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ChE 101 Fundamentals of Chemical Engineering

Principles of Material Balances


Outline ¤ Process Diagrams ¤ Unit Operations ¤ General Material Balance Equation ¤ Mixing. ILAR ¤ Tie Components ¤ Single-Unit Balances ¤ Multiple-Unit Balances ¤ Recycle and Bypass 2 .

Methods of Solving Material Balances Arithmetic (ratio method) Algebraic Combination of arithmetic and algebraic Graphical Computer (uses programs or packaged software) 3 .

General Steps in Solving Material Balances Read Draw DFA Basis MB Check • Identify the streams and equipment involved • Sketch a BFD or PFD with all streams • Identify known and unknown parameters • Choose and clearly state a convenient basis • Write overall and component balances. and other relating equations • Consider the given conditions and common sense 4 .

Find the mass M4 5 .Tie Component ¤ Enters in one input stream only ¤ Exits in one output stream only ¤ Is easily traced. and can be used in relating other components ¤ Ex.

Evaporation: An evaporator has a capacity to evaporate 30. If the evaporator is to operate at its rated capacity.Tie Component ¤ Ex. How much moisture evaporates per hour if the dried material contains 5% moisture? ¤ Ex. Drying: A batch dryer can handle 5000 kg feed per hour.000 kg of water per hour. What is the remaining weight of the cucumbers? ¤ Ex. A few days later they are found to be 98% water. 5000 kg of a material containing 30% moisture is to be dried. We want to concentrate a NaCl-water solution from 10% to 40%. You buy 100 kg of cucumbers that contain 99% water. what must the feed rate be? How much product is obtained per hour? 6 .

If the recovery is 96%.0 mole % acetone. and the rest.000 kg water per hour will be used to scrub 180 kmol per h of entering gas. 7 .05. The outgoing gas has a partial pressure of water equal to 4. 1. Extraction: A copra batch contains 44% oil and is to be extracted with n-hexane. and the mass fraction of n-hexane is 0. how many kilograms of n-hexane is required? ¤ Ex.07 kg oil/kg oil-free matter.Tie Component ¤ Ex. The extract contains 49% n-hexane.000 kg of copra are to be processed. air. The extracted meal contains 0. If 10.7 mole % water. calculate the mole fraction of acetone in the outlet gas and in the outlet water.325 kPa. Gas Absorption: A gas mixture contains 6. at the bottom. 10. The water is fed at the top of the tower while the gas.241 kPa. The acetone is to be recovered using an absorption tower that operates at 30°C and 101.

Distillation: We desire to produce two ethyl alcohol-water mixtures each containing 90% and 50% alcohol by mole from a dilute mixture containing 20% mole alcohol by distillation. If the bottoms contains 0.6% alcohol. that is. 8 . only 2% of the ethyl alcohol in the feed may go into the bottoms. calculate the amount of the different streams per 1000 kmol of feed stream. 98% of the ethyl alcohol in the feed is to be recovered in these two products.Single-Unit Balance ¤ Ex.

Crystallization: One thousand kilograms of a 64% NaNO3 solution in water is at a temperature of 100°C. This is sent to a crystallizer where it is cooled to 30°C. No water evaporates during cooling b. the solubility of NaNO3 is 96 parts per 100 parts of water (the solubility of NaNO3 is maximum amount of NaNO3 that can stay in solution.Single-Unit Balance ¤ Ex. Calculate the amount of crystals that precipitates out if a. the rests crystallizes out). At this temperature. 5% of the original water evaporates during cooling 9 .

Single-Unit Balance ¤ Ex. Membrane Separations: The figure below illustrates a nanoporous membrane used for separating nitrogen from oxygen in air. What is the composition of the waste stream if the waste stream amounts to 80% of the input stream? 10 .