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INTRODUCTION:

Textile industry contributes 52% of export. It produces over 800 million


meters of cloth and around 1500 million kg of yarn per annum. Textile sector is
labor intensive and nearly a million of employees are associated in different unit
operations of about 700 mills. Textile wet processing activity contributes about 70%
of pollution in textile industry. It is estimated that there are around 12,500 textile
processing units wherein the requirement of water ranges from 10 liters with an
average of 100 liters per kg. Starting from cotton cultivation and manufacturing of
fibers, spinning, weaving, processing and finishing, more than 14,000 dyes and
chemicals are used and a significant quantity of these goes in the solid, liquid and
air wastes, thereby impart pollution of air, land and surface water.
Towards the end of 20th century, world has become more ecology
consciousness and thus green.
Textile concept is emerged to facilitate eco-management in textile arena.
Noise pollution contributes to a larger extent in Textile Industry. The effects of noise
pollution are just like a slow poison that slowly affects the human capabilities of
listening, learning and communicating.

NOISE POLLUTION:
Noise is one of the most pervasive environmental problems. There is no
doubt that it has adverse effect on human beings, and their surroundings.

The ISO defines noise intensity level [2] as:


L = 20 log10 (P / P0) = 10 log10 (I / I0) (1)
Where,
P and P0 are the sound pressures of the noise present at a place and the reference
sound pressure, at 1000 Hz at the threshold of hearing which is given as 20 micro
Pascals.
I is the sound intensity level being measured and I0 is the reference sound intensity
at 1000 Hz at the threshold of hearing and is given by 10-12 W/m2.

The sound does not get perceived by the human ear in the same manner over the
whole audible frequency range. Low-pitched sound of high intensity level (decibel
count) could not be judged by the human ear to be particularly loud. Similarly, the
human ear has been incapable of perceiving vibrations of a frequency much above
20,000 cycles per second, although many animals such as dog have been able to
detect these sounds. In industry, increased mechanization results in increased noise
levels. Operation of textile machines carries a high risk of hearing loss. The
evaluation of textile workers noise induced hearing loss was reported elsewhere in
the literature.

EFFECTS OF NOISE POLLUTION ON HEALTH:

Respiratory modification
Gastrointestinal
Endocrine stimulation
Galvanic skin resistance alteration
Permanent or temporary hearing loss
Increased human annoyance
Communication interference resulting in reduced workers efficiency
Heart ailments

LEVEL OF NOISE IN TEXTILE MACHINERIES:


YARN PRODUCTION
Because of high spindle speeds reached on new machines (ring spindles up
to 20000 rpm, rotor up to 110000 rpm) spinning mills can generally be assumed to
generate a great deal of noise. Noise levels of 70 to 100 dB are commonly recorded
in workrooms.

WEAVING AND KNITTING


Although con siderable progress has been made in the weaving sector over
the last 20 years, the whole area of noise nuisance and, closely associated with it,
vibration coming from looms, cause major problems. Noise levels of 100 to 120 dB
must be expected in weaving rooms, according to the design, type, fitting, erection
and number of looms used, fabric structure, building type and size etc. The
vibration transmitted from the running looms to the building can, under certain
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circumstances, cause a nuisance to the local population and damage to nearby


buildings, and to avoid this special vibration absorbers are now provided. However,
permissible limit set up at 90 dB by the standards given by the Environmental
Pollution and control agency of Pakistan for maximum exposure duration of 8 hours
per day. Typical values of noise level in textile machines are shown in as under:

STITCHING
The stitching unit itself yields a high level of noise pollution which have an
adverse effect on the health of the worker and also decreases the efficiency of the
worker. An average level of 85 dba of noise is generated by a single stitching
machine working at its full pace. No w a days in developed world countries they
have somehow achieve 5 - 7 dba noise reduction achieved on numerous stitching
machines at very low cost, reducing workers noise to below 80 dba.

NOISE LEVEL IN TEXTILE INDUSTRY (TEXTURIZING,


SPINNING , WEAVING AND STITCHING)
Process Noise level (dB) Texturizing Plant: Filament take-up section 93.20
Texturizing section 94.80
Compressor house 99.50
Spinning: Ring spinning 80
Weaving 100 -1204
Stitching unit 85

We observed more in detail about the noise pollution by conducting a survey at


Rajby Industries Pvt Limited which works in making towels and bath robes
specifically. The industry gave us results which were precisely observed regarding
the noise pollution by the industry. These Noise Level Estimation result gave us an
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in-depth understanding of the wastes and industrial pollution being generated by


the textile industries of Pakistan specifically. While the standards defined by the
National environmental Quality Standards are as under:
From the results that we observed of Noise pollution at Rajby Industries Pvt
Ltd we came to this conclusion that the noise levels that were observed were within
the prescribed limits as defined by in the NEQS tests of EPA.

REMEDIAL MEASURES
Noise level can be lowered by the use of noise control enclosures, absorbers,
silencers and baffles and by the use of personal protective equipment (PPE), such
as earmuffs.
Where technical methods are insufficient, noise exposure may be reduced by
the use of hearing protection and by administrative controls such as limiting the
time spent in noisy environment and scheduling noisy operation outside normal
shifts or at distant location.
Even though noise-reducing measures may have been incorporated in the
design of the machinery, greater output may generate higher noise levels. For
instance, every doubling of the speed of rotary machines the noise emission rises
by about 7 dB, warp knitting looms by 12 dB and in fans by around 18 to 24 dB.
Noise pollution is a problem that has unsatisfactorily been tackled so far.
Though noise-absorbing sheets are used to cover the inner walls of loom shed, still
more appropriate means need to be devised. In modern shuttle less looms because
of better engineering designs of the machines the noise level is lesser. But those
shuttles less looms are costly.
In addition to that management must take measures, such as job rotation to
ensure each of the worker stays healthy and we see the impacts of noise pollution
very less.

REFERENCES:
www.scribd.com
http://www.betterfactories.org/content/documents/1/Chapter
%204%20%20Temperature,%20Ventilation,%20Noise%20and
%20Lighting%20_OSH%20manual.pdf
www.wikipedia.org
Mr. Rehan sayed (compliance manager rajby industries)
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Objectives

Effects of organic solvents and heavy metals on the inner ear have not been adequately

documented. The studies conducted by this work group will aim to


determine the extent and site of auditory and vestibular system damage due to occupational
exposure to organic solvents, metals and asphyxiants alone and in combination with noise.

determine the extent of potentiation of noise induced hearing loss by simultaneous exposure to
chemical agents and the dose-response relationship.

establish protocols for field studies of combined chemical and noise exposure effects on the
auditory and vestibular systems.

determine the effects of environmental exposure to lead on children's auditory central nervous
system

determine ototoxic mechanisms of organic solvents via an in-vitro approach

development of an in-vivo test of solvent ototoxicity

determine the effect on the auditory system of exposure to chemicals with and without physical or
psycho-social stress

Evaluate individual risk factors for hearing and balance disturbance in the work environment

CONCLUSION
As a society, our history is filled with failures to recognize the agents that
cause disease; once the causes have been recognized, we have responded
reluctantly, slowly, and often inadequately. The case with tobacco is an instructive
one. It took many years of lobbying by dedicated individuals before legislators and
the general public recognized the links between the hazards of tobacco smoke and
disease; as a result laws were finally enacted and behaviors changed accordingly.
Despite the evidence about the many medical, social, and economic effects
of noise, as a society, we continue to suffer from the same inertia, the same
reluctance to change,and the same denial of the obvious that the anti-tobacco
lobby faced a couple of decades ago. This inertia and denial are similar to those
that delayed appropriate action on lead, mercury, and asbestos. Now we seem
unable to make the connection between noise and disease, despite the evidence,
and despite the fact, which we all recognize, that our cities are becoming
increasingly more polluted with noise.
Noise makers and the businesses that support them are as reluctant as
smokers to give up their bad habits. Legislators at all levels should protect us from
noise pollution the same way they protected us from tobacco smoke and other
forms of pollution. It is clear that laws can change behaviors in ways that benefit
society as a whole.
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