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Sri sukhmani college of

nursing
MICROTEACHING
TOPIC- Educational aims and
objectives
Subject- Nursing Education
Submitted to- Mr. Ramlakhan Sir
(reader)
SSCON ,Dera
Bassi
Ms.Rajvir kaur
maam(lecturer)
SSCON,Dera Bassi

Submitted ByGurpreet kaur

M.sc- 1st year


Educational Aims and Objectives
Education is a process which brings about changes in human behaviour. Every
individual should have access to a type of education that permits maximum
development of his potentials and capabilities. So, in any educational
programme it is essential that the educational objectives are clearly stated to
achieve the teaching learning process effective.
Definition Educational Objectives
Educational objectives are the desirable outcomes of intended actions The
results sought by the learner at the end of the educational programme.
(j.j.
Gilbert)
Educational objectives are the desirable outcomes of intended actions through
the mode of actions.
Educational objectives are the learner centred or behavior centred and subject
centred.
Formulation of educational objectives
Educational objectives are the statement of those desired changes in behaviour
as a result of specific teaching-learning activity or specific teacher-learner
activity.
An educational objectives is a specific statement of what the learners should be
able to do at the end of the learning period that they could not be before.
(Harper and Harper 1990)
It defines the purpose of teaching and learning in a broad sense.
Importance to use educational objectives
1. To develop mental skills for application in changing situations:Research in education has revealed that the majority of learners study to
pass an examination. Educational objectives help to develop mental
skills in addition to acquiring a factual knowledge.
2. To determine curriculum levels:- it has been observed that learner have
often required to repeat material already learned in previous courses.
Well stated objectives help the board of education in arranging the
sequence of courses.
3. To define scope of teaching:- well stated educational objectives enable a
nurse educator to understand the depth of teaching required. In nursing,
there are different level of trainees requiring different levels of input. The

required amount of input at each level can be specified with the help of
the educational objectives.
4. To assess the learners and nurse educators performance:- if educational
objectives are explicitly stated in advance, they can serve as a measure
to assess the performance of the learner and the educator in a well
established examination system.
Data required for formulating educational objectives
The following information will be formulate educational objectives in an effective
manner:1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Philosophical statement of the institute


Social and health needs of the society
Needs of the student
Resources available in the society
Entry criteria of level of students
Specification of positions to be held by the student on the completion of
the programme like staff nurse, nursing tutor, etc.
7. Future trends in nursing
Criteria for selection and statement of objectives
Following criteria will help to state the objectives in a meaningful way:1. Objectives has to be stated in terms of desired changes in behaviour and
the area of subject matter through which behaviour is to be operate
2. Objective should be stated in the form which makes them most helpful in
selecting the learning experiences and guiding the reaching activity.
3. The desired changes in behaviour should be consistent with the accepted
educational objective
4. The objective for the specific subjects or the units or lessons should be
direct contribution to attain the overall objective of the curriculum
5. The objective should be attainable and practicable in the specific teaching
learning situation.
6. Objectives should be worth while.
7. Objectives should be easily accepted and understood by the teacher as
well as students.
8. Objectives should be cooperatively planed and developed by all teachers
and by the teacher and student whenever and wherever possible.
9. Objective should not too detailed.
Steps in formulation of educational objectives
1. Identify the needs of the learner
2. Identify the needs of the society
3. Study the suggestion of the experts
4. Formulate the philosophy
5. State the objectives gathered from various sources in a proper way
6. Formulate the theory of learning
7. Define the objectives clearly in terms of content
8. State the educational objectives in terms of behavioural outcomes or
change

Types of educational objectives


3 common levels are there:1. Institutional objectives:- institutions such as universities, colleges,
professional institutions, schools and others organizations offering
educational programs, write very few broad and all inclusive objectives.
Such objective serve as a guide to the administrators who manage educational
programs.
2. General instructional objectives:- these are the intended outcome of the
instructions that have been stated in general terms to encompass a set of
specific learning outcomes.
Nature of general instructional objective
A. Reflects the conceptual framework of learning
B. Each general instructional objective addresses primarily one broad
learning outcome
C. General instructional objective indicates what learners should take
place without restricting the freedom of the educator to teach
methodology.
3. Specific outcomes of learning or instructional objective:- these are
descriptions of the performance the instruction is expected to produce:
- dealing objectives help to identify the terminal outcomes of instruction in terms
of observable performance of learners, these outcomes are to be presented with
behavioural terms.
The specific outcomes of learning:- are very specific statements
- define the learners abilities which should be developed at the end of the unit or
course.
Specific outcomes of learning
specific outcomes of learning are specific objectives stated in precise terms. It
reflects the changes that have taken place in the individuals knowledge, skills,
and attitudes as a result of the learning process.
Specific outcomes of learning are:1. Subject based:- e.g., knowledge, comprehension and ability to apply the
knowledge in different situations.
2. Personal outcomes:- interpersonal skills (team work) and interpersonal
qualities (motivation)
The characteristics of specific outcomes of learning
1. Relevant

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

1.
2.
3.
4.

Logical
Explicit
Feasible
Observable
Measurable
1. Relevant:-educational objective should have a direct relationship with
the aims of learning, in other words educational objectives should be
based on the needs of the learner
2. Logical:- the objectives which are written down must be agreeable or
reasonable in relation to the teaching learning activities, i.e. objective
should be internally consistent with the educational activities.
3. Explicit:- it means clear, less interpretation and stated in detail.
4. Feasible:- it must be ensure that what the student is required to do can
actually be done, within the time allowed and with the feasibilities to
handle.
5. Observable:- observable means watch, take notice of and examine and
note. In order to ascertain the extent of enhancement or acquisition of
a particular skill by the learner, one should be able to see and take
note of. Therefore SOLs should also be observable.
6. Measurable:- it means ascertain quantity by comparison with a fixed
unit and estimate by some standard or rule. If learning achievements
cannot be measured, then the tutors/instructors may tend to believe
that they have accomplished the goal and achieved the educational
objectives.
Elements of SOLs
Activity
The content
The condition
Criteria

Advantages of educational objectives


1. Educational objectives fill the educational gap
2. Educational objectives enhance learners involvement in the learning
process
3. Educational objective enhance the teaching ability of the nurse educator
4. Educational objectives equip the examiner to measure learning
achievement
Taxonomy of educational objective
A systematic organization of objectives i.e., taxonomy into 3 domains to help the
teachers in precise formulation and evaluates the result of a system of
education, it helps the students to prepare for examinations to obtain the desired
end results.
A taxonomy is a classification system developed by BLOOM (1956) to achieve
the desired educational goals.
Domains of education
1. Cognitive (Intellectual ability)
2. Affective (Feeling & valuing)

3. Psychomotor (Manipulative & motor skills)


BLOOMS taxonomy learning domains
Taxonomy means a set of classification principles, or structure, and domain
simply means category. Bloom and his colleagues were academics, looking at
learning as a behavioural science, and writing for other academics, which is why
they never called it Blooms learning structure.
1. Cognitive domain :it consists of 6 levels:level 1- Knowledge
level 2- Comprehension
level 3- Application
level 4- Analysis
level 5- Synthesis
level 6- Evaluation
Level 1- Knowledge:

This level is related to remembering of previously learned material and


represent the lowest level of learning outcomes in the cognitive domain
ACTION VERB related to thus level of objectives are: define, state, list, name
write
Outline, recall, recognize, label, underline, select, measure, describe, identify,
etc.
EXAMPLES:
1. Define nursing
2. List the qualities of nurse
3. Write the types of hospitals

LEVEL- 2 Comprehension
1. This level represents the learning outcome one step beyond simple
understanding as evidenced by the learners ability to make limited use of
information in the form of translation, interpretation and extrapolation
2. TYPICAL VERBS used at this level are: justify, select, indicate, illustrate,
formulate, classify, translate, convert, contrast, explain, etc.
EXAMPLES
1. Classify the skeleton system
2. Identify the importance of nutrition
3. Explain the role of nurse in health education
LEVEL- 3 APPLICATION
1. This is the ability to use learned material such as rules, principles,
concepts, etc to new and real situations
2. VERBS USED are: assess, choose, find, show, demonstrate, construct,
compute, perform, discover, prepare, produce, relate, etc

EXAMPLES
1. Demonstrate the bed making procedure
2. Assess the nutritional status of an infant
3. Construct an attitude scale on smoking
LEVEL-4 ANALYSIS
1. This refers to the ability to break down information into its components
parts, which may be elements of information, relationship between
elements or organization and structure of information. Analysis helps to
separate important aspects of information from the less important thus
clarifying the meaning
2. Action verbs at this level are :analyse, identify, conclude, differentiate,
select, separate, compare, criticize, breakdown etc.
EXAMPLES
1. Distinguish between guidance and counselling
2. Identify the warning signs of meningitis
3. Differentiate between gastric and peptic ulcer
LEVEL-5 SYNTHESIS

At this level the learner is expected to combine various parts to form a whole.
Learning outcomes in this area stress creative behaviour with major emphasis
on the formulation of new patterns or structure.

Attitude or Affective Domain


The affective development of learning concerned areas is characterized by
emotional which includes attitudes, beliefs, and values. Attitudes are positive or
negative feelings about certain things and consist of both cognitive and affective
aspects.
LEVEL 1. Receiving (attending)
At this level learner is sensitive to the existence of something and progresses
from awareness to controlled or selection attention. It is difficult to tell when a
learner is receiving or attending to something, so the best indicator is verbal
behaviour.
Typical verbs are: Asks, chooses, selects, replies, etc.
Example: Asks right question during history collection.
LEVEL-2. Responding
This is concerned with active response to the learner. The range is from reacting
to a suggestion through experience a feeling of satisfaction in responding.
Verbs represent this level are: Assist, complies, answer, etc.
Example : Assist the patient in carrying out A.D.L

LEVEL-3 Valuing
Objectives at this level indicate acceptance and internalization of the values or
attitudes.
Action verbs are: initiates, invites, joins, justifies etc.
Ex: initiate to build IPR with clients in the home/hospital set up.
LEVEL-4 Conceptualization
It is added to stability and consistency. It is the relationship between the values
and ones already held or new is involved.
Ex: the nursing student formulate judgements about nursing responsibilities
relative to extra ordinary means of maintaining life in a critically ill patient.
LEVEL- 5 Organization
This level is concerned with the ability to organize values to arrange them in
appropriate order.
Verbs represent this level are alters, arranges, combines, modifies etc.
LEVEL-6 Characterization
This is the highest level of learners values system which has become their
philosophy of their life.
Verbs applicable to this level are: Acts, displays, discriminates, listens, etc.
Ex- Displays confidence in caring terminally clients.
1. Psychomotor Domain
This domain consists of six level :
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Impulsion
Imitation
Manipulation
Coordination
Control
Habit formation

LEVEL 1. Impulsion
This level tends to act on mental impulses, which is concerned with the
perception of sensory cues that guide actions and ranges from awareness of
stimuli to translation into action.
Action verbs are: detect, choose, identify,
Ex- Detect the early signs of decubitus ulcers.
LEVEL-2. IMITATION

This level refers to imitation of an action performance. When the learner is


exposed to an observable action, he begins to make convert imitation of an
action.
Typical verbs: begins, moves, reacts, shows, starts, etc.
Ex: Reacts promptly to emergency situation.
LEVEL-3. MANIPULATION
At this level the learner is capable of performing an act according to instruction
rather than only by observation, as in the case at the level of imitation. This level
is also called as guided response.
Typical verbs are: carryout, perform, calculate etc.
Ex: perform bed making as demonstrated by the teacher.
-4. CO-ORDINATION LEVEL
At this level skill is carried out smoothly within a reasonable timeframe to
acheive coordination. Here coordination is emphasized by establishing and
appropriate sequence by achieving harmony or internal consistency among
different acts
Ex: perform E.T. intubation correctly
LEVEL-5 CONTROL
Here the skills are internalised to such an extent that the students can adapt
them to cater for special circumstances.
Typical verbs are: adapts, alters, modifies recognizes etc.,
Ex: modifies sterilization technique according to the article to be sterilized
LEVEL-6 Habit formation
At this level an act is performed automatically without involvement of
consciousness
Typical verbs are: walk, swing, hold, swallow etc.
Ex: walks slowly without any support.
Summary
Educational objectives are the statement of those desired changes in behaviour
as a result of specific teaching learning activity. It defines the purpose of
teaching in a broad sense. It includes the steps in formulating educational
objectives. Criteria for selection and statement of objectives. Types of
educational objectives and domains which help the students in learning and
changing in their behaviour.

conclusion
At the end of my micro-teaching i wanted to conclude that educational objectives
is a specific specific statement of what the learners should be able to do at end
of the learning period. Education is a process which brings about changes in
human behaviour. Every individual have access to a type of education that
permits maximum development of his potentials and capabilities. So, in any
educational programme it is essential that the educational objectives are clearly
stated to achieve the teaching learning effective.
Recapitalization of the topic

Define educational objectives


What are the formulation of educational objectives
Explain the importance of educational objectives
Explain thae data required for formulating educational objectives
Explain the criteria of educational objectives
What are the steps of formulation of educational objective
Explain the types of educational objectives
Explain the domains

References

Raj Bhaskara elakkuvana D, Bhaskara nima. Textbook of nursing education. 1 st


edition. Bangalore; Emeses medical publisher: 2013.
Neerja K.P. Textbook of communication and technology.1 st edition. New delhi:
Jaypee brothers medical publishers (P) ltd;2011
www.google.coms