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Guest Book Landuse Change Analysis of Rutbeek Recreational Area, Netherlands
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Published: November 2009
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Abstract
Technology
Landuse change is a common issue. Due to population growth and increase the productive activities
Thesis made the changes. The processes of the landuse changes are slow, for that it is difficult to identify the
Tutorials changes. But Remote Sensing (RS) technology and spectral image made it easier. On this paper the
landuse changes of the Rutbeek recreational area identified using RS data and finally ensure the
accuracy also done the field check. For this study used Landsat ETM image of 25 May 2001, IKONOS
image of 03 April 2000 (both pan and MS bands), ASTER VNIR Image of 12 September 2006 and
Topo Map of the area. After the analysis found that the overall classification accuracy is 61.97 percent.

Introduction
The objective of the project is to do a supervised image classification of a Landsat ETM image of the
Rutbeek recreational area, and to incorporation ground truth data collected during a fieldtrip for
accuracy assessment. Collected parametric signatures using two different tools, digitized polygon and
seed growing, based on topographic map and visual IKONOS interpretation. Five classes were defined,
Ezine namely water, forest, grassland, bare/arable crop, and heather. Evaluate the training data using five
I want to subscribe: different methods to check whether there is any mixed pixels that could confuse classification process.
GIS Weekly Perform maximum likelihood parametric classification using supervised and fuzzy classification methods.
( GIS Weekly Archive Collecting ground truth data from the fieldwork. Combine all the ground truth data and use this data for
)
accuracy assessment. After the analysis found that the overall classification accuracy is 61.97 percent.
GIS Publications Search
The major causes of low accuracy rate were the different year data sources are used. (Map of 2001
( Publications Archive
) versus field check in 2009), time or season of the base image and field check year was not same (Map
was in May 2001 and field check in October) and landuse change due to the long time of the base map.

Location of the Area


Fill the Numbers Go
The Rutbeek recreational area is located South of Enschede. The terrain is flat to almost flat, with
7070 sandy soils. In the middle of the area, an artificial lake is found. The lake is surrounded by “swamp
Subscribe areas”, “beaches”, parking lots and other recreational infra-structure. The agricultural land use is mainly
maize, cereals and grassland.

The Rutbeek is a recreational area of approximately 120. In 1975 the layout of Het Rutbeek as a
recreational area began around an erratic former sand excavation lake. Now it is a transformed area of
120 hectares with trees, water parts, with beaches, laying meadows, grass land, and leisure facilities.

The area is made up of one fen and five different beaches. On the South Western side of the lake there
is a place for nudist recreation. The area is shown with boards. It is clearly signposted also. There is a
foot path around the lake.

The nudist beach of approximately 3 hectares is mainly made up of laying meadows, on the water side
there is a small beach. There is a toilet block on the nudist beach, further there are no facilities. On the
textile beach (after approx 1000 meters) there is a kiosk available. (Source: www.naaktstrandje.nl)

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Landuse Change Analysis of Rutbeek Recreational Area, Netherlands http://www.gisdevelopment.net/application/lis/rural/landuse_Netherlands.htm
Available Image

Methodology

Figure 1: Methodology of the study

Collection of Spectral Signature Samples (parametric) with the Signature Editor using two different
methods: Two methods of collecting spectral signature one is user defined polygon using the polygon
tool and other is using seed growing tool.

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Landuse Change Analysis of Rutbeek Recreational Area, Netherlands http://www.gisdevelopment.net/application/lis/rural/landuse_Netherlands.htm

In the table 1 showed the advantages of these two methods.

Table 1: Comparison of two of collecting parametric signatures methods

Figure 2: Spectral Signature Collected using two method ( Mean Plot)

Tools used and tools preferred in evaluating data:


A feature space plot allows you to determine the spectral location of surface features within your
image. In some ways this is similar to the signature plots that you made earlier. However, it differs in
that we examine the association between 2 bands in a scatter plot and locate within that scatter plot,
the spectral location of various features (agric., trees, water, etc.).

Examining the feature space is important because it allows us to make quantitative comparisons
between cover types on the ground. This process is the exploratory phase of classification.

Figure 3: Feature space band 1 - 4, 3 - 4 with standard deviation = 2 (overlapped feature space between
bare/arable crop, heather & forest) (A,B), standard deviation=1 (no overlapped) (C,D)

Mapping a thematic layer into a feature space image can be useful for evaluating the validity of the

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Landuse Change Analysis of Rutbeek Recreational Area, Netherlands http://www.gisdevelopment.net/application/lis/rural/landuse_Netherlands.htm

parametric and nonparametric decision boundaries of a classification. Here we used band 1-4 and band
3-4 of pixel frequency positioning. Figure 3.A and 3.B shows the standard deviation =2 of pixel
frequency and Figure 3.C and 3.D shows the standard deviation =2. The lower value of standard
deviation will give less overlapped between frequency classes. The standard deviation will generate the
range of ellipses to the mean of pixel frequency. By analyzing the ellipse graphs for all band pairs, we
can determine which signatures and which bands provide accurate classification results.

Evaluate Contingency
Below the contingency matrix of pixel of training sample. This evaluation performs maximum likelihood
which accuracy of using this method is 99.59%. The other rule has performed almost similar accuracy
value.

Figure 4: Contingency matrix of each class (in pixels)

Histograms
A histogram frame part is an advanced frame part that is used in the contrast adjustment tools. It is a
graphic that shows the histogram of a raster layer or other group of file values. It may also show a
lookup table or other graph relative to the histogram.

Some histogram frame parts are for viewing only, but others provide an interactive user interface that
lets you manipulate the data. This document explains that user interface.

Figure 5: Histogram of the different band of the Landsat ETM Image

Accuracy Assessment from Collected Field Data


Accuracy assessment is a general term for comparing the classification to geographical data that are
assumed to be true, in order to determine the accuracy of the classification process. Usually, the
assumed-true data are derived from ground truth data. We performed 161 ground truth checking points
on the area of study.

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Landuse Change Analysis of Rutbeek Recreational Area, Netherlands http://www.gisdevelopment.net/application/lis/rural/landuse_Netherlands.htm

Examples of Land use Classes in the field:

Table 2: Landuse change of five sample location

Results from the Accuracy Assessment:


The accuracy of our classification after we validated with the ground truth checking is 61.49 %. This
lower accuracy was due to not only lack of signature training which needed to repeated over and over
but also the different interpretation of each class on the ground site between surveyors. Accuracy
matrix of supervised classification from collected field data

Table 3: Error Matrix of the Area

Causes of low accuracy are

Different year data sources are used. (Map of 2001 versus field check in 2009)
Same time/season of the year was not same ( Map was in May 2001 and field check in
October)
Landuse change due to the long time difference of the base map

Kappa Statistics
The Kappa coefficient expresses the proportionate reduction in error generated by a classification
process compared with the error of a completely random classification. Our overall Kappa statistics of
maximum likelihood supervised classification is 0.4385 implies that the classification process is avoiding
43.85 % of the errors that a completely random classification generates.

How to interpret Kappa


Kappa is always less than or equal to 1. A value of 1 implies perfect agreement and values less than 1
imply less than perfect agreement. In rare situations, Kappa can be negative. This is a sign that the two
observers agreed less than would be expected just by chance. It is rare that we get perfect agreement.
Different people have different interpretations as to what is a good level of agreement. At the bottom of
this page is one interpretation, provided on page 404 of Altman DG. Practical Statistics for Medical

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Landuse Change Analysis of Rutbeek Recreational Area, Netherlands http://www.gisdevelopment.net/application/lis/rural/landuse_Netherlands.htm

Research. (1991) London England: Chapman and Hall.

Here is one possible interpretation of Kappa.

Poor agreement = Less than 0.20


Fair agreement = 0.20 to 0.40
Moderate agreement = 0.40 to 0.60
Good agreement = 0.60 to 0.80
Very good agreement = 0.80 to 1.00

The Kappa coefficient expresses the proportionate reduction in error generated by a classification
process compared with the error of a completely random classification

Discussion
Ground Checking is an important part of quality assessment of the image classification. In this process
image class is observed from field for different classes and later it is compared with the classified
image to get the accuracy assessment.

After performing the accuracy assessment is it observed that forest and water has high accuracy,
Grass and heather has moderate accuracy and arable land has poor accuracy.

Image of different time and truthing of different time


There is no change is forestation and water body in course of time , that’s why those classes are
representing higher accuracy.
Heather is partially covered by the forest itself so visual inspection and image classification did
not match
Most of the Arable Land Changed to grassland, Due to Land use rotation
Many of the points are taken at the edge of defining class that does not fully represent the class

Note: I would like to give special thanks to Department of Applied science, ITC to give access me to
their database and support while field checking in study area.

Reference

Altman, Douglas G. (1991), Practical Statistics for Medical Research , Chapman & Hall/CRC
T.M. Lillesand, R.W. Kiefer, and J.W. Chipman (2004), Remote Sensing and Image
Interpretation, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, fifth edition
K. Navulur (2004), Multispectral Image Analysis Using The Object Oriented Paradigm. Taylor &
Francis
Tempfli, Klaus et al (eds.) (2009), Princpal of Remote Sensing, ITC Educational Textbook
Series, The International Institute for Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation (ITC),
ISBN: 978–90–6164–270–1, PP: 135 - 147
http://www.naaktstrandje.nl/overijssel/Rutbeek/RutbeekEngels.html (Access on 20 October
2009)
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