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optimizing Tire Vertical stiffness

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Department of Mechanics,

Faculty of Engineering,

Islamic Azad University,

Hamedan Branch,

Hamedan 65181-15743, Iran

e-mail: amir.soltani@uwaterloo.ca

Avesta Goodarzi1

Department of Mechanical

and Mechatronics Engineering,

University of Waterloo,

Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada

e-mail: avesta.goodarzi@uwaterloo.ca

Mohamad Hasan

Shojaeefard

Automotive Engineering Department,

Iran University of Science & Technology,

Tehran 16846-13114, Iran

e-mail: mhshf@iust.ac.ir

Khodabakhsh Saeedi

Department of Mechanical

and Mechatronics Engineering,

University of Waterloo,

Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada

e-mail: kb.saeedi@gmail.com

Stiffness Based on Ride,

Handling, Performance,

and Fuel Consumption Criteria

Researchers mostly focus on the role of suspension system characteristics on vehicle

dynamics. However tire characteristics are also influential on the vehicle dynamics

behavior. In this paper, the effects of tire vertical stiffness on the ride, handling, accelerating/braking performance, and fuel consumption of a vehicle are analytically investigated. Furthermore, a method for determining the optimum vertical stiffness of tires is

presented. For these purposes, first an appropriate mathematical criterion for the ride,

handling, accelerating/braking performance, and fuel consumption is developed. Next, to

achieve the optimum tire characteristic, a performance index, which contains all of the

above-mentioned criteria, is defined and optimized. In the proposed performance index,

the tire vertical stiffness is a design variable and its optimization provides a compromise

among ride, handling, accelerating/braking performance, and fuel consumption of the

vehicle. Last, the analytical optimization results are confirmed by performing precise

numerical simulations. [DOI: 10.1115/1.4031459]

Introduction

system characteristics on vehicle ride and handling have been

investigated. It is well known that the spring and damper characteristics requirement for good handling are not the same as those

for good ride comfort. Any choice between the spring and damper

characteristic is, therefore, a compromise between ride comfort

and handling [13].

Tire characteristics are also crucial in ride, handling, accelerating/

braking performance, fuel consumption, and generally the

dynamics behavior of vehicles. They are the only contact between

the road and the vehicle. The tire forces and moments are the

result of the interaction between the wheel and the road. Hence,

tire characteristics strongly affect the vehicle handling and

dynamics performance. Another role of tires is to cushion the vehicle and the passengers from road irregularities. The road surface

excitations pass through the tires and reach to the main body of

the automobile, therefore, they have a great influence on the quality of vehicles ride comfort [4]. Furthermore, the tire has a strong

influence on the vehicle fuel consumption through their rolling

resistance properties [5].

One of the most important tire characteristics, which affects all

of the above-mentioned performances, is tire vertical stiffness.

The vertical stiffness of the tire depends on the size, construction,

and the inflation pressure, but the main parameter that affects the

tire vertical stiffness is the inflation pressure [6].

The idea of changing the tires vertical stiffness through control

of its inflation pressure goes back to World War II. Since this

time, the central tire inflation system (CTIS) was used as standard

equipment on most wheeled military vehicles to improve the

1

Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Dynamic Systems Division of ASME for publication in the

JOURNAL OF DYNAMIC SYSTEMS, MEASUREMENT, AND CONTROL. Manuscript received

February 20, 2014; final manuscript received August 3, 2015; published online

September 22, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Junmin Wang.

In order to enhance the vehicle dynamic behavior on rough terrains, CTIS decreases the vertical stiffness of the tires by reducing

the inflation pressure to provide better ground contact, as well as a

more comfortable ride. The military demonstrated that use of

CTIS provides a better ride and better mobility for tactical

vehicles, especially in off-highway conditions [8].

As mentioned above, the effects of the tires vertical stiffness

on the vehicle dynamics behavior are conceptually known, however, there are few published analytical research papers in this

field and most of the existing research has focused on the tires

effects on ride comfort and/or the research methods are qualitative

rather than quantitative [7,8]. The effects of the vertical stiffness

on the tires rolling resistance and the vehicles fuel consumption

have been individually studied by a number of researchers [5,9].

The main object of this research is to analytically investigate the

effects of tire vertical stiffness on the behavior of vehicles in terms

of four different aspects: ride, handling, accelerating/braking performance, and fuel consumption. In this research, for each performance aspect a suitable mathematical criterion is introduced;

afterward, using those criteria, the effects of the tire vertical stiffness on the vehicle behavior in each case are individually investigated. In the next step, by combining these criteria, a generalized

performance index is formed which its maximization leads to the

optimum tire vertical stiffness for ride, handling, accelerating/

braking performance, and fuel consumption concurrently. Last, by

using precise numerical simulation in the CarsimV software environment, the performance of the generally optimized tire in different situations is studied and compared with those tires which are

exclusively optimized for only ride, handling, accelerating/

braking, or fuel consumption performances.

R

The passenger comfort and the driver feeling in a moving vehicle are introduced as ride quality. Ride comfort is defined in terms

C 2015 by ASME

Copyright V

to the vehicle originates from different sources, such as road

unevenness, engine, and transmission. However, road irregularities are the major source of vehicle vibration.

To study the vehicle ride comfort, one needs to quantify it

based on the measurable variables. Most of the ride comfort standards such as International Organization for Standardization (ISO)

2631, consider the vertical acceleration as the best variable for

evaluating the ride comfort of a vehicle [10]. Hence, the ride criterion can be defined based on the magnitude of average vertical

acceleration of the vehicle body, azs. For calculation of the vertical acceleration, the standard road input is a crucial issue. It can

be a simple sinusoidal road with a fixed excitation frequency, a

frequency sweep over a defined frequency range, or a real road

with a specific given power spectrum density (PSD). In this study,

frequency sweep in a specific frequency range xi ; xf has been

selected as the way to generate the road excitation input. Accordingly, the average value of azs can be found using its root mean

square (RMS):

s

xf

1

azs 2 dx

(1)

RMSazs

xf xi x i

Road surface irregularities in the range from 0 to 30 Hz represent

the most intensive source of input energy to the vibration system

of the vehicle [11]. Hence, in this paper, the ride comfort analysis

is performed by analyzing the vertical behavior of a quarter-car

model in the low (010 Hz) and high frequency (1030 Hz)

domains. In the quarter-car model, as illustrated in Fig. 1, the vertical motions of the sprung and unsprung masses are two degreesof-freedom. The quarter-car is an analytical model, and can provide useful insight into trends. Moreover, it has been proven by

previous research that regardless of the model simplicity, the

quarter-car model offers a quite reasonable accuracy for simulating the bounce motion of the sprung mass [12].

The parameters of the quarter-car model, as seen in Fig. 1, are

sprung mass (ms), suspension stiffness (ks), suspension damping

coefficient (cs), tire/wheel mass (i.e., unsprung mass) (mu), and

tire vertical stiffness (kt). The tire vertical damping coefficient is

[13].

As aforementioned, the system behavior is studied in the

frequency-domain. Frequency-domain analysis considers the

behavior of the vehicle in terms of its response at any given frequency of stimulus. In order to find the frequency response, the

road excitation is assumed as

y Y sin xt

(2)

excitation frequency, which depends on the road wavelength and

longitudinal speed of the vehicle. By solving the quarter-car

equations of motion for the given road excitation, the magnitude

of the vertical acceleration of sprung mass, azs is calculated as

follow [13]:

s

4n2 x=xs 2 1

(3)

azs Yx2

Z12 Z22

where

Z1 x=xs 2 x=xs 2 a2 1 1 1 ex=xs 2 a2

Z2 2 f x=xs 1 1 ex=xs 2 a2

(4)

(5)

According to Eq. (3), one can define the vertical acceleration

transmissibility function Az as the ratio of vertical acceleration azs

to the road excitation magnitude Y

AZ azs =Y

(6)

Now, using this new variable, without any change in the inherent of problem, we can represent Eq. (1) in the following form:

s

xf

1

2

Az dx

(7)

RMSAz

xf xi x i

The root mean square value of the Az, which is used for perception of the vehicle ride comfort, is called passenger discomfort

(PD), because lower RMSAz causes a more comfortable ride.

Hence, the ride comfort criterion is introduced as

CR

1

RMSAz

v

8"

u

#2 9

r

u

<

=

xf

u

2

t 1

4n2 x=xs 2 1 = Z12 Z22 ;dx

: x

xf xi

xi

(8)

Figure 2 shows the variation of Az versus the excitation frequency x for different values of tire vertical stiffness. The values

of the main system parameters are listed in Table 2. Note that

Table 1 Quarter-car model parameters and equations

Symbol

Definition

xs

xus

a

Frequency ratio of sprung to unsprung mass

Damping ratio

Mass ratio

Relationship

p

xs ks =ms

p

xus kt =mus

a xs =xus

n cs =2ms xs

ms

e

mus

Fig. 2 Acceleration transmissibility versus excitation frequency for different tire stiffness

with one of the natural frequencies. The resonance of the

unsprung mass is usually referred to as wheel hop resonance. It

can be seen that in the low frequency range, the change in tire vertical stiffness does not have considerable effect on the sprung

mass vibration, however, when excitation frequency is close to

the natural frequency of the unsprung mass (around 10 Hz), a

stiffer tire intensifies wheel hop resonance strongly. In fact, in the

high frequency range, the stiffer tires cause a significant worse

ride quality.

The above-mentioned finding can be proven again by using the

plot of RMS (Az ). It has been illustrated in Fig. 3 in two different

frequency ranges; low frequency range from 0 to 10 Hz and high

frequency range from 10 to 30 Hz. Based on Fig. 3(a), change in

the vertical stiffness of tire has insignificant influence on the

vibration of the sprung mass in the low frequency range, as the

RMS value of Az can be approximated with a constant value of ar.

While, according to Fig. 3(b), a less-stiff tire provides better

vibration isolation in the mid to high frequency ranges.

To formulate the ride comfort criterion in high frequencydomain based on Fig. 3(b), the passenger discomfort can be

approximated as

RMSAzs ar0 ar1 kt

(9)

where ar0 and ar1 are constant coefficients. The coefficients ar0

and ar1 for our case study vehicle equipped with a 195/65R15 tire

are tabulated in Table 3. Finally, by combining Eqs. (8) and (9),

the ride comfort criterion can be obtained

CR

1

ar0 ar1 kt

Handling Analysis

Parameter

Sprung mass

Unsprung mass

Damping ratio

Suspension stiffness

handling of vehicles, a performance index is required to determine

the potential of vehicles tires in producing the lateral force in different conditions. Generally, the lateral force of a tire can be formulated as

Fy CFa a

(10)

maneuverability, and directional response of a road vehicle. Evaluation of vehicle handling is almost subjective (due to the variety

and the different experience of those who drive vehicles) [14,15].

However, as a general rule, the handling characteristic of tires is

in connection with their capacity to generate lateral force when a

Table 2

frequency range and (b) high frequency range

where a and CFa are the side slip angle and the cornering coefficient of the tire, respectively. Based on Eq. (11), it is clear that a

greater cornering coefficient increases the potential of a tire in

producing the lateral force. So the handling criterion can be

simply defined as

CH CFa

Value

Unit

ms

mu

n

ks

350

35

0.3

27

kg

kg

N/mm

(12)

criteria coefficients

Parameters

Symbol

(11)

ar

ar0

ar1

ah0

ah1

ah2

Value

Parameters

Value

255

64.27

2.16 103

16188

0.985

6.622 106

ah3

ah4

ap0

ap1

ap2

1.837 1011

1.895 1017

9216

0.769

2.291 106

Maximizing the presented handling criterion reduces the sideslip angle, which is crucial for improving the stability of vehicles.

To evaluate the effect of tire characteristics on the handling of

a vehicle based on the handling criterion in Eq. (12), we should

develop relationships between tire cornering coefficient and tire

vertical stiffness. Since more than 80% of the total tire stiffness is

due to inflation pressure [6], we can utilize relationships between

lateral stiffness and inflation pressure approximately.

To include the effects of the inflation pressure in the tire cornering coefficient, CFas relationship of magic formula (MF) 6.1 tire

model [1719] is used. Relative to original form of MF, two linear

expressions depending on normalized change in inflation pressure

(dp) are added

Fz

1

CFa PKY1 1 PKY1 dpFZ0 sin 2 tan

PKY2 1 PKY2 dpFZ0

(13)

where the Ps are MF parameters, which for our case study 195/

65R15 tire have been listed in Table 4, Fz and Fz0 are the actual

and the nominal vertical load, respectively, and dp is

dp

p

1

p0

(14)

respectively.

The next step is to describe the inflation pressure and the vertical stiffness relationship. Based on the method that is presented

by Schmeitz et al. [17], the vertical stiffness can be obtained from

the following empirical equation:

kt 1 qFz3 dpqFz1 2qFz3 q

(15)

where the qFz s are fitting parameters, their typical value for the

case study tire have been listed in Table 4, and q is tire deflection.

Practically, the qFz1 is much bigger than 2qFz3q, and then the second one can be ignored. In other words, it can be assumed that the

relation between the vertical stiffness and the inflation pressure is

approximately linear [15,16]. Hence, by solving Eq. (15) for dp,

the expression for the normalized change in inflation pressure is

derived as follows:

1

kt

1

(16)

dp

qFz3 qFz1

By substituting Eq. (16) in Eq. (13), one can find a relationship

between tire cornering stiffness and tire vertical stiffness. This

relationship is graphically presented for the 195/65R15 tire in

Fig. 4. For this specific tire, the maximum value of cornering

coefficient occurs at kt 140 N/mm. Relative to this point, any

increase/decrease in tire vertical stiffness causes a reduction in the

tire cornering coefficient. Consequently, the potential of the tire

for producing lateral forces decreases. As a physical explanation

of this tire characteristic, one should note that the value of the

Table 4

[1719]

Parameter

P0

Fz0

qFz1

qFz3

PKY1

PKY2

PPY1

area and the lateral stiffness of the tire. Besides, the tire vertical

stiffness is directly related to the tire lateral stiffness and

indirectly related to the contact patch area. So any change in the

vertical stiffness from the optimum point, decreases one of the

above-mentioned influential factors and results in a reduction of

the cornering coefficient.

In order to use a simple equation for the handling criterion,

using the least square method, a fourth-order polynomial is fitted

to the graph of CFa versus kt. The simplified handling criterion is

obtained in the following form:

CH

4

X

ahi kti

(17)

i0

where the constant coefficients ahi s are tabulated for the 195/

65R15 tire in Table 3.

Accelerating/Braking Analysis

the longitudinal forces that a tire generates during braking or

accelerating maneuvers. Consider the longitudinal force formulation of tires as

Fx CFj j

(18)

where CFj is the longitudinal slip stiffness and j is the longitudinal slip of the tire. Similar to the approach in Sec. 3 to decrease

the longitudinal slip as a way to improve the vehicle stability [16]

and to increase the potential of generating longitudinal force, the

following performance criterion is introduced:

CP CFj

(19)

Considering the goal of this research, the introduced accelerating/braking performance criterion should be presented as a function of the tire vertical stiffness. For this purpose, the improved

MF 6.1 tire model [1719] can be used. Based on the MF model

longitudinal slip stiffness CFj relates to inflation pressure of the

tire as

CFj Fz PKX1 PKX2 dfz ePKX3 dfz 1 PPX3 dp PPX4 dp2 (20)

where the Ps are MF parameters, which for the case study tire

have been listed in Table 4, and dfz is the normalized change in

vertical load and is defined based on the actual and nominal vertical loads

Value

Parameter

Value

2.2

4000

200,000

0.9166

19.797

1.7999

0.33

PPY2

PKX1

PKX2

PKX3

PPX3

PPX4

frr0

0.89

18.886

3.988

0.21542

0.38

1.08

0.015966

Fig. 4

dfz

Fz FZ0

FZ0

(21)

As can be seen in Eq. (20), the first part is a function of dfz and

because it is a constant value, the first part is supposed to be constant. Besides, the second part of CFj equation includes a secondorder algebraic form of normalized change in inflation pressure

(dp) which, as aforementioned, is a function of the tire vertical

stiffness. Finally, combining Eqs. (20), (21), and (14), a relationship between the tire longitudinal slip stiffness and the tire vertical

stiffness is formed as follow:

CP ap0 ap1 kt ap2 kt2

(22)

where ap0 , ap1 , and ap2 are constant coefficients which have been

tabulated for the 195/65R15 tire in Table 3.

Figure 5 shows the variation of the longitudinal slip stiffness of

195/65R15 tire versus vertical stiffness. The maximum point

occurs at kt 170 N/mm. It is clear that after or before the maximum point, any change in the tire vertical stiffness causes a reduction in the tire longitudinal slip stiffness. The similar physical

explanation with what was addressed in Sec. 3 for relationship

between the cornering stiffness and the vertical stiffness can be

stated here again.

rolling resistance based on ISO rolling resistance test [22]:

frr frr0

a b

p

FZ

po

FZ0

(24)

where frr0 coefficient for case study tire has been listed in Table 4

and the following values are applicable for the other coefficients

of Eq. (24) [22]:

For a passenger cars, a 0.4 and b 0.9

For a trucks, a 0.2 and b 0.9

According to Eqs. (14) and (16), the p/p0 term in Eq. (24) can

be replaced by

p

kt

1 qFz3

(25)

p0

qFz3 qFz1

qFz3

By substituting Eq. (25) in Eq. (24), a relationship between the

rolling resistance and the tire vertical stiffness is formed

kt qFz4 a

frr Krr

(26)

qFz1

where the constants Krr and qFz4 are defined as follows:

ground contact area, the center of normal pressure is shifted in the

direction of rolling. This shift produces a negative moment about

the rotation axis of the tire, which is called the rolling resistance

moment. The rolling resistance is simply the manifestation of all

of the energy losses associated with the rolling of a tire under the

load. In a vehicle, approximately 515% of the fuel is consumed

to overcome the rolling resistance [20]. At low speeds, fuel consumption is determined up to 40% by the tire rolling resistance

[21]. It is clear that less-stiff tires (low inflation pressure tires)

increases the rolling resistance coefficient leads to more fuel consumption. Therefore, the fuel consumption criterion is defined

based on the rolling resistance coefficient. Because the higher

rolling resistance of a tire causes more fuel consumption, we can

consider the reverse of rolling resistance coefficient (frr ) as fuel

consumption criterion

CFC

1

frr

FZ

FZ0

(27)

By combining Eqs. (23) and (26), the final form of fuel consumption criterion is written as follows:

1

kt qFz4 a

CFC

(28)

Krr

qFz1

Figure 6 shows the effect of tire vertical stiffness variation on

the rolling resistance coefficient of the case study 195/65R15 tire.

Based on this figure, it is clear that by increasing the tire vertical

stiffness, the rolling resistance coefficient dramatically decreases,

leads to less fuel consumption. Hence, the optimum value of the

tire stiffness that provides the least fuel consumption is chosen

equal to 300 N/mm. It is the biggest practically possible value.

(23)

Optimization

no unique optimum tires vertical stiffness which satisfies ride,

handling, accelerating/braking performance, and fuel consumption

requirements simultaneously. For example, a soft tire provides

good ride quality, while the fuel consumption of a vehicle with

hard tires is better. In this section, with the combination of each

individual criterion discussed earlier, an evaluating function is

introduced which can provide a compromise among different vehicle characteristics in various situations. This evaluation function

can be presented as

above-mentioned criteria that are normalized relative to their

greatest value. According to the figure, while the individually

optimized tires get the best rank (score 1) in their incorporating

aspect, they do not get an acceptable score in the others. For

instance, in the case of kt 300 N/mm which provides the best

fuel economy, it gets scores of 0.3, 0.7, and 0.45 in ride, handling,

and accelerating/braking performance, respectively, whereas, the

generally optimized tire gets the acceptable scores from different

perspectives.

7

EF kwR ksR CR kwH ksH CH kwP ksP CP kwFC ksFC CFC

(29)

where kwR, kwH, kwP, kwFC and ksR, ksH, ksP, ksFC are the weighting

factors and scaling factors, respectively. Weighting factors determine the relative importance of different terms, which in this

case, the same importance is considered for ride, handling,

accelerating/braking performance, and fuel consumption. Therefore, the entire weighting factors are equal to one. On the other

hand, because the different terms of Eq. (29) do not have the same

order of magnitude, the scaling factor is needed to equalize the

numerical values of them. Considering Eqs. (10), (17), (22), and

(28), for the case study tire, the average values of ride, handling,

accelerating/braking performance, and fuel consumption criteria

in the interval ktmin ; ktmax are 0.003, 64,300, 63,700, and 117,

respectively. The scaling factors of different criteria are selected

in such a manner that can compensate these numerical differences.

In other words, the scaling factors are defined as follows:

1

3

ksi 2

kt:max

C dk 7

6

4 kt:min i t 5

kt:max kt:min

i R; H; P & FC

(30)

which for the 195/65R15 case study tire, coefficients ksR, ksH, ksP,

and ksFC are 321, 0.0000155, 0.0000157, and 0.008, respectively.

Finally, in Eq. (29), the ride, handling, accelerating/braking

performance, and fuel consumption criteria can be substituted

from Eqs. (10), (17), (22), and (28), respectively, and the final

form of the evaluating function is found as follows:

ksR kwR

ksH kwH ah0 ah1 kt ah2 kt2 ah3 kt3 ah4 kt4

ar0 ar1 kt

ksFC kwFC kt qFz4 a

ksp kwp ap0 ap1 kt ap2 kt2

Krr

qFz1

(31)

EF

Simulation

models. In order to evaluate the effect of tire characteristics on the

vehicle behavior in an approximately real world situation, precise

simulations by using CarsimV software, which is a well-known

accurate vehicle dynamic simulation package [23], have been

performed.

For simulation studies, a compact, hatchback vehicle has been

considered as the case study vehicle. The main specifications of

the car are listed in the Table 5. This vehicle is equipped with different tires with same size of 195/65R15 but with different vertical stiffness as follows:

R

An individually optimized tire for handling with kt 140 N/mm

An individually optimized tire for accelerating/braking performance with kt 170 N/mm

An individually optimized tire for fuel consumption with

kt 300 N/mm

A generally optimized tire which is optimized for all ride,

handling, performance and fuel consumption, concurrently,

with kt 195 N/mm.

For these tires, the values of ride, handling, and other metrics, as well as the evaluation functions are tabulated in Table

6. The characteristic curves of the lateral and longitudinal

forces of the five above-mentioned tires are obtained based on

the MF 6.1 tire model [19]. The curves have been illustrated in

Figs. 9 and 10 versus side slip angle and longitudinal slip ratio,

respectively.

In Secs. 7.17.4 based on standard test procedures, the vehicle

performances in terms of ride, handling, braking performance,

and fuel consumption for different tires are simulated and

discussed.

optimum value of vertical stiffness. For this purpose the critical

point of the evaluating function, in the interval ktmin ; ktmax

should be determined. The critical point yield to a local maximum, if the evaluating function is concave downward at this point

d

EF 0

d kt

and

d2

EF < 0

d kt 2

(32)

If the evaluation functions value is larger than the function values at each endpoint of ktmin and ktmax , this point is the optimum

tires vertical stiffness. The optimum vertical stiffness of the tire

is found through the solving of Eq. (32) by using numerical techniques. As shown in Fig. 7, the optimum value of the vertical

stiffness for the case study 195/65R15 tire is about 195 N/mm.

A radar chart of the different performances of the generally

optimized tire for all ride, handling, accelerating/braking and fuel

consumption, in comparison with those of the individually

optimized tires (optimized only for one of the above-mentioned

121004-6 / Vol. 137, DECEMBER 2015

stiffness

Table 5 Main specifications of the case study vehicle

Parameter

Value

Unit

Vehicle sprung mass

Wheelbase

Front track

Rear track

CG height

1410

1274

2578

1539

1539

540

kg

kg

mm

mm

mm

mm

stiffness on the ride comfort at low and high frequencies, a standard test has been simulated on a straight sinusoidal road. For the

low frequency test, the vehicles with the speed of 20 m/s. pass

over the sinusoidal road. The spectral wavelength of the road is

selected in such way that the exciting frequency of 1Hz is provided. For the high frequency case, the speed of vehicles and

exciting frequency are 30 m/s. and 15 Hz, respectively. The relationship between the exciting frequency fR (Hz) and vehicle speed

u(m/s.) and roads spectral wavelength kR (m) is as follow:

fR

u

kR

(33)

The simulation results are shown in Fig. 11. At the low frequency ride test, there is no significant difference between the

vehicles center of gravitys vertical acceleration. However, in the

high frequency test, the softest tire (kt 100 N/mm) contributes

the best ride comfort. The maximum of the vertical acceleration

for the hardest tire is about 0.7 g, while this value for the vehicle

with the softest tire is 50% less. These results confirm the illustrated results of Figs. 2 and 3.

7.2 Handling. To evaluate the handling of the case study

vehicle with different tires, a double lane change (DLC) test is

selected. This test determines the characteristics of vehicles handling in a highly transient situation. DLCs are obstacle avoidance

maneuvers that frequently occur in the real world. The targeted

speed in this maneuver is 33 m/s. (120 km/hr.). The vehicle path

of the five mentioned vehicles during the test has been illustrated

in Fig. 12. As illustrated by this figure, by using the same driver

model, the target path is approximately achieved for all five

vehicles.

Also, Fig. 13 shows the yaw velocity, lateral acceleration, and

slip angle responses of the vehicles versus time. Because the

vehicles follow the same path and speed approximately, the lateral

acceleration and yaw rate responses of vehicles with different tires

are very similar. However, according Fig. 13(c), the slip angle

response of the vehicles are not the same. The maximum value of

slip angle for the vehicle with optimized for handling tire is about

1.5 deg, showing that it is in the safe zone completely. However,

for the vehicle with the hardest tire, this value is more than double

and reaches about 3.5 deg. For the vehicle equipped with generally

optimized tires (kt 195 N/mm), the maximum side slip angle is

about 2 deg. Although this value is a little more than 1.5 deg, it

still is in the safe zone [24,25].

7.3 Braking Performance. A severe straight-line braking

with initial speed of 27.7 m/s. (100 km/hr.) is utilized to evaluate

Table 6 The criterias value of 195/65R15 tire with different vertical stiffness

Criterion

Optimized

tire for ride

kt 100 N/mm

handling

kt 140 N/mm

performance

kt 170 N/mm

consumption

kt 300 N/mm

Optimum tire in

general

kt 195 N/mm

Ride

Handling

Performance

Fuel consumption

Evaluation function

0.00657

64,922

63,175

48

3.46

0.00419

67,855

71,927

57

3.52

0.00329

66,706

73,679

63

3.58

0.00171

58,680

33,614

78

3.25

0.00279

65,561

71,989

66

3.61

Fig. 9 Lateral force versus side slip angle for different tires

a dry level road with the coefficient of friction of one. The reduction in vehicles speed versus time is shown in Fig. 14. This figure

shows that the maximum deceleration belongs to the vehicle with

kt 170 N/mm (optimized tire for accelerating/braking performance). As can be seen in Fig. 15, the stopping distance of this vehicle is about 68 m, while for the vehicle with the hardest tire, the

stopping distance is more than 75 m.

7.4 Fuel Consumption. As mentioned before, the rolling

resistance of tires affects fuel economy of vehicles. Hence, to

investigate the effect of tire vertical stiffness on fuel consumption,

we can compare their rolling resistances. The simplest way for

evaluating rolling resistance of tires is the coast down test method.

In this method, an engine-disengaged vehicle from a certain low

stops is a measure of the vehicle rolling resistance. A longer stopping distance means a lower rolling resistance.

For this purpose, a simulation is done in which five coast-down

vehicles are released with the initial speed of 5.6 m/s (20 km/hr).

Each vehicle is equipped with a different set of tires as mentioned

earlier. Except the rolling resistance force, other resistance forces

for all the vehicles are the same. The longitudinal velocity of these

vehicles versus traveled distance from origin has been plotted in

Fig. 16, respectively. It is clear that the vehicle equipped with the

hardest tire kt 300 N/mm (optimized tire for fuel consumption)

has the longest stopping distance, about 220 m, whereas for the

vehicle with the softest tire this value reduces by more than 40%.

This value decreases just by 15% for the vehicle with generally

optimized tire.

(a) Low frequency and (b) high frequency

change test: (a) Yaw velocity, (b) lateral acceleration, and (c)

Vehicle slip angle

Conclusion

ride comfort, handling, accelerating/braking performances, and

fuel economy of vehicles have been analytically investigated. Furthermore, a new method for determining the optimum tire vertical

stiffness has been developed. The proposed method is formed

based on definition of analytical performance criteria as functions

of tire vertical stiffness for the above-mentioned vehicle performances. Reverse of acceleration transmissibility function, tire cornering coefficient, tire longitudinal slip stiffness, and reverse of

DECEMBER 2015, Vol. 137 / 121004-9

accelerating/braking performance, and fuel consumption criterion,

respectively. Optimizing each individual criterion has determined

the optimum tire vertical stiffness from that perspective. At the

end, in order to compromise between ride, handling, accelerating/

braking performance, and fuel consumption of a vehicle, an evaluating function has been formed by combining the individual criteria. Maximizing the evaluating function determines the

generalized optimum tire vertical stiffness. Precise simulations by

using CarsimV software show that the generally optimized tire for

all aspects has been able to provide good performances in terms

of ride, handling, accelerating/braking, and fuel consumption,

while the individually optimized tires just provide good result in

their incorporated aspect and not in the others.

R

References

coast down test

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[2] Sharp, R. S., and Crolla, D. A., 1987, Road Vehicle Suspension System

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[8] Adams, B. T., Reid, J. F., Hummel, J. W., Zhang, Q., and Hoeft, R. G., 2004,

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[10] Els, P. S., 2005, The Applicability of Ride Comfort Standards to Off-Road

Vehicles, J. Terramech., 42(1), pp. 4764.

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Dynamics, Components, Mechatronics, Perspectives, Springer, New York.

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