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5.

02
Dec. 17,2015

ENDOCRINE SYSTEM: GROSS & HISTOLOGY Dr. Roberto Tan

I. Endocrine Gland
II. Pituitary Gland
III. Adrenals
IV. Thyroid Gland
V. Parathyroid Gland
VI. Pineal Gland
VII. Thymus
VIII. Diffuse Neuroendocrine System (DNES)
IX. Pancreas
X. Kidneys
XI. Testis
XII. Ovaries
XIII. Placenta

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
Identify the component organs of the endocrine
system
Describe the anatomy of each organ as to:
o Embryonic origin
o Location
o Anatomical relations
o Morphological structure
o Histologic organization and features
o Hormones secreted
o Vascular supply
I. ENDOCRINE GLAND
Ductless glands/ No secretory duct
Surrounded by rich vascular networks (highly
vascularized)
o Why? Because when you secrete your hormones, its
supposed to be taken up by the capillaries for
distribution throughout the body
o For efficient and fast distribution of hormones
into the bloodstream and to their target organs
Releases substances hormones (signaling molecules)
into the neighboring vascularized compartments
Cells typically epithelial, aggregate and arranged as
cords or in clusters
Distribution by the cirulation allows hormones to
act on target cells with receptors for those
hormones at adistance from the site of their
secretion
o Can be paracrine (with localized dispersal in
interstitial fluid or through short loops of
vessels)
o Can be juxtacrine (signaling moleculeremains
on the secreting cells surface or adjacent
extracellular matrix and affects target cells
when the cells make contact)
Particularly important in embryonic and
regenerative tissue interactions
o Can be autocrine (cells may produce molecules
that act on themselves or on cells of the same
type)

Can be hydrophilic like neurotransmitters,


proteins, glycoproteins, peptides or hydrophobic
like steroid and thyroid hormones
Component organs: (see appendix for general body
orientation of these glands)
o Pituitary gland (Hypophysis)
o Adrenal (Suprarenal) glands
o Thyroid gland
o Parathyroid glands
o Pineal gland (Epiphysis cerebri)
o Thymus
o Diffuse Neuroendocrine System (DNES)
o Pancreatic Islets (Langerhans)
o Kidneys
o Testis
o Ovaries
o Placenta
II. PITUITARY GLAND (HYPOPHYSIS)
II-A. GROSS ANATOMY
Gr. hypo (under) + physis (growth
Lies below the brain in a small cavity on the sphenoid
bone, sella turcica
Composed of an anterior part (adenohypophysis)
and a posterior part (neurohypophysis) that is
directly attached to the hypothalamus region of the
brain by an infundibular stalk (infundibulum)
Regulated by the endocrine functions of the
hypothalamus
Weight: 0.5 g (adult)
o Males: 0.5 g | Multiparous females: 1.5 g (from
2018 trans)
Diameter: 10 x 13 x 16 mm
Anatomical relations:
o Optic chiasm first affected in enlarged
pituitary
o Internal carotid artery
o Oculomotor nerve (CN III)
o Trochlear nerve (CN IV)

Figure 1. Pituitary gland (coronal section) from Dr. Tans


ppt

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II-A-1. TWO DIVISIONS OF THE PITUITARY


GLAND

Anterior Pituitary Gland/ Adenohypophysis


o has the characteristics of an endocrine gland
o 3 parts:
Pars distalis largest; anterior portion
Pars tuberalis wraps around the
infundibulum
Pars intermedia adjacent to the posterior
pars nervosa; in between the pars distalis and
neurohypophysis
Posterior Pituitary Gland/ Neurohypophysis
o Has the histologic features of brain tissue
o 2 parts:
Infundibulum stalk that bridges
hypothalamic and hypophyseal systems in the
area of the median eminence
Pars nervosa majority of the posterior
pituitary and is the storage site of oxytocin
and vasopressin

Figure 3. Hypothalamic-Hypophyseal tract (posterior


pituitary gland or neurohypophysis)
2. HYPOTHALAMIC-HYPOPHYSEAL PORTAL SYSTEM
From the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary gland
(adenohypophysis)
Carries neuropeptides from the median eminence to
the adenohypophysis, where they either stimulate or
inhibit hormone release of the anterior pituitary
endocrine cells
This portal system, with blood from the superior
hypophyseal artery, consists of two capillary
networks connected by the hypophyseal portal vein.
The primary plexus surrounds the infundibulum and
median eminence, and the second is throughout the
pars distalis and drains into the hypophyseal veins

Figure 2. Divisions of the Pituitary gland (Junquiera, 2013)


II-A-2. NEUROVASCULAR SYS TEMS (2 TYPES)
1. HYPOTHALAMIC-HYPOPHYSEAL TRACT
Consists of axons extending from the hypothalamic
supraoptic and paraventricularnuclei, through the
infundibulum and into the pars nervosa of the posterior
pituitary, where peptide hormones they carry are
released for capillary uptake
A bundle of axons which courses into the
neurohypophysis from two important hypothalamic
nuclei:
o Supraoptic(synthesizes ADH)
Tip: SupraadHuman
o Paraventricular nuclei (synthesizes oxytocin)
Both hormones undergo axonal transport and
accumulate temporarily in the axons of the
hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract before their release
and uptake by capillaries branching from the inferior
hypophysealartery for distribution throughout the
body.

Figure 4. Hypothalamic-Hypophyseal Portal


(Anterior pituitary gland or Adenohypophysis)

System

II-A-3. BLOOD SUPPLY

Branches of the Internal Carotid artery


o Superior hypophyseal artery
Forms the primary plexus of capillaries to
supply the following:
Infundibulum
Medianeminence
After forming the capillaries, they would again
rejoin to form the secondary plexus in the
adenohypophysis, and this is what you call the
hypothalamic-hypophyseal portal system
These vessels are the ones used by the
hypothalamus to send regulatory peptides
down to your adenohypophysis

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Inferior hypophyseal artery supplies the:


Neurohypophysis
Drained by the HYPOPHYSEAL VEIN
o

Superior Hypophyseal Artery


divides into

Posterior pituitary gland/ Neurohypophysis


o Comes from the floor of the future diencephalon
o Grows down as the neurohypophyseal bud
from the floor of the future diencephalon as a
stalk (or infundibulum) that remains attached
to the brain
o It remains as a stalk because it has to be
connected to the brain

Primary Plexus of Caplillaries


supplying the median eminence & stalk of the pituitary
gland
unite to form:

Hypothalamic-Hypophyseal Portal Veins


happens in the:

Adenohypophysis

Secondary plexus of capillaries/


Hypothalamic-Hypophyseal Portal System
important since it carries the neuropeptides to the
adenohypophysis for regulation of hormone secretion

Figure 5. Vascular tract of the Superior Hypophyseal Artery


(from 2018A trans)

II-B. EMBRYOLOGY
Pituitary glands dual origin
o Formed in the embryo partly from the developing
brain (posterior part) and partly from the
developing oral cavity (anterior part)
o Joined anatomically but with different functions
Anterior pituitary gland/ Adenohypophysis
o Comes from the mouth or the floor of the pharynx
o Arises as an outpocketing of the oral ectoderm
from the primitive mouth and grows cranially,
forming a structure called the hypophyseal
(Rathke) pouch.
o The base of this pouch eventually constricts and
separates from the pharynx
o Its anterior wall then thickens greatly, reducing
the pouchs lumen to a small fissure
o The 3 parts of the adenohypophysis are derived
embryonically from the hypophyseal (Rathke)
pouch

Figure 6. Embryonic origin of Hypophysis (see Appendix)


The pituitary gland forms from two separate embryonic
structures.
(a) During the third week of development, a hypophyseal
pouch (or Rathke pouch, the future anterior pituitary)
grows from the roof of the pharynx, while a
neurohypophyseal bud (future posterior pituitary) forms
from the diencephalon.
(b) By late in the second month, the hypophyseal pouch
detaches from the roof of the pharynx and merges with the
neurohypophyseal bud.
(c) During the fetal period, the anterior and posterior parts
of the pituitary complete development. (Junqueira, 2013)

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II-C. HISTOLOGY

Figure 7. Pituitary gland. (Junquiera, 2013)


Histologically the two parts of the pituitary gland
reflect their origins, as seen in this low-magnification
section of an entire gland. The infundibular stalk (IS)
and pars nervosa (PN) of the neurohypophysis
resemble the CNS tissue, while the adenohypophysis
pars distalis (PD), pars intermediate (PI), and pars
tuberalis (PT) are typically glandular in their level of
staining. (Junqueira)
The anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis) is darkly
stained and the posterior or brain part
(neurohypophysis) is lighter because of the axons
II-C-1. ANTERIOR PITUITAR Y GLAND
1. PARS DISTALIS
Accounts for 75% of the adenohypophysis
Has a thin fibrous capsule
Main components: cords of well-stained endocrine
cells interspersed with fenestrated capillaries and
supporting reticular connective tissue
2 groups of cells in pars distalis with different
staining affinities:
o Chromophobes
Stain
weakly;
smaller
than
the
chromophils
Few secretory or NO secretory granules
at all
Represent a heterogeneous group,
including stem and undifferentiated
progenitor cells as well as any
degranulated cells present
o Chromophils
Secretory cells
Cytoplasmic granules where you will find
your hormones(where hormones are
stored)
Classified into acidophils & basophils,
based on their affinities for acidic and
basic dyes respectively
ACIDOPHIL more numerous and the easiest
to identify due to the acidophilic granules in
the cytoplasm (Disecction and Histology
Manual Part 2)

Lactotrophs secrete prolactin (to


promote milk production)
Somatotrophs secrete somatotropin
(growth hormone)
**should not be confused with
somatostatin which is an inhibitory
hormone**
BASOPHIL rarest and most difficult to
identify with certainty (Dissection and
Histology Manual Part 2)
Gonadotrophssecrete
folliclestimulating
hormone
(FSH)
and
luteinizing
hormone
(LH;
called
interstitial cell-stimulating hormone
[ICSH] in men)
Corticotrophs secrete adrenocortical
trophic hormone (ACTH) and -lipotropin
(-LPH)
Thyrotrophs secrete thyrotropin (TSH)
***tip: base= can be shaped like tiles***
Go Catch Tiles
NOTE: Acidophils secretehormones for development (i.e.
for enlargement of breasts and for the general growth of
the body) while Basophils secrete stimulating hormones
(Dr. Quijano during histology laboratory session)
*see Figure 2 in Appendix for Hormones of the Pars
Distalis and their Targets

Figure 8. Pars Distalis. Acidophils (A), Basophils (B),


Chromophobes (C) (Junquiera, 2013)

Figure 9. Pars Distalis. From left to right.Acidophils,


Basophils, Chromophobes (from 2018A trans)

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Figure 10. Pars Distalis. (A) Acidophil, (B) Basophil, and (C)
Chromophobe (from the slide given by Dr. Quijano; identified
by Dr. Quijano and Dr. Elevaso in the histology lab session)
2. PARS TUBERALIS
A smaller funnel-shaped region surrounding the
infundibulum of the neurohypophysis
Cells present are mostly GONADOTROPHS
(predominantly basophils)
Alongside with the infundibular stalk and median
eminence, may or may not be included in the
slides, depending on the cut of the specimen
(Dissection and Histology Manual Part 2)
***tubes=gonads***
3. PARS INTERMEDIA
A thin zone of basophils between pars distalis and
pars nervosa (neurohypophysis) invaded by
basophils(which also line the colloid follicles)
Develops from the dorsal wall of the hypophyseal
pouch and usually contains colloid-filled cysts of
various sizes that represent remnants of that
structures lumen
With uncertain significance

.
Figure 11. Pars intermedia (PI) lies between the pars
distalis (PD) and the pars nervosa (PN), with many of its
basophilic cells (B) usually invading the latter. Remnants of
the embryonic hypophyseal pouchs lumen are usually
present in this region as colloid-filled cysts (C) of various
sizes. (Junquiera, 2013)

Figure 12. Pars intermedia: dark-stained area in between


the posterior and the anterior pituitary (Dr. Tans ppt)
*see Table in Appendix for Major Cell Types of Ant.
Pituitary and Their Major Functions

II-C-2. POSTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND


Composition: Pars nervosa & infundibulum
No secretory cells
Consist mainly of unmyelinated axons from
hypothalamic
neurons

Supraoptic
and
Paraventricular nuclei
Pituicytes
o Dominant cells in the posterior pituitary
o Resemble astrocytes
Herring / Neurosecretory bodies
o Axonal dilations where hormones accumulate
o Where the secreted hormones oxytocin and ADH
are stored

Figure 13. The pars nervosa of the posterior pituitary


consists
of
modified
neural
tissues
containing
unmyelinatedaxoons supported and ensheathed by glia cells
called pituicytes (P), the most numerous cell present. The
axons run from the supraoptic and paraventricular
hypothalamic nuclei, and have swellings called
neurosecretory (Herring) bodies (NB) from which either
oxytocin or vasopressin is released upon neural stimulation.
The released hormones are picked up by capillaries (C) for
distribution (Junquiera, 2013)

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Hypothalamic nuclei
Supraoptic Nucleus Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
**SupraHuman**
Paraventricular Nucleus - Oxytocin

Table 3. Hormones of the Posterior Pituitary and their


funcitons
PARS NERVOSA
Hormone
Function
Increases water
permeability of kidney
Vasopressin/ Antidiuretic
collecting ducts and
hormone (ADH)
promotes vascular smooth
muscle contraction
Acts on contraction of
uterine smooth muscle
Oxytocin
and the myoepithelial cells
of the mammary gland

III. ADRENAL GLANDS


III-A. GROSS ANATOMY
Paired organs near the superior poles of the kidneys
Usually half-moon in shape
Weight and size vary with age and physiologic
condition
Covered by a dense connective tissue capsule that
sends thin trabeculae into the glands parenchyma
The stroma consists mainly of reticular fibers
supporting the secretory cells and microvasculature

Figure 15. Layers of the Adrenal gland: cortex (C) and


medulla (M); suprarenal vein (V) (Dr. Tans ppt)
III-A-2. BLOOD SUPPLY

Superior part: SUPERIOR SUPRARENAL A. (from


Inferior Phrenic artery)
**because its sort of near the diaphragm**
Middle part: MIDDLE SUPRARENAL A. (directly from
Abdominal aorta)
Inferior part: INFERIOR SUPRARENAL A. (from Renal
artery) **because its nearest to the kidney**

Figure 14. The Adrenal Gland with different layers: Capsule,


Cortex, and Medulla (Dr. Tans ppt)

III-A-1. LAYERS
Cortex (Yellowish) from MESODERM
Medulla (Reddish brown) from NEURAL CREST
CELLS
Histologically, both the cortex and medulla grouped in
cords with capillaries

Figure 16. Blood supply to the adrenals (Junquiera, 2013)


The adrenal glands are supplied by several arteries that
enter at various points around their periphery. The
branches of these arteries form cortical arterioles,
which branch as capillaries and sinusoids that irrigate
the cortex and then join the medullary capillaries, and
medullary arterioles, which penetrate directly to the
medulla and form a network of fenestrated sinusoids
there.
The adrenal medulla thus has a dual blood supply with
both arterial blood from the medullary arterioles and
venous blood from capillaries of the cortex.

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III-A-3. VENOUS DRAINAGE


The capillaries and sinusoids give rise to the central
medullary veins, which join as the suprarenal vein leaving
the gland
Right suprarenal vein (directly drain into IVC)
Left suprarenal vein (drain first into left renal vein
which drains into the IVC)

LAYERS OF THE ADRENAL CORTEX

III-B. HISTOLOGY

Figure 17. Layers of the Adrenals (Junquiera, 2013)


*In the practicals, this comes out. For your orientation on
the layers, the capsule should always be on top and the
lower part should be the medulla. The medulla will have
your sinusoids. Usually, you are asked to identify the zone.
Your basis should always be the middle part. If youll study
the adrenal cortex, you will have your G, F, and R;
glomerulosa, fasciculata and reticularis. And in the
middle would be your medulla.
III-B-1. ADRENAL CORTEX

Cells: typical structure of steroid secreting cells


o Acidophilic cytoplasm rich in lipid droplets/
profuse smooth ER*
(*enzymes for cholesterol synthesis & conversion
of steroid pro-hormone pregnenolone to active
steroid hormones)
o Mitochondria are spherical and with enzymes to
convert cholesterol to pregnenolone/ATP/steroid
synthesis
Steroid hormones are not stored in secretory granules
o Diffuse freely through plasma membrane

Figure 18.Layers of the Adrenal cortex: Cortex


(zonaglomerulosa (G), zona fasciculate (F), zonareticularis
(R)) and medulla (M) (Dr. Tans ppt)

ZONA GLOMERULOSA (15% of the total volume of


the gland)
o Rounded clusters of cells, just like your glomerulus
o Closely packed, rounded or arched cords of
columnar or pyramidal cells
o Secrete mineralocorticoids in the form of
aldosterone (main regulator of salt)for sodium
balance; stimulated primary by angiotensin II and
increase in K+, weakly by ACTH

Figure 19. Zona glomerulosa

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ZONA FASCICULATA(65 80% of the total volume


of the gland)
o Elongated strands of cells, just like fascicles
o Thickest and lightest layer
o Long straight cords of large polyhedral cells
(polyhedral- many surfaces and many sides)
o Cytoplasm is densely filled with lipid droplets.
o These cells are sometimes called spongiocytes.
o Secrete glucocorticoids in the form of cortisol or
corticosterone, controlled by ACTH (participates
primarily in CHO METABOLISM and also induces
FAT mobilization and CHON breakdown;
suppresses the immune response)

III-B-2. ADRENAL MEDULLA

Cells are large pale-staining polyhedral cells arranged


in cords or clumps
Considered as modified postganglionic neurons
because they originally came from NEURAL CREST
CELLS, lacking axons and dendrites and specialized as
secretory cells
Have abundant secretory granules because they
produce EPINEPHRINE AND NOREPINEPHRINE
(80%)
Chromaffin cells
o Cells of adrenal medulla
o Secretory granules stain brown with potassium
dichromate
o Would contain catecholamines: Epinephrine
(80%) and Norepinephrine
o It is only in the chromaffin cells in the adrenal
medulla, where norepinephrine is converted to
epinephrine

Figure 20. Zona fasciculata

ZONA RETICULARIS(10%of the total volume of the


gland)
o Just like a network of cells
o Smaller cells in network of irregular cords
o More heavily (darkly) stained due to fewer lipid
droplets and more lipofuscin pigment
o Secretes weak androgen stimulated by ACTH:
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) which is
converted to testosterone in other tissues

Figure 21. Zona reticularis

Figure 22. Adrenal medulla (Dr. Tans ppt)


IV. THYROID GLAND

Figure 23. Thyroid gland from ppt. of Dr. Tan

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Anterior & inferior to the larynx. It is an encapsulated


bilobed gland.
The 2 lobes of thymus are connected by an isthmus
which is in front of 2nd 4th tracheal rings.
Origin: from 1st & 2nd pharyngeal pouches (foregut
endoderm)
IV-A. BLOOD SUPPLY

Figure 24. Blood Supply of Thyroid Gland (from Dr. Tans


ppt)
It has 3 main blood supplies
o Superior Thyroid Artery- first branch of the
external carotid artery. It supplies the superior
part of the thyroid gland. Intimate with external
laryngeal nerve.
o Inferior Thyroid Artery- branch of thyrocervical
trunk. It supplies the inferior part of the thyroid
gland. Intimate with the recurrent laryngeal nerve.
o Thyroidea Ima- present in approximately 10% of
people. It is in the middle part of the gland and
may arise from the brachiocephalic artery,
internal mammary artery and arch of the aorta.
IV-B. NERVE SUPPLY

External branch of Superior Laryngeal Nerveis closely related to the superior thyroid artery
and is motor to the cricothyroid muscle.
o Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve- is very closely
related with the inferior thyroid artery. Left
recurrent laryngeal nerve loops around the arch of
the aorta. Right recurrent laryngeal nerve loops
around the subclavian artery
IV-C. HISTOLOGY OF THYROID GLAND
o

Figure 26. Microscopic View of Thyroid Parenchyma (Dr.


Tans PPT)
The parenchyma of the thyroid gland are composed of
millions of epithelial rounded follicles.
It is the only endocrine gland that can store large
quantity of secretory products for as long as 3
monthswithout undergoingany form of production.
Follicular cells/ Thyrocytes- small dark circles. Its
cell type can vary from squamous to low columnar
depending on functional activity if its hypoactive or
active, respectively.
Parafollicular cells/ C Cells / clear cells
o It is found inbetween your thyroid follicles (Dr.
Tan). In Dr. Tans ppt, it is found in the basal lamina
of follicles or as isolated clusters.
o Developed from neural crest cells
o Larger than thyrocytes and lightly-stained
o Secretes calcitonin for our calcium. However, its
function is less important compared to our
parathyroid gland.
Calcitonin acts to reduce blood calcium
(Ca2+), opposing the effects of parathyroid
hormone (Boron et al., 2004)
Colloid
o The inside part colored purple, surrounded by
follicular cells
o Where your T4 (tetraiodothyronine) and T3
(triiodothyronine) are stored

Figure 25. Nerve Supply of Thyroid Gland (Dr. Tans ppt)


The thyroid gland has 2 main nerve supplies

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Its precursor cell is the thyroglobulin (will be
broken down to thyroxine which controls the
bodys metabolism and conversion of food into
heat)

V. PARATHYROID GLAND

Increased osteoclast stimulating factor


production.
Increased Ca2+ reabsorption in the distal
convoluted tubules
Stimulates vit. D activation increasing
Ca2+ absorption in the small intestines.
Oxyphil Cells or Acidophilic Cells
o Larger, more acidophilic
o The older you are the more oxyphil cells you
have and younger you are the more principal
cells you have. (Principal- P Pambata &
Oxyphil- O Old Cells)

O
Figure 27. Parathyroid Gland (Dr. Tans ppt.)

Located on the posterior surface of the thyroid gland.


It has 2 pairs, the superior and inferior part.
Origin: It comes from your 3rd and 4th pharyngeal
pouches. The superior coming from your 4th and
inferior from your 3rd pharyngeal pouches. (Just to
remember: Samsung s4 Superior from 4th

Figure 29. Comparison of Principal cells and Oxyphil Cells.


P- Principal Cells and O- Oxyphil Cells (Dr. Tans ppt)
VI. PINEAL GLAND

V-A. HISTOLOGY OF PARA THYROID GLAND

Pineal Gland

Figure 30. Pineal Gland (Dr. Tans ppt)


Regulates the daily rhythm of the body
Also known as the epiphysis cerebri
Very small and pine cone-shaped.
Origin: from the neuroectoderm of the posterior
wall of the 3rd ventricle.
Figure 28. Principal cells and Oxyphil Cells. (P- Principal
Cells and O- Oxyphil Cells) (Dr. Tans ppt)
Principal cells or Chief cells
o Small polygonal cell with round nuclei and
pale staining, slightly acidophilic cytoplasm.
o Secretes parathyroid hormone (PTH) which
regulates blood calcium
PTH increases blood calcium level through:

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VI-A. HISTOLOGY OF PINEAL GLAND

Figure 31. Pineal Gland with Pinealocytes, Brain Sands and


Astrocytes. CA- Corpora Arenacea, A- Astrocytes PPinealocytes (Dr. Tans Ppt)
Pinealocytes
o Large and slightly basophilic cytoplasm, irregular
euchromatic nuclei
o Produces melatonin
o Secretion of melatonin peaks during night time.
Melatonin induces physiologic changes in our
body to make us fall asleep. During daytime the
secretion of melatonin is low. It has to be that way
for us to stay awake. (Dr. Tan, 2015)
Brain Sands/ Corporea aranecea
o Concretion of Calcium and Magnesium Salts.
o The older you are the more you have. The function
is unknown, but it does not disturb the endothelial
gland.

Astrocytes- its difference with the pinealocytes is that


it has a longer nucleus parang cigar-shaped.

Figure 32. Thymus development. Micrograph shows cortex


and medulla. (Junqueira, 2013)
Origin: It developed from two embryonic origins:
o Mesoderm
Precursor lymphoblasts originate in the
bone marrow which is of mesodermal origin
o Endoderm
From bone marrow it then moves to invade
a unique epithelium that developed from the
endoderm of the embryos 3rd pair of
pharyngeal pouches

Table 4. Melatonin (from Dr. Tans ppt but not discussed)


Hormone
Melatonin

Compositio
n
Indolamine
(N-Acetyl-5methoxytry
ptamine)

Source

Major Functions

Pinealocyte
s

Regulate daily body


rhythms and daylight
cycyle
(Circadian rhythm
inhibits GnRH and
regulates steroidogenic
activity of the gonads
particularly as related
to the menstrual cycle;
in animals influences
sexual activity)

Figure 33. Origin of Thymus (Dr. Tans ppt)

VII. THYMUS
Central lymphoid organ for T-cell production
Encapsulated, bilobed structure in the mediastinum
More of an immune system organ than endocrine
gland
Secretes thymopoetin and thymosins which induces
T cells to differentiate
Undergoes involution at puberty, mostly replaced by
adipose tissue

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THYMUS: CORTEX

VIII. DIFFUSE NEUROE NDOCRINE SYSTEM


(DNES)

Figure 34.Cortex of the Thymus with thymic epithelial cells


(E) (Junqueira, 2013)
In an active thymus, cortex is packed with small,
highly basophilic lymphoblasts that proliferate as well
as undergo positive and negative selection in that
region.
The lymphoblasts are supported on a meshwork of
epithelial reticular cells/thymic epithelial cells.
Peripheral dark zone because of many lymphoblasts

Figure 36. Enteroendocrine cells (Dr. Tans ppt)


Also known as Enteroendocrine Cells
Origin: from endodermal cells of embryonic gut
can also be found at pancreas sometimes also in lungs
Regulates motility and secretion of all types within the
digestive system thus can be found anywhere in the
GIT
Mucous neck cells, parietal cells, chief cells,
enterochromaffin, D cells, and G cells

THYMUS: MEDULLA

Figure 35. Medulla of Thymus with Hassal Carpuscle (HC)


(Junqueira, 2013)
The thymic medulla has less lymphocytesthan the
cortex
Most characteristic feature is the Hassall corpuscles
that contain many epithelial reticular cells/thymic
epithelial
cellsrelease
cytokines
for
the
differentiation of regulatory T-cells

Figure 37. Cell types and its corresponding secretion (Dr.


Tans ppt)
If stained with:
o Chromium salt: Enterochromaffin cells
o Silver nitrate: Argentaffin cells

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Table 5. Principal enteroendocrine cells in the GIT (see


Appendix for Junqueiras table)
Cell type and
Hormone
Major Action
Location
Produces
X/A-like:
Increase sense of
Ghrelin
stomach
hunger
Stimulation of
G: pylorus
Gastrin
gastric acid
secretion
Pancreatic
and biliary
S: small intestine
Secretin
bicarbonate
and water
secretion
Gastric
Inhibition of
K: small
Inhibitory
gastric acid
intestine
Polypeptide
secretion
(GIP)
Glucagon-like
Decrease sense
L: small intestine
peptide (GLP-1)
of hunger
Pancreatic
enzyme
Cholecystokinin
I: small intestine
secretion,
(CCK)
gallbladder
contraction
Local inhibition
O: pylorus,
Somatostatin
of other
duodenum
endocrine cells
Mo: small
Increased gut
Motilin
intestine
motility
EC: digestive
Serotonin,
Increased gut
tract
substance P
motility
Vasoactive
Increased ion
D1: digestive
Intestinal
and water gun
tract
Polypeptide
motility
(VIP)
secretion

Mostly are polypeptides acting in a paracrine


manner
When you say paracrine, the hormones secreted would
travel on short distances because they would act on
neighboring structures
They are called neuroendocrine because they could
secrete structures from secretory cells such as serotonin,
which you would use for mood balance
Secretes serotonin for mood balance
Such secretory cells are considered neuroendocrine
because they produce many of the same polypeptides
and neurotransmitter-like molecules such as serotonin
(5-hydroxytryptamine)
also
released
by
neurosecretory cells in the CNS.
APUD
cells
amine
precursor
uptake
&
decarboxylation activity; APUD is now replaced by
single-letter names (see Table 5).
DNES cells regulate motility and secretions of all
types within the digestive system

Those DNES diffuse neuroendocrine system cells


secreting serotonin or certain other amine derivatives
demonstrate amine precursor uptake and
decarboxylation /APUD cells
IX. PANCREAS

Figure 38. The Pancreas (Dr. Tans ppt)


Pancreatic islets (Islets of Langerhans)
o Compact spherical/ egg-shaped/ ovoid masses of
endocrine tissue embedded within the acinar
exocrine tissue of the pancreas

Figure 39. Islet of Langerhans (Dr. Tans ppt)


There are more that 1million islets, mostly located at
the tail of the pancreas

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Table 6. Pancreatic Hormones
Cell Quantity
Type
A
20%

Figure40. Pancreas (LPO) (Dr. Tans ppt)


Each islet consists of polygonal or rounded cells,
smaller and more lightly stained, which are arranged
in cords that are separated by a network of
fenestrated capillaries

Figure41. The major hormone-producing islets (Junqueira,


2013)
The major hormone producing islets are the ff.:

o
o
o

or A cells: secretes glucagon and are


usually located near the periphery of the
islets
or B cells: produce insulin and are located
centrally in the islets and are the most
abundant in type
or D cells: secretes somatostatin and are
scattered and much less abundant
F or PP cells: secretes pancreatic
polypeptide, located in the head of the
pancreas

70%

<5%

Rare

Position

Hormone
Hormonal function
produced
Usually in
Glucagon Acts on several tissues
periphery
to make energy stored
in glycogen and fat
available
through
glycogenolysis
and
lipolysis;
increases
blood glucose content
Central
Insulin
Acts on several tissues
region
to cause entry of
glucose into cells and
promotes decrease of
blood glucose content
Variable Somatostatin Inhibits release of other
islet cell hormones
through local paracrine
action
Variable
Pancreatic Stimulates gastric chief
polypeptide cells;
inhibits
bile,
pancreatic enzyme and
HCO3
secretion,
&
intestinal motility

Figure 42. (a) A low power micrograph of the tail of the


pancreas. (b) Micrograph on an enlarged islet showing its
capillary system. (c) W/ H&E staining cells of an islet. (d) An
islet prepared with the modified aldehyde fuchsin
stainshows granules in the peripheral A cells area deep
brownish purple and the central B cells granules are bright
orange.

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X. KIDNEYS

Figure43. The kidney and its blood flow. (Dr. Tans ppt)
(see Appendix)
Paired / retroperitoneal, bean shaped, reddish brown
organ
Extends from T12-L3
Development: through a series of successive phases
o Pronephros- Earliest nephric stage
o Mesonephros- 2nd stage
o Metanephros- Forms the permanent kidney
The pronephros is the most immature form of kidney
from the mesoderm

Figure 44. Kidney (LPO) (Dr. Tans ppt)


It produces two hormones
o Renin- regulates the bodys mean arterial
pressure via activation of angiotensinogen to
angiotensin I (vasoconstrictor)
o Erythropoietin stimulates RBC production,
(growth, maturation, & differentiation)

Figure 45. The renal corpuscle. Encircled is the macula


densa. Arrows pointed at the Bowmans or glomerular
capsule (Dr. Tans ppt)

XI. TESTIS
XI-A. GROSS ANATOMY

Figure 46. Testis and seminiferous tubules. (SC) Sertoli cells,


(IC) interstitial cells in the surrounding connective tissue
(Junqueira, 2013)
Tunica Albuginea - dense connective tissue covering
the testis.
Mediastinum Testis
o Thickening of the tunica albuginea at the posterior
part of the testis
o Form testicular lobules
Formed when fibrous septa penetrate the
testis at the mediastinum testis.(Beside your
seminiferous tubules would be your connective
tissue which contains the interstitial cells of
Leydig.)
Each lobule has at least 4 seminiferous
tubules.
o Seminiferous tubules
Produce male reproductive cells, the
spermatozoa.
Tunica Vaginalis
o Serous sac consists of 2 layers:
Parietal layers lining the scrotum
Visceral layer covering the tunica albuginea
on the lateral and anterior sides of the testis.
XI-B. HISTOLOGY

Figure 47. Seminiferous tubules are surrounded by


connective tissue containing many large interstitial cells
(IC). The tubule wall is a unique epithelium composed of
Sertoli cells (SC), with oval or pyramidal nuclei anddistinct
nucleoli, and dividing spermatogenic stem cells with round
nuclei(arrow).(Junqueira, 2013).

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Interstitial cells of Leydig


o Rounded or polygonal cells with central nuclei and
eosinophilic cytoplasm rich in small lipid droplets.
o Producesteroid hormone testosterone.
Promotes development of the secondary male
sex characteristics
Synthesized by enzymes present in the smooth
ER and mitochondria
Secretion is triggered by interstitial cell
stimulating hormone (ICSH) from pituitary
gonadotropin.
o Found outside the seminiferous tubules
Sertoli cells
o supporting or sustentacular cells
o Columnar or pyramidal cells; bases adhere to
basal lamina and apical ends extend to lumen.
o Nurtures cells that undergo spermatogenesis.
o Found at the periphery of the seminiferous
tubules. (Bases adhere to the basal lamina. Apex
would point to the lumen.)
o Secretes
ABP (Androgen Binding Protein) makes
sure that the level of androgenis maintained.
Inhibin inhibits FSH (Follicle-stimulating
hormone).
MIS (Mullerian Inhibiting Substance) you
need this especially if the embryogenesis is that
of a male because it inhibits production of the
female reproductive organs.
XII. OVARIES

Cells
o Granulosa/Follicle Cells produce estradiol.
o Cells in Theca Interna
Steroid-producing cells with abundant SER,
mitochondria and numerous lipid droplets
Produce androstenedionefrom testosterone.

Figure 49. Follicle. Your granulosa cells are bounded by a


membrane. After the outer membrane is the theca interna
cells. You also have your theca externa. (Dr. Tans ppt).
Corpus Luteum
o Formed by the granulosa cells and the theca
interna of the ovulated follicle
o Large and temporary endocrine gland.
o Develops if pregnancy takes place because it will
provide progesterone for at least 10-12 days.
(The granulosa lutein cells and theca lutein cells are
responsible for the making of this progesterone.
They act as a team.)
o Cells
Granulosa lutein cells (80%) produce
estradiol.
Theca lutein cells derived from the theca
interna and produce progesterone and
androstenedione.

Figure 48. Female reproductive system and overview of


ovary. Focus on (c) A sectioned ovary, indicating the
medulla and cortex, with follicles of several different sizes
in the cortex. (Junqueira, 2013)

Like testis, it is also covered by the Tunica Albuginea.


Follicles - oocyte surrounded by one or more layers of
epithelial cells

Figure 50.(a) Corpus luteum (CL). (b)Granulosa lutein cells


(GL) undergoing hypertrophy, and theca lutein cells (TL)
(Junqueira, 2013)

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Figure 52.Chorionic villi in term placenta. A full-term


placenta has many chorionic villus stems, containing
arteries (A) and (v) of the extraembryonic vasculature, and
hundreds of smaller villus branches (arrows) that contain
connective tissue and microvasculature. Maternal blood
(MB) fills the space around the villi. (Junqueira, 2013).

Figure 51. Follicle development and changes within the


ovary. Starts out as a (b)primordial follicle (single layer)
then it proliferates to become stratified (c) primary and
(d)secondary follicle -->(e) mature oocyte --> gets
ovulated --> (f) Corpus luteum -->(g) Corpus albicans
(end product) (Junqueira, 2013).(see Appendix)

XIII. PLACENTA
Site of nutrient, waste, oxygen and carbon dioxide
exchanges between mother and fetus.
Contains chorionic villi of fetus and maternal blood
pooled in spaces of decidua.
Produces
o Estrogen
o Progesterone
o HCG (Human Chorionic Gonadotropin)
produce after the implantation of the embryo;this
is what makes the pregnancy test positive.
o Lactogen concerned with milk
o Relaxin softens the cervix
Figure 53. Embryo implantation. Before the blastocyst can
implant, the trophoblast layer of the embryoblast must first
produce the syncytiotrophoblast. (Junqueira, 2013)

Trophoblast cells
o Outer SYNCYTIOTROPHOBLAST
Helps the embryo penetrate or implant in the
uterus.
Invades the stroma
Produces
HCG
(Human
Chorionic
Gonadotropin) which prevents degeneration
of the corpus luteum

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Inner CYTOTROPHOBLAST

Produce anti-inflammatory cytokines which


prevents adverse uterine reaction so
implantation would be alright.

Figure 54. Trophoblast cells, syncytiotrophoblast and


cytotrophoblast (Dr. Tans ppt, 2015)

SUMMARY
First of all the Endocrine cells are typically epithelial,
at least in origin, and aggregated as cords or clusters.
Secretory cells of endocrine glands release their
products, signaling molecules called hormones
(Junqueiras Basic Histology 13th Edition). The
hormones are then released into the interstitial
connective tissue from which the hormones pass
directly into blood or lymph circulation (diFiores
Atlas of Histology 12th Edition). Endocrine cells are
therefore ductless, arrange in cords and clumps and
are surrounded by an extensive capillary network
that allows for more efficient transport of hormones.
Our Endocrine system as described on our lecture
owns 12 component organs namely: Pituitary Gland,
Adrenal Gland, Thyroid Gland, Parathyroid Gland,
Pineal Gland, Thymus, Diffuse Neuro Endocrine
System (DNES), Pancreatic Islets, Kidneys, Testis,
Ovaries and Placenta.
o The Pituitary gland has two major parts: the
posterior part called the pars nervosa develops as
a down growth of the developing brain and is
attached in the hypothalamus by the
infundibulum. It is divided into two major
divisions : Anterior Pituitary/Adenohypophysis
and Posterior Pituitary/Neurohypophysis
Anterior Pituitary Gland is composed of Pars
distalis, Pars intermedia and Pars Tuberalis.
Also responsible for the production of GH,
PRL,
Gonadotrophs,
Thyrotrops
and
Corticotrops
Posterior Pituitary Gland has no secretory
cells and is composed of Infundibulum and
Pars Nervosa. Also responsible for the
production of Vasopressin and Oxytocin

The Adrenal gland is divided into two parts the


outer Cortex and the inner Medulla. The outer
cortext is known for its three different layers of
varying thickness and composition
Zona Glomerulosa is the most superficial
which produces mineralcorticoids such as
aldosterone
Zona Fasciculata is the thickest layer in the
middle which produces glucocortisoids such
as cortisol
Zona Reticularis is the innermost layer of
the cortex which produces weak androgen
dehydroepiandrosterone(DHEA)
that
is
converted to testosterone in men and
women.
Adrenal Medulla being the innermost part
of the adrenal gland contain neural crestderived chromaffin cells synthesizing
catecholamines such as Norepinehprine and
Epinephrine.
The Thyroid Gland derived from the 1st and 2nd
pharyngeal pouches are composed of spherical
follicles composed of thyrocytes surrounding a
lumen with thyroglobulin. Thyroid hormones
produce T4 and T3. C cells produce calcitonin.
The Parathyroid Gland which is located on the
posterior side of the thyroid glands are 2 pairs
consisting primarily of Principal Cells and Oxyntic
Cells. Principal cells secrete PTH. O for Old and p
for Pambata
The Pineal Gland is developed from embryonic
neuroectoderm and has pinealocytes, astrocytes
and Brain Sands.
Pinealocytes secrete melatonin.
Brain sands are Ca and Mg stores
Thymus Gland is developed from the 3rd Pair of
Pharyngeal Pouches and is well known for its
Hassall Corpuscles.
Hassall Corpuscles release cytokines for the
differentiation of regulatory T-cells
Diffused Neuroendocrine System is composed
of the enteroendocrine cells which developed
from the endodermal cells of embryonic gut.
Known for its various cell types. Mainly
responsible for the motility and secretions of cell
types within the digestive system
Pancreatic Islets of Langerhans are small
clusters of pale cells embedded within the
exocrine tissue. Known for their four cells Alpha,
Beta, Delta and F cells.
Alpha- Glucagon
Beta being the most abundant responsible for
insulin production
Delta- Somatostatin
F Cells- Pancreatic Polypeptides
Kidneys are two paired organs located
retroperitoneal. Also has an outer cortex and inner
medulla. It produces multiple regulatory
hormones such as renin and erythropoietin.

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Its blood supply has the mnemonics of.
RSIAIAGED: Renal- Segmental- InterlobarArcuate- Interlobular- Afferent- GlomerularEfferent- Distal Tubule
Testis are the primary male organs with
convoluted seminiferous tubules in a sparse,
vascular
stroma
containing
testosteroneproducing interstitial cells of Leydig. It also has
sertoli cells which are considered as sustentacular
and supporting cells.
Ovaries are the primary paired female organs,
each have an outer cortex containing many
hundreds of ovarian follicles and an inner medulla
of loose connective tissue and large blood vessels.
Granulosa/ Follicle Cells produce Estradiol
Cell
in
Theca
Interna
produce
androstenedione.
Placenta are site of nutrient, waste, oxygen and
carbon dioxide changes between mother and
fetus. Produces HCG, Lactogen, Relaxin, various
growth factors aside from estrogen and
progesterone. There are two known main cells
that developed from the Trophoblast the
Synctiotrophoblast and Cytotrophoblast.

1.

5.

Which of the following features best describes the


pineal gland?
A. Presence of abundant corpora amylaceae
B. Presence of radiolucent concentration
C. Production of melatonin for circadian rhythm
D. Secretory cells with irregular heterochromatic
nuclei

Answers: AAADC

REFERENCES
Tan, R. (2015). Endocrine System Gross & Histology.
UERMMMCI.
Mescher, A.L. (2013). Junqueiras Basic Histology Text
& Atlas. 13th ed.
UERMMMCI Department of Anatomy. (2015).
Laboratory Guide to Human Anatomy: Dissection and
Histology Manual Part 2. 10th ed.

REVIEW QUESTIONS
Which of the following pancreatic islet cells secretes in
response to low glucose level?
A. Alpha
B. Beta
C. Delta
D. F-cell

2.

What is the main hormone secreted by outermost


layer of the adrenal cortex?
A. Aldosterone
B. Androgen
C. Cortisol
D. Estrogen

3.

Which is true about the thyroid gland?


A. Stores its secretory product extracellularly
B. Synthesizes TSH
C. C-cells line follicular cells

4.

Which of the following statements is TRUE about the


parathyroid gland?
A. Its main secretory cells are large and highly
acidophilic cytoplasm
B. Oxyphil cells comprise the main secretory cells
C. The endocrine cells that secrete the PTH are mostly
arranged in clusters
D. With increasing age, the secretory cells are replaced
by adipocytes

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APPEDNDIX

Figure 1. Embryonic Origin of Hypophysis


Table 1. Major cell types of the anterior pituitary and their major functions

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Table 2. Hormones secreted by the pituitary gland (Anterior Pituitary)

Figure 2. Hormones of the pars distalis and their targets

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Table 3. Hypothalamic hormones regulating cells of the anterior pituitary

Table 4: Hormones of the Posterior Pituitary Gland

Table 5. Principal enteroendocrine cells in the GIT

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Figure 4. Follicle development and changes within the ovary

Figure 5: Location of the major endocrine glands

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