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# Machine

Design
Data Book
Faculty In Charge

Head of Department

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POWER SCREWS-

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Sr.No.

Table

Screw

## Torque Required to rotate the

2

Screw (T)

Equation
2.p .N .T
.......watt
60
N - r. p.m......T - Torque ( N .m)

Power =

## 1) Considering Screw Onlyd

T = P.
2
2) Considering Screw and Collar
d
T = P. + m1.W .R
2
m1 - Coefficient of friction for collar
W- Load on the Screw
1) To Raise or Lift the Load,-

## Tangential Force Required at

tana + tanf
P = W tan (a + f ) = W
...( N )
1 - tana .tanf

(P)

## For Acme Thread

tanf - tana
P = W tan (f - a ) = W
...( N )
1 + tanf.tana
tana + tanf1
P = W tan (a + f1 ) = W
...( N )
1 - tana .tanf1
m
tan f1 =
cos b

tana =

Helix angle

np
pd

## n- no of starts of the thread

p-pitch of the Screw
d- Mean diameter of the screw

Friction Angle

m = tanf

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d=

(d)

d0 + d c
p
p
= d0 - = dc 2
2
2

## Where- do Nominal or Outside Diameter

p- Pitch of the Screw
dc- Core or Root Diameter

## Coefficient of Friction for

Screw

m = tan a
R1 + R2
2
R1 Outer Radius of Collar
R2 Inner Radius of Collar
R=

10

## Mean radius of the Collar

11
Effort Required at the end of
12

## Lever arm of length l, (P1)

Speed of the Screw per

13

revolution

T = P1. l

T Total Torque
D
T = P1. ........D - Diameter of Hand Wheel
2
N=

......(r. p.m)
Pitch (mm)

## 1) Considering Screw Only-

h=

W .tan a .

d
2

d
2
2) Considering Screw and Collar
d
W .tan a .
2
h=
d
P. + m1.W .R
2
P.

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HELICAL SPRINGS-

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## Machine Design Data Book

Sr.No.

Table

Equation
Using Spring Index C = D/d

## Mean Diameter of the Spring Coil (D)

D = C. d
Outer Diameter of Spring Coil (Do) = D + d
Inner Diameter of spring Coil (Di) = D - d

## 1) When Wahls Factor (K) is Given

8WD
pd3
4C - 1 0.615
K=
+
4C - 4
C
2) When load is variable (W1 And W2),
then for Maximum loadD p
T = Wmax . = .t .d 3
2 16

t = K.

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## Machine Design Data Book

Sr.No.

Table

Equation

d=

8.W .C 3 n
G.d

d- Deflection of Spring
C- Spring Index = D/d
n- no. of turns of coil
3

## Number of turns of Coil (n)

G- Modulus of Rigidity
d- diameter of Spring Wire
1) If the Load variation is given Wmin to Wmax
Then W in above Equation is W= (Wmax- Wmin)
For Squared and Ground Ends;,
n = n + 2

## 1) If the d is Load variation given for

(Wmax Wmin) then
dmax is calculated for Maximum load (Wmax)

Pitch =

Free Length
n' - 1

1
U = W .d
2

t - t 2.t
1
= m v+ v
F .S
ty
te
8.Wm .D
........
p .d 3
Wmax + Wmin
1

.K s = 1 +
......Wm =
2
2C
8.Wv .D
tv = K
.......
p .d 3
Wmax - Wmin
4C - 1 0.615
..K =
+
......Wv =
C
2
4C - 4

t m = Ks
7

fatigue Loading

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LEAF SPRINGS-

Sr.No.

Table

Equation
2 L = 2 L1 - l

## 2L1 Length of Span or Overall length of

Spring
l- width of the Band
n = nF + nG

2W

## When no. of Springs are given, then

Load on each spring (2W)

## nF No. of Full length leaves

nG- No. of Graduated Leaves

nt
b

5

## n- Number of leaves, t Thickness of plate

and b Width of the plate

## Final stresses in springs

When Leaves are Equally stressed

i)

Stress, s =

6.W .L
n.b.t 2

Stress, s =

18.W .L
b.t (2nG + 3nF )
2

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## Machine Design Data Book

Deflection, d =

ii)

6.W .L3
n.E.b.t 3

Deflection, d =

12.W .L
E.b.t (2nG + 3nF )
3

## Calculation Initial Gap between full

length and graduated leaves
C=

## Load Exerted on the Band after the

spring is assembled (Wb)

Wb =

2.W .L3
n.E.b.t 3

2.nF .nG .W
n.(2nG + 3nF )

Knuckle Joint
A knuckle joint is used to connect two rods which are under the action of tensile loads. However,
if the joint is guided, the rods may support a compressive load. A knuckle joint may be readily
disconnected for adjustments or repairs. Its use may be found in the link of a cycle chain, tie rod
joint for roof truss, valve rod joint with eccentric rod, pump rod joint, tension link in bridge
structure and lever and rod connections of various types.

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DESIGN PROCEDURE
Sr.No.

Table

Equation
P=

## Diameter of the Rod (d)

p 2
d .s t
4

P- Load Transmitted,
st - Tensile Stress

d1 = d

d2 = 2 d

d3 = 1.5 d

t = 1.25 d

t1 = 0.75 d

t2 = 0.5 d

## Failure of the single eye or rod end in tension (st)

P = (d 2 - d1 ).t.s t

10

## Failure of the single eye or rod end in shearing (t)

P = (d 2 - d1 ).t.t

11

P = (d1 ).t.s c

12

## Failure of the forked end in tension (st)

P = (d 2 - d1 ).2t1.s t

13

## Failure of the forked end in shear (t)

P = (d 2 - d1 ).2t1.t

14

## Failure of the forked end in crushing (sc)

P = (d1 ).2t1.s c

P = 2.

p 2
d1 .t
4

If the induced stresses are less than the given design stresses, therefore the joint is safe

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## Machine Design Data Book

S.No

Table

Equation

Stress

P
A
P = Forceor load acting on a boby
A = Cross sec tional Area of thebody

Strain

dl
l
d l = Changeinlength of body
l = original length of the body

s=

e=

sae
3

## Young Modulus or Modulus of

Elasticity (E)

s = E.e ......E =
E=

P.l
P.l
.....d l =
A.d l
A.E

t=
4

Shear Stress

p 2
.d
4
p
For Double Shear , A = 2. .d 2
4
ta f
t =C f
f = Shear Strain
C = Modulus of Rigidity

Rigidity

F .S =

## Yeild Po int stress

Working or Design stress

F .S =

Ultimate stress
Working or Design stress

Factor of Safety

Impact stress

P
A

s
e

si =

W
A

2.h. A.E
1 + 1 +

W .l

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10

11

12

13

Diameter d

Diameter d

## Power transmitted by the

shaft

Bending Stress in
straight Beam

Bending Stress in
straight Beam

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## Machine Design Data Book

Sr.No.

Table

14

Bending stress in
Curved Beams

Equation

## e = R - Rn, Yi = Rn-Ri, Yo = Ro-Rn,

15

Resultant Bending
Stress

s Ri = s t + s bi
s Ro = s t + s bo
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16

## Axial Direct Stress

17

Maximum Bending
stress at the inside
fibre

18

Maximum Bending
stress at the
outside fibre

st =

W
...A - Area of Cross SectionGiven .( see AboveTable)
A

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## Machine Design Data Book

RIVETED JOINTS:S.No

Table
Tearing Resistanceof
Rivet (Pt)

Shearing resistance of a
Rivet (Ps)

Crushing resistance of a
Rivet (Pc)

Equation

Pt = ( p - d ) .t.s t
p - pitch of rievt, d - diameter of rivet hole,
t - Thickness of plate, s t - PermissibleTensile stress

p
Ps = n.x. d 2 .t
4
n - no. of rievt , x - no. of shear,
d - diameter of rivet hole, t - Permissible shear stress
Pc = n.d .t.s c
n - no. of rievt , t - thickness of rivet plate,
d - diameter of rivet hole, s c - PermissibleCrushing stress

WELDED JOINTS:-

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## Machine Design Data Book

S.No

Table

Equation
P = A.s t ......kN

## A = b. t....b and t - width and thickness of a plate

s t - Permis si ble tensile stress
P = 0.707.s.l.s t

Strength of a single
Transverse fillet weld

## s - size of weld = Thicknes of plate

l - Length of weld
s t - PermissibleTensile Stress
P = 1.414.s.l.s t

Strength of a Double

## Transverse fillet weld

l - Length of weld
s t - PermissibleTensile Stress

P = 1.414.s.l.t

Strength of a Parallel
fillet weld

Strength of single
5

Fillet weld

## s - size of weld = Thicknes of plate

l - Lengthof weld
t - Permissible Shear Stress
P = 0.707.s.l1.s t + 1.414.s.l2 .t
s - size of weld = Thicknes of plate
l1 and l2 - Length of Transverse and Parallel fillet weld

## t - Permissible Shear Stress

For Starting and Stopping of weld run 12.5 is added to the lengths

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## Machine Design Data Book

s t (max)
t
...... t = (max)
Kt
Kt
Kt - Stress concentration Factor

st =

sc =

## Stresses in Power Screws

W
p
....... Ac = .d c 2
Ac
4

dc = (d o - p)
do - Nomimal dia. or outside dia.
p - pitch of the screw

t=

## Shear Stresses in Screws

16.T
p .dc 3

T - Torque ( N .mm)
Maximum shear Stress in
3

t max =

Screws
Pb =

1
s c 2 + 4t 2
2

W
p .n.d .t

h
p

## h - height of nut.... p - pich of screw

pitch p
t - thickness of screw =
=
2
2

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