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RUNNINGHEAD: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SPATIAL ABILITY AND

HANDEDNESS AMONG UNDERGRADUATES IN MALAYSIA.

Table of content
Chapter 1.2
Chapter 2.11
Chapter 3.21
Reference ....25
Appendix .....38

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SPATIAL ABILITY AND HANDEDNESS AMONG


UNDERGRADUATES IN MALAYSIA.

CHAPTER 1
1.0 Introduction
In this chapter, there will be a series of discussion on the background of the study
follow by the problem statement that inspired the research and the crucial concepts and
theories that related to the research. Other than that, the research question will be point out
and both the objective and significance will be stated.
1.1 Background of study
Handedness is a description for hand preferences (Meriam-Webster.com, 2014). In
the current world population, the left-handers are minority yet not much research done to
investigate the issue of why people differ in handedness. In the other hand, spatial
intelligence is one of the subtype of Multiple Intelligence theory by Gardner (Gardner, 1985;
Willingham, 2004) and researchers are undergoing now to find out how spatial intelligence
can be helpful or hands on. The spatial intelligence are referred to the ability of individual to
perform a cognitive process that widely related to perception of looking at object in imagebased or geographical task (Hegarty, 2010).
These two component can be independently research but both of the two concept are
linked with the biological theory of brain. Handedness are more focus in the theory of
asymmetry of brain where different area of brain will perform in different task given
(Hugdahl, 2005), whereas in spatial intelligence are mostly based by Gardners Multiple
Intelligence Theory that emphasize that each human had different type of intelligence that
they can master (Gardner, 1985). Which indicate that there is possibility that a particular part
of the brain are functioning well that the enable the mastery of different type of intelligence.

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From a researcher perspective, these two-component are fresh and it triggers the
curiosity to explore the relationship between these two component and this is what this
research intended to do.

1.2 Statement of problem


In the current 21st century, government tend to mark the intelligence of students by
those academic performances. Those Intelligence Quotient (IQ), Emotional Quotient (EQ) are
different type of intelligence that help us to test how intelligence of student by implemented it
into education, but other than those typical IQ and EQ there are other intelligence which call
spatial intelligence.
Spatial intelligence does not stand out independently in early years, it always been
describe as one type of intelligence but public understanding about spatial intelligence is still
limited.

Spatial intelligence actually can act as a predictor for certain career such as

anatomist, engineering, dentist, nurses and doctors that needed to apply those vivid image
cognitive function into real life (Casey, Pezaris, & Nuttall, 1992; Fernandez, Dror & Smith,
2011). The importance of spatial intelligence can help develop students learning and also
enhance their spatial ability because by applying practice it can help to improve spatial
intelligence (Lubinski, 2010; Hindal, Reid & Whitehead, 2013). Even with practice there are
some aspect in spatial intelligence cannot be improve by practice that bring to the issue of
aptitude in spatial intelligence and why people are differ in the aptitude of spatial intelligence
when we all share the same structure of brain?
The mystery of spatial intelligence and the difference among people had been
enlighten by some researcher that focus on gender. According to Dabbs Jr. et al (1998), male

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eventually will outperform the female in spatial intelligence test because male is believed to
be better in direction. This might not sounds empirical but the founding of Dabbs Jr. et al
(1998) is supported by other researcher that carry out different experiment which set gender
as one of the factor that differs people in spatial intelligence (Brandner, & Devaud, 2013).
Furthermore, when researcher are looking more in depth into gender , they found out that but
there are some research supporting that actually female perform better in memory task
compare to male (McBurney, Gaulin, Devineni, & Adams, 1997). To sum up the founding
about the relationship of gender with spatial intelligence, more researcher are convinced that
environmental influence are more powerful compared to gender in spatial intelligence (Just,
& Carpenter, 1985 ; Quaiser-Pohl, & Lehmann, 2002; Mntyl, 2013). This open up
another direction in spatial ability since gender are not so convincing, according to Rilea et
al. (2004) handedness might be the new research direction in spatial intelligence as different
dominance of hand can affect the active function of different brain part that may leads to new
exploration in spatial intelligence. There are almost 90% of the population in the world are
right-handers and put those left 10 % of the population into minority.(Maria Thompson, 12th
September 2007). By knowing the potential research topic between spatial ability and
handedness mark the purpose of this research to explore the potential relationship of
handedness and spatial intelligence.
The theories underline this research would be Gardners Multiple Intelligence (MI)
theory and brain lateralization theory. In Gardners MI theory, mention that spatial
intelligence is one of the intelligence which is important for human and different people had
the potential to had more than one intelligence (Gardner, & Hatch, 1989; Gardner, & Moran,
2006; Gardner et al., 2012).

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While in brain lateralization theory, they are focusing in more biological approach
that believe each part of brain had its own function that control different aspect of task
(Bever, 1983; Ghirlanda, & Vallortigara, 2004 ).

In this very broad theory of brain

lateralization, asymmetry of brain is the represented theory that can be used in handedness as
brain is divided into two hemisphere which are left and right hemisphere. These two
hemispheres indicated different talent or skills that a person can be more easily learnt as left
hemisphere are more towards logical whereas right hemisphere are in charge of creativity
(Chiron et al., 1997; Hugdahl, 2005; Beharelle et al., 2010).

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1.3 Theoretical framework

Annett Right Shift theory

Gardners Multiple Intelligence

Spatial Intelligence

Natural Selection

Handedness

Figure 2: Diagram of connection between both Annetts Right Shift Theory and multiple
intelligence theory.
In multiple intelligence theory, there are nine different intelligence that consists of
musical intelligence, visual-spatial intelligence, linguistic intelligence, logical intelligence,
kinesthetic intelligence, interpersonal intelligence, intrapersonal intelligence, naturalistic
intelligence and existential intelligence (Gardner, & Hatch, 1989). Among these intelligence
purposed by Gardner, believe that human can have more than one intelligence whereby IQ is
not the only way to test on humans intelligence.
Brain theory is broad but in handedness the theory are surrounded with asymmetry of
the brain that related to the both left and right hemisphere. In left hemisphere, the brain are
more active or in charge in the function of logical thinking, analytic skills and more important

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it controls the right side of the body which indicate that right-handers use more left
hemisphere compared to non-right handlers, whereas right hemisphere is the opposite with
the left as it controls the left side of the body and function more with music, creativity and
also spatial ability (Chiron et al., 1997; Hugdahl, 2005; Beharelle et al., 2010). Moreover,
according to Marian Annett (2006), handedness are differed might be due to the Rs+ gene
that found in some people that shape non-right handers. In another words, the genetics that
found in left-handers might be a factor that make the minor population different in some task.
Both theories mention above had the similarities that believe of spatial intelligence is
related to the hemisphere where people will acquire different intelligence when different part
of the brain is more active. Therefore, in the theory of asymmetry of brain spatial intelligence
is related to the left hemisphere where Gardner himself admitted that the brain theory is
related to multiple intelligence as how differ brain functions (Gardner, 2012; Leang, Chabris,
& Kosslyn, 2003). This can be concluded that, handedness could be one of the factors
influences the performance in spatial intelligence.

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1.4 Conceptual framework

Right
Handednes
s

Spatial
Intelligence

Left

Figure 1: Diagram of relationship between spatial intelligence and handedness.


In the diagram above, the differences of preference in hand can be link to the
differences of spatial intelligence as left handers and right handers are assumed to be
different. In handedness, there are two types of hand preference that are left hand and right
hand. These preferences are predicted to differ by the different environment; background and
family genetics of any individual have. After identify with the handedness, it can be a link to
the performance in spatial intelligence.

1.5 Research Question


In this research, there are only two research question asked, which are is there any
relationship between handedness and spatial intelligence and is there any relationship
between gender and spatial intelligence.
1.6 Null hypothesis

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There are no significant differences between spatial intelligence and handedness as well as
gender.
1.7 Research objectives
The primary objective of this research is to find out that can handedness influence spatial
intelligence. Other than that, demographic information such as gender will also be tested in
this research to see whether the researches done before agree with the findings.

1.8 Conceptual and operational definition


Conceptual definition: Spatial intelligence is the ability to view or think dimensionally and
can link between dimensions and object. (Garik & Hunt, 2011). Whereas, handedness are
tended to be referred as the preferences of hand that will indicate the dominance side of the
brain function (De Gennaro et al, 2004)
Operational definition: Spatial intelligence is the skill that every person have but there are
differences in how good in practicing (Almeida et al, 2010). Handedness is differed as the
result of different dominance of hemisphere in brain (Brown & Wolpert, 1990).

1.9 Significance research


The research would benefits all the population as much as it can. The immediate
population that would be benefit the most would be the educational field because by
exploring more importance of spatial intelligence it could provide a new strategy for
educational field to maximize students learning ability by developing more approach
towards students. Other than that, the students will have various benefit by the findings of

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this research in different level. In primary school level, it would help the teacher to have more
understanding of spatial intelligence especially those science and mathematics teacher. This is
due to the spatial intelligence are believed to be crucial for children in learning maths and
science.
Follow by the secondary school level, teacher would be encourage to identify students
who are more talented with spatial intelligence and encourage them to go into science stream
as one of the step working towards to vision 2020 that Malaysia would be a develop country
that needed all those talents from science. Next, tertiary education students can benefit by
providing a chance to do more research in this topic and discover more research in Malaysia
rather than always referring to western research that might have cross-cultural difference with
Malaysia.
Looking to the bigger context, the society will benefit as through this research it can
be a chance to educate the public towards the importance of different intelligence compare to
focusing only at IQ.
1.10 Summary
In chapter 1, the problem of not enough understanding of spatial intelligence are being
bring up and the possibility of a new direction in research of spatial intelligence are being
purposed. The theories that related in this research are the multiple intelligence theory and
asymmetry of the brain that included left and right hemisphere. The objective of this research
is to find out the relationship of spatial intelligence and handedness that wish to be benefits
the educational field, public, and students.
CHAPTER 2
2.0 Introduction

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This chapter will be discussing the past literature that had been carrying out by
various researchers. Analysis is being carry out by looking at the method, process and result
retrieved. The abstraction from the journals will be a guideline and foundation for the study.
2.1 Darwins evolutionary theory
Darwin had come out with the famous evolutionary theory that proposed that Homo
Sapien which indicate human are coming from apes and he also contribute to the psychology
field with the theory of survival of fitness which also known as natural selection (Darwin &
Huxley, 1942; William, Clough, Stanley,& Colbert, 2014). In 1951, Darwin and Beer had
published the Origin of Species that discuss how human evolve and the birth of natural
selection.Darwin focus about the natural selection that emphasize on the deletion of the
component that would not benefit the species including genetics (Futuyma, 2009). The theory
of evolution are broad but in Darwins point of view the theory of natural selection is the core
of Darwins theory in evolution and it can be connect with other theory in order to explain the
phenomenon in living things (Tuomi, 1981).
The theory of natural selection had contributed to modern biology that helps to
explain the development of organism, and it is widely use in science area (Thagard &
Findlay, 2009). This indicated that the theory of natural selection play an important role in
science area. Other than that, Fritzgerald & Whitaker (2010) had supported Darwins
evolutionary theory that the theory itself had gave the foundation for different field in
psychology such as developmental psychology, cognitive psychology, social psychology,
biological psychology, clinical psychology and behaviorism. This had given the point that
even Darwins theory is developed for some time, but it still applicable to the context in
nowadays. The idea that proposed by Bjorklund & Pellegrini (2000) is also supporting

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Darwin as they had evaluated the application of Darwins theory in child development and it
fits the psychological, social and biological model in psychology. Follow by, Buss (2009) had
also interpreted natural selection as a way or method to solve the problem along life that can
be a link to our daily life. This had shown that how broad of Darwins theory can be apply in
our daily life or different field but there are still some people who disagree with that.
According to Glickman (2009), Darwins theory of evolution had started with natural
selection and sex selection but his idea of evolution are disagree by Alfred Russel Wallace
and started debate with pro Darwinism and against Darwinism. Darwins theory also being
question in the aspect of sociality that natural selection seems to be immoral to be applied in
life and contra to the belief of individual (Hodgson, 2005).
Nevertheless, Darwins theory are still widely apply and natural selection later on
contributes to the two important element of this study which are spatial ability and
handedness. Furthermore, Darwins theory had been in cooperated with biology to explain
about the genetic and heritability but not wildly apply in social science (Richerson, & Boyd,
2010). Darwins theory of natural selection had provide a foundation in future research where
linked to both handedness and spatial ability.
2.2Handedness
In 1981, Marian Annett had conducted a research about handedness and the causes of
different handedness and lateralization of brain. From the research she had proposed the idea
of right shift model where theres a gene call RS+ and RS- and these genes are contribute to
the development of the brain for the different function. This has brought new data about
handedness, but Annetts theory was later critic by another researcher. Mc Manus (1985),

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had a question on Annetts right shift model that the purely right-handed and neutral issue
that seems to be not possible as the chances for another handedness is not exist.
According to Faurie, and Raymond (2004), the difference of handedness among the
ancient cave painting and nowadays are minimal as the proportion of left and right handers
are still pretty much similar. This had given the hint that the variation of handedness started
as early as ancient but still somehow supported Darwins theory about heritability. There are
different researches done to investigate about handedness using chimpanzees and
development of the right shift theory in explaining handedness (Boesch, 1991; Annett 2006).
Furthermore, handedness also involved in asymmetry and lateralization and difference
of it. According to Cho Jinwhan, Park Kyung-Seok, Kim Manho, and Park Seong-ho (2006),
a research done by using a series of questionnaire and also motor task with 24 equal distribute
gender participants. The result showed that the participant who only prefer one hand for the
test had greater performance but differed in hand preference does not predict any differences
in performance. The research provide a news perspective regarding handedness, but this
research can be future study as the participants for the research is limited due to the criteria
for participant are only for right handers. Other than that, handedness also being study in the
geometry skills and found out that left handed require shorter time to react in geometry shape
that create a possibility that left handed person are gifted in the geometry area (etin, Mahir
& Torun, 2002).
Despite handedness are being proposed as an element that make a person different in
the ability in performing task, it also related to the psychological disorder as well. Disorder
that related to handedness are schizophrenia, autism, pedophilia and hebephilia (Annett,
1999; Cantor, 2005; Deep-Soboslay, 2010). This had indicate that the difference in

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handedness can bring certain degree of harm as all these research had pointed to left or
mixed-handed people will have higher risk in developing those disorders. In the
contradiction, there are new research that disagree with the idea of non-right handers are
more prom toward certain schizophrenia and stated that female right-handers are the
population that mostly affected by the disorder (Mataboge, Joubert, Jordaan, Reyneke &
Roos, 2014).
As the question of gender rise as the research continue, researcher also found that
female outperform male in the mirror tracing test regardless about the handedness (OBoyle,
& Hoff, 1987; Grabowska et.al., 1994). This results had differ from the past research that
support the theory that male are predicted to be outperform female. Put aside age and gender
in the research of handedness, the cognitive function seems to be as important as age and
gender could be. In 2011, Vicario, Bonni & Koch had conducted an experiment to test the
handedness differences and cognitive functioning. The experiment being carry out with 14
equal participants from both left and right handers that require them to perceive the distance
that appear by the screen that blink in split second and the result had shown that right-handers
perform better and the experiment also linked spatial performance could possibly be one of
the product from different hand preference. This research is well prepared in the aspect of
material of experiment such as software that keep the experiment neutral and non-bias. The
application of software had increased the consistency that could be the limitation and by
using the software, it become easier to measure the cognitive function of participant.
2.3 Spatial ability
There is a research done by a group of researcher in 1980s to test whether the
hormones can affect people in their spatial ability and 91 participants are selected for the

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experiment that combine total of six spatial test (Shute et al, 1983). The result of the test
indicated that low androgen male and high androgen female perform better in the experiment
and further research are requested. The research are brought up in experiment form where
difference in amount of female and male are not stated, this could be one of the problem but
the used of total six spatial test to test the spatial ability is one of the brilliant play of the
researcher and this leads to another research that also focus on hormones. The research are
done in the basic of whether testosterone affect the performance of spatial ability with 28
samples that get paid, the result had contra with what Shutes result and man are able to
perform better in spatial ability (Hooven, Chabris, Ellison & Kosslyn, 2004). The research
done by Hooven et al. had the similar problem with Shute as the sample are very limited that
cannot be generalize to represent the whole population.
There are also another research done in 2000 indicate that women can perform better
in spatial ability with the criteria of menstrual cycles along the test. According Hausmann,
Slabbekoorn, Van Goozen, & Gntrkn (2000), Women with higher testosterone level when
they are in menstrual that will help in spatial performance. The test is a test by using mental
rotation test and mental rotation test seems to be the key test that most of the researcher will
use in testing spatial ability that used to find out the differences of spatial ability with other
potential research element. But it also seems to be rigid in just trusting in one method to test
about spatial ability where there is another type of survey or test are being developed that
could be better than Mental Rotation Test.
Meanwhile, spatial ability is more common used in research in the educational field to
find out what and how spatial ability can be improve or explore. A research had been done in
sixth grade student to find out through constructive activities can help to predict spatial
performance and it shown that through the activities it helps to build up the spatial ability,

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word solving problem and mathematical skills (Boonen, Oostermeijer, & Jolles , 2014). The
research about spatial ability does not limit in children there are few research done in
different respective of students such as secondary and higher education. The researches done
had shown that spatial ability are differ among gender and the application of spatial ability
are needed in different stages of learning regardless the level of learning (Tsutsumi,
Schrocker, Stachel & Weiss 2005; Carrera, Vera & Saorn, 2012; Fulmer & Fulmer, 2014).
In certain major such as engineering, spatial ability play an important role for the students to
visualize and understand the image and spatial ability can be one of the criteria of
engineering students (Onyancha & Kinsey, 2007; nagy-Kondor & Srs, 2012).
Moreover, video games are involved in improving spatial ability especially for those
video games that in action and driving categories (Subrahmanyam & Greenfield, 1994;
Spence & Feng, 2010). Both the research had conducted through experiment with video
games to test the spatial ability of children from grade five to nine and the result indicated
that children spatial ability can be improve by playing video games but girl are still weaker
that boy in those research. This had brought out the issue on gender differences in spatial
ability where there is certain degree of difference in spatial ability among boys and girls.
Besides that, age also play a crucial role in spatial ability as the performance of spatial
ability in individual actually better when it is in the young adults compare to older adult
where the researchers did an experiment with both categories and found out the (Salthouse,
Mitchell & Palmon, 1989; Iachini, Ruggiero, Ruotolo & Pizza, 2008).These research had
been very helpful in determine the age for the potential participant for this study and the
testing between younger adults and elders make a good comparison for spatial ability
performance because it helps to exclude elderly as the participant due to aging.

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Moving on to another aspect that spatial ability are research with, handedness are being
introduce. Millar & Al-Attar (2003) had conduct an experiment that combine the element of
handedness and spatial ability with the idea that handedness might be related to spatial
performance. The experiment being carry out by using a group of high school student that
consists of eight female and twelve male. The participant are assign randomly into two
groups with the task that require them to point precisely out the distance and direction by
different hand appoint while being blindfold. The result indicates that there is no significant
differences between handedness and spatial ability and the errors for both hands in
performing spatial task are equally similar. This had shown that the hypothesis of spatial
ability is related to handedness or brain lateralization are questionable as the result contra
with the hypothesis
2.4 Spatial ability and handedness
As early as year 1971, Edgar Miller is interested in investigating both handedness and
different ability that human can achieve. The experiment consists of two dimension and three
dimension form test that test different ability in both 29 right-handers and 23 mixed handers.
The result had indicate that Right-handers score higher in visual-spatial test. From my
perspective, this research bring a sense of business where the participant only consists of
dextral and mixed-handed whereby the sinistral are being left out from the experiment other
than that, considering the year of the experiment the procedure and material used was very
good that still a good reference for future study.
After that, there are more researcher set the focus in spatial ability and handedness
were more different experiment done by using different method such as visual, auditory and
noninterpolated activities to test the lateralization of brain and the results indicated that

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different handedness had different lateralization of brain but fail to prove any further detail of
how handedness and spatial ability are related (Sanders, Wilson, & Vanderberg, 1982; Nagae,
1985). In another words, different handedness in charge of different skill that we can learn,
this give the connection of handedness towards brain function but still cannot fully explain
how spatial ability is related to handedness. This research provides insights towards the
experiment, but the problem of holistic data is questionable as the participants used are just
approximately 50-60 that cannot be generalized to the overall population.
The key journal that give inspiration to this research is the research done by (Rilea,
Roskos-Ewoldsen & Boles, 2004), the research is carry out by survey that collect response by
testing the participants spatial intelligence and relationship with handedness. The process of
the survey started with the test of spatial ability and followed by a survey of handedness. The
results indicated that right-handers had higher tendency to perform better in spatial
intelligence test compare to left handers but a little bit weak in flexibility.
As the technology grows the way of conducting changed as more technical equipment
such as the involvement of a computer in the experiment and magnetic resonance imaging
(MRI) are used. Joanne Lindsey Powell (2011), had conducted a study by using MRI scan to
test the spatial ability and handedness where 40 left-handers and 42 right-handers involved.
The scan started when participant are required to complete a certain task and found that left
and right handers show different lateralization of brain according to the handedness, but
ability of people does not restrict to the handedness.
These researchers are still in the debate of whether spatial ability and handedness are
related and if in anyways these two variables are related how strong the link between these
two variables are still a question worldwide.

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2.5 Spatial ability and handedness in Asia context
Narrow down the perspective to Asia context, a research have been done by a group
of researchers in China to find out whether the founding in previous research regarding
spatial ability and handedness from the western culture is align in eastern culture (Tao et.al,
2009). The experiment are being carry out by the help of software that created both left and
right hand of in screen and the two virtual hand will be rotate in different ways. The left hand
will be rotating to the left whereas the right hand will be rotating inwards; participant are
required to answer whether the picture on the screen is left or right hand by click on the
keyboard on the laptop. The result once again had shown no difference between handedness
and spatial ability such as mental rotation. In this research, it had shown that theres not much
difference between western and eastern culture and once again the appearance of the software
as one of the material seems to be very helpful.
Moreover, theres another research conducted in Turkey to find out the relationship of
handedness, spatial ability, and IQ. In the research, the researcher had used survey such as the
Edinburgh Handedness Questionnaire and also two types of test to test the hand performance
and also spatial performance of participant (Tan, 1990). The test that used by Tan are the dot
filling test and also Cattell's Culture Fair Intelligence Test but the result that Tan found out
contra with what Tao et al. (2009) had mention as from Tans research he believed that
combine hemispheric actually work better for spatial ability as it can adapt to different
strategies and be flexible in the same time.
Even though theres not much of research had been carry out in Malaysia context, but
this become the opportunity for this study to be carry out and figure out the relationship of

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spatial ability and handedness in Malaysia context that can help to provide insight for further
study.
2.6 Summary
In this chapter, the brief relationship and the factors surrounded two of the variables
are being discuss as handedness are mostly discuss about the debate on which hand are better
in performing certain task while in spatial ability age ,gender and the lateralization of brain
are being discussed. The knowledge gap that abstracted from this literature is the relationship
of the spatial ability and handedness in Malaysia context.

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CHAPTER 3
3.0 Introduction
This chapter will be discussing the method that this study will be carried out. There
will be a discussion on the instrument chosen and the criteria for participant to participate for
this study.
3.1 Research Design
The design of this research will be a cross-sectional survey where two questionnaires
will be used to measure the handedness and spatial ability. The result of the data will be
generated by Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 20 (IBM, 2014).
3.2 Participants
According to Krejcie & Morgan (1970), 384 participant are the best fit for this study
however 150 participants are the final decision for participants as this study is a small sample
survey where 150 of participants are sufficient for undergraduate level research (Petscher,
Schatschneider, & Compton, 2013). The population of the sample will be undergraduate
students from Kuala Lumpur area that aged 18 to 24 that study different major (Salthouse, T.
A., Mitchell, D. R., & Palmon, R., 1989 ;Iachini, T., Ruggiero, G., Ruotolo, F., & Pizza, R.,
2008). Among the total population, the ratio of the left-handers will be 13% because it
represents the real population in the world (Left Handers Day, 2014).
3.3 Sampling method
The method to recruit for participant will be purposive sampling where the inclusion
criteria would be undergraduate students that aged 18 to 24. The exclusion criteria would be
mixed-handed students and students who aged more than 24. The reason that mixed-handed

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students are excluded from this study is due to the inconsistency of mixed handedness and the
actual causes. The mixed handedness could be caused by the environment or culture
background that therefore it would be one of the confounding variables.
3.4 Instrument
The instrument involves will consist of informing consent, demographic information,
The Flinders Handedness survey and McKenzies Multiple Intelligence Inventory. The inform
consent form are designed to get the consent from the participant with a list of the detail
towards the right of participant such as participant have the right to withdraw from the test.
Meanwhile, demographic information such as gender and age will be collect. The Flinders
Handedness survey and McKenzies Multiple Intelligence Inventory will be performing
throughout the study (McKenzie, 1999; Nicholls et al., 2013; Williams, S.M., 2014). The
Flinders Handedness survey have a total of 10 questions that uses Likert scale to measure the
handedness with Pearson Correlation 0f r =.66 and p>.001. A sample question from the
Flinders Handedness survey would be With which hand do you write? and the participant
will be answering the questionnaires by using the Likert scale that consists of left, either and
right. Meanwhile for the Multiple Intelligence Inventory had the Cronbach alpha of r=.90,
p>.005 while the subscale of visual spatial had r=.66 (Hajhashemi & Wong, 2010). The
subscale of the Multiple Intelligence Inventory consists of 10 statements and answer using
dichotomous option of 1 or 0. The sample statement would be I can visualize ideas in my
mind; the higher the score indicate, the higher visual-spatial intelligence.
3.5 Procedure
The sample will be found by snowball technique that started with few participant then
reach others around the campus of a private university in Kuala Lumpur area. The participant

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23
will be given an inform consent letter that consists of the permission from the authority to
conduct a study and demographic information such as gender and age will be collect together
with the informed consent. The survey will come in two forms. The survey will come in
paper form and online form will be using the software of Google Doc (Google, 2014). The
venue of the survey being conducted will be in both online and discussion room or
psychology lab in the particular private university to provide a quiet and comfort
environment for the participant. After obtain the consent from the participant, the participant
will be required to answer two surveys that consists of Flinders Handedness survey and the
spatial construct of Multiple Intelligence Inventory. All of the data will be collect through
survey. No time limit along the survey and participant are allowed to terminate the session
whenever they feel uncomfortable. After the participant finish the survey, the researcher will
be collecting the survey and key in the data collected using SPSS version 20 to find out
whether there is any correlation between handedness and spatial ability.
3.6 Scope of study
The boundaries that could encounter in the process would be the data collected will
not as holistic as it would be and this is due to the difference in method that participants
carryout the survey. The two methods use in collecting data would create different data
because the participants would conduct a survey online would be paying less concentration as
the researcher are not present. Other than that, the age limitation would be one of the
boundaries in this study as the age required for this study is only 18 to 24. Besides that,
location to conduct the survey would be one of the boundaries as the venue such as
psychology lab and discussion room are limited.
3.7 Summary

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In this chapter, the design that fit this study is a cross-sectional survey as it can
measure both the variables in this study. The sampling method will be purposive sampling as
certain criteria need to be fulfilled for carry out the survey. Instrument chosen are The
Flinders Handedness survey and McKenzies Multiple Intelligence Inventory. The survey will
be carried out in both paper form and online survey. Besides that, the data collected will be
run with SPSS version 20 for analysis. The potential boundaries that can be happen would be
a location for the survey to be carry out and the holistic of data due to the different method of
collecting data.

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