Math 1 - Chapter 2 - Algebraic Expressions

© All Rights Reserved

36 views

Math 1 - Chapter 2 - Algebraic Expressions

© All Rights Reserved

- College Algebra 2
- hex sub
- 10.1.1.8.1137
- Numbers Ppt1
- Infinite Limits
- Algebra
- RPH_M2
- Jntu Anan Ece 2 2 Stld Set 2
- Diane Sanders
- math lesson plan 1
- Math LG Gr1 Grayscale
- mathspolyppt-130829154410-phpapp01
- Polynomial Evaluations In
- Class 10 Maths
- par-br5-u3
- Chapter 03 Solutions.pdf
- 10 Aryabhatiya IV (KR)
- Math Poems
- inclusive practices co-teaching lesson plan
- Hedge Fund E Book by Richard C Wilson

You are on page 1of 7

Jose Arnaldo B. Dris

Department of Mathematics and Physics

Institute of Arts and Sciences

Far Eastern University

josearnaldobdris@gmail.com

January 6, 2016

The field axioms and theorems (i.e., properties of equality of real

numbers) of the previous chapter furnish the basis for the operations

which we shall perform in this chapter. As a preliminary to this study,

we need to introduce certain ideas and definitions.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

addition

subtraction

multiplication

division

evolution of powers

extraction of roots

for numbers (i.e. variables), are combined by applying one or more of

the fundamental operations of algebra, the result is called an ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION.

An algebraic expression may consist of a plus and/or minus sign as

well as numbers and letters representing numbers. Each of the parts

with the sign preceding it is called a TERM. If the sign of the first term

of an algebraic expression is a plus (+) sign, it may be omitted and is

understood.

Examples:

1. 3a is an expression of one term.

1

3. mn pq + 7 is an expression with the terms +mn, pq, and +7.

4. (mn pq) + 7 has two terms, (mn pq) and +7.

Definition 2.1.2

MONOMIAL - expression of one term

BINOMIAL - expression of two terms

TRINOMIAL - expression of three terms

MULTINOMIAL - indicates an expression of two or more terms

The letters in an algebraic expression are called variables (or literal

constants). For example, x and y are variables in the expressions:

and

2 p

+ y1

x

xy +

x1

+ 6.

x+1

a product is called a FACTOR. In the product 5xy, for example, 5, x,

and y are the factors. A numerical factor, such as the 5, may be called

the COEFFICIENT of the variable factors. More generally, any factor

or factors of the product may be regarded as the coefficient of the other

factors. Thus, in 5xy, 5x is the coefficient of y, x is the coefficient of 5y,

and so on.

Two terms of an algebraic expression that are identical or that differ

only in their numerical coefficients are called LIKE or SIMILAR terms.

Thus, 3x2 y and 2x2 y are like terms, and 2y 2 and 2y are UNLIKE terms.

The same factor often occurs two, three or more times in a product.

A product of this kind may be expressed by writing the factor the total

number of times, but it is more convenient to use a shorthand notation.

Recall: Definition 2.1.3

If a is a real number and n is a positive integer, then

an = a a a a

where there are n factors of a.

number a is called the BASE, and n is called the EXPONENT of the

base.

ADDITION OF ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSIONS is achieved by combining like terms. In order to accomplish this addition, the expressions

may be arranged in rows with like terms in the same column; these

columns are then added.

Example 1: Add 7x + 3y 3 4xy, 3x 2y 3 + 7xy, and 2xy 5x 6y 3 .

SOLUTION:

Write

7x

3y 3

3x

2y 3

4xy

7xy

6y 3

5x

2xy

=================================

5y 3

5x

5xy

z2

+ x2 y 2 + 2xz 2xy, and 1 x2 y 2 z 2 .

SOLUTION: Arranging:

x2

x2

+ y2

+ y2

x2

y2

x2

z2

+ 2xy

+ z2

+ 2yz

+ z2

y2

2yz

2xy

2xz

+ 2xz

z2

+1

=================================

0+

0+

0+

0+

0+

0+

REMOVAL OF GROUPING SYMBOLS is governed by the following laws:

1. If a (+) sign precedes a symbol of grouping, this symbol of grouping may be removed without affecting the terms contained.

2. If a () sign precedes a symbol of grouping, this symbol of grouping may be removed if each sign of the terms contained is changed.

3. If more than one grouping symbol is present, the inner ones are

to be removed first.

With the following equations we illustrate the procedure when introducing parentheses:

3 4x 6y + 7z = 3 (4x + 6y 7z)

x + 2y + z 4 = x (2y z + 4)

a + 3b 3c + 5 = a + (3b 3c + 5)

by changing the sign of every term in the expression which is being subtracted (sometimes called the subtrahend ) and adding this result to the

other expression (called the minuend ).

Example 3: Subtract 2x2 3xy + 5y 2 from 10x2 2xy 3y 2 .

SOLUTION:

= (10x2 2x2 ) + (2xy + 3xy) + (3y 2 5y 2 ) = 8x2 + xy 8y 2

Example 4: Subtract 4xy +ab2 3a2 +2ab from 4x2 y 3ab+2a2 xy.

SOLUTION:

4

1. (5 points) Add: a2 ab + 2bc + 3c2 , 2ab + b2 3bc 4c2 ,

ab 4bc + c2 a2 , and a2 + 2c2 + 5bc 2ab.

2. (5 points) Subtract 2s3 +3s2 r2sr2 3r3 from r3 3r2 s+4rs2 s3 .

Definition 2.1.4

A POLYNOMIAL of degree n, n a nonnegative integer, is an algebraic

expression of the form

a0 xn + a1 xn1 + a2 xn2 + . . . + an2 x2 + an1 x + an ,

where each ai is a real number with a0 6= 0.

Examples:

1. 10 - Polynomial of degree 0

2. 3x + 4 - Polynomial of degree 1 (linear)

3. (5/4)x2 x 1 - Polynomial of degree 2 (quadratic)

2

1

4. xx1

2 +1 - NOT a polynomial because it is equal to (x 1)(x + 1)

1

1

2

5. 2x 3x + 5 x - NOT a polynomial because it contains x = x1

equal to

(x + 1)1/2 + (x 1)1/2 (x2 + x + 1)1/3

of the distributive axiom.

THEOREM The product of two polynomials is the sum of all results

obtained by multiplying all of the terms of one polynomial by each term

of the other.

MULTIPLICATION OF ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSIONS

1. To multiply two or more monomials: Use the laws of exponents,

the rules of signs, and the commutative and associative laws of multiplication.

Write the product as

(3x2 y 3 z)(2x4 y)(4xy 4 z 2 ).

Rearranging according to the commutative and associative laws,

{(3)(2)(4)}{(x2 )(x4 )(x)}{(y 3 )(y)(y 4 )}{(z)(z 2 )}.

Combining using rules of signs and laws of exponents to obtain

24x7 y 8 z 3 .

The second step may be done mentally when experience is acquired.

2. To multiply a polynomial by a monomial: Multiply each term of

the polynomial by the monomial and combine the results.

EXAMPLE: Multiply 3xy 4x3 + 2xy 2 by 5x2 y 4 .

Write

= 15x3 y 5 20x5 y 4 + 10x3 y 6

terms of one polynomial by each of the terms of the other polynomial

and combine results. It is often very useful to arrange the polynomials

according to descending powers of one of the variables involved.

EXAMPLE: Multiply 3x + 9 + x2 by 3 x.

Arranging in descending powers of x:

(x2 3x + 9)(x + 3) = (x)(x2 3x + 9) + (3)(x2 3x + 9)

= (x3 + 3x2 9x) + (3x2 9x + 27) = x3 + 6x2 18x + 27

DIVISION OF ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSIONS

1. To divide a monomial by a monomial: Find the quotient of the

numerical coefficients, find the quotients of the literal factors, and multiply these quotients.

Write

24x4 y 2 z 3

=

3x3 y 4 z

= (8)(x)

24

3

x4

x3

y2

y4

z3

z

8xz 2

1

2

(z

)

=

y2

y2

(a) Arrange the terms of both polynomials in descending powers of

one of the variables common to both polynomials.

(b) Divide the first term in the dividend by the first term in the

divisor. This gives the first term of the quotient.

(c) Multiply the first term of the quotient by the divisor and subtract

from the dividend, thus obtaining a new dividend.

(d) Use the dividend obtained in (c) to repeat steps (b) and (c) until

a remainder is obtained which is either of degree lower than the degree

of the dividend or of degree zero.

(e) The result is written as follows:

dividend

remainder

= quotient +

.

divisor

divisor

- College Algebra 2Uploaded byCarlo Galicia
- hex subUploaded bykamalhassanarbab
- 10.1.1.8.1137Uploaded byajitsatapthy
- Numbers Ppt1Uploaded byMahishRamanujam
- Infinite LimitsUploaded byNiel Bear
- AlgebraUploaded byMarilyn Magbanua
- RPH_M2Uploaded byNorazlina Md Saleh
- Jntu Anan Ece 2 2 Stld Set 2Uploaded byRushiram Reddy
- Diane SandersUploaded byK Saraswathi Naidu
- math lesson plan 1Uploaded byapi-372799212
- Math LG Gr1 GrayscaleUploaded byNeil Constantino Martinez
- mathspolyppt-130829154410-phpapp01Uploaded byKristen Reid
- Polynomial Evaluations InUploaded byijitcajournal
- Class 10 MathsUploaded byAndrea Bates
- par-br5-u3Uploaded byapi-291363785
- Chapter 03 Solutions.pdfUploaded byΚώστας Ιωάννου
- 10 Aryabhatiya IV (KR)Uploaded bySrinivas Vamsi
- Math PoemsUploaded byNeric Ico Magleo
- inclusive practices co-teaching lesson planUploaded byapi-301962761
- Hedge Fund E Book by Richard C WilsonUploaded byJose Arturo Pacheco
- function.docxUploaded bySelene Marie Villanueva
- The Remainder and Factor TheoremUploaded byOwen Cheong
- gaddis dataanalysiska2Uploaded byapi-328203873
- Chapter 1.docxUploaded byAce Cheah Mun Chun
- weglein1999Uploaded byMauca
- Math Grade 7 Teacher's GuideUploaded byMaria Carmela Oriel Maligaya
- gp activitiesUploaded byapi-320419697
- For Instrumentation in Mathematics[1]Uploaded byphil park
- 2a5db3d6ce6a75fb53c80498ad253377-original.pdfUploaded byZunairaNazir
- report (1)Uploaded byanjan samanta

- Euclid-Euler Heuristics for (Odd) Perfect NumbersUploaded byBebita-Dris Jose Arnaldo
- Linear Algebra - Problem Set 1 Solutions - Arnie DrisUploaded byBebita-Dris Jose Arnaldo
- NNTDM_-_ISSN_1310-5132_eISSN_2367-82_25Uploaded byBebita-Dris Jose Arnaldo
- 4th Shaping the Future Forum (2013) - Accenture PH - NotesUploaded byBebita-Dris Jose Arnaldo
- First Responders Guide to Computer ForensicsUploaded byBebita-Dris Jose Arnaldo
- Solving the Odd Perfect Number Problem: Some Old and New ApproachesUploaded byBebita-Dris Jose Arnaldo
- herley-poster abstractUploaded byIf I could talk, I wouldn't.
- DrisPaper2017 Prefinaldraft Ver3 ArXiv Submit1977864Uploaded byBebita-Dris Jose Arnaldo
- The Abundancy Index of Divisors of Odd Perfect Numbers - Part IIUploaded byBebita-Dris Jose Arnaldo
- New Results for the Descartes-Frenicle-Sorli Conjecture on Odd Perfect NumbersUploaded byBebita-Dris Jose Arnaldo
- Math Invs - Problem Set 1Uploaded byBebita-Dris Jose Arnaldo
- Dris.spoofUploaded byBebita-Dris Jose Arnaldo
- Some New Results on Bounds for the Abundancy Indices of the Components of Odd Perfect Numbers - V1.7Uploaded byBebita-Dris Jose Arnaldo
- The Abundancy Index of Divisors of Spoof Odd Perfect NumbersUploaded byBebita-Dris Jose Arnaldo
- OPNPaper_2017.pdfUploaded byBebita-Dris Jose Arnaldo
- OPNPaper_2017Uploaded byBebita-Dris Jose Arnaldo
- PhilNITS (IT Passport Exam Preparation Book)Uploaded byBebita-Dris Jose Arnaldo
- On Sorli’s Conjecture Regarding Odd Perfect Numbers - Part IIUploaded byBebita-Dris Jose Arnaldo
- Dris Conjecture ArXiv Submit1853544Uploaded byBebita-Dris Jose Arnaldo
- Deficiency ArXiv Submit1843147Uploaded byBebita-Dris Jose Arnaldo
- NEW RESULTS FOR SORLI'S CONJECTURE ON ODD PERFECT NUMBERS - PART IIIUploaded byBebita-Dris Jose Arnaldo
- CSTRENDS IT1041 - Long Quiz 1, Trends in IT, FEU ManilaUploaded byBebita-Dris Jose Arnaldo
- IndexOutlaw_arXiv_submit1874825Uploaded byBebita-Dris Jose Arnaldo
- A Criterion for Deficient Numbers Using the Abundancy Index and Deficiency FunctionsUploaded byBebita-Dris Jose Arnaldo
- A Sufficient Condition for Disproving Descartes's Conjecture on Odd Perfect NumbersUploaded byBebita-Dris Jose Arnaldo
- New Results on Odd Perfect NumbersUploaded byBebita-Dris Jose Arnaldo
- CRITERIA FOR ALMOST PERFECT AND DEFICIENT NUMBERSUploaded byBebita-Dris Jose Arnaldo
- OPNPaper17 - On a Conjecture of Dris Regarding Odd Perfect NumbersUploaded byBebita-Dris Jose Arnaldo
- On Sorli’s Conjecture Regarding Odd Perfect NumbersUploaded byBebita-Dris Jose Arnaldo

- Unit 2. _Act 1_ Fractions-2ºESOUploaded bylumaromartin
- 22658466 GMAT Club Guide to the Official Guide for GMAT Review 12th Edition v3Uploaded byAnant_Jadhav_6188
- Low Power Consumption and Reduced Delay Borrow Save Adder Using Dynamic Design LogicUploaded byAnonymous vQrJlEN
- Verilog Number LiteralsUploaded byTahir Khan
- Sequences SeriesUploaded byWeb Books
- VBAcard2Uploaded byΒασίλης Παπατσάς
- c ProblemsUploaded bySyed R Shohan
- Standard SOPUploaded byDeanty Chibiechibie Spensa'c
- chapter 3 help packetUploaded byapi-198757032
- Math 8 Principles Study SheetUploaded by918goody
- The Easy Guide to Your Commodore 64Uploaded byCubemanPDX
- California Math Triumphs Vol 1A.pdfUploaded bysreerama
- Chapter 3Uploaded bytesfu
- homework 5Uploaded byapi-270743490
- Lecture 7Uploaded byZeyad Etman
- NowUploaded byThieu Nguyen
- Basic Electronics.pdfUploaded bymkrasan
- Formula RioUploaded byJorge Guerrero
- 11th Computer Science - Lesson 1 - Model Question Paper 2 - TamilNadu TN State Board English Medium - Brainkart.comUploaded byBrainKart Com
- A23.4QuestionsUploaded byCanayah Cuniah
- scientific-notation-guided-notesUploaded byapi-320485715
- Module 1_MATHEMATICSUploaded bytaussie
- Math for Elementary TeachersUploaded byboyzk
- Number TheoryUploaded byNazm Us Sakib
- Math Percent Practice1Uploaded byValentina Sidharta
- Howe Place ValueUploaded byjhicks_math
- 2nd qe IUploaded byInahing Mameng
- ch15Uploaded byBayley_Navarro
- TCS_NQT_Aptitude.pdfUploaded byRick Das
- Present SUploaded byMilka Miličević

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.