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Machine

Design
Data Book
Faculty In Charge

Head of Department

Page 1

Machine Design Data Book

POWER SCREWS-

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Machine Design Data Book

Sr.No.

Table

Power Required to rotate the


Screw

Torque Required to rotate the


2

Screw (T)

Equation
2.p .N .T
.......watt
60
N - r. p.m......T - Torque ( N .m)

Power =

1) Considering Screw Onlyd


T = P.
2
2) Considering Screw and Collar
d
T = P. + m1.W .R
2
m1 - Coefficient of friction for collar
W- Load on the Screw
1) To Raise or Lift the Load,-

Tangential Force Required at

tana + tanf
P = W tan (a + f ) = W
...( N )
1 - tana .tanf

the circumference of the screw

2) To Lower the Load:-

(P)

For Acme Thread

tanf - tana
P = W tan (f - a ) = W
...( N )
1 + tanf.tana
tana + tanf1
P = W tan (a + f1 ) = W
...( N )
1 - tana .tanf1
m
tan f1 =
cos b

b = Semi - angle of Acmethread= 14.5o


tana =

Helix angle

np
pd

n- no of starts of the thread


p-pitch of the Screw
d- Mean diameter of the screw

Friction Angle

m = tanf

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Machine Design Data Book


d=

Mean Diameter of the Screw


(d)

d0 + d c
p
p
= d0 - = dc 2
2
2

Where- do Nominal or Outside Diameter


p- Pitch of the Screw
dc- Core or Root Diameter

Coefficient of Friction for


Screw

m = tan a
R1 + R2
2
R1 Outer Radius of Collar
R2 Inner Radius of Collar
R=

10

Mean radius of the Collar

11
Effort Required at the end of
12

Lever arm of length l, (P1)


Speed of the Screw per

13

revolution

T = P1. l

T Total Torque
D
T = P1. ........D - Diameter of Hand Wheel
2
N=

velocity (mm / min)


......(r. p.m)
Pitch (mm)

1) Considering Screw Only-

h=

W .tan a .

d
2

d
2
2) Considering Screw and Collar
d
W .tan a .
2
h=
d
P. + m1.W .R
2
P.

14

Efficiency of the Screw

HELICAL SPRINGS-

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Machine Design Data Book


Sr.No.

Table

Equation
Using Spring Index C = D/d

Mean Diameter of the Spring Coil (D)

D = C. d
Outer Diameter of Spring Coil (Do) = D + d
Inner Diameter of spring Coil (Di) = D - d

Diameter of the Spring wire (d)

1) When Wahls Factor (K) is Given


8WD
pd3
4C - 1 0.615
K=
+
4C - 4
C
2) When load is variable (W1 And W2),
then for Maximum loadD p
T = Wmax . = .t .d 3
2 16

t = K.

Note:- Standard size of wire is taken from table below----

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Machine Design Data Book


Sr.No.

Table

Equation

d=

8.W .C 3 n
G.d

d- Deflection of Spring
C- Spring Index = D/d
n- no. of turns of coil
3

Number of turns of Coil (n)

G- Modulus of Rigidity
d- diameter of Spring Wire
1) If the Load variation is given Wmin to Wmax
Then W in above Equation is W= (Wmax- Wmin)
For Squared and Ground Ends;,
n = n + 2

LF = n ' d + d max + 0.15d max

Free length of spring (LF)

1) If the d is Load variation given for


(Wmax Wmin) then
dmax is calculated for Maximum load (Wmax)

Pitch of the Coil (p)

Energy stored in the Spring (U)

Pitch =

Free Length
n' - 1

1
U = W .d
2

t - t 2.t
1
= m v+ v
F .S
ty
te
8.Wm .D
........
p .d 3
Wmax + Wmin
1

.K s = 1 +
......Wm =
2
2C
8.Wv .D
tv = K
.......
p .d 3
Wmax - Wmin
4C - 1 0.615
..K =
+
......Wv =
C
2
4C - 4

t m = Ks
7

Helical springs subjected to


fatigue Loading

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Machine Design Data Book


LEAF SPRINGS-

Sr.No.

Table

Equation
2 L = 2 L1 - l

Effective Length of spring (2L)

2L1 Length of Span or Overall length of


Spring
l- width of the Band
n = nF + nG

Total Number of Leaves (n)

Central Load acting on the spring

2W

When no. of Springs are given, then


Load on each spring (2W)

2W = (Total Load/No. of Springs)

nF No. of Full length leaves


nG- No. of Graduated Leaves

nt
b

Depth to Width Ratio


5

n- Number of leaves, t Thickness of plate


and b Width of the plate

Final stresses in springs


When Leaves are Equally stressed

i)

Stress, s =

6.W .L
n.b.t 2

When the leaves are not Initially stressed


Stress, s =

18.W .L
b.t (2nG + 3nF )
2

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Machine Design Data Book


Deflection, d =

ii)

6.W .L3
n.E.b.t 3

Deflection, d =

12.W .L
E.b.t (2nG + 3nF )
3

Calculation Initial Gap between full


length and graduated leaves
C=

Load Exerted on the Band after the


spring is assembled (Wb)

Wb =

2.W .L3
n.E.b.t 3

2.nF .nG .W
n.(2nG + 3nF )

Knuckle Joint
A knuckle joint is used to connect two rods which are under the action of tensile loads. However,
if the joint is guided, the rods may support a compressive load. A knuckle joint may be readily
disconnected for adjustments or repairs. Its use may be found in the link of a cycle chain, tie rod
joint for roof truss, valve rod joint with eccentric rod, pump rod joint, tension link in bridge
structure and lever and rod connections of various types.

Figure:- Knuckle joint


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Machine Design Data Book


DESIGN PROCEDURE
Sr.No.

Table

Equation
P=

Diameter of the Rod (d)

p 2
d .s t
4

P- Load Transmitted,
st - Tensile Stress

Diameter of Knuckle Pin (d1)

d1 = d

Outer diameter of eye (d2)

d2 = 2 d

Diameter of knuckle pin Head and Collar (d3)

d3 = 1.5 d

Thickness of single eye or rod end (t)

t = 1.25 d

Thickness of Fork (t1)

t1 = 0.75 d

Thickness of Pin head (t2)

t2 = 0.5 d

Failure of knuckle pin in shear (t)

Failure of the single eye or rod end in tension (st)

P = (d 2 - d1 ).t.s t

10

Failure of the single eye or rod end in shearing (t)

P = (d 2 - d1 ).t.t

11

Failure of the single eye or rod end in crushing (sc)

P = (d1 ).t.s c

12

Failure of the forked end in tension (st)

P = (d 2 - d1 ).2t1.s t

13

Failure of the forked end in shear (t)

P = (d 2 - d1 ).2t1.t

14

Failure of the forked end in crushing (sc)

P = (d1 ).2t1.s c

P = 2.

p 2
d1 .t
4

If the induced stresses are less than the given design stresses, therefore the joint is safe

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Machine Design Data Book


S.No

Table

Equation

Stress

P
A
P = Forceor load acting on a boby
A = Cross sec tional Area of thebody

Strain

dl
l
d l = Changeinlength of body
l = original length of the body

s=

e=

sae
3

Young Modulus or Modulus of


Elasticity (E)

s = E.e ......E =
E=

P.l
P.l
.....d l =
A.d l
A.E

t=
4

Shear Stress

p 2
.d
4
p
For Double Shear , A = 2. .d 2
4
ta f
t =C f
f = Shear Strain
C = Modulus of Rigidity

Rigidity

F .S =

Yeild Po int stress


Working or Design stress

F .S =

Ultimate stress
Working or Design stress

Factor of Safety

Impact stress

Torsional shear Stress

P
A

For sin gle Shear , A =

Shear Modulus or Modulus of

s
e

si =

W
A

2.h. A.E
1 + 1 +

W .l

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Machine Design Data Book

10

11

12

13

For Solid Shaft of


Diameter d

For Hollow Shaft of


Diameter d

Power transmitted by the


shaft

Bending Stress in
straight Beam

Bending Stress in
straight Beam

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Machine Design Data Book

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Machine Design Data Book

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Machine Design Data Book

Sr.No.

Table

14

Bending stress in
Curved Beams

Equation

e = R - Rn, Yi = Rn-Ri, Yo = Ro-Rn,


15

Resultant Bending
Stress

s Ri = s t + s bi
s Ro = s t + s bo
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Machine Design Data Book


16

Axial Direct Stress

17

Maximum Bending
stress at the inside
fibre

18

Maximum Bending
stress at the
outside fibre

st =

W
...A - Area of Cross SectionGiven .( see AboveTable)
A

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Machine Design Data Book

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Machine Design Data Book


RIVETED JOINTS:S.No

Table
Tearing Resistanceof
Rivet (Pt)

Shearing resistance of a
Rivet (Ps)

Crushing resistance of a
Rivet (Pc)

Equation

Pt = ( p - d ) .t.s t
p - pitch of rievt, d - diameter of rivet hole,
t - Thickness of plate, s t - PermissibleTensile stress

p
Ps = n.x. d 2 .t
4
n - no. of rievt , x - no. of shear,
d - diameter of rivet hole, t - Permissible shear stress
Pc = n.d .t.s c
n - no. of rievt , t - thickness of rivet plate,
d - diameter of rivet hole, s c - PermissibleCrushing stress

Efficiency of the Rivet

WELDED JOINTS:-

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Machine Design Data Book

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Machine Design Data Book

S.No

Table

Equation
P = A.s t ......kN

Strength of the plate

A = b. t....b and t - width and thickness of a plate


s t - Permis si ble tensile stress
P = 0.707.s.l.s t

Strength of a single
Transverse fillet weld

s - size of weld = Thicknes of plate


l - Length of weld
s t - PermissibleTensile Stress
P = 1.414.s.l.s t

Strength of a Double

s - size of weld = Thicknes of plate

Transverse fillet weld

l - Length of weld
s t - PermissibleTensile Stress

P = 1.414.s.l.t

Strength of a Parallel
fillet weld

Strength of single
5

Transverse and Parallel


Fillet weld

s - size of weld = Thicknes of plate


l - Lengthof weld
t - Permissible Shear Stress
P = 0.707.s.l1.s t + 1.414.s.l2 .t
s - size of weld = Thicknes of plate
l1 and l2 - Length of Transverse and Parallel fillet weld

t - Permissible Shear Stress

For Starting and Stopping of weld run 12.5 is added to the lengths

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Machine Design Data Book

s t (max)
t
...... t = (max)
Kt
Kt
Kt - Stress concentration Factor

st =

For Fatigue Loading

POWER SCREWS:STRESSES IN POWER SCREWS1) Direct Compressive Stress.

sc =

Stresses in Power Screws

W
p
....... Ac = .d c 2
Ac
4

dc = (d o - p)
do - Nomimal dia. or outside dia.
p - pitch of the screw

t=

Shear Stresses in Screws

16.T
p .dc 3

T - Torque ( N .mm)
Maximum shear Stress in
3

t max =

Screws
Pb =

1
s c 2 + 4t 2
2

W
p .n.d .t

n - No. of threads in engagement with nut =

Bearing Pressure on Screw

h
p

h - height of nut.... p - pich of screw


pitch p
t - thickness of screw =
=
2
2

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