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# SATHYABAMA UNIVERSITY

## DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

SUBJECT: DESIGN OF RC ELEMENTS

SEM: VI

UNIT I
PART-A
1. Draw stress strain curve for various grades of steel?
Ans: Stress-Strain curve for Reinforcement:
D
E
Stress

B
A
C
O
Strain

Where
A-Elastic limit point B-Upper yield point

## Ans: Stress-Strain curve for concrete:

Ref IS456-2000-page no: 69

fck
0.67fck
Stress

0.67fck/rm

0.002

0.0035

Strain
3. Explain the maximum depth of neutral axis?
Ans: It is an axis, which passes through the centre of Gravity of section and divides the
section in to two zones, one is tension and other is compression.
Bending Stress is Zero at Neutral Axis and maximum at the extreme.
4. What is modular ratio?
Ans:
It is the radio of modules of elasticity of steel to the modules of elasticity of
concrete.
(Modular ratio) m

Es
Ec

m

280
3 cbc

## There cbc = permissible compressive stress due to bending in concrete in N/mm2.

5. Discuss the merits and demerits of working stress method?
Ans: Working Stress Method (WSD):
It was the theoretical method used for design of reinforced structures
In this method the material are stressed with in the elastic limit and the
permissibility taken the account for design

The method assumes that the structural material behaves in a linear elastic
manner

## 6. Distinguish between under reinforced beam and over reinforced beam?

Ans: Under reinforced section (xa<xc):
In under reinforced section stress in steel reaches maximum value earlier than
concrete in this case the quantity of steel provided is less than what is required for
balanced section.
In under reinforced section the moment of resistance can be calculated by steel
formula
x

M .R Ast st d a
3

## Over reinforced section (xa>xc):

In over reinforced section stress in concrete reaches maximum value earlier than
steel in this case the quantity of steel provided is more that what is required for balanced
section.
In over reinforced section the moment of resistance can be calculated by concrete
formula

x
M .R bx a cbc d a
2
3
7. Distinguish between singly reinforced beam and doubly reinforced beam?
Ans: A singly-reinforced beam is a beam provided with longitudinal reinforcement in the
tension zone only where as beams which are reinforced with steel in compression and
tension zones are called doubly-reinforced beams.
8. State the assumption made in working stress method?
It was the theoretical method used for design of reinforced structures
In this method the material are stressed within the elastic limit and the
permissibility taken the account for design

The method assumes that the structural material behaves in a linear elastic
manner

bending.

## All tensile stresses are taken up by reinforcement and none by concrete,

except as otherwise specifically permitted.

## The stress-strain relationship of steel and concrete, under working, load is

the straight line.
280
3 cbc

## cbc permissible compressive stress N/mm2

Concrete is easy to workable when fresh and strong when hardens.
It can be moulded into any required shape and size
The raw materials required are easily available.
Skill is not required for casting concrete elements.
Concrete is durable and fire resisting.
The self weight of the structural elements will be more while concrete is
used.
Concrete has a very low tensile strength
Re using of concrete elements is mostly not possible.
Concrete is brittle in nature.
10. What is the minimum thickness used as base slab in the liquid retaining
structures?

## 11. Explain about plain cement concrete?

Ans: Plain cement concrete:
Plain cement concrete is a product obtained artificially by mixing cement, sand,
gravel and water in predetermined proportions

## 12. Explain about setting time?

Ans: Initial setting time:
During this stage the concrete mix decrease its plasticity & develops resists of
flow. It occurs between 30 to 60 minutes for initial setting this is called Initial setting
time.
Final setting time:
During this stage the concrete appears to be relating soft solid. . It occurs between
5 to 6hrs after the mixing operation.
13. Briefly explain about Initial setting time?
Ans: Initial setting time:
During this stage the concrete mix decrease its plasticity & develops resists of
flow. It occurs between 30 to 60 minutes for initial setting this is called Initial setting
time.
14. Define Final setting time?
Ans: Final setting time:
During this stage the concrete appears to be relating soft solid. . It occurs between
5 to 6hrs after the mixing operation.
15. Explain hardening stage of concrete?
Ans: Harding:
This stage consists of progressive hardening & increase the strength. This process
is rapid in initial stage above 1 month (normally 28 days).The concrete obtain full
strength. This concrete more compressive stress has low tensile stress. So avoid these
place steel rods are placed on tensile zone.
16. Write short notes on RCC?
Ans: R.C. Concrete:
R.C.C. is the concrete with certain percentage of steel reinforcement embedded in
it. This reinforcement provided mainly to take care of increase the stress developed in the
member and sometimes to increase the strength of concrete in compression shear also
Reinforcement also limits the size of cracks due to shrinkage and temperature variation.
17. Explain requirement of Good concrete?
Ans: The requirement of Good concrete are;

## (i) The aggregates should be hard and durable.

(ii) The aggregates shall be properly graded in size from fine to coarse.
(iii)
Cement should be of sufficient quantity to produce the required watertightness and strength.
(iv)The water used while mixing shall be free from organic material or any
deleterious minerals.
(v) The quantity of water should be such as to produce the needed consistency.
(vi)Mixing should be done thoroughly so as to produce homogeneity.
(vii)
Concrete should fill every part in the forms. This is done by ramming or
puddling.
(viii)
Until the concrete is thoroughly hard it is necessary to ensure that the
temperature of concrete is maintained above the freezing point. This is done to
avoid retarded hardening.
18. Write short notes on quantity of water for concrete?
Ans: Water cement ratio:
Water cement ratio is the ratio of volume of water mixed in the concrete. The
strength of concrete mainly depends upon the amount of water used in the concrete.
M15
M20
M25

proportion
1:2:4
1:1.5:3
1:1:2

Amount of water
0.5-0.55
0.5
0.45

19. Write the various concrete grades used for common works?
Ans: A set of mix for concrete should be well defined either in Terms of the proportion of
cement, Fine and course aggregates (or) in terms of the 28-day compression strength
requirements.
Letter M refers as the Mix and the number to the specified Characteristic
compressive Strength (fck) of 15cm cube @ 28 days in N/mm2
1:3:6

1:2:4

1:11/2:3

1:1:2

- Piles

## 20. Define Characteristic Compressive Strength?

Ans: Characteristic Strength means the Strength of material below which not more than
5% of the test results are expected to fall. For
M15

-fck

= 15N/mm2

M20

- fck

= 20N/mm2

## 21. Explain Concrete mix proportions and Grades?

Certain standard proportion of concrete are used in all construction works. They
tabulated as follows
M5
M7.5
M10
M15
M20
M25

proportion
1:5:10
1:4:8
1:3:6
1:2:4
1:1.5:3
1:1:2

Purpose of work
Used for mass concreting
General R.C.C works
Dams, water tanks
Piles

## 22. Define the term age factor?

Ans: Within the period of 28days of carting the members will not receive with full design
load or stress, after that the Characteristic compression Strength can be increased by
multiplying a factor known as age factor.

## Minimum age of member when full design load

or stress in expected (Month)
1
3
6
12

Age factor
1:0
1:10
1:15
1:20

Ans: A set of mix for concrete should be well defined either in Terms of the proportion of
cement, Fine and course aggregates (or) in terms of the 28-day compression strength
requirements.

Letter M refers as the Mix and the number to the specified Characteristic
compressive Strength (fck) of 15cm cube @ 28 days in N/mm2
1:3:6

1:2:4

1:11/2:3

1:1:2

- Piles

## 24. Write short notes on shrinkage of Concrete?

Ans: Shrinkage of concrete means reduction in the size of member Due to Evaporation of
water present in it.
25. Define the term Creep Coefficient?
Ans: This is the ratio of the ultimate creep strain to the elastic strain at the age of loading.
In the absence of experimental data the creep coefficient may be taken as per the table
given below;
7 days

Creep coefficient
2.2

28 days

1.6

1 year

1.1

UNIT- II
PART-A
1. What do you understand by limit state of collapse?
Ans: The design based on limit state of collapse provides the necessary safety of the
structure against partial or total collapse of the structure. It is possible to assess the
collapse limit which may be due to various effects such as elastic or plastic instability,
overturning etc.
2. Explain the term limit state?
Ans: Limit state is the method in which a structure is designed to withstand all loads
likely to act on it in the duration of its life span and also to satisfy the serviceability
requirements before failure can occur.

## 3. Define load factor method?

Ans: This is the ratio of the collapse load to the working load. The load factor has to be
judiciously selected giving due consideration to the various factors contributing to failure.
4. What are the assumptions made for the design for R.C beams?
Ans: The following assumptions are made for the design for the R.C beams:
(i) Plane sections transverse to the centre line of a member before bending remain
plane sections after bending.
(ii) Elastic modulus of concrete has the same value within the limits of deformation
of the member.
(iii)
Elastic modulus for steel has the same value within the limits of
deformation of the member.
(iv) The reinforcement does not slip from concrete surrounding it.
(v) Tension is borne entirely by steel.
(vi)The steel is free from initial stresses when embedded in concrete.
(vii)
There is no resultant thrust on any transverse section of the member.
5. What are the different types of bars used in R.C.C?
Ans: 1. Mild steel bars (Fe250)
2. HYSD bars
High yield strength deformed bars (Fe415)
Tar bars (Fe500)
3. Now a day TMT (Thermo mechanically twisted bars) bars are used in practice
6. What is the different between one way slab and two way slabs?
Ans: Reinforced concrete slabs supported on two opposite sides or on all four sides with
the ratio of long to short span exceeding 2 are preferred to as one slabs and the slab
whose ratio of long to short span should not exceed 2.
7. Define the term moment of resistance?
Ans:It is the resisting moment offered by a beam section to resist the bending moment at
the section.
Moment of resistance = Total compression or total tension x lever arm
M.R = bn

(d -

8. Write the 3 cases for find out the M.R for flanged beams?

Ans:Xu<Df
10. Define characteristic load and characteristic strength?
11. Write some Water-cement Radio for different proportion?
Ans: Water cement ratio:
Water cement ratio is the ratio of volume of water mixed in the concrete. The
strength of concrete mainly depends upon the amount of water used in the concrete.
M15
M20
M25

proportion
1:2:4
1:1.5:3
1:1:2

Amount of water
0.5-0.55
0.5
0.45

## 12. What is the importance of curing of concrete?

Ans: Curing is the most essential operation is which concrete is kept continuously damp
for some days to enable the concrete to gain more strength.
Curing represent the loss of moisture from the concrete due to evaporation, absorption
and heat of reactions. Normal period of curing is 7 to 10 days.
13. What is the yield strength steel for mild steel and HYSD bars?
Ans:

Mild steel and HYSD bars, 0.2% proof stress in taken as yield strength.

## Mild steel yield strength =

(Fe250)
HYSD bars
yield strength =
(Fe415)
14. Define the term Neutral Axis?

250 N/mm2
415 N/mm2

Ans: It is an axis, which passes through the centre of Gravity of section and divides the
section in to two zones, one is tension and other is compression.
Bending Stress is Zero at Neutral Axis and maximum at the extreme.
15. What are the different types of steel Reinforcement?
Ans: 1. Mild Steel-Grade 1 Fe250 (Type a) bars
2. Hot Rolled High Yield Strength deformed (HYSD) bars Grade 2 Fe415 (Type c)
3. Cold worked steel high Strength deformed bars Grade 2 Fe415 (CTD bars)
(Type c) (Cold Twisted Deformed bar) (Tor Steel)
16. Explain the term Yield Stress?

Ans: If the steel reinforcement is stressed beyond the elastic limit, it undergoes yielding
and the stress corresponding to 0.2% of strain (0.002) is known as Yield Stress (or) Proof
stress.
Ans:
It is the ratio of modules of elasticity of steel to the modules of elasticity of
concrete.
(Modular ratio) m

Es
Ec

m

280
3 cbc

## There cbc = permissible compressive stress due to bending in concrete in N/mm2.

18. Explain what are the loads are acting on the building structures?
Ans: The loads that acts on a building structure are:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.

## 19. Explain the types of failure in concrete beams?

Flexural failure
Shear failure
20. Write some examples of cantilever beams?
Ans: Examples of cantilever beam are:
i.
ii.

Parapet slab

## 21. Explain cracking in structural concrete?

22. Write the formula for find out moment of resistance?
Ans: Determination of moment of resistance (MR):
xa/3
C
d

(d-xa/3)

c ba

cbc
2

T Ast st

## Consider a compressive force C and taking moment about T

x
M .R bx a cbc d a
2
3
Consider a Tensile force T and taking moment about T
x

M .R Ast st d a
3

## 23. What are the general aspects of design of cantilever slabs?

Ans: Reinforced concrete slabs projecting from fixed end and free at the other end are
referred as cantilever slabs. In general the depth of cantilever slab is based on span/depth
ratio of 7 specified in IS: 456-2000. It is important to provide the required anchorage
length near supports to the main reinforcements to prevent failure due to anchorage.
In cantilever slabs, maximum thickness is generally provided at the fixed end and
gradually reducing to a minimum value of 100mm at the free end. Minimum distribution
reinforcement is provided in the transverse direction.
Cantilever slabs should invariably be checked for safety against excessive deflections,
cracking and for failure due to overturning.
24. Differentiate under reinforced and over reinforced beam?
Ans: Under reinforced section (xa<xc):
In under reinforced section stress in steel reaches maximum value earlier than
concrete in this case the quantity of steel provided is less than what is required for
balanced section.
In under reinforced section the moment of resistance can be calculated by steel
formula
x

M .R Ast st d a
3

## Over reinforced section (xa>xc):

In over reinforced section stress in concrete reaches maximum value earlier than
steel in this case the quantity of steel provided is more that what is required for balanced
section.
In over reinforced section the moment of resistance can be calculated by concrete
formula

M .R bx a

cbc
2

xa

## 25. Write the formula for Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete

UNIT-III
PART-A
1. How shear reinforcement improves the strength of beam?
Ans: shear cracks occur in the beam due to the inefficient shear reinforcement,
application of shear reinforcement improve the strength of the beam
2. Minimum shear reinforcement is required in beam why?
Ans: The minimum shear reinforcement is required in beam in order to prevent the failure
of concrete by excessive diagonal tension.
3. Explain about bond in concrete?
The term used in which the slip between steel and concrete is prevented
4. Define the term shear

## 5. What is compatibility torsion give example?

7. Write an expression for find out equivalent shear

## 8. Explain the term nominal shear stress

9. Assumption made in the design of reinforcement for diagonal tension
10. Explain the design consideration for bond and anchorage
12. Write short notes on inclined stirrups
13. Explain about bent up bars with stirrups

14. What are the ways to be used to calculated the strength of shear reinforcement
15. Define the term torsion
When a pair of forces of equal magnitude but opposite directions acting on body, it
tends to twist the body it is known as torsion.

## 17. Write short notes on transverse reinforcement?

Ans: In addition to the main reinforcement (called longitudinal reinforcement), transverse
reinforcement (also called distribution reinforcement) is also provided in a direction at
right angle to the span of the slab. The transverse reinforcement is provided to serve the
following purposes:
i.
ii.
iii.

It distributes the effects of point load on the slab more evenly and uniformly.
It distributes the shrinkage and temperature cracks more evenly.
It keeps the main reinforcement in position.

The amount of transverse reinforcement may vary from a minimum of 0.15% of gross
concrete area for ordinary slab to 0.3% for bridge slabs or slab where temperature
variations are high. The distribution reinforcement is placed in contact with the main
reinforcement, and is also provided with hooked ends.
18. What is the maximum spacing of shear reinforcement?
19. Write short notes on equivalent shear

## 20. Define nominal shear stress?

21. Assumption made in the design of shear reinforcement
22. What are the design consideration for bond and anchorage?
23. Write short notes on vertical stirrups

## 24. Write the formula for find out inclined stirrups

25. Write the formula for find out the vertical stirrups

## 26.Explain the design procedure for shear

UNIT-IV
PART-B
1. What are the types of columns?
Ans: Based upon shapes
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.

Square column
Rectangle column
Circular column
Polygon column

## Based upon slenderness ratio

i.
ii.

Short column
Long column

i.
ii.
iii.

Column subjected to axially load and uni-axial bending

## 2. Define short column?

Ans: A column may be considered short when its effective length does not exceed 12
times the least lateral dimension.
3. Define long column?
Ans: A column may be considered long when its effective length exceeds 12 times the
least lateral dimension.

## Ans: Transverse reinforcement is that reinforcement which is provided by tying the

longitudinal reinforcement by transverse links to provide a resistant against outward
buckling of each of the longitudinal bars.
5. What are the requirement provided for IS code for design of columns?
Ans:
6. Explain about buckling of columns?
Some times columns do not fail entirely by crushing but also by bending or
buckling. Bending of column is know as bucking.
7. Explain slender columns?
Ans: When the ratio of the effective length to the lateral dimension of the column section
exceeds 12 the column is regarded as long or slender column.
8. What are the assumptions made for designing the compression members?
9. Explain Minimum eccentricity?
Ans: All columns shall be designed for minimum eccentricity equal to the unsupported
length of column/500 plus lateral dimension/30, subject to a minimum of 20mm.
10. Write short notes on helical reinforcement?
Ans: Helical reinforcement shall be of regular formation with the turns of the helix
spaced evenly and its ends shall be anchored properly by providing one and a half extra
turns of the spiral bar. Where an increased load on the column on the strength of the
helical reinforcement is allowed for, the pitch of the helical turns shall be not more than
75mm, nor more than one sixth of the case diameter of the column, nor less than 25mm,
nor less than three times the diameter of the steel bar forming the helix.
11. Write short notes on effective length of column ?
Ans: (a) In the absence of more exact analysis, the effective length of columns in framed
structures may be obtained from the ratio of effective length to unsupported length l ef/l
when relative displacement of the ends of the column is prevented and when relative
lateral displacement is not prevented. In the latter case, it is recommended that the
effective length ratio lef/l may not be taken less than 1.2.
12. What is composite column?

Ans: A composite column is the one in which the reinforcement is placed centrally and
with four or more longitudinal bars. Other steel sections may also be used. However,
composite columns are used for heavy loads.
Ans: The following are the types of load carrying capacity of short column:
(a) Short columns with lateral ties.
(b) Short column with helical reinforcement
(c) Composite column
14. Write about short column with lateral ties?
Ans: According to the classical elastic theory or the compatible strain theory, when a
reinforced concrete column is loaded, both concrete and steel have equal strains during
initial stage of loading, because they are well bonded. Hence if P is the load on the
column, the loads carried by steel bars (Ps) and that carried by surrounding concrete (Pc)
bears the relation
P = Pc + Ps
15. Explain short column with helical reinforcement?
Ans: For a column having longitudinal reinforcement tied with spirals (i.e. helical
reinforcement), the load carrying capacity is taken as 1.05 times the strength of smaller
member with lateral ties. This similar clause is valid only if the ratio volume of helical
reinforcement to the volume of core is not less than 0.36 (Ag/Ac 1) fck/
Where: Ag = gross area of section
Ac = area of core helical reinforced column measured to the outside diameter of
the helix
fck = characteristic compression strength of the concrete
fy = characteristic strength of helical reinforcement but not exceeding 415 N/mm2
16. How to arrange transverse reinforcement?
Ans: Arrangement of transverse reinforcement:
i.

If the longitudinal bars are not spaced more than 75mm on either side transverse
reinforcement need only to go round corner and alternate bars for the purpose of
providing effective lateral supports.

ii.

## If the longitudinal bars spaced at a distance of not exceeding 48 times the

diameter of the tie are effectively tied in two direction, additional longitudinal

iii.

bars in between these bars need to be tied in one direction by open ties.
Where the longitudinal reinforcing bars in a compression member are placed in
more than one row, effective lateral support to the longitudinal bars in the inner
rows may be assumed to have been provided if (a) transverse reinforcement is
provided for outermost row in accordance with (2) above, and (b) no bar of the
corner row is closer to the nearest compression face than three times the diameter

iv.

## of the largest bar in the inner row.

Where longitudinal bars in a compression member are grouped (not in contact)
and each group adequately tied with transverse reinforcement in accordance with
clause (2), the transverse reinforcement for the compression member as a whole
may be provided on the assumption that each group is a single longitudinal bar for
purpose of determining the pitch and diameter of the transverse reinforcement in
accordance with clause (2). The diameter of such transverse reinforcement need
not, however, exceed 20mm.

## 17. Define the term pedestal?

Ans Pedestal is an enlarged bulb of a vertical shaft of plain concrete of a pedestal pile.
18. Explain the pitch and diameter of lateral ties?
Ans: Pitch: The pitch of the transverse reinforcement shall not be more than the least of
the following: (1) the least lateral dimension of the compression member; (2) sixteen
times the smallest diameter of the longitudinal reinforcement bar to be tied; (3) Forty
eight times the diameter of the transverse reinforcement.
Diameter: The diameter of the polygonal links or lateral ties shall not be less than onefourth of the diameter of the largest longitudinal bar, and in no case less than 5mm.
19. Write about the cover to reinforcement?
Ans: for a longitudinal reinforcing bar in column, the cover shall not be less than 40 mm,
nor less than the diameter of such bar. In case of columns of minimum dimension of
200mm or under, whose reinforcing bars does not exceed 12 mm, a cover of 25mm may
be used.
20. Explain about the slenderness limits for the column?

## Ans: Slenderness limits for column

(i)

The unsupported length between end restraints shall not exceed 60 times the

(ii)

## least lateral dimension of a column.

If, in a given plane, one end of a column is unrestrained, its unsupported
length l, shall not exceed 100b2/D.

## Where: b = width of that cross-section, and

D = depth of the cross-section measured in the plane under consideration.
21. Differentiate spacing and pitch
Spacing is the term is the centre to centre between the striups pitch is the term for
centre to centre between the ties
22. Write short notes on slender composite members
23. Write the formula for find out load for column
24. Differentiate short column and long column?
Ans: A column may be considered short when its effective length does not exceed 12
times the least lateral dimension whereas column may be considered long when its
effective length exceeds 12 times the least lateral dimension.
Ans: A composite column is the one in which the reinforcement is placed centrally and
with four or more longitudinal bars. Other steel sections may also be used. However,
composite columns are used for heavy loads.
UNIT-V
PART-B
1. What are the types of footing?
Ans: The types of footings are:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.

Combined footing
Strap or cantilever footing
Mat or raft footing
Wall footing

vi.
vii.
viii.
ix.

Stepped footing
Sloped footing
Single footing
Pile foundation
2. How do classify one way footing and two ways footing in foundation?

Ans: One way footings are those in which the reinforcement extending in each direction
shall be distributed uniformly across the full width of the footing.
Two way footings are those in which the reinforcement in the longer direction
shall be distributed uniformly across full width of footing.
3. Write a formula for find out the depth
Ans: h=

where h = minimum depth below the soil surface to the soffit of the footing
p = safe bearing capacity of the soil
w = unit weight of soil
3. Assumption made for design of foundation?
Ans: The assumptions made for the design of foundation are:
i.

The soil is homogenous and isotropic and its shear strength is represented by

ii.

Coulombs equation.
The strip footing has a rough base, and the problem is essentially two

iii.

dimensional.
The elastic zone has straight boundaries inclined at = to the horizontal, and

iv.

## the plastic zones fully develop

Pp consists of three components which can be calculated separately and added,

v.

although the critical surfaces for these components are not identical.
Failure zones do not extend above the horizontal plane through the base of the
footing, i.e. the shear resistance of soil above the base is neglected and the effect
of soil around the footing is considered equivalent to a surcharge =D.
5. Causes of failure of foundation?
6. Draw the neat sketch for strap footing
7. General design requirement for footing?

## Ans: The general design requirements for footing are:

i.

Depth of foundation

ii.
iii.
iv.
v.

Bending moments
Shear force
Transfer of load at the base of column
Tensile reinforcement

## 8. Where the Trapezoidal footing is provided?

Ans: When the two column loads are unequal, with the outer column carrying heavier
load, and when there is space limitation beyond the outer column, a trapezoidal footing is
provided.
9. Mention the types of pile footing?
Ans: Based on the function:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
vii.
viii.

## End bearing pile

Friction pile
Compaction pile
Tension or uplift pile
Anchor pile
Fender pile and dolphins
Batter pile
Sheet pile
Based on materials and composition
i. Concrete pile
ii. Timber pile
iii.
Steel pile
iv. Composite pile

Ans:
11. What are the types of combined footing?
Ans: The types of combined footings are:
i.
Rectangular combined footing
ii.
Trapezoidal combined footing
Ans: If the independent spread footing of two columns is connected by a beam, it is
called strap footing. A strap footing may be used where the distance between the columns
is so great that the combined trapezoidal footing becomes quite narrow, with high
bending moments.
3. Write the load carrying capacity on piles?
Ans: The load carrying capacity of pile is defined as the maximum load which can be
carried by a pile, and at which the pile continues to sink without further increase of load.

## 14. Explain pile driving?

Ans: Piles are commonly driven by means of a hammer supported by a crane or by a
special device known as a pile driver. The hammer is guided between two parallel steel
members known as leads. The leads are carried on a frame in such a way that they can be
supported in a vertical position or an inclined position.
15. Write the engineering news formula?
Ans: The Engineering News formula was proposed by A.M.Wellington (1818) in the
following general form:
Qa
Where

H= height of fall

W= weight of hammer
F= factor of safety = 6

per blow

## for the last 5 blows of a drop hammer, or 20 blows of a steam hammer.

C= empirical constant.

## 16. Define static formula?

Ans: The static formulae are based on assumption that the ultimate bearing capacity Q up
of a pile is the sum of the total ultimate skin friction R f and total ultimate point or end
bearing resistance Rp:
Qup = Rf + Rp
Or
Qup = As . rf + Ap . rp
Where As = surface area of pile upon which the skin friction acts
Ap = area of cross- section of pile on which bearing resistance acts
rf = average skin friction
rp = unit point or toe resistance
17. Define dynamic formula?

Qf =

Ans:
Where

## Qf = ultimate load on pile

W= weight of hammer, in kg
H = height of drop of hammer, in cm
C = total elastic compression= C1+ C2 +C3

C1, C2, C3 = temporarily elastic compression of dolly and packing, pile and soil
respectively
= efficiency of hammer, variable from 65 per cent for some double
acting steam hammers to 100 percent for drop hammers released by trigger.
efficiency of hammer blow( i.e. ratio of the energy after impact to
striking energy of ram)
Ans: Pile footings are designed as columns to resist the loads transmitted from the
structure. Usually R.C. columns of multi-storey buildings carrying heavy loads are
supported on reinforced concrete piles. The piles are designed for handling and driving
stresses. Piles are generally circular, square or octagonal in cross sectional shape.
20. Write short notes on eccentrically loaded footing
21. What are the types of combined footing?
Ans: The types of combined footings are:
i.
ii.

## Rectangular combined footing

Trapezoidal combined footing
22. What is strap footing?

## Ans: If the independent spread footing of two columns is connected by a beam, it is

called strap footing. A strap footing may be used where the distance between the columns
is so great that the combined trapezoidal footing becomes quite narrow, with high
bending moments.
23. What is one way footing?

Ans: One way footings are those in which the reinforcement extending in each direction
shall be distributed uniformly across the full width of the footing.
24. Explain about two ways footing in foundation?
Ans: Two way footings are those in which the reinforcement in the longer direction shall
be distributed uniformly across full width of footing.