only be monitored, but also periodically be logged and the same data can be stored.

Fig. 6: Designed Kit

Fig. 7: Control and Monitoring Circuits

Fig. 8: Receiver Section


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International Journal of Advanced Engineering Applications, Vol.4, Iss.3, pp.36-41 (2011)

[1] West A, SCADA and substation control communications, The southern Asian SCADA and MES
conference, Johannesburg, South Africa, May-2005, P-1-21.
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performance of Telecontrol Protocols in SCADA systems, July 2002.
[3] IEEE Standards Association, IEEE Std. 999-1992-IEEE Recommended Practice for Master/Remote SCADA
Communications Description, March 2005.
[4] M. Kezunovic and N.A.ved, Circuit Breaker on-line monitoring using wireless communication, Toronto,
Canada, May 2005.
[5] Myke Predko, Programming and customizing the 8051 Micro-controller, second edition, Wiley Eastern
Limited, New Delhi.
[6] I.F.Akyildiz, Wireless sensor Networks: A Survey, Vol.38, March 2002, pp.393-422.


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