Reinforced Concrete structure Important questions

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Reinforced Concrete structure Important questions

© All Rights Reserved

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SUBJECT: DESIGN OF RC ELEMENTS

SEM: VI

UNIT I

PART-A

1. Draw stress strain curve for various grades of steel?

Ans: Stress-Strain curve for Reinforcement:

D

E

Stress

B

A

C

O

Strain

Where

A-Elastic limit point B-Upper yield point

Ref IS456-2000-page no: 69

fck

0.67fck

Stress

0.67fck/rm

0.002

0.0035

Strain

3. Explain the maximum depth of neutral axis?

Ans: It is an axis, which passes through the centre of Gravity of section and divides the

section in to two zones, one is tension and other is compression.

Bending Stress is Zero at Neutral Axis and maximum at the extreme.

4. What is modular ratio?

Ans:

It is the radio of modules of elasticity of steel to the modules of elasticity of

concrete.

(Modular ratio) m

Es

Ec

m

280

3 cbc

5. Discuss the merits and demerits of working stress method?

Ans: Working Stress Method (WSD):

It was the theoretical method used for design of reinforced structures

In this method the material are stressed with in the elastic limit and the

permissibility taken the account for design

The method assumes that the structural material behaves in a linear elastic

manner

Ans: Under reinforced section (xa<xc):

In under reinforced section stress in steel reaches maximum value earlier than

concrete in this case the quantity of steel provided is less than what is required for

balanced section.

In under reinforced section the moment of resistance can be calculated by steel

formula

x

M .R Ast st d a

3

In over reinforced section stress in concrete reaches maximum value earlier than

steel in this case the quantity of steel provided is more that what is required for balanced

section.

In over reinforced section the moment of resistance can be calculated by concrete

formula

x

M .R bx a cbc d a

2

3

7. Distinguish between singly reinforced beam and doubly reinforced beam?

Ans: A singly-reinforced beam is a beam provided with longitudinal reinforcement in the

tension zone only where as beams which are reinforced with steel in compression and

tension zones are called doubly-reinforced beams.

8. State the assumption made in working stress method?

It was the theoretical method used for design of reinforced structures

In this method the material are stressed within the elastic limit and the

permissibility taken the account for design

The method assumes that the structural material behaves in a linear elastic

manner

bending.

except as otherwise specifically permitted.

the straight line.

280

3 cbc

Ans: Advantages of Concrete:

Concrete is easy to workable when fresh and strong when hardens.

It can be moulded into any required shape and size

The raw materials required are easily available.

Skill is not required for casting concrete elements.

Concrete is durable and fire resisting.

Disadvantages of Concrete:

The self weight of the structural elements will be more while concrete is

used.

Concrete has a very low tensile strength

Re using of concrete elements is mostly not possible.

Concrete is brittle in nature.

10. What is the minimum thickness used as base slab in the liquid retaining

structures?

Ans: Plain cement concrete:

Plain cement concrete is a product obtained artificially by mixing cement, sand,

gravel and water in predetermined proportions

Ans: Initial setting time:

During this stage the concrete mix decrease its plasticity & develops resists of

flow. It occurs between 30 to 60 minutes for initial setting this is called Initial setting

time.

Final setting time:

During this stage the concrete appears to be relating soft solid. . It occurs between

5 to 6hrs after the mixing operation.

13. Briefly explain about Initial setting time?

Ans: Initial setting time:

During this stage the concrete mix decrease its plasticity & develops resists of

flow. It occurs between 30 to 60 minutes for initial setting this is called Initial setting

time.

14. Define Final setting time?

Ans: Final setting time:

During this stage the concrete appears to be relating soft solid. . It occurs between

5 to 6hrs after the mixing operation.

15. Explain hardening stage of concrete?

Ans: Harding:

This stage consists of progressive hardening & increase the strength. This process

is rapid in initial stage above 1 month (normally 28 days).The concrete obtain full

strength. This concrete more compressive stress has low tensile stress. So avoid these

place steel rods are placed on tensile zone.

16. Write short notes on RCC?

Ans: R.C. Concrete:

R.C.C. is the concrete with certain percentage of steel reinforcement embedded in

it. This reinforcement provided mainly to take care of increase the stress developed in the

member and sometimes to increase the strength of concrete in compression shear also

Reinforcement also limits the size of cracks due to shrinkage and temperature variation.

17. Explain requirement of Good concrete?

Ans: The requirement of Good concrete are;

(ii) The aggregates shall be properly graded in size from fine to coarse.

(iii)

Cement should be of sufficient quantity to produce the required watertightness and strength.

(iv)The water used while mixing shall be free from organic material or any

deleterious minerals.

(v) The quantity of water should be such as to produce the needed consistency.

(vi)Mixing should be done thoroughly so as to produce homogeneity.

(vii)

Concrete should fill every part in the forms. This is done by ramming or

puddling.

(viii)

Until the concrete is thoroughly hard it is necessary to ensure that the

temperature of concrete is maintained above the freezing point. This is done to

avoid retarded hardening.

18. Write short notes on quantity of water for concrete?

Ans: Water cement ratio:

Water cement ratio is the ratio of volume of water mixed in the concrete. The

strength of concrete mainly depends upon the amount of water used in the concrete.

Grade

M15

M20

M25

proportion

1:2:4

1:1.5:3

1:1:2

Amount of water

0.5-0.55

0.5

0.45

19. Write the various concrete grades used for common works?

Ans: A set of mix for concrete should be well defined either in Terms of the proportion of

cement, Fine and course aggregates (or) in terms of the 28-day compression strength

requirements.

Letter M refers as the Mix and the number to the specified Characteristic

compressive Strength (fck) of 15cm cube @ 28 days in N/mm2

1:3:6

1:2:4

1:11/2:3

1:1:2

- Piles

Ans: Characteristic Strength means the Strength of material below which not more than

5% of the test results are expected to fall. For

M15

-fck

= 15N/mm2

M20

- fck

= 20N/mm2

Ans: Grades of concrete:

Certain standard proportion of concrete are used in all construction works. They

tabulated as follows

Grade

M5

M7.5

M10

M15

M20

M25

proportion

1:5:10

1:4:8

1:3:6

1:2:4

1:1.5:3

1:1:2

Purpose of work

Used for mass concreting

General R.C.C works

Dams, water tanks

Piles

Ans: Within the period of 28days of carting the members will not receive with full design

load or stress, after that the Characteristic compression Strength can be increased by

multiplying a factor known as age factor.

or stress in expected (Month)

1

3

6

12

Age factor

1:0

1:10

1:15

1:20

Ans: A set of mix for concrete should be well defined either in Terms of the proportion of

cement, Fine and course aggregates (or) in terms of the 28-day compression strength

requirements.

Letter M refers as the Mix and the number to the specified Characteristic

compressive Strength (fck) of 15cm cube @ 28 days in N/mm2

1:3:6

1:2:4

1:11/2:3

1:1:2

- Piles

Ans: Shrinkage of concrete means reduction in the size of member Due to Evaporation of

water present in it.

25. Define the term Creep Coefficient?

Ans: This is the ratio of the ultimate creep strain to the elastic strain at the age of loading.

In the absence of experimental data the creep coefficient may be taken as per the table

given below;

Age at loading

7 days

Creep coefficient

2.2

28 days

1.6

1 year

1.1

UNIT- II

PART-A

1. What do you understand by limit state of collapse?

Ans: The design based on limit state of collapse provides the necessary safety of the

structure against partial or total collapse of the structure. It is possible to assess the

collapse limit which may be due to various effects such as elastic or plastic instability,

overturning etc.

2. Explain the term limit state?

Ans: Limit state is the method in which a structure is designed to withstand all loads

likely to act on it in the duration of its life span and also to satisfy the serviceability

requirements before failure can occur.

Ans: This is the ratio of the collapse load to the working load. The load factor has to be

judiciously selected giving due consideration to the various factors contributing to failure.

The load factor method assists in estimating the ultimate loading.

4. What are the assumptions made for the design for R.C beams?

Ans: The following assumptions are made for the design for the R.C beams:

(i) Plane sections transverse to the centre line of a member before bending remain

plane sections after bending.

(ii) Elastic modulus of concrete has the same value within the limits of deformation

of the member.

(iii)

Elastic modulus for steel has the same value within the limits of

deformation of the member.

(iv) The reinforcement does not slip from concrete surrounding it.

(v) Tension is borne entirely by steel.

(vi)The steel is free from initial stresses when embedded in concrete.

(vii)

There is no resultant thrust on any transverse section of the member.

5. What are the different types of bars used in R.C.C?

Ans: 1. Mild steel bars (Fe250)

2. HYSD bars

High yield strength deformed bars (Fe415)

Tar bars (Fe500)

3. Now a day TMT (Thermo mechanically twisted bars) bars are used in practice

6. What is the different between one way slab and two way slabs?

Ans: Reinforced concrete slabs supported on two opposite sides or on all four sides with

the ratio of long to short span exceeding 2 are preferred to as one slabs and the slab

whose ratio of long to short span should not exceed 2.

7. Define the term moment of resistance?

Ans:It is the resisting moment offered by a beam section to resist the bending moment at

the section.

Moment of resistance = Total compression or total tension x lever arm

M.R = bn

(d -

8. Write the 3 cases for find out the M.R for flanged beams?

Ans:Xu<Df

9. Explain about Crack width?

10. Define characteristic load and characteristic strength?

11. Write some Water-cement Radio for different proportion?

Ans: Water cement ratio:

Water cement ratio is the ratio of volume of water mixed in the concrete. The

strength of concrete mainly depends upon the amount of water used in the concrete.

Grade

M15

M20

M25

proportion

1:2:4

1:1.5:3

1:1:2

Amount of water

0.5-0.55

0.5

0.45

Ans: Curing is the most essential operation is which concrete is kept continuously damp

for some days to enable the concrete to gain more strength.

Curing represent the loss of moisture from the concrete due to evaporation, absorption

and heat of reactions. Normal period of curing is 7 to 10 days.

13. What is the yield strength steel for mild steel and HYSD bars?

Ans:

Mild steel and HYSD bars, 0.2% proof stress in taken as yield strength.

(Fe250)

HYSD bars

yield strength =

(Fe415)

14. Define the term Neutral Axis?

250 N/mm2

415 N/mm2

Ans: It is an axis, which passes through the centre of Gravity of section and divides the

section in to two zones, one is tension and other is compression.

Bending Stress is Zero at Neutral Axis and maximum at the extreme.

15. What are the different types of steel Reinforcement?

Ans: 1. Mild Steel-Grade 1 Fe250 (Type a) bars

2. Hot Rolled High Yield Strength deformed (HYSD) bars Grade 2 Fe415 (Type c)

3. Cold worked steel high Strength deformed bars Grade 2 Fe415 (CTD bars)

(Type c) (Cold Twisted Deformed bar) (Tor Steel)

16. Explain the term Yield Stress?

Ans: If the steel reinforcement is stressed beyond the elastic limit, it undergoes yielding

and the stress corresponding to 0.2% of strain (0.002) is known as Yield Stress (or) Proof

stress.

17. Define Modular Radio?

Ans:

It is the ratio of modules of elasticity of steel to the modules of elasticity of

concrete.

(Modular ratio) m

Es

Ec

m

280

3 cbc

18. Explain what are the loads are acting on the building structures?

Ans: The loads that acts on a building structure are:

i.

ii.

iii.

iv.

Live load

Dead load

Wind load

Snow load

Flexural failure

Shear failure

20. Write some examples of cantilever beams?

Ans: Examples of cantilever beam are:

i.

ii.

Sunshade slab

Parapet slab

22. Write the formula for find out moment of resistance?

Ans: Determination of moment of resistance (MR):

xa/3

C

d

(d-xa/3)

c ba

cbc

2

T Ast st

x

M .R bx a cbc d a

2

3

Consider a Tensile force T and taking moment about T

x

M .R Ast st d a

3

Ans: Reinforced concrete slabs projecting from fixed end and free at the other end are

referred as cantilever slabs. In general the depth of cantilever slab is based on span/depth

ratio of 7 specified in IS: 456-2000. It is important to provide the required anchorage

length near supports to the main reinforcements to prevent failure due to anchorage.

In cantilever slabs, maximum thickness is generally provided at the fixed end and

gradually reducing to a minimum value of 100mm at the free end. Minimum distribution

reinforcement is provided in the transverse direction.

Cantilever slabs should invariably be checked for safety against excessive deflections,

cracking and for failure due to overturning.

24. Differentiate under reinforced and over reinforced beam?

Ans: Under reinforced section (xa<xc):

In under reinforced section stress in steel reaches maximum value earlier than

concrete in this case the quantity of steel provided is less than what is required for

balanced section.

In under reinforced section the moment of resistance can be calculated by steel

formula

x

M .R Ast st d a

3

In over reinforced section stress in concrete reaches maximum value earlier than

steel in this case the quantity of steel provided is more that what is required for balanced

section.

In over reinforced section the moment of resistance can be calculated by concrete

formula

M .R bx a

cbc

2

xa

UNIT-III

PART-A

1. How shear reinforcement improves the strength of beam?

Ans: shear cracks occur in the beam due to the inefficient shear reinforcement,

application of shear reinforcement improve the strength of the beam

2. Minimum shear reinforcement is required in beam why?

Ans: The minimum shear reinforcement is required in beam in order to prevent the failure

of concrete by excessive diagonal tension.

3. Explain about bond in concrete?

The term used in which the slip between steel and concrete is prevented

4. Define the term shear

6. Explain about development length

7. Write an expression for find out equivalent shear

9. Assumption made in the design of reinforcement for diagonal tension

10. Explain the design consideration for bond and anchorage

11. Explain about vertical stirrups

12. Write short notes on inclined stirrups

13. Explain about bent up bars with stirrups

14. What are the ways to be used to calculated the strength of shear reinforcement

15. Define the term torsion

When a pair of forces of equal magnitude but opposite directions acting on body, it

tends to twist the body it is known as torsion.

16. Explain about longitudinal reinforcement

Ans: In addition to the main reinforcement (called longitudinal reinforcement), transverse

reinforcement (also called distribution reinforcement) is also provided in a direction at

right angle to the span of the slab. The transverse reinforcement is provided to serve the

following purposes:

i.

ii.

iii.

It distributes the effects of point load on the slab more evenly and uniformly.

It distributes the shrinkage and temperature cracks more evenly.

It keeps the main reinforcement in position.

The amount of transverse reinforcement may vary from a minimum of 0.15% of gross

concrete area for ordinary slab to 0.3% for bridge slabs or slab where temperature

variations are high. The distribution reinforcement is placed in contact with the main

reinforcement, and is also provided with hooked ends.

18. What is the maximum spacing of shear reinforcement?

19. Write short notes on equivalent shear

21. Assumption made in the design of shear reinforcement

22. What are the design consideration for bond and anchorage?

23. Write short notes on vertical stirrups

25. Write the formula for find out the vertical stirrups

UNIT-IV

PART-B

1. What are the types of columns?

Ans: Based upon shapes

i.

ii.

iii.

iv.

Square column

Rectangle column

Circular column

Polygon column

i.

ii.

Short column

Long column

i.

ii.

iii.

Column subjected to axially load and uni-axial bending

Columns subjected to axial and bi-axial loading

Ans: A column may be considered short when its effective length does not exceed 12

times the least lateral dimension.

3. Define long column?

Ans: A column may be considered long when its effective length exceeds 12 times the

least lateral dimension.

4. Explain about transverse reinforcement

longitudinal reinforcement by transverse links to provide a resistant against outward

buckling of each of the longitudinal bars.

5. What are the requirement provided for IS code for design of columns?

Ans:

6. Explain about buckling of columns?

Some times columns do not fail entirely by crushing but also by bending or

buckling. Bending of column is know as bucking.

7. Explain slender columns?

Ans: When the ratio of the effective length to the lateral dimension of the column section

exceeds 12 the column is regarded as long or slender column.

8. What are the assumptions made for designing the compression members?

9. Explain Minimum eccentricity?

Ans: All columns shall be designed for minimum eccentricity equal to the unsupported

length of column/500 plus lateral dimension/30, subject to a minimum of 20mm.

10. Write short notes on helical reinforcement?

Ans: Helical reinforcement shall be of regular formation with the turns of the helix

spaced evenly and its ends shall be anchored properly by providing one and a half extra

turns of the spiral bar. Where an increased load on the column on the strength of the

helical reinforcement is allowed for, the pitch of the helical turns shall be not more than

75mm, nor more than one sixth of the case diameter of the column, nor less than 25mm,

nor less than three times the diameter of the steel bar forming the helix.

11. Write short notes on effective length of column ?

Ans: (a) In the absence of more exact analysis, the effective length of columns in framed

structures may be obtained from the ratio of effective length to unsupported length l ef/l

when relative displacement of the ends of the column is prevented and when relative

lateral displacement is not prevented. In the latter case, it is recommended that the

effective length ratio lef/l may not be taken less than 1.2.

12. What is composite column?

Ans: A composite column is the one in which the reinforcement is placed centrally and

with four or more longitudinal bars. Other steel sections may also be used. However,

composite columns are used for heavy loads.

13. Explain about load carrying capacity of short column?

Ans: The following are the types of load carrying capacity of short column:

(a) Short columns with lateral ties.

(b) Short column with helical reinforcement

(c) Composite column

14. Write about short column with lateral ties?

Ans: According to the classical elastic theory or the compatible strain theory, when a

reinforced concrete column is loaded, both concrete and steel have equal strains during

initial stage of loading, because they are well bonded. Hence if P is the load on the

column, the loads carried by steel bars (Ps) and that carried by surrounding concrete (Pc)

bears the relation

P = Pc + Ps

15. Explain short column with helical reinforcement?

Ans: For a column having longitudinal reinforcement tied with spirals (i.e. helical

reinforcement), the load carrying capacity is taken as 1.05 times the strength of smaller

member with lateral ties. This similar clause is valid only if the ratio volume of helical

reinforcement to the volume of core is not less than 0.36 (Ag/Ac 1) fck/

Where: Ag = gross area of section

Ac = area of core helical reinforced column measured to the outside diameter of

the helix

fck = characteristic compression strength of the concrete

fy = characteristic strength of helical reinforcement but not exceeding 415 N/mm2

16. How to arrange transverse reinforcement?

Ans: Arrangement of transverse reinforcement:

i.

If the longitudinal bars are not spaced more than 75mm on either side transverse

reinforcement need only to go round corner and alternate bars for the purpose of

providing effective lateral supports.

ii.

diameter of the tie are effectively tied in two direction, additional longitudinal

iii.

bars in between these bars need to be tied in one direction by open ties.

Where the longitudinal reinforcing bars in a compression member are placed in

more than one row, effective lateral support to the longitudinal bars in the inner

rows may be assumed to have been provided if (a) transverse reinforcement is

provided for outermost row in accordance with (2) above, and (b) no bar of the

corner row is closer to the nearest compression face than three times the diameter

iv.

Where longitudinal bars in a compression member are grouped (not in contact)

and each group adequately tied with transverse reinforcement in accordance with

clause (2), the transverse reinforcement for the compression member as a whole

may be provided on the assumption that each group is a single longitudinal bar for

purpose of determining the pitch and diameter of the transverse reinforcement in

accordance with clause (2). The diameter of such transverse reinforcement need

not, however, exceed 20mm.

Ans Pedestal is an enlarged bulb of a vertical shaft of plain concrete of a pedestal pile.

18. Explain the pitch and diameter of lateral ties?

Ans: Pitch: The pitch of the transverse reinforcement shall not be more than the least of

the following: (1) the least lateral dimension of the compression member; (2) sixteen

times the smallest diameter of the longitudinal reinforcement bar to be tied; (3) Forty

eight times the diameter of the transverse reinforcement.

Diameter: The diameter of the polygonal links or lateral ties shall not be less than onefourth of the diameter of the largest longitudinal bar, and in no case less than 5mm.

19. Write about the cover to reinforcement?

Ans: for a longitudinal reinforcing bar in column, the cover shall not be less than 40 mm,

nor less than the diameter of such bar. In case of columns of minimum dimension of

200mm or under, whose reinforcing bars does not exceed 12 mm, a cover of 25mm may

be used.

20. Explain about the slenderness limits for the column?

(i)

The unsupported length between end restraints shall not exceed 60 times the

(ii)

If, in a given plane, one end of a column is unrestrained, its unsupported

length l, shall not exceed 100b2/D.

D = depth of the cross-section measured in the plane under consideration.

21. Differentiate spacing and pitch

Spacing is the term is the centre to centre between the striups pitch is the term for

centre to centre between the ties

22. Write short notes on slender composite members

23. Write the formula for find out load for column

24. Differentiate short column and long column?

Ans: A column may be considered short when its effective length does not exceed 12

times the least lateral dimension whereas column may be considered long when its

effective length exceeds 12 times the least lateral dimension.

25. Explain about composite column?

Ans: A composite column is the one in which the reinforcement is placed centrally and

with four or more longitudinal bars. Other steel sections may also be used. However,

composite columns are used for heavy loads.

UNIT-V

PART-B

1. What are the types of footing?

Ans: The types of footings are:

i.

ii.

iii.

iv.

v.

Spread footing

Combined footing

Strap or cantilever footing

Mat or raft footing

Wall footing

vi.

vii.

viii.

ix.

Stepped footing

Sloped footing

Single footing

Pile foundation

2. How do classify one way footing and two ways footing in foundation?

Ans: One way footings are those in which the reinforcement extending in each direction

shall be distributed uniformly across the full width of the footing.

Two way footings are those in which the reinforcement in the longer direction

shall be distributed uniformly across full width of footing.

3. Write a formula for find out the depth

Ans: h=

where h = minimum depth below the soil surface to the soffit of the footing

p = safe bearing capacity of the soil

w = unit weight of soil

3. Assumption made for design of foundation?

Ans: The assumptions made for the design of foundation are:

i.

The soil is homogenous and isotropic and its shear strength is represented by

ii.

Coulombs equation.

The strip footing has a rough base, and the problem is essentially two

iii.

dimensional.

The elastic zone has straight boundaries inclined at = to the horizontal, and

iv.

Pp consists of three components which can be calculated separately and added,

v.

although the critical surfaces for these components are not identical.

Failure zones do not extend above the horizontal plane through the base of the

footing, i.e. the shear resistance of soil above the base is neglected and the effect

of soil around the footing is considered equivalent to a surcharge =D.

5. Causes of failure of foundation?

6. Draw the neat sketch for strap footing

7. General design requirement for footing?

i.

Depth of foundation

ii.

iii.

iv.

v.

Bending moments

Shear force

Transfer of load at the base of column

Tensile reinforcement

Ans: When the two column loads are unequal, with the outer column carrying heavier

load, and when there is space limitation beyond the outer column, a trapezoidal footing is

provided.

9. Mention the types of pile footing?

Ans: Based on the function:

i.

ii.

iii.

iv.

v.

vi.

vii.

viii.

Friction pile

Compaction pile

Tension or uplift pile

Anchor pile

Fender pile and dolphins

Batter pile

Sheet pile

Based on materials and composition

i. Concrete pile

ii. Timber pile

iii.

Steel pile

iv. Composite pile

1. Explain eccentrically loaded footing?

Ans:

11. What are the types of combined footing?

Ans: The types of combined footings are:

i.

Rectangular combined footing

ii.

Trapezoidal combined footing

2. Explain about strap footing

Ans: If the independent spread footing of two columns is connected by a beam, it is

called strap footing. A strap footing may be used where the distance between the columns

is so great that the combined trapezoidal footing becomes quite narrow, with high

bending moments.

3. Write the load carrying capacity on piles?

Ans: The load carrying capacity of pile is defined as the maximum load which can be

carried by a pile, and at which the pile continues to sink without further increase of load.

Ans: Piles are commonly driven by means of a hammer supported by a crane or by a

special device known as a pile driver. The hammer is guided between two parallel steel

members known as leads. The leads are carried on a frame in such a way that they can be

supported in a vertical position or an inclined position.

15. Write the engineering news formula?

Ans: The Engineering News formula was proposed by A.M.Wellington (1818) in the

following general form:

Qa

Where

Qa = allowable load

H= height of fall

W= weight of hammer

F= factor of safety = 6

per blow

C= empirical constant.

Ans: The static formulae are based on assumption that the ultimate bearing capacity Q up

of a pile is the sum of the total ultimate skin friction R f and total ultimate point or end

bearing resistance Rp:

Qup = Rf + Rp

Or

Qup = As . rf + Ap . rp

Where As = surface area of pile upon which the skin friction acts

Ap = area of cross- section of pile on which bearing resistance acts

rf = average skin friction

rp = unit point or toe resistance

17. Define dynamic formula?

18. Explain about Hileys formula?

Qf =

Ans:

Where

W= weight of hammer, in kg

H = height of drop of hammer, in cm

C = total elastic compression= C1+ C2 +C3

C1, C2, C3 = temporarily elastic compression of dolly and packing, pile and soil

respectively

= efficiency of hammer, variable from 65 per cent for some double

acting steam hammers to 100 percent for drop hammers released by trigger.

efficiency of hammer blow( i.e. ratio of the energy after impact to

striking energy of ram)

19. Explain about pile footing?

Ans: Pile footings are designed as columns to resist the loads transmitted from the

structure. Usually R.C. columns of multi-storey buildings carrying heavy loads are

supported on reinforced concrete piles. The piles are designed for handling and driving

stresses. Piles are generally circular, square or octagonal in cross sectional shape.

20. Write short notes on eccentrically loaded footing

21. What are the types of combined footing?

Ans: The types of combined footings are:

i.

ii.

Trapezoidal combined footing

22. What is strap footing?

called strap footing. A strap footing may be used where the distance between the columns

is so great that the combined trapezoidal footing becomes quite narrow, with high

bending moments.

23. What is one way footing?

Ans: One way footings are those in which the reinforcement extending in each direction

shall be distributed uniformly across the full width of the footing.

24. Explain about two ways footing in foundation?

Ans: Two way footings are those in which the reinforcement in the longer direction shall

be distributed uniformly across full width of footing.

25. Explain about combined footing?

Ans: A spread footing which supports two or more columns is termed as a combined

footing.

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