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MORPHOSYNTAX

THE FORMATION OF ENGLISH WORDS THROUGH


DERIVATION

THE FORMATION OF ENGLISH NOUNS THROUGH DERIVATION

NURUL IKHSAN KAMSYA


15B01096
ENGLISH EDUCATION B

ENGLISH DEPARTMENT
FACULTY OF LANGUAGES AND LITERATURE
GRADUATE PROGRAM

The Formation of English Nouns with the Suffix ion


UR: *[#[improv / improv]v + [-ion]suf#]N
RR-1 insertion of at: *[#[improvis+at/improvis/]v + [-ion]suf#]N
PR-1 /t//s/: [#[improviseis/]v + [-ion ]suf#]N
Output: [improvisation /improvisasion/]
Meaning : a performance which an actor, musician, etc. has not practiced
or planned
Sentence : There are classes in movement, dance and improvisation.
Source : Oxford page
UR : *[#[integrate /n.t.gret/ ]v + [-ion]suf#]N
Output: [integration /n.tgre. n/ /]
Meaning : racial/cultural integration
Sentence : social culture has high integration
Source : Oxford page
UR :*[#[examine / igzaemin/]v + [-ion]Suf#]N
RR-1 insertion of at :*[#[examine+at / igzaemineit/]v + [-ion]Suf#]N
PR-1 /t/ // : [#[/igzaeminei /]v + [-ion]Suf#]N
Output: [examination / igzminei en/]
Meaning : when someone looks at or considers something carefully in
order to discover something
Sentence : The evidence is still under examination
Source : Oxford page

UR : *[#[form/frm/]v + [ -ion]suf#]N
RR-1 insertion of at :*[#[form+at / frmt/]v + [-ion]Suf#]N
PR-1 /t/ // : [#[/frmtei /]v + [-ion]Suf#]N
Output: [formation / frmteien/]
Meaning : the way something is naturally made or the way it has been
arranged
Sentence : a rock formation
Source : Oxford page
SR:*[#[affiliate+it / affili:it/]v + [- ion]suf #]N
PR- 2 /i:/
/i/:*[#[affilietit]v + [- ion]suf #]N
PR- 3 /i/
/e/:*[#[/affiliteit]v + [ -ion]suf #]N
PR-1 /t/
/s/:*[#/affilieis/]v + [ -ion/isen]suf #]N
Output:[affilitation/ affiliesion/]
Meaning : a connection with a political party or religion, or with a larger
organization
Sentence : Their lack of affiliation to any particular bank allows them to
give objective financial advice.
Source : Oxford page

The Formation of English Nouns with the Suffix ty


UR: *[#[active/ktif/]Adj + [-ty]Suf#]N
PR-15 insertion of /i/ : [#[/ktif+i/]Adj +[-ty]Suf#]N
Output : [activity / ktiviti/]
Meaning : to do something for a particular purpose, or to behave in the
stated way
Sentence : There was a lot of activity in preparation for the Queen's visit.
Source : Oxford page
UR: [#[odd/ad/]Adj + [-ty]Suf#]N
PR Insertion of / /: [#[/ad+ + / ] Adj + [-ty]Suf#]N
Output: [oddity / odti / ]
Meaning : someone or something that is strange and unusual
Sentence : Even today a man who stays at home to look after the children
is regarded as something of an oddity
Source : Oxford page
UR: *[#[continue/kentinyu/]v + [-ty]Suf#]N
PR-15 insertion of /i/ : [#[/kentinyu:+i/]Adj +[-ty]Suf#]N
Output : [continuity / kentinyu:iti/]
Meaning : when something continues for a long period of time without
being changed or stopped
Sentence : There has been no continuity in that class - they've had a
succession of different teachers.
Source : Oxford page

UR : *[#[possible/pasbl/]Adj + [-ty]Suf#]N
PR / / / i / : *[#[pasbil + + / ] Adj + [-ty]Suf#]N
PR Insertion of / / : [#[/pasbil + / ] Adj + [-ty]Suf#]N
Output : [Possibility / pasbiliti / ]
Meaning : a chance that something may happen or be true
Sentence : It's not likely to happen but I wouldn't rule out the possibility.
Source : Oxford page
UR: [#[dense/dens/]Adj + [-ty]Suf#]N
PR Insertion of / /: [#[dens+ + / ] Adj + [-ty]Suf#]N
Output: [density / densti / ]
Meaning : the number of people or things in a place when compared with
the size of the place
Sentence : The area has a high/low population density.
Source : Oxford page

The Formation of English Nouns with the Suffix ment


UR : *[#[ engage / nged ]v + [ment] suf#]N
Output: [engagement / nged.mnt /]
Meaning : the act of beginning to fight someone, or a period of time in a
war
Sentence : They announced their engagement at the party on Saturday.
Source : Oxford page
UR : *[ #[ judge/ dd ]v + [ment] suf#]N
Output: [judgment / dd.mnt /]
Meaning : the ability to form valuable opinions and make good decisions.
Sentence : I don't think you have the right to pass judgment
Source : Oxford page
UR : *[ #[pay/ pe]v + [ment] suf#]N
Output: [payment / pe.mnt /]
Meaning : an amount of money paid
Sentence : Usually we ask for payment on receipt of the goods.
Source : Oxford page
UR : *[ #[ treat/ trit ]v + [ment] suf#]N
Output: [treatment / trit.mnt /]
Meaning : the way you deal with or behave towards someone or something
Sentence : Peter gets special treatment because he knows the boss
Source : Oxford page

UR : *[ #[assess / ses]v + [ment] suf#]N


Output: [assesment /ses.mnt/ ]
Meaning : decide the amount, value, quality or importance of something,
or the judgment or decision that is made
Sentence : social culture has high integration
Source : Oxford page

The Formation of English Nouns with the Suffix ness


UR : *[#[lonely / ln.li]Adj + [-ness]Suf #]N
Output: [loneliness / ln.l.ns /]
Meaning : the state of being lonely
Sentence : She gets loneliness now that all the kids have left home.
Source : Oxford page
UR : *[#[selfish / el.f ]Adj + [-ness]Suf #]N
Output: [selfishness / sel.f.ns /]
Meaning : disaproving
Sentence : an understanding of selfishness
Source : Oxford page
UR : *[#[dark / dk ]Adj + [-ness]Suf #]N
Output: [darkness / dk.ns /]
Meaning : the quality of being very dark or an area of darkness
Sentence : The city centre was plunged into darkness by the power cut.
Source : Oxford page
UR : *[#[sly / sla ]Adj + [-ness]Suf #]N
Output: [slyness / sla.ns /]
Meaning : on the sly
Sentence : He drives his mother's cslyness while she's at work.
Source : Oxford page

UR : *[#[fair / fe]Adj + [-ness]Suf #]N


Output: [fairness / fe.ns /]
Meaning : the quality of treating people equally or in a way that is right or
reasonable
Sentence : He had a real sense of fairness and hated injustice.
Source : Oxford page

The Formation of English Nouns with the Suffix hood


UR : *[#[girl]n + [-hood]suf #]N
Output: [girlhood / gl.hd /]
Meaning : old-fashioned
Sentence : She lived in India during her girlhood.
Source : Oxford page
UR : *[#[man]n + [-hood]suf #]N
Output: [manhood / mn.hd/]
Meaning : the state of being a man
Sentence : The story is seen through the eyes of a boy on the verge of
manhood.
Source : Oxford page
UR : *[#[prince]n + [-hood]suf #]N
Output: [princehood / prntshd /]
Meaning : the state of being a prince
Sentence : She acquired the painting at a jumble sale for the princehood
sum of 25p.
Source : Oxford page
UR : *[#[king]n + [-hood]suf #]N
Output: [kinghood / k.hd/]
Meaning : the state of being a king
Sentence : The prospect of kinghood filled her with horror.
Source : Oxford page

UR : *[#[parent]n + [-hood]suf #]N


Output: [parenthood / pe.rnt.hd /]
Meaning : the state of being a parent
Sentence : The prospect of parenthood filled her with horror.
Source : Oxford page

The Formation of English Nouns with the Suffix ance


UR : *[#[avoid]v + [-ance]suf #]N
Output: [avoidance / /v.d n t s/ ]
Meaning : the practice of avoiding something or someone
Sentence : The avoidance of injury is critical to a professional athlete.
Source : Oxford page
UR : *[#[append]v + [-ance]suf #]N
Output: [appendance / pendns /]
Meaning : the end of a piece
Sentence : The appendance a short footnote to the text explaining the
point.
Source : Oxford page
UR : *[#[approve]v + [-ance]suf #]N
Output: [approvance / pruvnts /]
Meaning : showing that you have a positive opinion about something or
someone
Sentence : She gave him an approving smile.
Source : Oxford page
UR : *[#[perform]v + [-ance]suf #]N
Output: [performance / pf.mns]
Meaning : do
Sentence : Some athletes take drugs to improve their performance.
Source : Oxford page

UR : *[#[allow]v + [-ance]suf #]N


Output: [allowance /la. n t s/ ]
Meaning : money that you are given regularly
Sentence : The perks of the job include a company pension scheme and a
generous travel allowance.
Source : Oxford page

The Formation of English Nouns with the Suffix ence


UR :*[#[adhere/adher/]v+[-ence]suf#]N
PR -3 /i//e/ :*[#[/adher/]v+[-ence]suf#]N
PR -57/i///:*[#[/ dhi/]v+[-ence]suf#]N
Output
: [adherence/dhirns/]
Meaning : acts strictly according to rules, beliefs, etc.
Sentence : He was noted for his strict adherence to the rules.
Source : Oxford page
UR : *[#[confer]v + [-ence]suf #]N
Output: [conference / kn.f r. ns /]
Meaning : an event
Sentence : I'm speaking at/attending a conference next week.
Source : Oxford page
UR : *[#[depend]v + [-ence]suf #]N
Output: [dependence / dpen.d ns]
Meaning : continue existing or operating
Sentence : The company needs to reduce its dependence on just one
particular product.
Source : Oxford page
UR : *[#[transfer]v + [-ence]suf #]N
Output: [transference / /trnsf.rns/ ]
Meaning : the process of moving something
Sentence : UN observers were there to ensure the smooth transference of
power.
Source : Oxford page

UR :*[#[reside/rizaid/]v+[-ence]suf#]N
PR -3 /i//e/ :*[#[/rezaid/]v+[-ence]suf#]N
PR -27deletion of /i/ :*[#[/rezad/]v+[-ence]suf#]N
PR -74/a/// :*[#[/rezd/]v+[-ence]suf#]N
Output :[residence/rezdns/]
Meaning : a home
Sentence : the Governor's official residence
Source : Oxford page

The Formation of English Nouns with the Suffix er/-or


UR: * [#[bake]v + [-er]Suf #]N
Output: [baker/be.k r /]
Meaning : a person whose job is to make bread and cakes for sale, or to
sell bread and cakes
Sentence : I see baker
Source : Oxford page
UR : *[#[sprint]v + [-er]Suf #]N
Output: [sprinter / sprn.t r /]
Meaning : very fast run that someone makes when they are in a great hurry
to get somewhere
Sentence : He suddenly broke into (= started) a sprint.
Source : Oxford page
UR : *[#[lose]v + [-er]Suf #]N
Output: [loser/ lu.z r /]
Meaning : a person or team that does not win a game
Sentence : The losers of both games will play each other for third place.
Source : Oxford page
UR : *[#[paint]v + [-er]Suf #]N
Output: [painter / pen.t r / ]
Meaning : someone who paints pictures
Sentence : he is a painter
Source : Oxford page

UR :* [#[clean]v + [-er]Suf #]N


Output :[cleaner/kli.n r /]
Meaning : a person whose job is to clean houses, offices, public places,
etc.
Sentence : Chris has an evening job as an office cleaner.
Source : Oxford page

The Formation of English Nouns with the Suffix ce


UR: * [#[arrest]Adj + [-ce]Suf#]N
Output: [arrestance/rest /]
Meaning : very attractive in a way that attracts a lot of attention
Sentence : an arretance looking woman
Source : Oxford page
UR : *[#[start]Adj + [-ce]Suf#]N
Output: [startce / stt /]
Meaning : the beginning of something
Sentence : We were doubtful about the product's usefulness from the
startce
Source : Oxford page
UR : *[#[elect]Adj + [-ce]Suf#]N
Output: [electance/ lekt /]
Meaning : people who are chosen by God
Sentence : electance people
Source : Oxford page
UR : *[#[rescue]Adj + [-ce]Suf#]N
Output: [rescue / res.kju / ]
Meaning : when someone in a dangerous situation is helped and made safe
Sentence : Lifeboats carry out many rescues every month.
Source : Oxford page

UR: *[#[Dedicate]N + [-ee]Suf#]N


PR-14 Deletion of /e/: [#[Dedicat]N + [-ee]Suf#]N
Output: [dedicate/ ded..ket/ ]
Meaning : to give your energy, time, etc. completely
racial/cultural integration
Sentence : He has dedicated his life to scientific research.
Source : Oxford page

The Formation of English Nouns with the Suffix cy


UR: *[#[excellent]N + [-cy]Suf#]N
PR-14 Deletion of /t/: [#[excellen]N + [-cy]Suf#]N
Output: [Excellency / ek.s l.n t .si ]
Meaning : omeone in an important official position
Sentence : His Excellency will be pleased to see you now.
Source : Oxford page
UR: *[#[Dependent]Adj + [-cy]Suf#]N
PR-14 Deletion of /t/: [#[Dependen]N + [-cy]Suf#]N
Output: [dependency / dpen.d n t .si ]
Meaning : a country which is supported and governed by another country
Sentence : Indonesia dependency attack other country
Source : Oxford page
UR: *[#[Frequent]Adj + [-cy]Suf#]N
PR-14 Deletion of /t/: [#[Frequen]N + [-cy]Suf#]N
Output: [frequency / fri.kwn t .si ]
Meaning : the number of times something happens within a particular
period, or the fact of something happening often or a large number or
times
Sentence : the increasing frequency of terrorist attacks
Source : Oxford page

UR: *[#[Complacent]Adj + [-cy]Suf#]N


PR-14 Deletion of /t/: [#[Complacen]N + [-cy]Suf#]N
Output: [complacency / kmple.s n t .si ]
Meaning : a feeling of calm satisfaction with your own abilities or
situation that prevents you from trying harder
Sentence : There's no room for complacency if we want to stay in this
competition!
Source : Oxford page
UR: *[#[Democrat]N + [-cy]Suf#]N
PR-14 Deletion of /t/: [#[Democra]N + [-cy]Suf#]N
Output: [democracy / dmk.r.si ]
Meaning : the belief in freedom and equality
Sentence : The government has promised to uphold the principles of
democracy.
Source : Oxford page

The Formation of English Nouns with the Suffix al


UR: *[#[music]N + [-al]Suf#]Adj
Output: [musical / mju.z.k l ]
Meaning : related to or connected with music
Sentence : The family all play instruments - they're all very musical.
Source : Oxford page
UR: *[#[function]N + [-al]Suf]Adj
Output: [functional / fk. n. l ]
Meaning : performing a particular operation
Sentence : Is the central heating functional yet?
Source : Oxford page
UR: *[#[organization]N + [-al]Suf#]Adj
Output: [organizational / .g n. a ze. n. l ]
Meaning : managing
Sentence : She is looking for a personal assistant with good organizational
skills .
Source : Oxford page
UR
: *[#[bride]N + [-al]Suf]Adj
PR-52 /i/
//: *[#[braid/]N + [-al]Suf#]Adj
Output : [bridal/br dl/]
Meaning : of a woman about to be married
Sentence : We stayed in the hotel's bridal suite
Source : Oxford page

UR: *[#[optic/aptik/]N + [-al]Suf#]Adj


PR-52 /i/
//: *[#[apt k/]N + [-al]Suf#]Adj
Output : [optical/aptkl/]
Meaning : relating to light or the ability to see
Sentence : an optical microscope
Source : Oxford page

The Formation of English Nouns with the Suffix ee


UR: *[#[arrest]v + [-ee]Suf#]N
Output: [arrestee / resti]
Meaning : charging
Sentence : She was stopped outside the shop and placed/put under arrestee.
Source : Oxford page
UR: *[#[pay]v + [-ee]Suf#]N
Output: [payee / pei ]
Meaning : a person who money is paid to or should be paid to
Sentence : the payee is paying in bank
Source : Oxford page
UR: *[#[dedicate]v + [-ee]Suf#]N
Output: [dedicatee / ded..keti]
Meaning : to give your energy, time, etc
Sentence : dedicatee person
Source : Oxford page
UR
: * [#[rescue]v + [-ee]Suf#]N
Output : [rescuee/res.kjui /]
Meaning : someone in a dangerous situation is helped and made safe
Sentence : she becomes rescuee
Source : Oxford page

UR: *[#[elect]v + [-ee]Suf#]N


Output : [electee/ lekti /]
Meaning : people
Sentence : I saw an electee
Source : Oxford page

The Formation of English Nouns with the Suffix an


UR
:*[#[India/India/]N+[-an]suf#]N
PR -21 deletion of // :*[#[/Indi /]v+[-an]suf#]N
Output
: [Indian/ indin]
Meaning : a person from India
Sentence : I see an indian
Source : Oxford page
UR
:*[#[magic]N + [-an]suf #]N
PR -21 deletion of // :*[#[/ md.k ]v+[-an]suf#]N
Output
: [magician / md. n /]
Meaning : a person who has magic powers in stories
Sentence : There'll be a magician at the kids' Christmas party.
Source : Oxford page
UR
:*[#[Germany/Germany/]N+[-an]suf#]N
PR -21 deletion of // :*[#[/german]v+[-an]suf#]N
Output
: [ Germanian / Germanin]
Meaning : German people
Sentence : germanian is polite
Source : Oxford page
UR
: *[#[Africa]N + [-an]suf #]N
PR -21 deletion of // :*[#[/ f.r.k ]v+[-an]suf#]N
Output
: [african /f.r.kn ]
Meaning : someone from Africa
Sentence : African is black
Source : Oxford page

UR
:*[#[Canada/Canada/]N+[-an]suf#]N
PR -21 deletion of // :*[#[/Cnad]v+[-an]suf#]N
Output
: [Canadian / Canadin]
Meaning : a person from canada
Sentence : Canadian move to Scotland
Source : Oxford page

The Formation of English Nouns with the Suffix ism


UR
: *[#[Agnostic]Adj + [-ism]suf #]N
Output
: [agnosticism/ gns.t.s.z m/ ]
Meaning : religious belief
Sentence : she is an agnosticism
Source : Oxford page
UR
: *[#[bilingual]N + [-ism]suf #]N
Output
: [bilingualism / bal.gw l.z m /]
Meaning : communication
Sentence : she knows bilingualism
Source : Oxford page
UR
: *[#[behavior]Adj + [-ism]suf #]N
Output
: [ behaviorism /bhe.vj.r.z m ]
Meaning : the theory that the study of the human mind should be based on
people's actions and behaviour
Sentence : I study about behaviorism
Source : Oxford page
UR
: *[#[capital]N + [-ism]suf #]N
Output
: [capitalism /kp..t l..z m ]
Meaning : making the greatest possible profits for successful organizations
and people
Sentence : someone who supports capitalism
Source : Oxford page

UR
: *[#[alcohol]N + [-ism]suf #]N
Output
: [alcoholism /l.k.hl..z m ]
Meaning : the condition of being an alcoholic
Sentence : Alcoholism cost me my job, my health and finally my family.
Source : Oxford page

The Formation of English Nouns with the Suffix ist


UR
:*[#[Philology/philolji/]N+[-ist]suf#]N
PR -27 deletion of /i/ :*[#[/philolj /]N+[-ist]suf#]N
Output
: [Philologist/ philoljist]
Meaning : the study of language
Sentence : philologist is importan in our life
Source : Oxford page
UR
: *[#[guitar]N + [-ist]suf #]N
Output
: [guitarist / gt.rst /]
Meaning : a person who plays the guitar
Sentence : I am guitarust
Source : Oxford page
UR
: *[#[novel]N + [-ist]suf #]N
Output
: [ novelist /nv. l.st ]
Meaning : a person who writes novels
Sentence : radit is novelist
Source : Oxford page
UR
: *[#[research]N + [-ist]suf #]N
Output
: [researchist /rstst ]
Meaning : a person who do researche
Sentence : researhist is interesting
Source : Oxford page

UR
:*[#[cosmology/cosmolji/]N+[-ist]suf#]N
PR -27 deletion of /i/ :*[#[/cosmolj/]N+[-ist]suf#]N
Output
: [Cosmologist/ cosmoljist]
Meaning : the study of the nature and origin of the universe
Sentence : she is studying cosmologist
Source : Oxford page

The Formation of English Nouns with the Suffix acy


UR
:*[#[accurate/kjrt/]Adj+[-acy]suf#]N
PR -27 deletion of ate :*[#[accur]N+[-acy]suf#]N
Output
: [accuracy / k.j.r.si ]
Meaning : being exact or correct
Sentence : We can predict changes with a surprising degree of accuracy.
Source : Oxford page
UR
:*[#[diplomat/diplmsi]Adj+[-acy]suf#]N
PR -27 deletion of at :*[#[diploma]N+[-acy]suf#]N
Output
: [diplomacy / dpl.m.si ]
Meaning : the management of relationships between countries
Sentence : Diplomacy has so far failed to bring an end to the fighting.
Source : Oxford page
UR
:*[#[private/praivit/]Adj+[-acy]suf#]N
PR -27 deletion of ate :*[#[priva]N+[-acy]suf#]N
Output
: [Privacy / prv..si ]
Meaning : someone's right to keep their personal matters and relationships
secret
Sentence : The new law is designed to protect people's privacy.
Source : Oxford page
UR
:*[#[democrat/dmkrt/]Adj+[-acy]suf#]N
PR -27 deletion of at :*[#[democr]N+[-acy]suf#]N
Output
: [democracy / dmk.r.si ]
Meaning : a country in which power is held by elected representatives
Sentence : The government has promised to uphold the principles of
democracy.
Source : Oxford page

UR
:*[#[candidate/kndidt/]Adj+[-acy]suf#]N
PR -27 deletion of ate :*[#[candi]N+[-acy]suf#]N
Output
: [candidacy / kn.d.d.si ]
Meaning : the fact of being a candidate
Sentence : She is expected to announce officially her candidacy for
president early next week.
Source : Oxford page

The Formation of English Nouns with the Suffix age


UR
:* [#[advent]N + [-age]suf #]N
Output
: [advantage / dvn.td ]
Meaning : condition giving a greater chance of success
Sentence : The advantage of book ing tickets in advance is that you get
better seats.
Source : Oxford page
UR
:* [#[foot]N + [-age]suf #]N
Output
: [footage / ft.d ]
Meaning : film especially one showing an event
Sentence : Woody Allen's film 'Zelig' contains early newsreel footage.
Source : Oxford page
UR
:* [#[carry]N + [-age]suf #]N
Output
: [carriage / kr.d ]
Meaning : a vehicle with four wheels
Sentence : a horse-drawn carriage
Source : Oxford page
UR
:* [#[marry]N + [-age]suf #]N
Output
: [marriage / mr.d ]
Meaning : a legally accepted relationship between a woman and a man in
which they live as husband and wife, or the official ceremony which
results in this
Sentence : They had a long and happy marriage.
Source : Oxford page

UR
:* [#[dress]N + [-age]suf #]N
Output
: [dressage / dres. ]
Meaning the training of a horse to perform special
Sentence : a dressage competition
Source : Oxford page

The Formation of English Nouns with the Suffix dom


UR
:* [#[clerk]V + [-dom]suf #]N
Output
: [clerkdom /klk dm ]
Meaning : a person who works in an office
Sentence : I see a clerkdom
Source : Oxford page
UR
:* [#[chief]V + [-dom]suf #]N
Output
: [chiefdom / tif dm ]
Meaning : chief
Sentence : social is chiefdoms
Source : Oxford page
UR
:* [#[love]V + [-dom]suf #]N
Output
: [lovedom / lvdm]
Meaning : love
Sentence : they are lovedom
Source : Oxford page
UR
:* [#[Kaiser]V + [-dom]suf #]N
Output
: [kaiserdom / ka.zen dm]
Meaning : kaiser
Sentence : kaiserdom in romawi
Source : Oxford page
UR
:* [#[christen]V + [-dom]suf #]N
Output
: [christendom / krs. n.dm ]
Meaning : crostini
Sentence : crunch need christendom
Source : Oxford page

The Formation of English Nouns with the Suffix ry / -ery


UR
:* [#[laund]adj + [-ry]suf #]N
Output
: [laundry /ln.dri ]
Meaning : the dirty clothes and sheets which need to be, are being or have
been washed
Sentence : I've got to do (= wash) my laundry.
Source : Oxford page
UR
:* [#[midwife]adj + [-ry]suf #]N
Output
: [midwifery / mdwf. r.i ]
Meaning : At nursing college
Sentence : she specialized in midwifery.
Source : Oxford page
UR
:* [#[bake]adj + [-ry]suf #]N
Output
: [bakery /be.k r.i ]
Meaning : a place where bread and cakes are made and sometimes sold
Sentence : I go to bakery
Source : Oxford page
UR
:* [#[pedant]adj + [-ry]suf #]N
Output
: [pedantry / ped. n.tri ]
Meaning : wanting everything to be right
Sentence : There was a hint of pedantry in his elegant style of speaking.
Source : Oxford page

UR
:* [#[fish]adj + [-ery]suf #]N
Output
: [fishery / f. r.i ]
Meaning : an area of water where fish are caught so they can be sold an
offshore fishery
Sentence : bayam beach is good fishery
Source : Oxford page

The Formation of English Nouns with the Suffix ure


UR
:* [#[erase]V + [-ure]suf #]N
Output
: [erasure / re. r ]
Meaning : removing
Sentence : the nuclear erasure of entire populations
Source : Oxford page
UR
:* [#[end]V + [-ure]suf #]N
Output
: [endure / ndj r ]
Meaning : tolerating
Sentence : We had to endure a nine-hour delay at the airport.
Source : Oxford page
UR
:* [#[advent]V + [-ure]suf #]N
Output
: [adventure / dven.t r ]
Meaning : journey
Sentence : She had some exciting adventure in Egypt.
Source : Oxford page
UR
:* [#[expose]V + [-ure]suf #]N
Output
: [exposure / ksp. r]
Meaning : someone experiences something
Sentence : You should always limit your exposure
Source : Oxford page

UR
:* [#[architect]V + [-ure]suf #]N
Output
: [architecture/ .k.tek.t r ]
Meaning : a person job
Sentence : the art and science of designing and making buildings
to study architecture
Source : Oxford page

The Formation of English Nouns with the Suffix y


UR
:* [#[salt]V + [-y]suf #]N
Output
: [salty /sl.ti ]
Meaning : tasting of salt
Sentence : This bacon is too salty for me.
Source : Oxford page
UR
:* [#[girl]V + [-y]suf #]N
Output
: [ girly /g.li ]
Meaning : a girl
Sentence : the girly is beauty
Source : Oxford page
UR
:* [#[toast]V + [-y]suf #]N
Output
: [toasty / t.sti ]
Meaning : snack
Sentence : tuna toasty
Source : Oxford page
UR
:* [#[orator]V + [-y]suf #]N
Output
: [oratory /r..t r.i/ ]
Meaning : skilful and effective public speaking
Sentence : The prime minister has a reputation for powerful oratory.
Source : Oxford page

UR
:* [#[jump]V + [-y]suf #]N
Output
: [jumpy/ dm.pi ]
Meaning : nervous and worried, especially because you are frightened or
guilty
Sentence : My mother gets very jumpy when she's alone in the house
Source : Oxford page

The Formation of English Nouns with the Suffix ing


UR
:* [#[wait]V + [-ing]suf #]N
Output
: [waiting /we.t ]
Meaning : (of a person) waiting or expecting to be given the authority, job
or power named
Sentence : The press has identified several government ministers-inwaiting
Source : Oxford page
UR
:* [#[walk]V + [-ing]suf #]N
Output
: [ walking /w.k ]
Meaning : do
Sentence : walking is good for our health
Source : Oxford page
UR
:* [#[write]V + [-ing]suf #]N
Output
: [writing/ ra.t/ ]
Meaning : do
Sentence : writing is my hobby
Source : Oxford page
UR
:* [#[hold]V + [-ing]suf #]N
Output
: [holding / hl.d ]
Meaning : do
Sentence : holding is feeling something good
Source : Oxford page

UR
:* [#[read]V + [-ing]suf #]N
Output
: [reading/ri.d ]
Meaning : do
Sentence : reading is not interesting for me
Source : Oxford page

The Formation of English Nouns with the Suffix th


UR
:* [#[hundred]N + [-th]suf #]N
Output
: [hundredth /sl.ti ]
Meaning : ordinal number
Sentence : so1991 was the two hundredth anniversary of Mozart's death.
Source : Oxford page
UR
:* [#[we]N + [-th]suf #]N
Output
: [ weth /g.li ]
Meaning : racial
Sentence : the weth of interesting
Source : Oxford page
UR
:* [#[steal]N + [-th]suf #]N
Output
: [stealth/ t.sti ]
Meaning : movement
Sentence : The weapons had been acquired by stealth.
Source : Oxford page
UR
:* [#[ear]N + [-th]suf #]N
Output
: [earth /r..t r.i/ ]
Meaning : groud
Sentence : You could get a nasty shock from that water heater if it isn't
earthed properly.
Source : Oxford page

UR
:* [#[seven]N + [-th]suf #]N
Output
: [seventh/ dm.pi ]
Meaning : ordinal number
Sentence : It's the seventh (of May) today.
Source : Oxford page

THE FORMATION OF ENGLISH VERBS THROUGH DERIVATION

The Formation of English verbs with the Suffix ate


[#[Decor] adj + [-ate]suf#]V
Output : [Decorate]
Meaning : make something more attractive by putting things on it
Sentence : I decorate my room
Source: Oxford Learner`s Pocket Dictionary, Fourth Edition.
[#[Urine]N + [-ate]suf#]V
Output : [Urinate]
Meaning : Pass urine from the body
Sentence : He urinate in the WC
Source: Oxford Learner`s Pocket Dictionary, Fourth Edition.
[#[Invalid] adj + [-ate]suf#]V
Output : [Invalidate]
Meaning : Prove that something is wrong
Sentence : My supervisor ask me to invalidate my thesis
Source: Oxford Learner`s Pocket Dictionary, Fourth Edition.
[#[Frustated]adj. + [-ate]suf#]V
Output : [Frustrate ]
Meaning : make somebody feel annoyed
Sentence: She frustrate me
Source: Oxford Learner`s Pocket Dictionary, Fourth Edition.

[#[Formula]adj + [-ate]suf#]V
Output : [ Formulate]
Meaning: Create or prepare something carefully
Sentence: The Chef formulate the ingredients
Source: Oxford Learner`s Pocket Dictionary, Fourth Edition.

The Formation of English verbs with the Suffix en


[#[Awake]adj + [-en ]suf#]V
Output :[Awaken]
Meaning : cause somebody to wake up
Sentence : My mom awaken me
Source: Oxford Learner`s Pocket Dictionary, Fourth Edition.
[#[Short]adj + [-en]suf#] V
Output : [Shorten]
Meaning : Cause something to become shorter
Sentence : The host shorten the event
Source: Oxford Learner`s Pocket Dictionary, Fourth Edition.
[#[ Light] adj+ [-en]suf#]V
Output : [Lighten]
Meaning : Reduce the amount of work, debt, worry,etc.
Sentence : He lighten me up
Source: Oxford Learner`s Pocket Dictionary, Fourth Edition.
[#[Weak]adj + [-en]suf#]V
Output : [Weaken]
Meaning : make something weak
Sentence : It weaken the drink
Source: Oxford Learner`s Pocket Dictionary, Fourth Edition.

[#[Quick]adj + [-en]suf#]V
Output : [Quicken]
Meaning :make something quicker
Sentence : The host quicken the event
Source: Oxford Learner`s Pocket Dictionary, Fourth Edition.

The Formation of English Verbs with the Suffix fy


[#[Glory]N+ [-fy]suf#]V
Output : [Glorify]
Meaning : make something seem better
Sentence : The manager glorify his performance
Source: Oxford Learner`s Pocket Dictionary, Fourth Edition.
[#[Simple]N + [-fy]suf#]V
Output : [Simplify ]
Meaning : make it simple
Sentence : They simplify the problems
Source: Oxford Learner`s Pocket Dictionary, Fourth Edition.
[#[Example]N + [-fy]suf#]V
Output : [Exemplify]
Meaning : giving example to help someone
Sentence : His manner exemplify his breeding
Source: Oxford Learner`s Pocket Dictionary, Fourth Edition.
[#[Test]N + [-fy]suf#]V
Output : [Testify ]
Meaning : giving weakness
Sentence : She testify in my favor
Source: Oxford Learner`s Pocket Dictionary, Fourth Edition.

[#[Note]N + [-fy]suf#]V
Output :[Notify ]
Meaning : Inform something
Sentence : I notify you
Source: Oxford Learner`s Pocket Dictionary, Fourth Edition.

The Formation of English Verbs with the Suffix ize


[#[Glamor]adj + [-ize]suf#]V
Output : [Glamorize ]
Meaning : make something bad seem attractive and exciting
Sentence : Her performance glamorize the audience
Source: Oxford Learner`s Pocket Dictionary, Fourth Edition.
[#[Hospital]N+ [-ize]suf#]V
Output : [Hospitalize]
Meaning : Send somebody to hospital for treatmenr
Sentence : She hospitalize her cousin
Source: Oxford Learner`s Pocket Dictionary, Fourth Edition.
[#[Central]N + [-ize]suf#]V
Output : [Centralize]
Meaning : cause something to come under the control
Sentence: The Owner centralize the shopping in the town hall
Source: Oxford Learner`s Pocket Dictionary, Fourth Edition.
[#[Individual]N+ [-ize]suf#]V
Output : [Individualize]
Meaning : to make something different to suit the needs of a particular
person or thing
Sentence : She try to individualize childrens learning
Source: Oxford Learner`s Pocket Dictionary, Fourth Edition

[#[Fossil]N + [-ize]suf#]V
Output : [Fossilize]
Meaning : cause something to become fossil
Sentence : The expert fossilize the plant
Source: Oxford Learner`s Pocket Dictionary, Fourth Edition.

The Formation of English Verbs with the Prefix en


[# [en-]pref + [Force]N#]V
Output : [Enforce]
Meaning : force people to obey a law
Sentence : He really try to enforce the law
Source: Oxford Learner`s Pocket Dictionary, Fourth Edition.
[# [-en]pref + [Quire]N#]V
Output : [Enquire]
Meaning : to ask somebody for some information
Sentence : I called the station to enquire about train times.
Source: Oxford Learner`s Pocket Dictionary, Fourth Edition.
[# [-en]pref + [Act]N#]V
Output : [Enact]
Meaning : to pass a law
Sentence : The legislation enact the parliament
Source: Oxford Learner`s Pocket Dictionary, Fourth Edition.
[#[-en]pref + [Trap]N#]V
Output : [Entrap ]
Meaning : to put or catch somebody in a place or situation from which
they cannot escape
Sentence : They entrap the thief in the house
Source: Oxford Learner`s Pocket Dictionary, Fourth Edition

[# [En]pref + [Lighten]N#]V
Output : [Enlighten]
Meaning : to give somebody information so that they understand
something better
Sentence : She didnt enlighten him about her background
Source: Oxford Learner`s Pocket Dictionary, Fourth Edition.

The Formation of English Verbs with the Prefix auto


[# [-auto]pref + [Mate]v#]V
Output : [Automate]
Meaning : to use machines and computers instead of people to do job or
task
Sentence : The factory is now fully aotomated
Source: Oxford Learner`s Pocket Dictionary, Fourth Edition.
[#[-auto] suf + [Focus]v#]V
Output : [Autofocus]
Meaning : centre of interest
Sentence : The students autofocus about their subject
Source: Oxford Learner`s Pocket Dictionary, Fourth Edition.
[#[-auto ] + [Load]v#]V
Output [Autoload]
Meaning : to thing that is carried by person automatically
Sentence : The driver autoload that thing
Source: Oxford Learner`s Pocket Dictionary, Fourth Edition.
[#[Auto] pref + [Graft]v#]V
Output : [Autograft]
Meaning : attach something to something else as a graft
Sentence : The owner autograft the shop
Source: Oxford Learner`s Pocket Dictionary, Fourth Edition.

[#[-auto]pref + [Suggest]v#]V
Output : [Autosuggest]
Meaning : to give an idea or plan
Sentence : The suvervisor autoplan their employee
Source: Oxford Learner`s Pocket Dictionary, Fourth Edition.

The Formation of English Verbs with the Prefix dis


[#[-dis]pref + [Cover]v#]V
Output : [Discover]
Meaning : find or learn about something for the first time
Sentence : He discover his wallet
Source: Oxford Learner`s Pocket Dictionary, Fourth Edition.
[#[-dis]pref + [Play]v#] V
Output : [Display]
Meaning : show of
Sentence : She displays her own latest fashion.
Source: Oxford Learner`s Pocket Dictionary, Fourth Edition.
[#[-dis]pref + [Like]v#]V
Output : [Dislike]
Meaning : not like something
Sentence : I dislike the arrogant person
Source: Oxford Learner`s Pocket Dictionary, Fourth Edition.
[#[-dis]pref + [Respect]v#]V
Output : [Disrespect]
Meaning : not to pay attention
Sentence : They disrespect to their lecturer
Source: Oxford Learner`s Pocket Dictionary, Fourth Edition.
[#[-dis]pref + [Miss]v#] V
Output : [Dismiss]
Meaning : decide that something is not important
Sentence : She was dismissed from her job
Source: Oxford Learner`s Pocket Dictionary, Fourth Edition.

The Formation of English Verbs with the Prefix fore


[#[-fore]pref + [Thought]v#]V
Output : [Forthought]
Meaning : the thinking before
Sentence : She really forethought about her life.
Source: Oxford Learner`s Pocket Dictionary, Fourth Edition.
[#[-fore]pref + [Word]#]V
Output : [Foreword]
Meaning : pre issue
Sentence : The presenter foreword the news
Source: Oxford Learner`s Pocket Dictionary, Fourth Edition.
[#[-fore]pref + [Sight]v#]V
Output : [Foresight]
Meaning : the goal in the future
Sentence : They foresight about their study
Source: Oxford Learner`s Pocket Dictionary, Fourth Edition.
[#[-fore]pref + [Cast]v#]V
Output : [Forecast]
Meaning : to predict
Sentence : The shaman predict the girl future
Source: Oxford Learner`s Pocket Dictionary, Fourth Edition.
[#[-fore]pref + [Front]v#]V
Output : [Forefront]
Meaning : to stand in the future
Sentence : The seller forefront their costumer.
Source: Oxford Learner`s Pocket Dictionary, Fourth Edition.

The Formation of English Verbs with the Prefix inter


[#[-inter]pref + [act]v#]V
Output : [Interact]
Meaning : have an effect on each other of people
Sentence : They interact one another
Source: Oxford Learner`s Pocket Dictionary, Fourth Edition.
[#[-inter]pref + [Marry]v#]V
Output : [Intermarry]
Meaning : married to married
Sentence : Their cousins intermarry one another
Source: Oxford Learner`s Pocket Dictionary, Fourth Edition.
[#[-inter]pref + [change] v#] V
Output : [Interchange]
Meaning : cause two people or things to change places with each other
Sentence : We interchange one another
Source: Oxford Learner`s Pocket Dictionary, Fourth Edition.
[#[-inter]pref + [View]v#]V
Output : [Interview]
Meaning : to ask something
Sentence : I interview the foreigner
Source: Oxford Learner`s Pocket Dictionary, Fourth Edition.
[#[-inter]pref + [Lace]v#]V
Output : [Interlace]
Meaning : to communicate
Sentence : Indonesian students interlace with foreign students
Source: Oxford Learner`s Pocket Dictionary, Fourth Edition.

The Formation of English Verbs with the Prefixmis


[#[-mis]pref + [Use]v#]V
Output : [Misuse]
Meaning : use something in the wrong way
Sentence : we misuse our lecturer belief
Source: Oxford Learner`s Pocket Dictionary, Fourth Edition.
[#[-mis]pref + [spend]v#]V
Output : [Misspend]
Meaning : spend time or money carelessly
Sentence : He misspend his youth
Source: Oxford Learner`s Pocket Dictionary, Fourth Edition.
[#[-mis]pref+[Understand]v#]V
Output : [Misunderstand]
Meaning : fail to understand something correctly
Sentence : She misunderstand about the news
Source: Oxford Learner`s Pocket Dictionary, Fourth Edition.
[#[-mis]pref + [trust]v#]V
Output : [Mistrust]
Meaning : have no confidence in somebody
Sentence : My cousin mistrust with his brother
Source: Oxford Learner`s Pocket Dictionary, Fourth Edition.
[#[-mis]pref + [spell]v#]V
Output : [Misspell]
Meaning : spell a word wrongly
Sentence : They misspell my name
Source: Oxford Learner`s Pocket Dictionary, Fourth Edition.

The Formation of English Verbs with the Prefix re


[#[-re]pref + [Collect] v#]V
Output : [Recollect ]
Meaning : remember something
Sentence : My Dad recollect about his memory with my mom
Source: Oxford Learner`s Pocket Dictionary, Fourth Edition.
[#[-re]pref + [View]v#]V
Output : [Review]
Meaning : consider or examine something again
Sentence : The director review the employees work
Source: Oxford Learner`s Pocket Dictionary, Fourth Edition.
[#[-re]pref + [Cover]v#]V
Output : [Recover]
Meaning : get back something lost or stolen
Sentence : Prices recover slightly
Source: Oxford Learner`s Pocket Dictionary, Fourth Edition.
[#[-re] pref + [Tell]v#]V
Output : [Retell]
Meaning : to say something back
Sentence : The students retell the story
Source: Oxford Learner`s Pocket Dictionary, Fourth Edition.
[#[-re]pref + [Serve]v#] V
Output : [Reserve]
Meaning : to order or to prepare
Sentence : They reserve breakfast
Source: Oxford Learner`s Pocket Dictionary, Fourth Edition.

The Formation of English Verbs with the Prefix un


[#[-un]pref + [Cover]v#]V
Output : [Uncover]
Meaning : remove something that covering something
Sentence : The government uncover the terorist
Source: Oxford Learner`s Pocket Dictionary, Fourth Edition.
[#[-un]pref + [burden]v#]V
Output : [Unburden]
Meaning : to express his bad feeling
Sentence : Deny unburden his problems
Source: Oxford Learner`s Pocket Dictionary, Fourth Edition.
[#[-un]pref + [bend]v#]V
Output : [Unbend]
Meaning : to give it clear
Sentence : The Actress unbend the gossip
Source: Oxford Learner`s Pocket Dictionary, Fourth Edition.
[#[-un]pref+[cork]v#] V
Output :[Uncork]
Meaning : to open something stuck
Sentence : He uncork the bottle
Source: Oxford Learner`s Pocket Dictionary, Fourth Edition.
[#[-un]pref + [button]v#]V
Output : [Unbutton]
Meaning : take of the button
Sentence : My child unbutton his clothes
Source: Oxford Learner`s Pocket Dictionary, Fourth Edition.

THE FORMATION OF ENGLISH ADJECTIVES THROUGH


DERIVATION

The Formation of English Adjectives with the Suffix al


*[#[brute]N + [-al]suf#]Ad
= [brutal ]/ /bru.t l/
Meaning
: cruel, violent and completely without feelings
Example
: He had presided over a brutal regime in which thousands
of people had 'disappeared'.
Source
: Cambridge Advanced learners dictionary 3rd edition 51
*[#[conversation]N + [-al]suf#]Adj
= [conversational ] /kn.vse. n. l/
Meaning
: relating to or like a conversation
Example
: a conversational style of writing
Source
: Cambridge Advanced learners dictionary 3rd edition 95
*[#[education]N + [-al]suf#]Adj
= [educational]/ /ed.jke. n. l/
Meaning
: providing education or relating to education
Example
: Reducing the size of classes may improve educational
standards.
Source
: Cambridge Advanced learners dictionary 3rd edition
142
*[#[government]N + [-al]suf#]Adj
= [governmental]/gv. m m en.t l/
Meaning
: belonging or relating to government or the government
Example
: We await a governmental decision about the future of the
programme.
Source
: Cambridge Advanced learners dictionary 3rd edition
191

*[#[institution]N + [-al]suf#]Adj
= [institutional]/ /n t .sttju. n. l/
Meaning
: relating to an institution
Example
: The hospital provides typically awful institutional food
Source
: Cambridge Advanced learners dictionary 3rd edition
231

The Formation of English Adjectives with the Suffix-able


*[#[count] + [-able]suf#]Adj
= [countable]/ /kan.t.bl/
Meaning
: a countable noun can be used with 'a' or 'an' and can be
made plural
Example
: An example of a countable noun is 'table', and an
example of an uncountable noun is 'money'.
Source
: Cambridge Advanced learners dictionary 3rd edition 99
*[#[detach] + [-able]suf#]Adj
=[detachable] /dtt..bl/
Meaning
: able to be detached
Example
: a detachable collar/hood
Source
: Cambridge Advanced learners dictionary 3rd edition
121
*[#[eat] + [-able]suf#]Adj
=
[eatable] /i.t.bl/
Meaning
: describes food that is good enough to eat, though not
excellent
Example
: the apple in the refrigerator is eatable
Source
: Cambridge Advanced learners dictionary 3rd edition
141
*[#[enjoy] + [-able]suf#]Adj
=[enjoyable]/ /nd..bl/
Meaning
: An enjoyable event or experience gives you pleasure
Example
: a very enjoyable game/film
Source
: Cambridge Advanced learners dictionary 3rd edition
147

*[#[forgive] + [-able]suf#]Adj
= [forgivable] /fgv..bl/
Meaning
: describes something that you are able to forgive because
you understand it
Example
: a forgivable mistake
Source
: Cambridge Advanced learners dictionary 3rd edition
173

The Formation of English Adjectives with the suffix ary


[#[parliament]n + [-ary]suf#]adj
= [parliamentary] /p.lmen.t r.i/
Meaning
: of or relating to a parliament
Example
: a parliamentary candidate/debate/election/session
parliamentary procedures/rules
Source
: Cambridge Advanced learners dictionary 3rd edition
319
[#[budget]n + [-ary]suf#]adj
=[budgetary] /bd..tri/
Meaning
: budgetary constraints
Example
: my car is budgetary to be sold
Source
: Cambridge Advanced learners dictionary 3rd edition 53
[#[planet]n + [-ary]suf#]adj
planetary] /pln..t r.i/
Meaning
: relating to planets
Example
: planetary science/motion
Source
: Cambridge Advanced learners dictionary 3rd edition
335
[#[reaction]n + [-ary]suf#]adj
= [reactionary] /rik. n. r.i/
Meaning
: a person who is opposed to political or social change or
new ideas
Example
: Reactionaries are preventing reforms
Source
: Cambridge Advanced learners dictionary 3rd edition
365

[#[station]n + [-ary]suf#]adj
= [stationary] /ste. n. r.i/
Meaning
: not moving, or not changing
Example
: a stationary car/train
Source
: Cambridge Advanced learners dictionary 3rd edition
431

The Formation of English Adjectives with the Suffix ed


[#[attach]v + [-ed]suf#]adj
= [attached] /ttt/
Meaning
: to like someone or something very much
Example
: The children are very attached to their grandparents.
Source
: Cambridge Advanced learners dictionary 3rd edition 24
[#[collect]v + [-ed]suf#]adj
= [collected] /klek.td/
Meaning
: brought together in one book or series of books
Example
: His collected poems were published in 1928
Source
: Cambridge Advanced learners dictionary 3rd edition 81
[#[commit]v + [-ed]suf#]adj
=[committed] /kmt.d/
Meaning
: loyal and willing to give your time and energy to
something that you believe in
Example
: a committed socialist/Christian/teacher
Source
: Cambridge Advanced learners dictionary 3rd edition 83
[#[elevate]v + [-ed]suf#]adj
= [elevated] /el..ve.td/
Meaning
: high or important
Example
: She holds a more elevated position in the company
Source
: Cambridge Advanced learners dictionary 3rd edition
144

[#[embarrass]v + [-ed]suf#]ad
j=[embarrassed]/ /mbr.st/
Meaning
: feeling ashamed or shy
Example
: She felt embarrassed about undressing in front of the
doctor.
Source
: Cambridge Advanced learners dictionary 3rd edition
145

The Formation of English Adjectives with the Suffix ic


*[#[aesthete]N + [-ic]Suf#]Adj
= [aesthetic]/ /eset.k/
Meaning
: relating to the enjoyment or study of beauty
Example
: The new building has little aesthetic value/appeal.
Source
: Cambridge Advanced learners dictionary 3rd edition
[#[acrobat] N + [-ic]Suf#]Adj
=[acrobatic]/ /k.rbt.k/
Meaning
: involving or able to perform difficult and attractive body
movements
Example
: an acrobatic leap into the air
Source
: Cambridge Advanced learners dictionary 3rd edition 3
[#[alcohol] N + [-ic]Suf#]Adj
= [alcoholic]/ /l.khl.k/
Meaning
: containing alcohol
Example
: Could I have something non-alcoholic, like orange juice,
please?
Source
: Cambridge Advanced learners dictionary 3rd edition 11
[# [antagonist] N + [ic]Suf#]Adj
=[ antagonistic] /ntg.ns.tk/
Meaning
: actively opposing or showing unfriendliness towards
something or someone
Example
: He's extremely antagonistic towards all critics.
Source
: Cambridge Advanced learners dictionary 3rd edition 14

[# [artist] N + [-ic]Suf#]Adj
=[artistic] /ts.tk/
Meaning
: relating to art
Example
: the artistic director of the theatre
Source
: Cambridge Advanced learners dictionary 3rd edition 19

The Formation of English Adjectives with the Suffix ing


[# [abide]V + [-ing]Suf#]Adj
=[abiding] /ba.d/
Meaning
: describes a feeling or memory that you have for a long
time
Example
: My abiding memory is of him watering his plants in the
garden.
Source
: Cambridge Advanced learners dictionary 3rd edition 1
[# [absorb] V + [-ing]Suf#]Adj
=[absorbing] /bz.b/
Meaning
: describes something that is very interesting and keeps
your attention
Example
: I read her last novel and found it very absorbing.
Source
: Cambridge Advanced learners dictionary 3rd edition
[# [adjoin] V + [-ing]Suf#]Adj
=[adjoining] /d.n/
Meaning
: near, next to, or touching
Example
: We asked for adjoining rooms.
Source
: Cambridge Advanced learners dictionary 3rd edition 5
[# [baffle] V + [-ing]Suf#]Adj
= [baffling] /bf.l/
Meaning
:confusing, feeling confused
Example
: I found what he was saying completely baffling
Source
: Cambridge Advanced learners dictionary 3rd edition 29

[# [become] V + [-ing]Suf#]Adj
=[becoming] /bkm./
Meaning
: describes something attractive that suits the person
wearing or doing it
Example
: That's a most becoming dress, my dear
Source
: Cambridge Advanced learners dictionary 3rd edition 33

The Formation of English Adjectives with the Suffix ive


*[#[affirm]V + [-ive]Suf#] Adj
=[affirmative] /f.m.tv/
Meaning
: relating to a statement that shows agreement or says 'yes'
Example
: an affirmative answer/response
Source
: Cambridge Advanced learners dictionary 3rd edition 7
[#[collect]V + [-ive]Suf#]Adj
=[collective] /klek.tv/
Meaning
: of or shared by every member of a group of people
Example
: a collective decision/effort
Source
: Cambridge Advanced learners dictionary 3rd edition 71
[#[conduct]V + [-ive]Suf#]Adj
=[conductive] /kndk.tv/
Meaning
: describes a substance that allows heat or electricity to go
through it
Example
: Aluminium is a conductive metal
Source
: Cambridge Advanced learners dictionary 3rd edition 87
[#[correct]V + [-ive]Suf#]Adj
=[corrective] /krek.tv/
Meaning
: intended to improve a situation
Example
: corrective measures/action
Source
: Cambridge Advanced learners dictionary 3rd edition 71

[#[defect]V + [-ive]Suf#]Adj
=[defective] /dfek.tv/
Meaning
: describes something that has a fault in it and does not
work correctly
Example
: defective brakes
Source
: Cambridge Advanced learners dictionary 3rd edition
113

The Formation of English Adjectives with the Suffix ish


[#[baby]N + [-ish]Suf#] Adj
=[babyish] /be.bi./
Meaning
: only suitable for a baby
Example
: The older children found the toys too babyish.
Source
: Cambridge Advanced learners dictionary 3rd edition 31
[#[ghoul]N + [-ish]Suf#]Adj
= [ghoulish] /gu.l/
Meaning
: ugly and unpleasant, or frightening
Example
: ghoulish faces
Source
: Cambridge Advanced learners dictionary 3rd edition
185
[#[imp]N + [-ish]Suf#] Adj
=[impish] /m.p/
Meaning
: showing a child's pleasure in being playful and making
trouble
Example
: At seventy, he still retains his impish grin.
Source
: Cambridge Advanced learners dictionary 3rd edition
221
[#[kitten]N + [-ish]Suf#] Adj
=[kittenish] /kt. n./
Meaning
: describes a woman who behaves in a playful, silly way,
especially as a way of attracting sexual attention
Example
: I like the woman who is kittenish
Source
: Cambridge Advanced learners dictionary 3rd edition
243

[#[oaf]N + [-ish]Suf#] Adj


=[oafish] /.f/
Meaning
: like or typical of an oaf; (of a person, especially a man)
stupid, rude or awkward
Example
: oafish behaviour
Source
: Cambridge Advanced learners dictionary 3rd edition
300

The Formation of English Adjectives with the Suffix ful


[#[art]n + [-ful]suf#]adj
= [artful] /t.f l/
Meaning
: clever and skilful, especially in getting what you want
Example
: He has shown himself to be an artful politician
Source
: Cambridge Advanced learners dictionary 3rd edition 19
[#[beauty]n + [-ful]suf#]adj
=[beautiful] /bju.t.f l/
Meaning
: very attractive
Example
: breathtakingly beautiful scenery
Source
: Cambridge Advanced learners dictionary 3rd edition 33
[#[right]n + [-ful]suf#]adj
=[rightful] /rat.f l/
Meaning
: A rightful position or claim is one which is morally or
legally correct
Example
: Don't forget that I am the rightful owner of this house
Source
: Cambridge Advanced learners dictionary 3rd edition
381
[#[color]n + [-ful]suf#]adj
=[colorful] /kl..f l/
Meaning
: having bright colours or a lot of different colours
Example
: a colourful painting
Source
: Cambridge Advanced learners dictionary 3rd edition 71

[#[health]n + [-ful]suf#]adj
=[healthful] /hel.f l/
Meaning
: helping to produce good health
Example
: A healthful diet includes lots of green vegetables.
Source
: Cambridge Advanced learners dictionary 3rd edition
205

The Formation of English Adjectives with the Suffix less


[#[bottom]n +
=[bottomless]
Meaning
Example
Source

[-less]suf#]adj
/bt.m.ls/
: without a limit or end
: The generosity of the local people is bottomless.
: Cambridge Advanced learners dictionary 3rd edition 44

[#[base]n + [-less]suf#]adj
=[baseless] /be.sls/
Meaning
: not based on facts
Example
: She assured me that my fears were baseless.
Source
: Cambridge Advanced learners dictionary 3rd edition 27
[#[bound]n + [-less]suf#]adj
= [boundless] /band.ls/
Meaning
: having no limit
Example
: boundless optimism
Source
: Cambridge Advanced learners dictionary 3rd edition 43
[#[care]n + [-less]suf#]adj
=[careless] /ke.ls/
Meaning
: not taking or showing enough care and attention
Example
: My son's teacher says that his work is often rather
careless.
Source
: Cambridge Advanced learners dictionary 3rd edition 67

[#[color]n + [-less]suf#]adj
=[colorless] /kl..ls/
Meaning
: having no colour
Example
: Water and glass are colourless.
Source
: Cambridge Advanced learners dictionary 3rd edition

The Formation of English Adjectives with the Suffix ly


[#[beast]n + [-ly]suf#]adj
= [beastly] /bis t .li/
Meaning
: unkind or unpleasant
Example
: Why are you being so beastly to me?
Source
: Cambridge Advanced learners dictionary 3rd edition 33
[#[coward]n + [-ly]suf#]adj
=[cowardly] /ka.d.li/
Meaning
: This was a particularly brutal and cowardly attack.
Example
: They are guilty of a cowardly failure to address the
problem
Source
: Cambridge Advanced learners dictionary 3rd edition 71
[#[cost]n + [-ly]suf#]adj
=[costly] /ks t .li/
Meaning
: expensive
Example
: a costly item
Source
: Cambridge Advanced learners dictionary 3rd edition 95
[#[dead]n + [-ly]suf#]adj
=[deadly] /ded.li/
Meaning
: likely to cause death
Example
: a deadly virus
Source
: Cambridge Advanced learners dictionary 3rd edition113

[#[day]n + [-ly]suf#]adj
=[daily] /de.li/
Meaning
: happening on or relating to every day
Example
: Take the tablets twice daily.
Source
: Cambridge Advanced learners dictionary 3rd edition
111

The Formation of English Adjectives with the Suffix y


[#[air]n + [-y]suf#]adj
= [airy] /e.ri/
Meaning
: with a lot of light and space
Example
: The new offices are light and airy.
Source
: Cambridge Advanced learners dictionary 3rd edition 9
[#[bush]n + [-y]suf#]adj
= [bushy] /b.i/
Meaning
: describes hair or fur that is very thick
Example
: a squirrel's bushy tail
Source
: Cambridge Advanced learners dictionary 3rd edition 53
[#[breeze]n + [-y]suf#]adj
= [breezy] /bri.zi/
Meaning
: with wind that is quite strong but pleasant
Example
: It was a breezy day, just right for sailing
Source
: Cambridge Advanced learners dictionary 3rd edition 49
[#[craft]n + [-y]suf#]adj
=[crafty] /krf.ti/
Meaning
: clever, especially in a dishonest or secret way
Example
: I've had a crafty idea for getting round the regulations
Source
: Cambridge Advanced learners dictionary 3rd edition
101

[#[guilt]n + [-y]suf#]adj
= [guilty]/gl.ti/
Meaning
: feeling guilt
Example
: I feel so guilty about forgetting her birthday.
Source
: Cambridge Advanced learners dictionary 3rd edition
197

The Formation of English Adjectives with the Suffix en


[#[bare]n + [-en]suf#]adj
=[barren] /br. n/
Meaning
: unable to produce plants or fruit
Example
: We drove through a barren, rocky landscape .
Source
: Cambridge Advanced learners dictionary 3rd edition 47
[#[beat]n + [-en]suf#]adj
= [beaten] /bi.t n/
Meaning
: describes gold or another metal that has been made flat
by having been hit repeatedly with a hard object
Example
: She was wearing a necklace of beaten gold.
Source
: Cambridge Advanced learners dictionary 3rd edition 33
[#[black]n + [-en]suf#]adj
= [blacken] /blk. n/
Meaning
: to become black or to make something become black
Example
: The folds of the curtains were blackened with dirt.
Source
: Cambridge Advanced learners dictionary 3rd edition 39
[#[broke]n + [-en]suf#]adj
= [broken] /br.k n/
Meaning
: damaged, no longer able to work
Example
: He attacked the man with a broken bottle.
Source
: Cambridge Advanced learners dictionary 3rd edition 51

[#[mistake]n + [-en]suf#]adj
=[mistaken] /mste.k n/
Meaning
: wrong in what you believe, or based on a belief that is
wrong
Example
: I'm afraid I was mistaken about how much it would cost.
Source
: Cambridge Advanced learners dictionary 3rd edition
281

THE FORMATION OF ENGLISH ADVERBS THROUGH


DERIVATION

The Formation of English Adverb with the prefix AUR


:* [#[a-]pref+ [ground]N#]Adj
Output
: [aground /grand ]
Meaning : unable to move
Sentence : The ship is currently aground off the Brittany coast.
Source : Oxford page
UR
:* [#[a-]pref+ [piece]N#]Adj
Output
: [ apiece / pis ]
Meaning : each
Sentence : In good condition, dolls from this period sell for 500 apiece.
Source : Oxford page
UR
:* [#[a-]pref+ [loud]N#]Adj
Output
: [aloud/ lad ]
Meaning : not silently or quietly
Sentence : He read her letter aloud to the rest of the family
Source : Oxford page
UR
:* [#[a-]pref+ [board]N#]Adj
Output
: [aboard / bd ]
Meaning : used when talking about getting onto a ship, aircraft, bus or
train
Sentence : The flight attendant welcomed us aboard.
Source : Oxford page

UR
:* [#[a-]pref+ [part]N#]Adj
Output
: [apart/ pt ]
Meaning : separated by a distance
Sentence : How far apart should the speakers be?
Source : Oxford page

The Formation of English Adverb with the suffix lyUR


:* [#[bright]adj+ [-ly]suf#]Adv
Output
: [brightly / brat.li ]
Meaning : the qualities of light
Sentence : Clowns often wear brightly coloured clothing
Source : Oxford page
UR
:* [#[great]adj+ [-ly]suf#]Adv
Output
: [ greatly / gret.li ]
Meaning : to show how much you feel or experience something
Sentence : I greatly regret not having told the truth.
Source : Oxford page
UR
:* [#[clever]adj+ [-ly]suf#]Adv
Output
: [cleverly/ klev. l.i ]
Meaning : in a clever or skilful way
Sentence : I thought you handled the situation very cleverly
Source : Oxford page
UR
:* [#[happy]adj+ [-ly]suf#]Adv
Output
: [happily / hp..li / ]
Meaning : willingly
Sentence : I'd happily offer to help him if I thought it would make any
difference.
Source : Oxford page

UR
:* [#[fair]adj+ [-ly]suf#]Adv
Output
: [fairly/ fe.li]
Meaning : more than average
Sentence : I'm fairly sure that this is the right address.
Source : Oxford page

Source : Oxford page page


The Formation of English Adverb with the suffix lyUR
:* [#[day]N+ [-ly]suf#]Adv
Output
: [daily / de.li]
Meaning : happening on or relating to every day
Sentence : Take the tablets twice daily.
Source : Oxford page
UR
:* [#[hour]N+ [-ly]suf#]Adv
Output
: [ hourly / a.li ]
Meaning : done or happening every hour
Sentence : Take two tablets at hourly intervals
Source : Oxford page
UR
:* [#[mounth]N+ [-ly]suf#]Adv
Output
: [mouthly/ ma.li]
Meaning : done or happening every mounth
Sentence : Take two tablets at mouthly intervals
Source : Oxford page
UR
:* [#[week]N+ [-ly]suf#]Adv
Output
: [weekly /wi.kli ]
Meaning : happening once a week or every week
Sentence : a weekly magazine/report
Source : Oxford page
UR
:* [#[year]N+ [-ly]suf#]Adv
Output
: [yearly/ j.li ]
Meaning : every year or once every year
Sentence : We get a yearly pay increase.

Sentence : He said he'd be back later - leastways


Source : Oxford page
The Formation of English Adverb with the suffix wise
UR
:* [#[least]N+ [-wise]suf#]Adv
Output
: [leastwise / lis t .wez ]
Meaning : used to reduce the effect of a statement
Sentence : He said he'd be back later - leastways
Source : Oxford page
UR
:* [#[Counterclock]N+ [-wise]suf#]Adv
Output
: [ counterclockwise /kan.tklk.waz ]
Meaning : opposite direction to the movement
Sentence : US FOR anti-clockwise
Source : Oxford page
UR
:* [#[slant]N+ [-wise]suf#]Adv
Output
: [slantwise/ slnt.waz ]
Meaning : describing angels
Sentence : He said he'd be back later - leastways
Source : Oxford page
UR
:* [#[Like]N+ [-wise]suf#]Adv
Output
: [likewise /lak.waz / ]
Meaning : feeling
Sentence : Then I saw how late it was and I'm likewise, so upset.
Source : Oxford page
UR
:* [#[width]N+ [-wise]suf#]Adv
Output
: [widthwise/ wtwaz ]
Meaning : used to reduce the effect of a statement

Source : Oxford page

The Formation of English Adverb with the suffix ward (s)


UR
:* [#[front]prep+ [-wards]suf#]Adv
Output
: [frontwards /frntwd]
Meaning : object or person's body which faces forward
Sentence : frontwards building
Source : Oxford page
UR
:* [#[back]prep+ [-wards]suf#]Adv
Output
: [ blackwards /blkwd]
Meaning : being the darkest colour t
Sentence : blackwards moment
Source : Oxford page
UR
:* [#[awk]prep+ [-wards]suf#]Adv
Output
: [awkwards/ .kwd ]
Meaning : embarrassing
Sentence : They'd chosen an awkward time to call as I'd just got into the
bath.

UR
:* [#[dawn]prep+ [-wards]suf#]Adv
Output
: [dawnwards/dnwd/ ]
Meaning : the period in the day
Sentence : it is dawnwards days
Source : Oxford page

UR
:* [#[out]prep+ [-wards]suf#]Adv
Output
: [outwards/ at.wd ]
Meaning : away from inside
Sentence : My secretary will see you outwards
Source : Oxford page