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Of TIM'

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YKI'A

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BDITI-I.

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\MH:\ vn>\ Ar'BHUSHAJ

ll.C

JT%.

LIST OF

-V. y?.

No

PKOPER NAMES

references have been

b idi occur

attached to such names as Indra

very frequently.
..

Agni,
Agastyu,

33

NAM

LIST OF PROPER

Kabaiidlui.

Kabandhi,

Ivasyapa,

...

..

Kausalya,

..

r-

Kaussimbeya,

...

...

Jvrinvaiia,

K UI U

fa

...

3Q

...

ib.

...

...

28

^ ^

...
...

71
.

-)^

'

>

Kusuravindu,

....

Magadha,

...

Mandhata,

MaudgaJya,

71

..

...

...

...

...

...

...

45 30

...

...

...

30

...

ib.

fa

16

Mitra,
...

Panchala,
Parikshit,

...

t> .

...

...

80

...

45 30

...

...

25176

...

49

Prajapati,

Prachinayogya r

...

Priyaaiedha,
Predi >
-

-.

...

...

-.

..

...

...

...

Saiihanu,

...

Sarpadafishtra,

..

Satyahavya,

...

Svaidayana, Saunaka,

Sva,

Taraksku,

Uddalaka

A'rui)

...

35
28

...
%

fa

...

Ill

...

45

..

...

...

39

..

...

..

30

..

...

...

...

...

. .

...

...

1-,

...

...

..

30

...

...

Svayambhu,

...

..

.....

.,,

...

71

...

...

Saunaka,
Savasa,
8*l va >

...

5j
.'.'.'

.'!.'

...

^
"7

28

itt
, t ,

28

. .

71 45

[>T

01

PR'M'Ki;

NAMI-X

...
.

iik;irk>lm,
:;i

ha

...

'

...

...

...

.".

L'S

Vanuia,
111 113

35
MU

...

'

i"itra,

...

...

...

...

..

1H
l^Q

dovtili,
l

>ati >

lllika

^TUU '

l^

...

'.'.'.

..
...

...

111,115
171,183

30

CONTENTS
TIII-:

I'ATHA BRA'HMANA.
KIIIST

P.MMK.

LpTER

I.

:;ku.
1.

Brahma,

Miinu

...

"i,
AtV'l

lr']>s

into

tl,

...

...
I

H).

liliri-u

...
:ll.

Athar.

'f

na

<!

...

he three

r
'

,.-1

n vu
.

of

tin- tin.

>

//.

.f

tllf livi'

li.

'

:inl ntln

1.

J5.

2
.

17.

ik:i.

Page

18.

Do.

ether

19.

Do.

heaven

..

..10

.In.,

..

..

if).

do.,

..

..

ib.

from Om,

C'n-atioii of ilu- earth A-C.


Arc.

Arc.

20.

Do.

water

21.

Do.

Sruti &c.

22.

Praise of

23.

Legend of the Devas giving preeminence

24.

25.

Questions regarding the derivation of Om, ..


Legend of Indra and Prajapati on the derivation of

26.

The root

27.

The

28.

Legend on the preeminence of Om,

29.

Relation of

30.

Philosophy of

Om,

do.,
do..

..

..

ib.

ib.

..11

..

to

Om,

ib.

..12

Om,

31-32.

33.

A.V.

..

of

Om,

..

..

..

syllabic instants of

Om

...

Om,

...

t . t

ib.

14

..

...

15

..

..

16

Anecdote of Maiulgalya and Glava on the meaning,


...
object and preeminence of the Gaytri,

The twenty-four sources and


Gayatri,

...

twelve
.

couples of

35.

36.

Do. of the second foot of do. _.


Do. of the third foot of do.

37.

Succession of the twelve great elements

38.

True knowledge of the

39.

Advantages of washing the month (dchamana) with

of the Gayatri,

elements,

relative,

...
. .

19

...

20

ib.

ib.

importance of the twelve


...

...

18

<<(

Meaning of the

21

...

refer-

ence to the preeminence of water,

<'ll.U'TKK IT.
1.

Propriety of performing

2.

Brahmaohri should

ib.

the

34.

first foot

ib.

..13

..

...

to the defferent Vedas,

Om,

...

tin-

overcome the seven passions,~pride


of caste, of fame, of dream, of
anger, of praise of beauty,
of do. for virtue, of do. for sweet
odour, ...

22

5
ika.

Th- dm

3.

ii.-l

ual

cuimrctiori :md

ni

..

thinking on
...

hand>.

in tin- t\v..
'.

:in.l

th--

-,

should

5.-

)>

dc-r

and

C.-

lie

tiiiu-

which

'iia

l-lcrs

ing

ik.sliita
<>t'

iiii|.irlan-'

should

!..

month,

tli,'

,.,

ami

I'raliiinu-liai'

,i

sul','

t..

p\r

tin-in

aim

iii'l

...

l'i.i

nd the

knowlcdgo

8|)ccial

with

which

tin-

ditlrivnt
...

....

sai-rilici:

\\

itli

ft

.d tli.M'

reason
:

>.

why
!'

this a

it.

1,'L'

\.M-V-P

i^

In

oxplni

the

r'OXTEXTS.

Kaiidika.

Page

produced by speech from darksome t'rightful wafers, and


was pacified by Kubaudhi with an A'tharvanu mantra

Vedas

after the other


19.

The

of the

origin

liad failed,

officiating

...

...

priests

the

.';,">

second

requirement of Agnyddh&na described in a legend in


which Indra assumes different shapes to protect a sacrilice of

the gods from the intrusion of the Asuras,


...
fire and of the sacrificial horse,

20,

Origin of the Vaisvanara

21.

Agni

the horse;

pacifies

to him,

the offerings to
...

be

presented
.

38

fire, ...

39

...

23.

on the Santapana
The domestic ceremonies in which the Santapana

24.

should be employed,
...
on
the
of
the
Legend
qualification
priests

22.

Advantages of

offering oblation

fire
...

...
:

'W

37

40

the hota should

know the II ig Veda the Adhvaryu should know the Yajur Veda the Udg'Ha should know the Sama Veda and
the Brahma should know the Atharva Veda,
...
;

CHAPTER
1.

The importance

of having a

III.

Brahma

vanglrasa at a sacrifice,

versed in the Athar-

...

...

...

2.

The impropriety

3.

Expiations for a priest speaking

4.

The

5.

Legend showing .that in a sacrifice with three


fees were reduced by one half,
...

of employing less than four priests versed


in the four Vedas^at a sacrifice,
'...
...

6-10.

chief duties for

A legend

of

which the

Uddalaka

when

officiating,

development
ent organs,
11-12.

42

43
ib.

44

priests the
. .

ib.

in which questions are propoun-

the process of the

body and the functions of

...

priests recieve fees (dakshina,)

ded and answer* ^iven regarding


of the

ib.

. .

its differ-

45

...

Legend of Pr&chinayogya and Gotama- the former


inquires which are the different Devas with reference to

whome

the different

formed, and the

members

la tter's

of the Agnihota are per-

reply thereto,

...

,,.

49

lika.
l.'J.

Legend

l>.uit

r-i'vtain

expiations for

;ni<l

tin'
'

1.

'

Ad
f

Priyamedhaa of

tln

r:\cr

of

lailv

..

<>n

Bharadvrfja,

shoulil
...

In*

in-rfornu-il

..54

...

'

16.-

i-Tivaii-'ii

\v>nl

'ic

pi,

17.

LogiMul about

certain
n

A^iiishtonia

MTCof,.
18.

witli

n.-uii'.-

tli"

Kani.

\\\\

and

..//>.

distribution of the slaughtered

Tiriutms_r

...

I'l-it-.--

<>rdi

'.

"t'

a feo of on- ro\v,

...

ling

th

t'

if>,

ita in fiiMH'i'tioii

'

wit
Jl-L"J.

slimild

-..okin.u'

fnuwnty
,

...

l>y

not jii-rfonn,

an

.nlaiin-d

..

H>.

|.i

60

...

OBAFTIB iv.
'

>i-'iin.i'

tder,

of

Do.
\\lh-in
//'.

the

CONTENTS.

Kandiku.
10.

Rewards attendant upon the performance


monies (the same as in the 8th K.,

11.

Advantages of knowing the above,


Do. of performing the Dasaratra as a
part of the
y ear
..
..
Do. do. Mahavrata as do.,

12.

13.

55

...

Questions and answers regarding the performance of do.,

14.

15.

of those cere-

-Do

do.,

t ;

..68

Do.

half-years,

69
ib.

Question and answer regarding the connection


Jyotishtoma &c. with the half-year,

Connection of the year with the Atiratras


Do. with the sun,
...

of the
if>.

21-22.

24.

iftm

?7,.

sacrifice,

23,

',!>.

Rewards attendant on do.,


The two wings of the year, the two
Both halfyears connected with

20.

67

mm

17.

19.

ib.

do.,

16.

18.

66

70

&(.-.,

Legend of Predi son of Kansambi, and Uddalaka son of


Kusuravindu, on the subject of the ceremonial connection of the days of the
year,

71

CHAPTER V.
!

2.

Abhiplava ceremony noticed in connexion with the year,


...
Gadhapratishtha ceremony noticed,

3-5.

Allegorical description of the

year as a

man

its

mem-

bers are represented by the different


ceremonies,
Advantage of performing the ceremonies after

...

8.

10.

77

The

succession of ceremonies; which should follow


which,
Legend of Prajapati attaining eternal fruition by a cere-

mony which envolved


9.

73

knowing

their relation to the year,


7.

72
?7>.

a fee of a thousand heads of


cattle,

The most important requirements of


to make their fruition
permanent,

ib.

different ceremonies

legend about the Sahasra-samvatsara


substitute,

ib.

78
sacrifice,

and

its

79

,,\

Page
11.

12.--

tin- inori.

'

,na-

...

13.

:n:i <!>.,

Do,
>
I

83

m
22.

sacrit

<

;.(!

>

fruit<,

of
.

ill'I

ccr-

86

rr.jti:

87

...

OK,
:

I.

'

^'/,

89

90

6.-

:.

'

tliMM-

v.

8
Kandik;i.

Page
on

the

Odana-sava or cooking

of the

7.

Legend

8.

Origin of the Nakshatras,

9,-

Kxpiution necessry should the moon rise when the


is about to cook rice for the
evening offering,

origin
..

ceremony,

10.-

The new and

...

...

...

pri
.

. .

95

Legend showing the different

an Iiidragni

at

cosharers

of the

offerings
...

ib.

Do. continued, showing the advantages of the sacrifice,


A vantages of the Chaturmasya homa which should be

9G

...

sacrifice,

performed for four months from the


guna,

Advantages of

soma

full -moon of

...

..

...

Phal-

97

worshiping different deities at the

sacrifice,

...

Agni...

21.

Anecdote of Prajapati creating the animated world, and

22.

Advantages

Varuna regulating the same.


of various

..

offerings to

...

fec.,

...

Indragni,

...

..

...

...

..

...

Advantages of offerings at various times,

24.

Do. offerings to the manes,


..
..
..
Do. of various offerings to different deities on different occasions,

2G.

Do. of the Chaturmasya homa,

CHAPTER

100
101

ib.

II.

Offerings of flesh meat on the A'hit'igni,

The

104

overcome the Asuras, devide them-

selves into five parlies,

They

99

103

1.

3.

OS

2.

gods, resolved to

ib.

Varuna

23.

25.

94

94

17.

20.

ib.

and Agni by those whose father and


father
not drunk the Soma juice,
have
grand

Sacrifice to Indra

19.

Rules regarding ceremonies to be performed on the


new and the full moons,
..
...

16.

18.

//...

!KJ

moons, and the creation of animals

full

therefrom,
11-15.

..
..

suggest different

means of conquest,

. .

...

ib.

...

...

105

ika.

th".

!.

'it

\vitli

'

:"

.Irinkii

,.,112
3

...

...
...
...

'

1.

n,
>,.
I

Vft

10

CONTESTS.

Kandik-i.
.").

-The means of

making the Vashat most advantageous,

...

('.

Do. do. witli the seasons,

7.

Rape tit ion

8,

It

...

...125

...

of a certain mantra beginning with the word

old yakuJtat, kc

for repeating the

lirasons

Hinkara,

12G"

..

...

Various terms and measures appropriate for the

lU-11.

nioi'u-

..
noon and evening sacrifices,
...
with
in
connexion
the
and
of
Legend
Mrityu
Prajapati

ihg,

1'2.

inoniing offering of the Ekaha ceremony,

11.

Mitni and Varnna's shares of the morning


Surya and Indra's share at do.,

.15.

ludrngni's do. at do.,

10.

Number

17.

Necessity of fee,

18.

midday offerings,
The order in which

1 3.

of invocations

the Agnidhra,

Ad vantages

19.

o,

)__

J( .,rj,

n( ]

of the

fee

'22.

23.

..

do.,

...

...

i!>

132

cows,

cooked

/'<>

goats,

rice &<.,

sheep, horses, gold,


.

...

niu]tl))ly,

with

...

..

..
...

..

The god of the midday ceremony ^Indra) and


.

l)<-vas,

members

..

Hymns

5.

The evening offering

to|l>:-

<>

of the VC<!MS,

..

made

'"''

appropriate at the ceremony,

4.-

th.

I\

l-2-3.-*-RelationBliips of the

I'H

ivrtain

rhe above identifications explained in detail,

to him,

133

\\ith

Sama and tbo Uik nniting to


of members of a sacrilioe

Patnivata hymns,

I'l-)

.^.131

should be given beginning

classes of mantras,
r

offering,

...

of giving

Identification

meet at

..

1-7

or dakshina, at the morning and the

clothes, carriages,

^>[_

1-4

The Yushat identified with speech and breath,

)>y

..

the

witli tlu-

...

..

137

..

...

1-30

Agnidhra with the


ft|

..

ib

1 1

lika.

Itar wit:;

tiion off

.141
fuurj'l.v

,nl

ttg tlit'in,

10.

ilu- nii'l'i

'.

thru

.n.l
1 1.

{'.!

Iniinan

o'

uitli

tlio

!':

...

13.

!ia

im-lu'i
...

1.

2.i

the

liiiin

v
-

TENTS.

12

Kundika
1 1

12.

Anaikahika ceremony described,


..

...

;i

Faridhditiya mantras,

1 3-11.

15.

..

A'rambhaniya mantras,
Tlie singing of the

Achchhvdvaka

priest,

CHAPTER. VI.
1.

Origin of the Sampata mantras,

...

...

161

2.

Praise of the Sampata mantras,

...

...

102

3.

Do. of the Pragatha, kuxtamifidra &c.,


Do. of the Sampata mantras,

4.

7.

Peculcarities about the Ahina ceremony


Doubts regrading the Uktha solved,
The uses and advantages of various Ukthas,

8.

Do. of the Nabhanedishta, Narasunsa, Pragatha,

5.
6.

khilya, Vihrita, Vrihati, and other hymns,


9.

10.
11.

Legend

in

support of the above,


and the 7th. days,

Praise of the 6th.

Legend regarding

12-16.

the above,

...

..

100

...

107

Bal:\...

..171
1^'

...
...

109

..

174

Various hymns to be muttered (safisana) in course of


the ceremony,

. .

. .

...

75

RODUCTION

.,

''in

..

..

11,,
1

Wilson's V;
i

1,:,

I'm.na

,,.

-jso.

have not been

;:XTS.

Kandika
1 1

12.

Anaikahika ceremony described,

A'ramUumiya mantras,

13-11.
IT).

Puridhdiiiyii mantras,

The singing

of the

..
...

Achchhvavaka

..

...

..

...

I'

v7.

15 J
(

priest,

IN

PRODUCTION.

and

Alik

four

remote antiquity

\\

attiMitin

\Vda-

tin-

plar.-

which

tin.-

it

IM-IOM^.

works of the

mat

-al> in

l'i

to

1:

tin-

liistori;jn,

other

the

to

.linatinii

tin/

and the philocliai-adtT which cai.nt but

scholar,
"f

it

nn-

tin- lea^t

ia

ha> n<ne of the halo of that

It

'inmends

>f

A.tharva

in extent, th

t.-rs

d;i

whicli

:iual,

'

arni -tamp.'il

Ath-ina

with

f..ll<.\v>.

the most

tin- s-al
it

alup
In-

primitive simplicity
-\]>niiilrr.

Yaju>h, and

tin-

the

ideral.lv
\

comjii-i-

lively

In extent, the

iyu

Pin

whereas tha<

\\liile

-f

the

the M<-;

^nailer.

r>rahmana.

One
.

eaeh.

while

tin-

int

The
re,

"'

Ahieh

!l

an mil\

latter ha-,

nui

doubtful,
I

ISO.
,

"I

like\\ isc, limited, .ind

.nltheliliriu

;i;

BOUie

I.

!iie|\

INTRODUCTION.
mainly, tlimioi, noti-exclusively, founded on
tinn

Yedns

of th

the reprah',1

Sanskrit literature under the


of Trayi-vidyii or " the threefold
knowledge," or simply
"
the
thn
/^V
trayi'
strayas trayi. Amarakosha.)
iii

;inH'iit

name

including the Rig, the Sama, and the Yajush, but omitting the
Atharva. This, argue the impugners, is as
plain an acl<
ledgement as could be, 'of the non-existence of the Atharva
at an early period,

and

of its Avant of
authority as a

in support of this opinion,


quote,

Veda

arid,

two passages
from the Shadvinsa Brahmana of the Sama Veda,
(1 p. v. kh.)
"
in which it is said that
Praati created the (the
three

among

others,

first)

Vedas,*" and that

"

he produced the Rig Veda from the


earth,
the Yajur Veda from space, and the Sama Veda from the heaven," (Lit. from this),f and also a sloka from Mann, which

says,

"

Prajapati milked from the three gods Agni, Vayu, and Ravi,
the three Vedas, Rig, Yajush, and Sama for the
accomplishment of sacrifices.''];

The defendants admit the premiss, btit deny -the conclusion.


They assert that the term Tmyi-vidya, is a common name for
those

of

parts

the Vedic literature which

refer

only to

and as the hymns of the Atharva are not used in such sacrifices, they are very properly excluded, without in
any

sacrifices,

way impugning their authenticity or authority as scriptures.


There was, they add, only one Veda at first, and when the
hymns comprised in it were classified, those which did not.
were put together, and these constitute a se"
Thus, the Veda," says Madhiisudana Sarasvati,

refer to sacrifices
class.

perate
is divided into Rich, Yajush and
carrying .out the sacrifice under

*'

The

duties

Sama
its

for

three

the purpose
different

of the Hotri priests are performed

of

forms.

with the Rig-

vn
those of the Adhvar-u

the

of

3
'th tlie

Yajur-veda/ll.

The

Udgatri
the BHhman and th

The

.'

is

n<

to

blt:ss.

ti

jiimcnt

coin

hr Hindus

it

did

sa-

which

crifices

tht-n.

autht-ir

th,

d-mi)'

and that

;>ear

in

ivmarkal.:

;ui<l

It

dii

-tally

than

constitute

'

th

;'

the circu
h

inn^

occur likewise

uned

freqr,

in the Brahni in.is of tin-

same &%*

at about the
is

of course

the Rig Safthita\


its

th

in

doubt that

>r

pleU

for

it

\\M*

it

Vi-d.i^.

put

ter dajbe th*o

but
H

t!

s^u

MJ\ Mulh'i

)j

after a c-u- tul

.n

n.

!!-

cnce to their sacred

Ti

lit

meat
the songs of the Ath

Apud Max
f

sa

.li

" Tut

fessor

Vithi

Max

Mullrr,

4*

is

to^L-t'

inrlud.^ a p

coin

!>

-dh-.-tion

ol

^at will

.>th.-r

ounpih-d,

th-

\vh.-ii

to

of

:iroe.

on

la,

duties

well niHrkr-J

in

p:r

,,-:,

,,f

I,,-

has

come

INTKolHVTloN.

Artharvangiras'
fore

Brahm anas, the


The passage translated bethe time when the S'atapatha Brahma MM

the Brahmai.as.

literature of

are

shows that at

In "some of the

mentioned.

was composed the songs of the Atharvangiras' were not only


known, but had been collected, and had accually obtained the
Veda.

Their original title was the Atharvangiras' or


the Brigvangiras, or the Atharvans and these very titles show
title of

be quoted in such a manner must


have been of ancient date, and must have had a long life in the
that songs which

oral

could

tradition of India."*

According to Puranic account the name of the Atharva Veda


is due to a mythological
personage, Atharvan, the eldest son
of Brahma, to whom, it is alleged, it was first imparted.
From

Atharvan it decended through a succession of pupils to Angiras,


from whose name the Veda is called A'ngirasa, or AtharIt

vamgirasa.
girasa,

is,

likewise

and Brahma Veda.

called

sometimes,

The

last

name

is.

Bhargvan-

accounted for

it belongs to the
Brahma, or the
as
the
other
three
same
chief
way
belong to the
Hota, the Adhvaryu, and the Udgata. Inasmuch, however, as

on the assumption that


priest, in the

it

contains nothing

sacrifice,

the

which a Brahma

ascription

the Veda to a rank which

Gopatha Brahman a
the details

it

can

probably due

is
it

did not

recognises

all

to

make
a

originally

these

use of at a

desire to raise
possess.

several names,

The
but

gives (as quoted below) are totally different from

those of the Puranas.


Allegorically the Atharva

man, sharp and

irascible,

represented as a lean, blackamorous and fond of little things,


is

possessing power to assume any shape

ed

it

likes.

describ-

It is

the family or clan (gotra) of Vaitana, and to


lor its special divinity, and the anustubh for its

to belong to

have Indra

Its upaveda or subsidiary branch


peculiar metre.
of
science
be the
warfare, s'astravidyd.

Ancient Sanskrit Literature.

446.

is

said to

mivomvi
mn and

tt

Vislinu

the

'

aiTaii"vm
O

hJ

ut

Muni

illustriniis

Pii

-ixlni"
"^

indha. \\hn

Suinantu

and

'
-

portion-

to

KrahmaK-ili,

Saulkayani,
i.

and

had

Pathya

Pip;>al:ula.

Kiunudadi. and S.iun

thrrrpii'

<l

Saunaka. ha\ in- dividrd

Thr

MnDJakesas.
thr

<>t'

monials: tho
tlir

thrin

t'mni

an<l

Sanhita

\\\>

and thr nth.r

r.ahhru,

to

Bp]

piinripal suhjrrt.nn-

A.tharva-Veda

nj'

Nakshatra Kalpa, or

<lit]rrriur

tivr

tin-

ruh-s

in

kalpa>

t'nr

\\..i

^hipini;

h.

Vaitana Kalpn, rulrs t'nr nl!


thr Sanhita Kalpa, Ornii
-rnerallv
;

olfl

md

'inn

<t'

tors

i!pa, in-

and

th.-

Kalpa,
n

aliovo,

tin

pi.;

^;i:iti

the

in

tli

'hout

lut

wn.

101

Ace
the

iiuantii. ?h-

.'

iiita

to

his

pupil

Irarnrd

th-

in

(\\

to th
it

him).

in

t-i

N
.

ili.

tli-

ioa,
i

Tin-

(pu;

thr
'

tii.

\\

and others

INTRODUCTION.
Vedas, (whose teacher's name says the commentator, are not
These are the teachers of the Albarvana."*
given).

The Charanavyuha, which is believed by some to be an older


and more reliable authority, does not, however, support these
subdivisions.
According to it, there were, originally, only nine
the

recensions of

different

hymns

of the

But

Atharvans.

Vayu, nor those of the Charanavyuha,


with one exception, are now available, ami even of the nine
schools of the latter the names are in many cases doubtful.

neither the sakhas of the

According to Dr.

names

are: 1.
5.

tayanas,

Max

Paippaladas,

Jayalas,

vadarsanins,

Muller's

6.

2.

conjectural

Saunakas,

Biahmapalasas,

3.
7.

emendations, the

Damodas,

Kaunakhins,

have consulted.

MS. with me.

Tot-

8.

De-

9.

Charanavidyas.
are not all borne out by the
however,
These,

which

4.

They give

six

MSS.

IMKul.lVTi
Professor M.i\

all th<>

MulU-rpuN
3

names

of the

in tlio

names are
there m,

art'

liar

and the

the plural,

in

where they

implied;

are

01.

only

nl

in

<tr<i

these (liscni

>kiog to

vvU

plural; hut in

in the singular,

tre

may be fairly ootieia

it

become already

ben th

ol>-

<

illu<l>(l
r tlie

name

nn has

To which
:

-an. lit-

of

Th-

plein

jnihlish.'d

it

be the

to
I

am awaiv

i'ollowr

it

.r

At

of.
t

of

lt-l.in^>

It

<-.i

uprises twen'id

\Vhitiu-y
ikc

know

Saunakas, but

v.

Pn.tr^or Roth and

In

text of the

of whicli tin- last

'I'll.-

ii.

da Sanhitn.

\'

of the nine receDflioDfl

take

K'iiplas;

Atharva

tin-

Ix-rii

nn no reliable authority that

I,

's

tin-

to

be SUp-

sinnniar

Hik.a histor-

a In
<

tlin.ii'jh.'Ut.

-li

thrir

all'",'-l

lnit

"

up..n

of thf hvnin>. ah.i

antlMrship.
8

:nl

'1

tli.-

nnrul
)..

beiDg

flu-

[NTRODUCTK
no

has

lion

portion of
internal
e,

intent^

information of value bo give: they are with

attributed

ntions

to

mythical

personal's.

them are plainly shown, both by

much

Tin-

in

of the

lie

of

The condition

origin.

sages found

ami

than the general


other historic Veda, and even than its tenth
to

character,

later date

book with which they yet stand nearly connected

and

^ivatei

their language

likewise

more recent period

in

the

of the

Rik,

points

ground enough

as

distinctly to

as that of the other collection.

their

for

import

text also in those pas-

ever, would not necessarily imply that the

Atharva hymns, were not already


pilation of -the Rik took place.

in

This,

main body

in existence

how-

of

the

when the com-

Their character would be

rejection

and exclusion from the

canon, until other and less scrupulous hands were found to

undertake their seperate gathering into an independent collection.


The nineteenth book is a kind of supplement to the

made up of matter of a like nature


out when they were compiled, or
produced. The twentieth and last book is a

preceding ones, and

which had either been

had been since

is

left

selection of passages from the hymns of the Rik,


not easy to see how it should have become appended
to the Atharva as a portion of its text."*
No record has any where been met with of the number

liturgical

and

of

it is

Brahmanas which the Atharva Veda

originally included.

At

present the Gopatha is the only one which is accessible.


If the Atharva is thus poor in its hymnological and liturin Upanishads.
The Rigthe
two
represented by only
Upanishads,
Aitareya
and the Kausitaki
the Sama by two, the Chhandogya and

gical portions,

Veda

it is

particularly rich

is

the White Yajush also by two, the Vrihadarauyaka and the Vajasaneyi the Black Yajush, by four,
the Taittiriya, the Maitrayani, the Yajiiika,and the Set as

the

Talavakara

vatara; whereas the Atharva has no less than fifty-two

Journal, American Oriental Society, IV, 250.

affiliat-

numht-r

.'th.T>

c!

Tin-H

auth'-ntieitv.

which

't

ha,

more or

nt

the

tin-

Ulat-k Vaju-h:
iiii,

which ai
:iii.l-

the
ni

up lv

OOlIBi

One of them
.thor

the thirl, \vhioh

th^ oth.-r

distinct

1.

list

work

81

fnllov.

A'tinan.
11.

M-ih.-i.

Kathavalii

Kdiuri

ma

:u

Ohnlika
7

of th

Oarhha.

V'rihaiii,

i'

lirudra
j

1-J

Nil.-iru.:
i\

indii.

luavindu.

-liv.-.lxa

14
;

iiidu

I'M,.

i,

^7
17

lu

18

-s

I't

'Mil

works

lit'tv

ma,
V

nio.l

othor

rompih'd the

[fi

of

inch.

Taittiriya,

in.tst

and

The

t\vn.

tin-

the

-lillVn-iit i-hajittM-s

il

is

Gopichaiulana

as
fill

Each

inii

aii'l

A'thrin

>.-i-allt'd

all

of arran_
of the

lees doubtful

10

INTHOhl

33, 35, 30, 45,

and

I;

and supplies

51,

tlicir

places

by Brahma

idya, Samanya, Shatchakra, Gopala-ta'pani, Vasudeva, Gopichand&na, A'tmabodhn, Ganapati, Krishna, Atharvavcda, and
a second Maha, following in this respect the modern MS of
\

the text.

be noticed, however, that, strictly speaking, the


cannot
be called integral parts of the Vedas,
Upanishads
for they have generally been placed in
opposition to those
should

It

Thus Jaimini,

works.

Vedas

be

to

servances

Vedas."*

"

those

in

the Purva

Mimafisa, defines the

intended to promote ceremonial obwhich do not promote them are not

\vorks

in

Prabhakara,

the

no part of the Vedas which

same

"

way,

says,

there

is

purely descriptive, and which


does not induce, restrain, enjoin, or prohibit
In the
actions."f
Mundaka Upanishad the Vedas are condemned as teaching

"secondary knowledge"

is

(Apara

vidya"),

which

is

to

be re-

jected in favor of the teaching of the Upanishads."* Narada,


in the Chhandogya Upanihsad,
appears before Sanatkumara,

and says that he has studied the Rig, the


Yajush, the
and the Atharva Vedas, and other subjects, but that

Sma

they have
not sufficed to give him true
knowledge, and he accordingly
seeks instruction in the
Upanishads.||
Kapila holds the Vcdic
or revealed

means

of attaining salvation to be as ineffectual

the temporal onelT; and Isvaralcrishna,


working in this
light, condemns the Vedas as worthless, because the rewards

as

attainable

them

The Gopatha Bratransient.^


hamana, likewise, makes the Upanishads stand apart from
the Vedas (1,21).
Seeing, further, that the so-called A'tharva-

||

11

by

Chhandogya U.

^f^^wtH^-'

p.

are

116.

INTRODUCTION.
do not oo

is

or A'ranyaka

ably be

of the

of

Athan

may

indrpemlaut of that Veda.

be borne

and

right to be

other

mind that some

in

of

It

tli

from a very early period, ami Mann.


authority's have reeo^ni>ed t!

ti

any extant Brahmana

they

theless,

<f

1 1

hi<^li

th<>u

.-,

hole of

'

the

-ithority

Kofit oi

s.-rij.rur-

of

ileviniti.-s

miscellamM>ns
with

miK
f

MI,,-

tli.-^c,

mu>t
I

refer the

r.

-ad n- to

and to th'

snhj

the pixulnetions of one

For brief a.V"iints of

author.

j-

alto^'tm-i

^nd

Irani.

my

"

;>

Qtfl

tl

Not
1

on

'd

the
.-liable

l^ut

chaiad

they cannot he takni tn he

that

to

a.sos,

BO dissimilar in lan^

nth.-r.

a.-li

loaiiin

Hindn panthcun.

tlio

in

theological
lal

A-

antln-nti-

tltcii

>n

,,f

,),!',*}'

with

,s7

in

///-'

l)i:r

livid. -d into

tiv

rompri-iii-

tWO paita

th.

-nd

rhaj-

Th.-

of nne.|ii:kl

Ohapi

,nd
'101 u

4 1-

of

In

io|

it

;id

ha

invo

'-innl ir to

1
:

ha

l.iit

ot

i:>

1,

?h-

;on to
liin-

th.

il.

likr rli'iran

the

irorl

i-m

Wit.li

hymns

of the

the exception of a few


quotations from the
Rig Veda, and several anustubh slokas, the work

throughout in prose, resembling in this respect the


Aitareya
closely than the Brfhmanas of the Yajush and the Sama.
This resemblance is also observable in its

is

more

subject.

treated of in

in

it

full or in all its detail.

Nothing

The reader

is

is

prefamiliar with the rituals of the


Vedas, and has only
topics brought to his notice which serve to elluci-

sumed to be
particular

some obscure

date

point, or is worthy of being known as


important; and even these are discussed in such a
disjointed,

fragmentary, abrupt way, that they entirely


least, in

any way

fail to be, to

us at

Myths, legends and parables


constitute the staple of the work but
they are short, inconseinteresting.

quential and
origin,

They are intended

pointless.

to explain the
nature and fruits of
particular ceremonies but, being
;

most
case

inartistically

may have been

set

forth,

fail

to

The

attract attention.

different before, but certain

that they
have ceased to interest the
of
this
since
the last
people
country

two thousand years.


The work opens with the creation
the

bulk of the

Veda, and

of the world, to which

As the subject
chapter
with greater detail than in
any other

first

has been treated in

it is

is

it

devoted.

of some interest, I shall


attempt to give a parahere with the omission
only of such eulogistic and
as
break
the
thread of the narrative.
explanatory passages

phrase of
"

Om

It willed.

is

it

Brahma

Verily,
'

create from myself

upon,

it

alone by itself only existed at first.


the highly adorable.* Ho I must

I alone exist as

a second

well warmed,

of this working,
spiration broke

highly adorable,

it

Deva

like unto me.'

fully heated its self.

well-warmed and
forth.

know

Well pleased

fully

It

tltcrcby, it said,

is

worked,

the forehead

heated (being) per-

well all that should be

The rendering above given

On

known."

doubtful.

"
I,

the

13

li

U.ly

,.ill

.support all

'ik-

ol
l

him.

\}\-

tli.-.M-

:u
:

f he lookol

l.wii.

aii<l

in

:i-l

upon

ilr.pp

\\ai rn-'.l

v.

ireU-waimod

into

ami

an.l

ine,

with

ih.>

tully

fully

ht-ati-.i

into tu
gross,

H-

tin-

that

nnp>tah!.-.

\\,

which
>n.|

nnp.-i

k
i-l

fully

by what

having
!|.l

til.'

II.

r
n
!

In

'iMld

INTRODUCTION.

Atharvan

is

called

by that name.

Verily, of that venerable

Atharvan, the whole body with its members down


to the smallest hair and the vital
was like that of
airs,
sage

(rishi)

To him, Atharvan,

Brahma.

the beings of Prajapati

said

Brahma

protect

them."

"
;

Having created

And

because he

Pmjdpatek prajz srishtvd pdlayasva, therefore Prajapati


came into beinr, and became the lord of creation. Atharvan
said,

verily
"

is

that Prajapati.

He

(Brahma) worked upon, and well warmed, and fully heaOut of that wrought, well-warmed and
fully heated Atharvaii he formed ten Atharvana sages
one
of one richa, one of two richas, one of
three, one of
ted that sage Atharvan.

four,

one of

one of

one of seven, one of eight, one of nine,


and one of ten richas. Those Atharvana rishis, he worked
upon, and well warmed and fully heated, and therefrom ten
A'tharvana rishis proceeded, the eleventh, twelveth,
five,

six,

thirteenth,

fourteenth, fifteenth,
teenth,

sixteenth, seventeenth, eighteenth, nine-

and twentieth.

"

He worked upon, well warmed, and fully heated those


A'tharvana as well as the Atharvana rishis, and whatever
'mantras he beheld in those wrought, well-warmed and
fully

heated

rishis,

worked

the same became

upon,

and

well

warmed,

A'tharvana Veda, aud from


syllable
"

He

self.

the

it

Atharvana Veda. He
and fully heated the

issued

forth

the

mind-like

Om.
again worked upon, well warmed and fully heated his
his self he created the three
regions earth, ether

From

and heaven.
ether from

He
his

verily
belly,

produced the earth from his feet, the


and the heaven from his head. He

worked upon, well warmed and fully heated the three regions,
and therefrom created the three gods Agni, (fire,) Vayu,

fair,}

and A'ditya

(sun).

He

verily

made Agni out

of the earth,

and A'ditya out of heaven. He worked


upon, well warmed and fully heated the three gods, and therefrom produced the three Vedas, Rig, Yajush aud Sama the

Vayu out

of the ether,

u
i

from

ma Veda
ami

great

Vyahnt is

/,A>///,

and then-front produced the


<l<
tlio first from the

/*//'/<,,-'

RigVeda.th
which cncirHiiifj the

"Tin* water

mod)

-uth.

ami

ocean.

therefore
of

H.-.Varun.-i.
!iy:, an.

>

,/<if<t

Murhya was
lily

to direct,

wpll \varnv-.l and

'

all tin- iii'-n

!K'

1'odv of

Hi

:
:

:'M

Corked

uj...u. \\vll

that

udi'd

upon,

Miityu. and

wrll-warm-

these

tlmsi- fluids

,f

for:
his

hody

the i;ods are fund of

.nd fully

\\

fr..m

he

is

work.-.l

alias

that wrought,

-ily

therefore

BmblM

and

rasa),

him

tond of indr

Mrityu fluids

id fully

Varuna, for verily

Varuna

fully herit.-d that

install

to direct, allusi

M-

allusioi-.

from the ocean;he hecame

l..rn of

the

\\

remained,

and since Varana

and inimical

(ar,nicj/

d mdin-ctly Mrit\

nnd inimical

it,

indirectly called

indirect,

Lord,

.said,

-?irin-lin u-(crifrti] it

is it

nerated

>.

"

was frightened, and

And

V:irana pnuhu-ed from


it,

-rth,

,lltl

It

as our king."

tin-

tli

Hnw.

it

/.,

the third from

anil

i.

H,.\\.

ih.-

upon, and wett wanned

-rk'd

li-

fully
o

Yajur \Yd:i from Va'vu. and

A.irui, tli

from

].r...-e,

,1,-d

worked upon well warmed and


I

ith

tli,-

Ih

VIM
h.

fully

f.-nned

-.-

the

t.-n

'

hree,

t"':

kc<l

'

,,,)

iiui

f,,||y

1,

rated

\vh itrv.'i niaiit ra- he

!
;

th.-m

MJM-:

and theiefrom

j.ro.\.

and

(-. >

t-

in

16

INTRODUCTION.

the A' no i rasa Veda, remained above,


leavitag these regions,
therefore the render of the A'ngirasa remains above.
*'It,

"

He

(Brahtna), looked towards the sides, the east, the south,

the west, the north, above and below, and worked upon and
well warmed and fully heated them and therefrom prepared
;

the

five

Vedas, Sarpa Veda, Pisacha Veda, Asura Veda, Itihasa

Veda, and Purana Veda. From the east side he formed the Sarpa
Veda, or the science of serpents from the south the Pisacha
Veda, on the science of hobgoblins from the west the Asura
;

Veda, or the science of giants from the north the Itih asa
Veda, or the science of history and from above and below the
Purana Veda, or the science of ancient legends. He worked
;

up-

and well warmed and fully heated the five Vedas, and therefrom formed the five great Vyahritis, Vridhat, Karat, Guhan,

on,

Mahat and Tat Vridhat from the Sarpa Veda, Karat from
Guhan from the Asura Veda, Mahat from
;

Pisacha Veda,

the
the

and Tat from the Pura'na Veda.


looked forwards and backwards, and worked up^n and
well warmed and fully heated them, and formed therefrom the
Itihasa Veda,
" He

preeminent syllable Sam.


11

He

himself,

the

again worked upon, and well

and from

stars,

warmed and

fully

heated

mind produced the moon, from his nails


from the hairs of his body herbs and trees, and from
his

his minor vital airs the other


"

numerous

objects.*

He

again worked upon, and well warmed and fully heated


himself; he beheld the threefold seven-stringed and twenty-onc-

membered
be quoted

Thereof this Rig Veda verse may


( Yajwa).
Agni formed the threefold and seven-stringed sa-

sacrifice

"
:

* The word
Veda even

used

pestles

devas, the word,

it

"

clevan" gods, but seeing that in the Rig


and mortars and leather strainers are named

is

may be presumed,

is

here used in the sense merely

of created objects, and not of devine beings


especially.
the word anydn " others" as opposed to herbs and trees

no other meaning.

The use

of

can suggest

ROD! cn

ipplein,

ma\ :U.

tka

i:

11

it

with

Uraliiiiii,

herhs and

as

svii

Adlr.

^>irya

Adhvaryu Yi6 vedevaa

having
immortal

ni.i!

creation

'].<! tli<- li-a

i'lajapati,

nblatorv

hce(ll.-.'

tees

pleiitii'ul

ia^

Verily

shoul.l

award.-

l)e

inst

iiijiir.-

tin-

lilt

it

ut.r

vijas

tli.>

the nil-lilies nf

and

halt'

injure

the

they only areoniplish halt a


II

thus

iviug

til,'

\i\^ (liil<li\'ii

in

heaven

res.

.me.

saeriti

the

ihe

Ont

[t

this world

itiit-u- in

w
says,

in

the ereatinn

Brahfl

(hin;J,

thu-

Cl

^vllahle

dl

Dei
\\ln-th.-i

..-Id

the

>\

liable

nreeinin
1UK >;

llllH,
i

:ihe
th-

tin-rout':

llljlllV

c.ittlf

and

ane verily enemies of the

ml
aii.l

tl

Brahn:

sarritire injure tin-

tlio iii-tiiutnr

IJUU-M-

sMii&te aadaJi-praaarpcd

[QTS o(

\vlio liav.- n..'


i'

the

completed

.Itiii-'

lice, tiiii

the

tliaf

the At

..,iniinur

In

it.

ell-

ParyvaiiY.

the

tii'

Hie
all

INTKOIM ri'ION.
ions, nil

Devas,

all

Vedas,

all sacrifices, all

words,

all fruit ioi?,

the whole creation fixed and moving.


"

From

its first

letter

was produced heaven

and from

it*

second letter vigor and the luminaries,


"
From its first vocalic instant were produced the earth, fire,
herbs, trees, the Rig Veda, the mystic sellable (Vyjlu-i //') him,
the Gayatri metre, the threefold stoma, the eastern side, the
spring season, the instrument of speech
of taste.
"

From

its

tongue, and the power

second vocalic instant were produced ether,

air,

the Yajur Veda, the mystic syllable bkuva, the traistubha


metre, the fifteen-fold stoma, the western side, the summer
season, the

organs of breath

the nostrils,

and the power of

smelling.
"

From its third vocalic instant were produced the heaven, the
sun, the Sama Veda, the mystic syllable svah, the jagati metrr,
the seventeen-fold stoma, the northern

side, the rainy season,


the seats of light, eyes, and the power of vision.
<l
From its consonantal instant b were produced the wat
,

the moon, the Atharva Veda, the stars, the circumflex

Cm

its

l\fe,janat, the Angirasas, the anustubh metre, the twenty-onefold stoma, the southern side, the autumn season, the seat of

knowledge

"From

its

mind, and the power of knowing.


consonantal instant
were produced the

Itiliasa

Parana, speech, metrical language, ndrasansi, the Upamshads,


the commanding syllables Vridkat, Karat, Guhan, Makat, Tat,

and Sam, the great Vyahriti Om, harmony of many corded instruments, voice, dancing, singing, music, the Cbaitraratha Devas,
the thirty-three-fold stoma, the
lightning, light, the vrihati metre,
and lower sides, the cold and <lowy seasons, the organs of

upper

hearing

ears,

and the power of audition."*

4Tliough the syllable is said to comprehend four instants, yet three


vocalic and t\\o consonantal instants are here recounted probably the
;

last

two are counted

as one.

ivi

legend now

follows in \\hi<-h

over>

Om,

l>v

startii

:>\

to

xJilJ-

Rika's of the first chni-

and

ivation

ent Yrda-. ami

Cavani.

j>laoe in tin-

its

praise
-us in

of
tlu> in

tli
t.J

ai-iu^

\\\

length.

The account given


-with in

tli.'

Vedas, and

nM-t

containing tlie
account
follows

of the
will

('

versed in

him

kg

'

of tho ia<v of Mitru


vell

in

i^a-

tli

the duties

of P>rahm;u'harya>

desciple

of

heariDj

our guest

10

:k<

"'

of

ill

ynr

learning.*

\\

.;n-ln-i

replied the pupil

II

8:t

liatever exists in this Oral

if

"A

'

youth,

who

"The
9

has com.pupil

tutor,

ng.

oi

<

lava,

II
'

"(Of

hi in
?.'

*H
"

'

(Glava

sai<l),

:^alya)

How

Vedas,
do

ive got all

tl

so speak of go<

kn<>

aa

the form of a nan

in

'

iw

many

tlio 1-

II

to

perhap

ideas of

>

II

and

I(.\.

youth, to Gltoa

ol the race of Mitra, and address him.


saying
me, sir, and explain to me the Savitn, (/, c. the (i.-ivaof twenty-four syllables and twelve
couples, of which Bl,

instruct
tri,)

van--ii\is-is

arc

tlie eyes,

and

Should that Brahmachari

and

it,

to ask a

to

vitri,

in

which

tutor, fair

Bramachari pupil

him, then

tell

'

him,

as

all this

creation suh>

youth, happen not to

(like

know

you) to explain the

S.-i-

said to Maudgalya, so are

you

by me you have given no


have to submit to privations for a year.'
"
The pupil repaired to where the other (Glava) was, and
asked the question (which his tutor had suggested to him).
you

answer.

"

since questioned

ill-instructed,

He

You

shall

him no

Thereupon the pupil said,


as you said to Maudgulya, so are you ill-instructed, since
questioned by me you have given no answer. You shall have
(Glava) gave

reply.

'

to submit to privations for a year,'


"

He, Maitreya, to his own pupils, said


forsaking me, repair
I said of Maudgalya that he
as you list, to your homes.
'

was
put
"

and yet have

ill-instructed,

me by him

to

On

crificial

answer the question

failed to

I shall therefore

go and pacify him.'

the fallowing morning Maitreya, taking a handful of


wood (in token of submission) went to Maudgalya and

said, 'Sir, I

am

Maitreya.'

Wherefore are you come ?' (enquired Maudgalya.)


I have (said Maitreya) called you ill-instructed, and yet
have failed to answer the question put by you, I have therefore
'

'

come
"

to pacify you.'

He

'

(Maudgalya) said
every sin by coming here in
;

auspicious car of
s<

The other

unkind, and for

mine

"

phrase)
to

you have committed

a conveyance.

(instruction)

go away

in

give

you

this

it.'

'

what you say is neither ungenerous nor


have I come to you.' Then approaching him

said,
it

'

(nearer)

said that

it is

enquired,

Sir, to

whom

the adorable glory of the

what they mean by dhiya

do wise

men

allude by (the

god Savita"? arid advise

(intellect)

and, should you

me

as

know

which the sun

i'.rnu-h

in

')."*
;

id

'I'

'hli;iinl;>

-MM

and

Mid

mv

nirtres)
tin' ^1

the

//// 'i

ry

preeminei
<!'

/;/'/,

that ^-"l

Ikiya means

by which the SUM

alim

is

dut'

u.

'

iva HMjUfStrd

II

liii;

iu) au.l \vh;ii


;

speech the Savitri.

and

llu-

'

alwa

iniinl. v.-rily th-

tlu'iv is

speech,

tln-r

two sources and one coupl

are
;i.

\\

and \vhTt'V.T

h,
'

^" tin- MiinJ(mrt/<

:i,

tii- S;ivitri

earth,

and

\\

and one coupl^.

id

v,

and

thu>

fe

th-

there

:id '-th'-r, tin- S.-iviiri

thus

'I'll'

wln-ivvcr

niiii

ai'.,

th

Vayu

wliere\

wherever

tlicr

\\

th

the

'

.nd the

.11

thin

'

i'h'

COefl

and

Thosr
itrf,

:nnl

OD6

'"also

uli

{}l

''

18

INTRODUCTION.

L!2

(abbhra)isS&vit&, and rain (vardui) theSavitii wherever there


is cloml tin-re is rain, and where there is rain, there is cloud
;

two sources and one couple. The lightning


Savita, and the thunder (stanayitnu), the Savitri

thus there

are

(c'tdywt) is

wherever there

lightning there

is

thunder there also

is

lightning

one couple. Life (prdna)

wherever there

is

thus there are two sources and

is

Savita,

there

is food,

is life

thunder, and where theio

is

and food (anna), the


and where there

is

Savitri

food there

thus there are two sources and one couple. The


Vedas are Savita, and the metres (ckhandas), the Savitri wheralso is

life

ever there

are

Vedas, there are metres, and where there are

there also are the Vedas

metres,

thus there are two sources

and one couple. Sacrifice Yajfta) is Savita, and fee (dakshinA),


the Savitri; wherever there is sacrifice there is fee, and where
(

there

is

fee there also is sacrifice; thus there are

"

Verily

Brahma beheld

this recepacle, the adorable prosperi-

ty, (the Savitri alias Gayatri).

Meditate on

it

ously held, (vrate),

it.

If

it

be

religi-

abides * in truth.
1

created

two sources and

These verily are the twelve couples/

one couple.

Brahmanas from the


the Savitri

Savitri,

He, Savita, bavin*


held it within him, hence

savitur

varenyam the preeminient


the
word vrata, religiously
(a play upon
portion
held and thence varenyam the preeminent.) By the earth is
the

first foot of

is

of Savita,

upheld the Rig hymns by the Rig hymns, Agni by Agni,


prosperity (sri, here intended for Savitri) by prosperity, woman
;

by woman, a couple by a couple, man by man, work by work,


by religious austerity, truth by truth,
religious austerity
Brahma, by Brahma, Brahmana; by Brahmana, devotion; by
devotion are Brdhmanas bepraised, made voidless, and un;

broken.

His thread

abode of his

life

(lineage)

remains unbroken, and the

remains undisturbed

foot of the Savitri, or

The verb

who knows

knowing explains

is

in the past tense.

it.

this the first

i.\Ti;.'ii

of th

IV

by

tii--

seounl

tin-

is

-h upheld

by

toot of tho Savitri.


5

eloud, rain: by the rain. h.-rbs

truth; by truth,
:

devotion

liy

and unbroken.
ahodc of
1

his

l>y

and

liijht,

rain

animals

trees,

l>y

l>y

truth; by

;ty.

lv

Jndunana,

imainaunbrokon, and the


undisturln' 1, 'who knows this tho
or

knowing

S.-ima,

A'ditya

the rain,

h.-r'o-

(<!ltii/tt

truth, Urainn

A'ditya,

l>y

and

nah

;/<>

the sky

By

work

the animals,

it.

.-xplains

the third foot of the Savitri.

upheld; by

bv austirity,

ivniains

tin.'

Vavu, cloud;

and

irradiates our understanding/

is

'.;

the

H;> thread
life

who

Brahmana

is

the

Urahmana

byjli '.iliina.

foot of the Savitri,

II"

Brahma

and

ether

By
th.-

ly

by work, austirit v

-j:

trees;

/'/''-

the

is

li^ln

the herbs

liv

by work, austerity

by Bra'nni, Urali mat;

by devotion is the J>iahmana


His Im-M^v remains
and imhrokeu.
in

unbi

>f

be third

his

n-niaius

life

umii-turlied,

knou

or

!]',

in-

plain
i.us

quired, digested and

tlie

ether

knows

this^

well un<;

juir-'d.

und'-rstood.

rth

quii

id

and

iiu\'

,-i\

tin-l-

lly li^ht

ia

w.-ll

Hy

lif--

Ifl

mill
'-h

By

speech an-

'

a'-|iiiie.l. di

aoquii

is

earth

ad well mid*

'!

and well mi

II

truth,

H\ water is

fjiiii'i-d.

Uv

.ml well understood.

-i

Urabn,

r>\

ud well understood.

acMjuii-.

and well

,f

is,

IMKoDl

elfin

si! s ar,

nut

sit

in

CTION,

and ihereof

this order,

is

sacrifice (ho

highest

"Those \v1ioknow the above think that they kn<nv


but in reality they know it
the Vedas arc
the Vedas

established

is

established on

life

is

light; light

blished
as

on food

food

is

is

is

on

.rightly);

established

speech;

<>u

speech

established on life;

established

on.

the earth

on water; water is established on


established on wiiid; the wind is established on

established

is

ether; the

mind

the mind; tin

established

is

the earth

Sacrifice

not.

it

ether

on

is

established on

Brahma; Brahma

Bralnnanas acquainted with Brahma.

conscient of

Brahmi who knows

torious acts, and sweet odours,

who knows

endless grace,

he destroys
this

He

this.

as

he,

esta-

Verily he

achieves meri-

all sins,

also

is

and enjoys

who knowing

adores the Upanishad which has the Savitri, the mother


of the Vedas, for its subject."

this,

This interpretation differs from what


later authors,

inasmuch as

it

is
generally received
the
seperates
epithet varenya

by
from bliarga, and makes the two distinct. This, however, is
more apparent than real, for it is merely allegorical, and does
Otherwise it is on all fours with the
not alter the sense.

Hindus that the object adored


and therefore also of the

belief of the

universal

is

sun

itself as

the

oldest

represented by

we

possess,

after the Gayatri

its rays.

Brahma

sun,

soul,

As the

or

the

and not the

interpretation

is

and was given within a short time

had been composed,

this

fact

is

worthy of

at variance with the version given


the late Professor
~by some European orientalists, notably by
which
makes
the
sun
the object of woritself
to
be
Wilson,
note, particularly as

ship.

It

is

it is

of course impossible to say

Gayatri himself had

in

view,

what the author of the

but his Indian commentators,

both ancient and modern, are at one in believing that he rose


from nature up to nature's God, and adored that sublime lumi-

nary which
planet

we

is

visible only to

daily see in

its

the eye of reason,

course.

and not the

i\

with a

wash

or
!\

21

i|i CTI<

l;i

on

kaij'lik.i

the importai
'lum-nei?

Ti

duties appro

the

chapter

llralm;

in-

chastity d< motion to tin- tutor,


dispassion, m>-ndieity,
mil fixing the tinn- to !)
ieVOt^d to

rom twehre

much
!

._je

of the

18

>hi,

,.t

afl

nil

MI
ttd

the

A'tliar-

:MI

li>putant.

kn

a degree.

Yan-

will

king

jjroat

about

tl-c-Mi

the

duti-

them.

the various

aeeounts

which

in

srlt-surficient to

pi

pini -ul ii- knowlr


ii
i-rict' and

Ini-'t

Kal;ni'lha,

ct'

tlie

questiona

the Grihy;i

follows

!>-.'iu)

'

the

rilio
tli'-s-?

years,

,L;ivni in

an int.-lli^pnt

M
with

t\\Mty-tur

Kahandhi, >on

described

II

Of

as tlwse

no remark.

for

of th- nanio

the same

other legends

ral

of

retjuij-finents

he found

in

the table of

omt
,ned

d.lish

tli.

preeminence

ih-

the

.\iliar

othei

-ts

pens with an injunction that tl.


at a sacrifice should know the tour Veda-, andti
with

is,

tin

a man

:i

with

il

with

the

Ki._r,

Miimlier

with

on

^'a|ll>ll,

and Saina,

of feet than

our

wherl.

h.-

p in

the

I the

why
I)

or

incapable

nd
;V

four,

)j

o;
tli.-n

fol-

..

l.,.dv

th--

why
le.rh

NTRODUCTION,

i:

and why and how other organs of the body perform their functions? and they are explained by referei
in

.'

various

to
also

regarding

their

of

over

Passing

we come

two

other

and

fire

short

K^vini-

a set of rules regarding


of the sacrificed cow among the different

importance,

the distribution

sacrifice

Darsapauniamasa

accidents to the sacrificial

certain

expiations.

little

the

of

parts

to

persons engaged in the sacrifice. According to them the Prasthe


tata is to receive the two jaws along with the tongue
;

neck and the

hump the Udgata, the eaglelike wings or briskets; the Adhvaryu, the right side chine with
the shoulder the Upagata, the left chine the Pratiprasthata,
Pratiharta,

the

the

left

side

shoulder

Brahma and

the

the wife of the Ra-

the Brahmanachchhaiisi, the right hip


thya,$5 the right rump
lower down the round the Pota, the thigh (leg-f) the Hota, the
;

rump; the Maitravaruna, the left round the Achchhavaka,


the left leg; the -Neshta, the right arm, (clod) the Sadasya, tinleft

the master of the house, the sirloin and some part of


the abdomen (flank? sada and anuka) ; his wife, the loin, or the

left clod

pelvic region, which she

is

to

bestow on a

Brahm an

the Agniand the

dhra, the stomach (vanishtii), the heart, the kidneys,

right fore-leg (vahu) the A'treya, the left leg


who ordains the sacrifice,! the two right feet
;

the wife of the

who ordains the sacrifice, the two left feet and


them in common the upper lip the Gravastut,

householder

both of

the household^ v

three bones of the neck, (vertebraj,) and the manirjah (whatever


l

and

am

doubtful of

its

import.

The passage is evidently corrupt,


The meaning above given is a

mere guess.
cannot make out the distinction be tween the avarasaktha "hip
lower down" and thcurw "thigh." I suspect the last to mean the
f

leg.

J U^^?ri <TC^I'

I do not

know the

person and the householder who gets the

difference between this

sirloin.

be)

man

the

of the

ilt'

wl

perineum

th-

>ubralinianva, the head

Somasae

e hide.

'I

IN

Dire impr

hvarya,
the

liurl

lor of division.

some subsidiary

to a close with
tion

/.

Thechapt

rules regard in

giving directions as to the order in which

who

'

The

detail.

of

initiation,

'

Some of the principal

priest?.

preside over

them are then

to offi-

CITIMIMI:

and the

naim-.l,

perfornvince of those ccrcmoni,

thfl

in

ami the several assistants who are

d,

under the chief


and

_:

the formal en^M^-nn-iit of priests at a


iourth chapter continues the suhj.vt

c.

Tho

man who Invitefl people to a


together make a total of thL

Latter half of

the chapter is devoi


<!' the
year with ccrenmn

ivstic connect ion

Th
subject

of the fifth

kan.likas
of relation

with an

in
i-^,

and

oi

which

it

sum

it

up
|,,,_

memb.

i\

which

contiune the

tl.

the

chapter

to the y

by the

preceding kandik.i>.

Th--

sexmth

then Porvlhuti,
n,un.[>a,

the

-linbandha. th.-n
I

dha,

shin;i.

ti

This passage iu the

Hi

which

ori-inul

Pi

tr\t

niedha,

BLODTK

fruition

tlio

by

ing a fee of a

[i

ceremony of Sahasnulakshina (one involvthousand heads of cattle). Passing over

some unimportant paragraphs we come to the twenty- third,


which gives some details about the classification and particular

times of

classes

sacrifices.

the

is

frumenty

Pdkayajna*
butter

All ceremonies are devidcd into

ii

which the cooking of rice or


hence called
important element,

1st including all those in

most

2nd those

in

the most important

is

which the offering of clarified


Haviryajna, and 3rd those in
;

which the Soma beverage holds the most prominent place,


Somya or Somayajna. Each of them includes 7 different
kinds of

sacrifices.

tar

homa

3,

Ishtakah

6,

Class, II.

hotra

Ishtis

3,
6,

Class.

Thus

Pdkayajna, comprising,

I.

Class,

1,

nine kinds of Sthalipaka


7,

S.iyam homa;
4, Bali

5,

2,

Pra-

Pitriyajna

Haviryajna, comprising,

1,

Agnyadheya,

A'mavasya or Darsa;
the four Chaturmasyas 7, Pasubandha.
Paurnamasi;

4,

5,

2,

Agni-

the nine

III.

Somayajna, comprising, 1, Agnishtoma;


Atyagnishtoma 3, Ukthya 4, Shodasiman 5, Vajapcya
;

Atiratra

Pasu.

2,
;

6,

A'ptoryama.
two kandikas of the chapter arc devoted to the
creation and requirements of ceremonies, and the uses of the

The

7,

last

different

Vedas

in the performance thereof.

Although the cooking of rice is a sine qua non in these ceremothat palm, here does not mean
nies, yet some authors are of opinion
" It
Indian
to
authorities," says Max Mulsignifies, according
cooking.
" either small or
yood.

ler
'

That pdka

is

used in the

first

sense ap-

such expressions as yo mat pAkatarah, "he who is smaller


pears from
than we." But the more likely meaning is good or excellent or perfect

because

,as th<;

commentators remark, these ceremonies impart

to every man that peculear fitness without which he would be excluded from the sacrifices, and from all the benefits of his religion."

Ancient tianskril Literature, 203.

VI

The contents

ami

k-n

Mil.j

onlv.

T'n.'

only

with

Tlie

]><n.k

MJM-IIS

woi

tin-

reference

with

',

lJrahn:i'>

namrd

the

for

m. nibcr of the

perform

tiee
.

of

.imiiv

>hoiiM

it

11. .t

the

tilling

follnv.

in-

nmst

the

as

said that

is

to

IVajapati

dcsin-d

th--

yield

rut

it,

otl'

\ill-d

"

the

troni

:piin

wciv

it.

wa>
than his

it

lilii

uho

\.

and

n-turn.

held

It

lindra hi-

It

not.

important

>iii

rdin^ly,

it

sarrifirial

>und-d hy a

Tlu-u

It

r.

alt'

without awarding

lludra wislii-d that

<>n

wlu-u

Brahm&

'atV.

'

(.'

tin

t-

Brahma, and

/"'/''////.

praise

:'-

liriTti>n

and of the

/.

of cloth

sill

some

r.-mainin^ silent

the assumption that

ith

tin-

to

of tin-

>rat

douht

.'.ith

tion

the

No

fir>t.

ivt

author of

tin-

tin-

ot'

iian

til.'

hay from

altory,

than those

t'ra-vm. ntary

up

with

Second B>

of the

Mi<-oii-.'.|Urntial

t.x.k

in

hut his

it,

to put

len-handi

Th-

l.ut

nl.l.-ition
is

it,

and

had
It

th

c.-dh-.l

wa-

hi>

1-

lh-

<

30

INTRODUCTION,

gend.

though

and

pointless

uninteresting,

containing the germ on


Daksha's great sacrifice has

as

been

which

the popular version,


Bhagavata Purana, once
to

born
rig

son

of

on

by

ot
importance
Pauranic tale of

elaborated.

founded

is

time

on

Daksha,

According
that of

the

the

mind-

be present at a Visvasfather, and, on the arrival of

Brahma, happened

sacrifice celebrated

the

\vhich

is

his

to

wanting in courtesy to him. A quarrel


out
between the two, and culminated in a
broke
thereupon
curse from Daksha, who ordained that thenceforward Siva
should not be allowed a share at a sacrifice. Subsequently

Siva

there,

was

Daksha himself celebrated a grand sacrifice such as creation


had never before beheld, resplendant with all that unlimited
wealth and divine command could bring together. To it
assembled all the gods, with their wives, all the Rishis, and
nymphs, and Pitris and Gandharvas from the farthest parts of
the world, and the only persons designedly excluded were Uma

and her

lord Siva.

seated in her blissful mansion on

Uma,

the crest of the Kailasa mountain,

beheld the crowds that

were moving towards her father's house, and soon heard of the
rejoicings that were going on to which she had been purposely
excluded.
"

"

Wroth
To her

of heart

"

'

"

'

Of no

"

'

Straight I speed to

Why dost
rite

thou, the mighty,


?

partake

" Such a
sight to see
"
If he be my father,
"

Uma

was

lord she spake

He must welcome

Daksha
:

thee."

lord could not be prevailed upon to go to a feast


which he had not been invited, and so she started alone.
Mounting her favorite bull, and followed by a wild band of her
lord's spritely attendants, she hurried through space, and in a

But her

to

INTUuhl
twinklii
an. I jty

the

ini.Ut

01

and merriment were

company

i^e-dlv

their

at

height

of her lather

'

tther mint-

hath wnndriMis

\V..ik

Wherr Mich
<

'-liall

all

n.'tli

irtn.-,

ncvrr

aiv

\v.-lc.)iiir.

All t'he goda


tin-

aitls

Muni

J)akslia,

and cold

\V-l-,.nic ih

inc."

1'iit

>u,

his t.ic

daii-l

to,.,

Sine.; tlmii

Hut thy iVcn/icd husl.aiid


other >hiiu.'

II.'

>t

th

win. walks in darku


lit

ll' \\llO luT.i>

\villl

Slums each
him

dcllK.n-,

kind!

\vaiid-r nai,
Id.

'

Id.

\\!I<MI

in

the

aoDi
llodv

[<

smeared with ashes,

Skulls in necklace tied


"

Thou to
Thou

Know

love this monster


to plead his part

tin

moon and Gangji

Share that
"

faithless heart.

Vainly art tliou vying

With thy
Are not

rivals'

charms

coils of serpents

Softer than thine arms ?"*

These would be bitter words to any faithful wife to heat


to CJma, who was the pattern of her sex,
and the most devoted of wives, enjoying on that account the

said of her lord;

Sati par exellence, they proved the most poignant,


In a mighty cry
her
to the very core of her heart.
touching
of angnisli she upbraided her father, and, dilating on the merits

proud

title of

of her husband and the injustice that had been done him, ended
by declaring that she would no longer retain a body which she

owed

to so

wicked a

Anon

father.

she became speechless with

overwhelming wrath, took her seat at the northern side of


the altar which by law belonged to her lord, and, covering
herself with the hem of her cloth, gave up her life in a fit
of profound meditation.

Awe-struck and

dumb

the

company

beheld the tragedy, without being able to make any attempt


for her rescue.
Her attendants now rushed forwards but
;

Bhrigu, the

chief

priest,

in

an

poured an oblafrom the flames n

instant

and brought forth


host
of
mighty
frightful Ribhus who soon compelled them

tion

^-

on

the

fire,

Waterfield's I n,<l.i.n, Jkdlads

Daksha

utter these reproaches

and Poems*

when he meets

of his father, but the popular version brings

The Bhagavata makes


Siva at the festal hall

them

to this place.

to run away.

\\

to h

riti-

tl.ii!

pore of lu>

body
of hair from his

with a

nmofai

h<

Tlii>

'

of fiends, and dealt


in

accompanied

'-sha,

tal hall
3

a nuin.

l>y

tli

>

d-

had

lous

app

plucked out; Bin:

and

turn:
'

nl

.I hand and

the foremost
3

it

among the

lopped

off,

tnunpl.-d

victim

and thrown

was soon reduced

and

foot

,ksha lmns<

,-.

\y

supplirat.

-.1

to

La

and

nw

Vishnu

it

Then they

wliose

If,

into th<* Imrning altar, wl

itop
'lavoc,

UJK.II.

;dl

wmt

tli.-

and

rapidly

Ilrai

and

t. Siva

hi

nm

ni

to

pivyail.'d

n,

on

him

'

\\hrll
h.-ln-ld

.ih
nt
''lich

,t'

revived

and began

In

tliivatcncd

H-

a-am.

\\

inn
'ill',',

t-lt

In:

* Fi

followulnrli

t!

wan

34

INTRODUCE

proved etliranous, and Siva was at

and wounded

killed

to

last

induced to restore

liu

But Daksha's head

and health.

life

having been burnt, it had to be replaced by that of a goat,*


which was lying handy by the altar.

The

Purina

Kcalika"

the nose at Sugandha;


at

tongue

from

differs

4,

the

in

Bha~gavata

the top of the neck at Kasmira

5, tin;

Jvalamukhi

heart at Vaidyanatha

;
6, the right breast at Jalandhara; 7, tin;
the
knees at Nepala; 9, the right hand
8,

Manasa- 10, the navel in Utkala ; 11, the right cheek at


Gandaki ; 1 2, the left arm at Vahula* ; 1 3, the elbow at Ujjayani ;

at

14, the right

Tripura

arm

16, the

(Kamakhya) ;

18,

toes at

right

at Chattala, Chandrasekhara

left foot at

Trisrota

the right

Kalipitha,

17, the

great-toe

(Kalighat)

at

15, the right foot at

pudendum at Kamagiri
Yugadya; 19, other

20, the fingers at Prayaga

21, the thighs at Jayanti; 22, the earingsat Varanasi ; 23, the back
of the trunk at Kanyasrama ; 24, the right ankle at Kurukshetra 9
-

25, the wrists at Manivedaka ; 26, the back of the neck at Brisaila

the backbone at Kauchi; 28, one hip at

Kalamadhava j

29,

27,

the other

armada ; 30, the left breast at Kamagiri j 31, the liuim


hip at
of the head at Vrindavana ; 32, the upper row of teeth at Suchi ; 33 r
the lower row of teeth at Panchasagara ; 34, the left talpa (shoulder
blade?) at Karatoya ; 35, the right do. at Snparvata ; 36, the left ankle, at

Vibhasha;
parvata

31",

the belly at Prabhasha; 38, the upper lip at Bhairava;


40, the left cheek at Godavari j

39, the chin at Jalasthala

41, the right shoulder at Ratnavali 42, the left shoulder at Mithila ;
43, the leg bone at Nalapati ; 44, the ears at Karnata ; 45, the mind
at Vakrevara j 46, the palm at Jasora ; 47, the lower lip at Attahasa ;
-,

48, the necklace at Nandipura

of the

left foot at

Virata

49,

tlie

anklets at Lanka; 50, the toes

51, the right leg at Magadlia.

How

the-

mind and the ornaments formed parts of the body, are Tantric
has nothing
mysteries which I cannot unravel. The Bhagavata
to say about this division, as,according to it, the body was consumed
which was evolved from the Devi's profound meditation.
according to Wilson y the Sanskrit word in the Bhagavata
Purana is ajn which means both a goat and a slieep.

by a

fire

$ Ram

>

many

important

particulars,

and the

of

-s

making
Rudra a

Va'\ u di:rei> the

1*

the

nothiog to say about the substitution of a goat or rai


for that of l)ak*ha, but the myth on tin; Mibject must be of
iderable antiquity, seeing that wo have a ram

one of the eight great gods of the count

itting

name was
ubis,

Neph,
variously spelt Kneph,
Noub, and, perhaps also, Nou f

Nef, Cn<u|

Daksha

J^ilc.-

"a man with the hond

sculptures as

I'M

the most ancient sculp-

among

divinity

of a rain/'

and

the progep'tor, Prajapati,"at least


In- is described as the
"spirit oft!
waters." $J>aksha, however, lad m
had
only two and Sat i, the d
Neph
mio) on
among the EL

face of the
.

Idle

the

\nyhow there

\\

in

the

to
.er.

nd

its

consequences

if a (jManel

is,

id

a remarkable ana.

a comiiioi:

The

>-!'

however, an

alle-mi. -a

the MM

!>,

by

the admi.^ion of Siva


!.n with

The *

is

with

uit

hlu

36
every six months, accomplishes the offering of his own-self to
Imlra and Agni. The same offering should be made by those

who

long life, or numerous descendants, or crowded


For a prayer to Yama for long life, the offering meet is a
green parrot and for numerous progeny the offering to TvaskThen follows a legend in which the
tra should be a mare.
desire

herds.

Devas

issue forth

under

conquer the Asuras.


Soma the Kudras, Indra the Maruts,
Agni
"Varuna the A'dityas, and Vrihaspat i the Visvedevah but they
to

five generals

leads the Vashus,

are defeated, and at last are obliged to regain their lost ground

by a Yajna. The 13th kandika* gives an account

of how Vasishtha,

through having seen Indra in person, obtained certain stomas


These stomas are subsequently recited, and the
for himself.
advantage of knowing them is explained. We next come to
a number of details about the appointment of the Agnidhra,
the

offering

of Pravit^huti,

Sadasya and other

and salutations

to

Prajapatr,

The twenty-third kandika

priests.

insists

upon the necessity of truthfulness on the part of the priestly


staff, giving as a reason that none can like a liar.

The

first

half of the third chapter

is

devoted to the mystic

syllables Vashat and Hin, th e advantages of repeating them


during a sacrifice, the best way in which, and the proper times

when, they should be repeated, and the various metres appropriate at the morning, the noon, and the evening ceremonies.
The most important legend in the third chapter refers to th
relation which the
it

"

the

at
k

Rig Veda bears

name

(feminine)

said

Sama

to

'

(masculine),

multiplication of animated beings/


'

my

herself

Sama.

to the

According to

there existed only the E-ik and the Sama.


of the Rik, and Ama that of the Sama.

first

greatness

is

into two,

She divided
Thus she became

'

Not

let

so

higher than yours.'


and addressed the other

herself into

Sa was
The Rik

us unite for the


;'

replied

Sama

The Rik divided

but got no reply.


three, and again addressed him.

three-fold,

and because she became three

INTTvOTU'CTI

fold, therefore" is

he

md

wi\vs.

many

I'

ft

ami beoce
.

and

1.

it is

the

is

p:i

What.

Samaless or un-

Udgitha, tho middle

Kik,

are
;

,nd

and Nidhana and Va^

The
i

IHHHI,

last

pally

three chapters of the Gopatha Brain


at
of peculiarities and details iv<.rardiii^ the morni

and evening

rites

I'ktha, the Kkashtakii

connexioa with the

in

Hi.-

and other minor

l.ut

not of sufficient importance to require fullrr

than what occur

en

th^ talle

in

.t'

tin-

condition

inly
i,

gages alluded

to,

hut unl.r
n;^

01

and ether

circun,

.-.

oti
\\ell

hich

die

1.

atVid

no

in-

Qtioned

lives.

'

ii

iheir

anv

.ana^va

:ml Parikshir.

.lanai

tlin.u

India at th-

kir

ha

Km

they
ua

COntei

whole ran ire of the (!<>patha


calculated to
Q6d which is

In the

lut

tin*

of th-

these five parts

five-fold;

is

it

attained.

that which

Each

condemend.

i<

ami ly

superiority

pacified, (Saina;

>

me

ith

em

never

luit

got the ck.

born,

truth, the

Sa ami Ama
i

Rii.

con

has

.11

rival liusli:ui'l<.

used ly throe

(th.

nd the Yim!

in

j.alha
pul.lie

have

t"

express

my
I

mdmii

thai

it

38

When

the work was

first

undertaken

it

was expected that

>m moi itaiy would somewhere turn


up, and that it would bo
with
the
but
careful
text;
printed along
enquiry at Benares, and

Madras and the Bombay precidencies showed that nono


was extant, and a complete edition could not be accomplished*
As however several excellent and correct manuscripts of the text
in the

came to hand

it was thought
preferable
than drop the undertaking altoge-

in course of the search,

to print the text alone, rather

was supposed that the ripe scholarship


and varied knowledge of the late Pandit Harachandra Vidyabhushana, who had volunteered to edit the text and supply a
ther, particularly as it

The Pandit,
gloss, would stand in good stead of a commentary.
however, died soon after the publication of the first fasciculus,
and the MS. of his gloss was not accessible after his death the
;

idea of printing a gloss had, therefore, to be abandoned, and


the writer of this note confined his labours to the preparation
of an eclectic text, with all the varoe lectiones of his codices

added in

foot

notes,

and a

free sprinkling of punctuation to

make the reading easy, the MSS. consulted having none.


The following are the MSS. which have been made use

of in

preparing the text for the pres s


From the Bombay Government; comprising 78
1st. *ff
each
9 X 5 J inches, and having 9 lines on each page.
folia,

The

writing

is clear,

but not neat.

having been revised.

It contains

There are marks of


only the

first

its

half of the

work (Purvdrdha).
2nd.

13 X 5

*a

From

5 lines on

the Benares College ^Library ; 1G2


a page ; dated, Sam vat 1878.

written and unrevised

only the

fi^st

MS.

part of the work.

adhyayas of the second half


this.

been

It has

Like the preceding,

folia,

each

carelessly

it

comprises
of
the
first two
fragment

without pagination accompanies

9 lines on each page, and bears

marks

of

having

revised.

3rd 1

From

the Library of the Asiatic Society of Bengal

1\!

md

11x7

\olume,

in- n

27

i"

I*

tod

!.-

I-

.ml not revised.


4tli

From

^7

'hadur

!'

(Jopala

minkha

old.

and

oorefuliy revised

(kli

From

wiitteu

tliu

Badly

'i

-ly

\\iir

oondhalfd

Bombay Govei^ment;

tlu- ohloiiL;- putlii foi.n,

i'i

In:

con

It

3iSt'..i;,-i,

;unl luuii!-

newly copied, but not

foolscap;

on

|'M,. S

:>

tin-

:inlha complete.

From the Bombay Government; a

7th. ai

MS

patehed

It compri,s

in several places,

7-"

carefully writ in old


i

and containing the

:ha.

and ha\

!n-

:he third

is

;l

le--ille.

nd

liaxiii--

!)

atnd

Dili

From

li-

be

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1872

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