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A Report on Precast Concrete and its Allied Products

Vishwas R Bhat
B.E (Civil),PGDIM

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I thank all those who has guided and helped me in the completion of this project. I express my sincere thanks to Dr. K. V. Subramanian, Director, MINDS for his constant encouragement through out the PGDIM course and this project. It is great pleasure to express my sincere regards and thanks to Mr. Richardson Asir, Chief Advisor Soma Enterprise Ltd and Mr. Narayana Gowda, for their proficient guidance through out this project. I sincerely thank Dr. T. Babu, Assistant Professor and Associate Advisor MINDS for his valuable guidance in formulating this project and report. My deepest thanks to Mr. Murugan, Sr. Project Manager, Mr. P.S.B.S Chowdary General Manager (Plant and Machinery), Mr. A. Murugan, Technical Manager (Batching Plant ) for their extended support. I sincerely thank Dr. Nagendra Dean And Mr. Venkatakrishna program officer and all the faculty of MINDS for their constant support throughout the program. My sincere thanks to Mr. Krishna Rao Tota, HR manager, Soma, Hyderabad and Miss. Swetha, HR Manager, Soma, Bangalore for giving me an opportunity to work in Soma Enterprise Ltd. I am thankful to my friends and family for their support and encouragement throughout the program.


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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Product costing plays a vital role in improving the prospectus of successful implementation of Infrastructure projects. Product costing becomes major concern of the management as soon as project is launched. Planning and control becomes integral part of the managerial process immediately after the launch of the project. Costing enables us to project the company’s profit or loss sharing and the viability of the project as it takes even the time and al the aspects of the project which clearly lays down a conclusion at the start of a project. Time and cost overruns are very common in implementing Infrastructure projects. Complex nature, long development duration, huge funding requirements and long gestation periods make the Infrastructure management more challenging than a simple construction project. Time and cost over-runs have direct impact on economic viability of infrastructure projects which in turn slow down the economic development. Since from the inception of the development in various sectors of Infrastructure Developments either public enterprise or government enterprise in i.e. transportation, buildings, power, industrial, power, irrigation, environmental there is always a demand in the basic construction materials like cement, sand, aggregate and finished concrete products and pre-cast products which highly influence the development scenario of the urban or rural infrastructure. We also can conclude that there is always the need for many players to invest in this development which is the backbone of the industrial and production sectors overall. Care to be taken while in formulating the investment criteria and successful implementation of any project in order to minimize the risk involved in this huge investments and their profitability in order to keep it self running through the project life. As the part of identifying the project, its production capacity, the main important part is satisfying the objective which can be planning, executing, monitoring, marketing or as whole understanding and finding the solution for such.

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Precast concrete and its allied products


What is precast concrete?
Precast concrete is an ancient type of construction material made with concrete cast in a reusable mold or "form" which is then cured in a controlled environment, transported to the construction site and lifted into place. In contrast, standard concrete is poured into large forms and cured on site. Precast stone is distinguished from precast concrete by using a fine aggregate in the mixture so the final product approaches the appearance of naturally occurring rock or stone. Ancient Roman builders made use of concrete and soon poured the material into molds to build their complex network of aqueducts, culverts and tunnels. Modern uses for precast technology include a variety of architectural applications including free-standing walls used for landscaping, soundproofing and security walls. Precast architectural panels are also used to clad all or part of a building facade. Stormwater drainage, water and sewage pipes and tunnels make use of precast concrete units. The advantages of using precast concrete is the increased quality of the material, when formed in controlled conditions, and the reduced cost of constructing large forms used with concrete poured on site. There are many different types of precast concrete forming systems for architectural applications, differing in size, function and cost.

Why Precast?
Quality, Value, Permanence The average person likely is unaware of the presence of the hidden systems that make life what it is today: civilized. Sanitary and storm sewers, box culverts, catch basins, pump/lift stations, septic tanks, exterior grease interceptors, water storage tanks, wet wells, electrical and communication vaults and many other products all play a pivotal role in maintaining a clean, healthy, productive environment for the inhabitants of the civilized world.

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Without these systems, life would be much different. Much of the credit can be given to the main components of these systems, which typically consist of precast concrete. Here are some of the reasons why precast concrete is the ideal material for health, safety and protection of the environment: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • The many benefits of precast concrete include: Strength Durability Mass Buoyancy Fire resistance Chemical resistance Quality control UV sensitivity Environmentally friendly Weather resistance Reduced weather dependency Water tightness Ease of installation Modularity Availability Efficiency Aesthetics Low maintenance

Strength. The strength of precast concrete gradually increases over time. Other materials can

deteriorate, experience creep and stress relaxation, lose strength and/or deflect over time. The load-carrying capacity of precast concrete is derived from its own structural qualities and does not rely on the strength or quality of the surrounding backfill materials.
Durability. Studies have shown that precast concrete products can provide a service life in

excess of 100 years. For severe service conditions, additional design options are available which can extend the life of the precast concrete product. This is extremely important when calculating life-cycle costs for a project.
Mass. Precast concrete products can act as effective barriers to vehicular traffic due their size

and weight. In the current world climate, precast concrete products such as planters, bollards and highway barriers increasingly are being used to provide protection for a wide variety of venues.
Buoyancy. With a specific gravity of 2.40, precast concrete products resist the buoyant forces

associated with below-grade construction. In comparison, fiberglass has a specific gravity of 1.86 and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) has a specific gravity of 0.97.

6 |Page Fire Resistance. Precast concrete is noncombustible. Also, concrete does not lose its

structural capacity nearly as quickly as steel, which is now a significant consideration as witnessed in the attacks on the World Trade Center and the towers’ subsequent collapse. Other materials besides concrete and steel are flammable and/or do not perform well in elevated temperatures. Fiberglass begins losing structural integrity at 200 F. HDPE begins to melt at 266 F.
Chemical Resistance. Precast concrete is resistant to most substances. However, no material is

completely immune to attack from aggressive chemical agents. Thus it is wise to choose the material with the longest expected service life. Precast concrete products can be designed to withstand anticipated corrosive agents.
Quality Control. Because precast concrete products typically are produced in a controlled

environment, they exhibit high quality and uniformity. Variables affecting quality typically found on a jobsite –temperature, humidity, material quality, craftsmanship – are nearly eliminated in a plant environment.
UV Sensitivity. Unlike some other materials, precast concrete does not degrade from exposure

to sunlight. This is extremely beneficial for above-ground applications.
Environmentally Friendly. After water, concrete is the most frequently used material on earth.

It is nontoxic, environmentally safe and composed of natural materials. Buried throughout the world, precast concrete products help convey water without contributing to poor water quality.
Weather Resistance. Precast concrete is well-suited for exposure to all types of weather

conditions. In regions experiencing regular freeze-thaw cycles, the concrete mix can be designed to properly withstand damage.

Reduced Weather Dependency. Precast concrete increases efficiency because weather will not

delay production. In addition, weather conditions at the jobsite do not significantly affect the schedule. This is because it requires less time to install precast compared with other construction methods, such as cast-in-place concrete. Precast concrete can be easily installed on demand and immediately backfilled – there is no need to wait for it to cure.
Watertightness. Precast concrete products produced in a quality-controlled environment and

used with high-quality sealants offer a superior solution to watertightness requirements. Standard watertight sealants are specially formulated to adhere to precast concrete, making watertight multiple-seam precast concrete structures possible.
Ease of Installation. Although precast concrete is quite heavy, nearly all other competing

materials require machinery for handling and installation as well. Besides, speed of installation is more dependent on excavation than product handling and placement. Precast does not require the use of special rigging (such as fabric slings) which must be used in order to avoid structural damage while handling materials such as fiberglass.

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Additionally, because precast products are designed and manufactured for simple connection, many components can be installed in a short time.
Modularity. Because of the modular nature of many precast concrete products, structures or

systems of nearly any size can be accommodated.

Availability. With thousands of manufacturers throughout North America, precast concrete

products can be ordered from plants in most cities or regions. Since precast structures are manufactured in advance and stored at the plant, they are readily available when needed at the job site. This ensures competitive pricing and a ready supply, which can save days, weeks or even months on a project over cast-in-place concrete.
Efficiency. Precast concrete products arrive at the jobsite ready to install. There is no need to

order raw materials such as reinforcing steel and concrete, and there is no need to expend time setting up forms, placing concrete or waiting for the concrete to cure.
Aesthetics. Precast concrete products are both functional and decorative. They can be shaped

and molded into an endless array of sizes and configurations. Precast concrete can also be produced in virtually any color and a wide variety of finishes (acid-etched, sandblasted, smooth-as-cast, exposed-aggregate) to achieve the desired appearance for building and site applications.
Low Maintenance. Precast concrete requires little or no maintenance, which makes it an ideal

choice for nearly any design solution. Advantages 1. Factory Engineered products under strict quality control

Precast Concrete is made of cement combined with natural materials: coarse aggregate, sand, cement and water, all of which are produced in an environmentally friendly way. Precast concrete production takes place under strict controlled conditions in a factory; as a result, better consistency of product quality can be achieved, together with safer working conditions and reduced impact on the environment. 2. High performance, quality and durability: Precast concrete elements are produced under strict quality controlled to the highest standards, ensuring their durability, strength and appearance. 3. Wide choices of finishes Whether off-form, smooth or textured, with contrasting exposed aggregates, or slightly etched and pigmented, precast concrete surfaces finishes offers a rich and varying array of possibilities, allowing greater freedom and creativity.

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4. Flexibility of forms and shapes: With Precast Concrete, architects and designers can full reign to their imagination allowing all sorts of decorative patterns, reveals, cornices, recesses and curvatures in their design. 5. Superior heat and sound insulation Precast Concrete sandwich panels, with their dense concrete and incorporated middle insulation layer, offer a far superior heat and sound insulation than traditional construction systems, which means substantial energy savings and healthier environment. 6. Economy and speed of production: Precast concrete elements are mass produced with minimum manpower in the shortest possible time. Their remarkable qualities: Strength, durability and Insulation offer significant cost savings in construction cost, energy consumption and later maintenance costs. 7. Fast and efficient installation: The use of standardized Precast Concrete elements contributes to efficient and fast installation, significantly reduced construction time. Assembly of large and complex components can be carried out easily and quickly, producing little or no dust, noise or waste, as well as giving a faster return on investment. Moreover, good quality control in the factory prevents unnecessary delays, and just-on-time deliveries reduce the need for storage at the construction site. In addition to the advantages listed above for Precast, Prestressed Precast Systems offer the following added features: 1. Light economical construction: Prestressing and High Strength concrete make it possible to use less material to achieve similar load-bearing capacity and, hence, make substantial cost savings in both reinforcement and concrete. Reduced section sizes lead to lower dead loads and can improve transport efficiency. 2. Long spans: Prestressing of the Precast elements means longer and more efficient spans, allowing large, open spaces and reducing the number of columns and beams in the structure. 3. High load capacity: Precast prestressed elements can carry much heavier loads as compared to normal reinforced concrete structures, which makes them ideal for heavy load bearing structure such as tunnels, bridges, car parks, reservoirs, ….

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4. Minimum propping and scaffolding: Precast prestressed elements need very little propping or formwork, leading top cost saving and greater access all through the work areas. No matter what type of project you are interested in, precast concrete is demonstrating its superiority. Combining quality, economy, speed, and flexibility, it is the building material of choice. Precast concrete contributes to green building practices in significant ways. The low water-cement ratios possible with precast concrete -0.36 to 0.38- mean it can be extremely durable. The thermal mass of concrete allows shifting of heating and cooling loads in a structure to help reduce mechanical-system requirements. Because precast concrete is factory-made, there is little waste created in the plant (most plants employ exact-batching technologies) and it reduces construction waste and debris on site, reducing construction IAQ concerns. The loadcarrying capacities, optimized cross sections, and long spans possible with precast concrete members help eliminate redundant members, and concrete readily accommodates recycled content. The precast concrete elements are durable, The primary ingredients of concrete -sand, gravel, and cement- are mineral based. When mixed with water, the cement chemically reacts to create a crystalline matrix with a high compressive strength. This matrix binds the sand and gravel together, creating concrete. Unlike other construction materials that can rust, rot, or otherwise degrade when in the presence of moisture, concrete can actually get stronger if there are unhydrated cement particles available to react with the water. The precast concrete is different from other types of concret just because, Precast concrete is different because it is made in a factory by highly experienced personnel who apply stringent quality-control measures. In the factory environment, precasters are able to achieve consistency in temperature and moisture and low watercement ratios that are not possible in field-fabricated concrete. Precast concrete can easily attain strengths of 5000 psi to 7000 psi or more, with densities that minimize permeability. One more main advantage of pre cast concrete is it can be reused, Precast concrete members are unique in that they are individually engineered products that can be disassembled. Designers can easily plan future additions to buildings, because the precast concrete components can be rearranged. Once removed, precast concrete members may be reused in other applications. Precast concrete is also friendly to downcycling, in which building materials are broken down, because it comes apart with a minimum amount of energy and retains its original qualities. An example of downcycling would be the use of crushed precast concrete as aggregate in new concrete or as base materials for roads, sidewalks, or concrete slabs.

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The different elements that can be precasted are: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Interlocking pavers Hollow concrete blocks Solid concrete blocks Tiles Precast pipes Cylinders Manholes and its covers Bridge segments Septic tanks Barriers Bollards Box culverts Fences Staircases Beams Walls Foundations Pavements Bunker silos Retaining walls Roof elements

The list goes on and on

There are some small scale companies manufacturing these pre cast concrete elements for the use for small and large scale ,for eg: interlocking pavers are the present day precast element used almost every place and everywhere like for parking ,pavements,sheds,and even some colourful pavers are being used as flooring and cladding materials. These precast elements are slowly replacing the charm and beauty of marble and granite.all kinds of design and all kinds of colours can be manufactured with a proper finishing work. A Market survey was done dividing the whole geographical area of Bangalore into clusters( Urban and rural - areas ) and random sampling is done.which revealed different types and different needs and demand of these products. This survey has been tabulated as below,

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A questionnaire had been prepared for the companies to make the survey easier a sample copy of the statement of comparison has been shown as below,

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Details Technic paver s Madivala & attibel e Hosur road, Madivala, Bangalore – 560068 Chandrak antha conc blocks Ejipura Rasu enterprises SLN concret e product s Vathur Hobli Kiran precast concrete blocks peenya KNR constr uction s madivala




No.58nr to vivek nagar,1 00ft road,ejip ura

Contact num: Person contac ted: Type of area Type of owning Land value Rs: Area of the land Types of the produc

08025534 202 Mohan Kumar Residentia l proprietar y 1800/sqft 28000sq ft Interlockin g pavers

No.28,opp IBP petrol bunk,80ft road, industrial layout.kora mangala 08025520613 Muthu Industrial/resid ential proprietary

Raaju Commercial proprietary 850/sqft 5000sqft Hollow cylinder s,conc

No.99/2, Har lur Village,V athur Hobli, Ba ngalore 560067 0806669477 8 Promod.N industrial proprietary

#9/10,peeny a industrial area Bangalore560015 08028194298


97311281 13 kumar commerci al For a Project Govt land 10764sqft

industrial proprietary

17000sqft Interlocking pavers, window grills, Hollow blocks filled blocks Hollow blocks Filled blocks, interlocking

Drain cover slabs

13 | P a g e t Product use rings Dustbins, lining for open wells, floor slab Designer flooring, cladding, footpath, parking Cleared by PCB clearanc e taken Semi automat ic Chandrak antha conc blocks Hydraulic

Footpath, reside ntial ,comm ercial Cleared by PCB Auto and semiauto Technic paver s

Environm ental cleara nce machiner y Details


Construction of high rise buildings , apartme nts Clearance is reqd Semi auto

Footpaths,par king

SSM&RCC drain coverin gs

Cleared PCB Semi auto


Not cleared No machin es

Rasu enterprises

Price Type of mould blks prdcd by machin e/hr Fuel/ener gy spent Client:1

Steel,rubb er 20002500


1,0,00,000 rs Steel

SLN concret e product s 2,50,000rs steel

Kiran precast concrete blocks Steel 750 - 1200

KNR constr uction s -steel

15 hp SJR groups Many local companies and petrol

15hp ND develope rs Local companie s govt

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Technic pavers

Chandraka ntha conc blocks

Rasu enter prise bunk s majorly

Client:2 L&T LAYOUT OF THE PLANT Client:3 CCCL office yes batching No VAT plant on 12.5%on stores Yes the the prod paver material Yes Excise duty stackin g garage Yes security vehicle parking visitor yard quality unit cement silos conveyor belt material draggin g cement storage enclosures dust control employees safety health clinic /doctor yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes


Yes No No vat Yes Yes No No No No No no No Yes Yes

Yes no 12.5%on Yes paver Yes No


SLN concret e product s Land mark propertie s Imperial Yes construct No ions 4% on Yes hollow block Yes No Yes yes No Yes No No yes Yes Yes(compou nd wall) Yes (zinc sheets) Yes No

Kiran precas t concre te blocks Yes No 12% on the Yes paver Yes No Yes No No No No No Yes Yes Yes enclose d No Yes No

KNR constr uction s

Yes No No vat Yes Yes No Yes No No No No No Yes Yes no no yes no

proper security

Yes no No No No no Yes Yes Semi enclo sed No Yes No

Yes(compou nd) No Yes No

Yes(fencing) No Yes No

15 | P a g e Services offered services Technic paver s Chandraka ntha conc blocks Rasu ente rpris es SLN concr ete prod ucts no yes no SLN conc products Kiran prec ast conc rete bloc ks yes yes No Kiran precast concret e blocks 1 0 0 3 175rs/d ay 125rs/d ay 2 8 6000rs /m 0 0 200rs/ day 175rs/ day 125rs/ day KNR construct ions

Installing Transportation Repairs if any Employ ees: num bers and sala ry engine er technic ian supervi sor SKL SSL USL Technic pavers

yes yes yes

no yes no Chandraka ntha conc blocks

yes yes no Rasu enterpri ses

no yes no KNR const ructio ns

0 2 2 20 10 10

0 7000rs /m 5000rs 2800rs 2400rs 2200rs

0 0 0 2 3 6

0 0 0 200rs/ day 150rs/ day 125rs/ day

0 0 1 0 0 8

0 0 5000rs /m 0 0 90/day

1 0 1 0 2 10

7000rs/ m 0 5000rs/ m

1 0 0 10 20 4

80rs per piece as wages

16 | P a g e Materials used Technic pavers Chandrakan tha conc blocks Rasu enterpri ses SLN conc produ cts Kiran preca st concr ete block s Birla super 43 grade 6mm KNR const ructio ns


Birla super 43 grade

Ultratech,birl a super 43 grade 6mm


and 53 grade,birl a

Aggregat e Sand used



River sand Technic pavers

River sand Chandrakan tha conc blocks

River sand Rasu enterpri ses

Rajashree e and Birla 43 grade 6mm & crushe d rock fines River sand SLN conc produ cts

Penna suraks ha 53 grade 20mm and below River sand KNR const ructio ns

River sand Kiran preca st concr ete block s

Mix propor tion Admixtur e

1:1.5:3 Forsoc as accelerati ng agent(Sik a india) Borewell, 4.5cum/3 000blocks -------------------------------------------------

Water(qn ty/sou rce)

Bore well

bore well

bore well

Water from tanker

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Technic pavers

Chandrakantha conc blocks

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Rasu enterprises:

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SLN conc products:

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KNR constructions


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Starting new precast concrete products in the existing pre-cast yard at Bangalore, analyzing the means of financing, pricing of the product, selection of place, Profit, sales to over come the short term and long term liabilities and future expansion of the existing yard. a compound wall which can be also called as a security wall is designed and planned to be casted in a casting yard The details and drawing is as shown below

this is a precast coloumn and a footing which is 2.7m high and width of footing is 900mm the other detailing is as shown in the diagram.

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The sectional view is shown below

The cross section and the joining details is as shown below

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An artistic impression of the compound wall is as shown in the diagram

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Rate analysis for the compound wall:

Com pound Pre Cast Wall.xlsx

com pund wall Calculations.xls

(click on the icons for accessing the Excel sheets)

The cost comprises of various items involved right from the land acquisition to the production of the finished concrete product/year which clearly shows us the various items that need to be installed or erected their cost behavior on the project and the life span. These data provide an insight into the formulating or arriving at the total cost for setting up and production of finished product of the batching plant. Tools like the C - programming and Microsoft Excel, Planning software’s such as Primavera, MS Project can also be used to schedule the work. These direct and indirect costs have a no of sub-component cost centers which should be carefully identified as these cumulated gives us the cost of the project and its funding scheme. Further the each individual component is looked into deep regarding their suitability, adaptability and requirement, availability and their respective cost is taken. UNDERSTANDING COST IN PROJECT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Direct costs include “any costs that can be specifically identified with a particular project or activity, including salaries, travel, equipment and supplies directly benefitting the project or activity”. Emphasis is placed on the term “activity,” which is interpreted as being the same as a cost account. Direct cost can also be defined as “...costs of installed equipment, material, and labor directly involved in the physical construction of the permanent facility.” Indirect costs are “...costs incurred by an organization for common or joint objectives, and which cannot be identified specifically with a particular activity or project.” Or “...all costs which do not become a final part of the installation, but which are required for its orderly completion. It includes (but is not limited to): field administration, direct supervision, capital tools, some start-up costs, contractor's fees, insurance, taxes, etc.”

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TABLE 1.0 Recommended categories for direct/indirect cost elements




I I I I I D I–1 I I D I I I I I D I–1 I

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NOTE : I - 1. Indirect only if not associated with a particular work operation. I - 2. Holding account; only un-al locatable cost should remain in this account I - 3. Direct if permanent, otherwise indirect.

Once the direct and indirect cost is identified then it is the next step to find out the realistic values of the plant, machinery, equipment in the market so as to arrive at a realistic value of the project so as to proceed on the further analysis of social and benefit cost analysis and on the viability of the project in the financial terms. Care to be taken in the procurement and selecting the right type of machinery so as to overcome the excessive tax implications if the material if the machinery is purchased outside the respective state of setting up the project and also the environmental implications in orders to comply with the government and the public.

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The rate analysis of the compound wall is done as follows • The design drawings and data has been collected • The whole element has been divided into three parts and the respective volume has been calculated. • The total surface area has been calculated ,this has been formulated for the calculation of the shuttering • The barbending schedule has been worked out for the total amount of steel required Then after finding out the total volume of the elements and the total surface area of the element the total quantity of steel required is calculated from barbending schedule This analysis is done and the respective rates of the steel ,concrete and mild steel is calculated to get the exact material cost of the product A compound wall built using size stone masonry has been calculated and the same volume and rates have been worked out a comparision has been made between both the precast concrete compound wall and the size stone masonry compound wall. A programme has been done using Microsoft excel where in the cost of the whole project can be got just by adding the data of the dimensions of the site land .where in both the precast compound wall’s and the size stone masonry’s cost will be updated automatically After this analysis another analysis has been done for the capital investment Starting from the land acquisition for the precasting ,fixed assets ,building and civil works to be done at the site,plant and machinery ,staff for the work organization chart for the work .rates of the plant and machinery ,depreciation and lifespan.salaries for the staff everything has been worked out. This adds up to the product cost. The total running per metre cost has been worked out and the total cost of the product has been carried out.

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