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MBA- I Semester (I Year)

Subject & Code:- Selling & Negotiation Skills(110)

1a) Explain the traits of a sales person?

Ans.Some of the most successful salespeople share following personality traits
Personable : Being personable is universal among people who do well in
sales They also tend to be comfortable and confident in social settings."
Ambitious : Successful salespeople set goals for themselves and focus on
achieving those ambitions. They have a drive to succeed in all that they do and
thrive on success
Confident : Sales is not a profession for people with thin skins, because
rejection is commonplace. Salespeople hear the word "no" all the time, but
successful sellers have the confidence to take "no" as a challenge, not a
personal rejection.
Passionate Successful salespeople have a deep belief in and a dedication to
what they do and sell.
Independent : Sales is not a field for the insecure or faint of heart. Since
many positions are commission-based, the most successful salespeople are
typically self-starters who can take personal initiative by identifying the work
steps needed to achieve success.

Hard working : Successful salespeople have a good work ethic and do what
it takes to get the job done. They are also willing to roll up their sleeves and
work long hours to reach and surpass their goals.
Disciplined : Procrastination is a nonstarter for successful salespeople.
They possess tremendous follow-through and are not easily swayed from their
tasks or goals. They are good at organizing, planning and prioritizing, and
have a "do it now" mentality.
Positive : Successful salespeople see the glass as half full. Their positive
attitudes allow them to turn negatives into positives in any sales situation.
Persuasive : The best salespeople know what it's like to be in their prospect's
shoes, Leighton said. No customer likes to be "sold" to.
Adaptable : Successful salespeople understand that change is sometimes
necessary and are able to quickly adapt and do something differently if it
doesn't work.

2a) Explain Importance of selling?

Ans. Personal selling is an important marketing tool for small
businesses, particularly those that sell complex or high-value
products and services to other businesses, rather than
consumers. Companies can undertake personal selling by hiring
sales representatives who visit customers or by contacting
customers by telephone.
Sales representatives use their personal selling skills to increase the chances of a
successful sale. They aim to understand a prospects needs and offer a solution to

those needs in the form of a product or service that provides strong benefits and
represents value for money.
Companies that sell complex products must be able to demonstrate or explain
products to potential customers and deal with questions or queries. Sales
representatives can present products in a logical way, focusing on the benefits that
are relevant to different decision-makers, such as technical managers, purchasing
officers or finance executives.
Personal selling is important to companies marketing products that require a long
sales cycle. In business-to-business marketing, prospects move through a buying
process that involves a number of stages, including identification of a need,
development of a specification, selection of potential suppliers, evaluation of
suppliers offerings and a final purchasing decision.
To build long-term revenue for the future, representatives use personal selling
skills to develop strong relationships with customers. By contacting customers
after they make a purchase, for example, representatives can demonstrate that their
company offers high levels of customer care.

3a) Explain different types of sales job?

Ans. Types of sales job
Different Types of Sales Jobs
Although similar in essence, there are many different types of sales job, each
requiring different skills and personality types.
Direct Sales
Selling directly to the private individual, especially the homeowner. Products such
as home improvements (double-glazing, kitchens etc) and services such as
financial services, holiday time-sharing etc are commonly sold in this way. Sales
people are usually paid on a commission-only basis i.e. they only get paid if they
sell something. It is usually easy to obtain work in this way, and can offer a starter
a chance to get some sales experience.

Business to Business
Sales Working for a company selling products or services to other businesses.
Either directly to the user/user organisation, or indirectly through distributors.
Consumable sales (Sales Representative)
Selling low cost items to a regular clientele, usually in a small geographic territory.
In scientific terms, it might be selling laboratory chemicals to research institutions
in one or two counties.... Personal qualities required are: reliability, good
relationship builder, and stamina.
Capital equipment
funding bodies as well. The sales cycle can take up to a year and more.. Personal
qualities required: 5 years + sales experience, including capital sales experience,
freedom to travel extensively, high level negotiation skills.
OEM/Engineering sales (Technical Sales/Sales Engineer)
Selling at any level as above, but specifically selling to customers who incorporate
the product into equipment which they manufacture. An example would be selling
electronic components to equipment manufacturers. Pay varies according to the
level and complexity of the sale. Personal qualities required: high level of technical
competence, good relationship builder at all levels.
Service sales
Selling the services that either you or your organisation will provide to the
customer. Either low cost services (advertising, transport services) to high value
annual contracts worth millions, or high cost services such as management
consultancy. Indirect
Distributor sales
Selling either consumable products, or equipment, or both to companies which
then sell on to users/user organisations. This may take the form of negotiating at

head-office level, or visiting a branch structure nation-wide. Often involves work

abroad, appointing and managing distributor organisations, or individual agents,
assisting them with their business plans, training them on sales and product
knowledge, dual-calling to customers with distributors' representatives

4a) List various theories of selling & explain any 2 of them with example.
Ans. These are the different theories used in sales:
Selling Theory
1. AIDAS Theory: Where A stands for Attention
I stand for Interest
D stand for Desire
A stand for Action
S stand for Satisfaction
2. Right set of circumstances:
This theory is similar to that of situation response theory. I.e. salesperson must
secure attention, gain interest, present and get desired response. It depends upon
the skills the salesperson utilizes to a set of circumstances for predictable response.
Sales personnel try to apply this theory; although they experience difficulties in
many rightful selling situations as it cannot be manipulated. The set of
circumstances includes external and internal factors which the salesperson tries to
create favourable for getting desired response from a given situation.
This theory is known as seller-oriented theory.
3.Buying Formula theory of selling: This theory is known as Buyer-oriented
theory .It looks out at buyers side i.e. needs and expectation . The theory supports
the thinking process that goes on in prospects mind that causes decision to buy/not
to buy.
Buying Formula

Need (problem) solution purchase .

Since, purchase results in continuous relationship between buying and selling. So a
fourth element must be preset.
Need (problem) solution purchase satisfaction.
When need is felt solution may involve two components.
Need (problem) solution purchase satisfn/dissatisfn.
To ensure purchase the component trade name must be considered adequate &
buyer must experience pleasant feeling.
Need/problem product & services and Trade name Purchase satisfaction
Pleasant feeling
5a) what are the different phases of negotiation?
Ans. The 4 Phases of the Negotiation Process
1) Pre-negotiation
Everything we do, if we are to perform the activity properly, requires a certain
degree of preparation beforehand. No doubt, there are many occasions we
admonished ourselves for not being prepared, when things didn't turn out as well
as we thought they would. Preparation is tantamount to any successful activity or
endeavour. Negotiation is no different.
2) Conceptualization
This phase is where we develop the foundation of the agreement by framing the
issues, without becoming bogged down in the miniscule details. The building
blocks need to be put together to understand the basic concept of the agreement we
are seeking. It's like two separate parties coming together to consider the blueprint
design, or structure of the agreement. We are attempting to

formulate principles upon which we can both agree, such as who will provide
financing or the licensing aspects for example.
3) Settling the Details
Simply put, this phase sees the completion of the agreement. Here, we use our
external specialists to complete the details of the venture, that we are about to
mutually embark upon. This phase discusses the problems of implementing the
partnership realistically, so that it is both viable and workable. We also hammer out
the details as they relate to production, scheduling, handling delays, task
responsibility and authority. We will use our own technical and management
people to streamline the process so it works smoothly, and meets both our
standards and requirements.
4) Follow-up
Just because we've signed on the dotted line doesn't means that it ends there. We
cannot toss the contract into our files and forget about it. It seldom ends there as
problems always arise. Any aspect of any contract may need to be re-negotiated, or
the details altered to counter a broad variety of changing circumstances. Expensive
and embittered legal battles can be circumvented simply by keeping the lines of
communication open with our counterparts. We should be experienced enough by
now to understand, that nothing is ever as simple as it seems.

********************************All the Best*************************