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Teaching English as Foreign Language

PAPER
“TEACHING ENGLISH as FOREIGN
LANGUAGE”
-TEACHING OF SPEAKING-

Directed By The 1st Group
Name

: Laynatunnuur

Shovalina Helka

UNIVERSITAS BANTEN JAYA
(UNBAJA)
FAKULTAS KEGURUAN DAN ILMU PENDIDIKAN
Jl. Ciwaru II No. 73 Kota Serang-Banten Telp. (0254) 217066 Fax.(0254) 209583

Te a c h i n g S p e a k i n g

17

....................................1 B............. Definition of Speaking......................... Technique of Teaching Speaking in Classroom................4 C..................................Conclussion..................................................................................................................8 E.................10 G...Background .................................1 CHAPTER II EXPLANATION..2 B............14 FOREWORD Assalamualaikum Wr........References......9 F.............1 A...............................Overview......................................................................................................................................................................................................6 D.... Wb Te a c h i n g S p e a k i n g 17 ................................................12 CHAPTER III THE END.......................................................................................................................13 A....................... Types of Spoken Language........................ Characteristics of Spoken Language Related to Speaking.............Teaching English as Foreign Language TABLE OF CONTENTS FOREWORD........................................................ Micro – Skills of Speaking............................................................................................................................ Historical Description in Learning and Teaching Speaking.......2 A............13 B.............................iii CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION.......................................... Principles in Teaching Speaking...................

It is argued here that students can learn best through exposure of knowledge and space for hands-on experience. it is our privilege and pleasure to say thank you and at the same time.Pd. Wb. who has been very supportive in completing this paper and all our beloved colleagues in English Education Department of Banten Jaya University. Background Te a c h i n g S p e a k i n g 17 . this paper is designed in such a way that help students get both theoretical and practical experiences on speaking activities in the context of Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL) in Indonesia. our beloved lecture. March 2015 Writer CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION A. Serang. Wassalamu'alaikum Wr. for their invaluable sharing.Teaching English as Foreign Language Intended for use in collage classes particularly in the English education department. Here. encouragement and support. we gratefully acknowledge to Lia Amalia M.

It means that speaking is the basic language. So. Teaching speaking. Definition of Speaking Te a c h i n g S p e a k i n g 17 . which is preceded by listening skill. in teaching speaking skill it is necessary to have clear understanding involved in speech. How is the Technique of Teaching Speaking in Classroom? CHAPTER 2 EXPLANATION A. communicative needs. What is the Micro – Skills of Speaking? 6. Tarigan (1990: 3-4) defines that speaking is a language skill that is developed in child life. interact to other person in any situation. The goal of teaching speaking skills is to communicate efficiency. What are the Principles in Teaching Speaking? 7. While speaking means to make use of words in an ordinary voice. in my opinion. What is the Definition of Speaking? 2. etc). and at that period speaking skill is learned. How the Historical Description in Learning and Teaching Speaking? 3. What are the Characteristics of Spoken Language Related to Speaking? 5. What are Types of Spoken Language? 4. teaching speaking is giving instruction to a person in order to communicate.Teaching English as Foreign Language According to Hornby (1995: 37) teaching means giving the instruction to (a person): give a person (knowledge skill. B. is the way for students to express their emotions. and influence the others. For this reason. Overview 1.

Based on Competence Based Curriculum speaking is one of the four basic competences that the students should gain well. students face some difficulties one of them is about language its self. 1990: 12) writes that when teaching speaking or producing skill. we can apply three major stages. (in Tarigan. In the nature of communication. Speaking is the productive skill. we can find the speaker. 2004). the listener. It could not be separated from listening. The problems are afraid for students to make mistakes. Te a c h i n g S p e a k i n g 17 . It has an important role in communication.Teaching English as Foreign Language Tarigan (1990:3-4) defines that speaking is a language skill that is developed in child life. When we speak we produce the text and it should be meaningful. Speaking could not be separated from pronunciation as it encourages learners to learn the English sounds. the message and the feedback. those are: 1) Introducing new language 2) Practice 3) Communicative activity. In carrying out speaking. In fact. Harmer. which is produced by listening skill. and at that period speaking skill is learned. Speaking can find in spoken cycle especially in Joint Construction of Text stage (Departmen Pendidikan Nasional. most of students get difficulties to speak even though they have a lot of vocabularies and have written them well.

2001: 56-57) stated that speaking ability more complex and difficult than people assume. Speaking ability is the students’ ability in expressing their ideas orally which is represented by the scores of speaking. a number of prosodic. designing appropriate assessment tasks in speaking begins with the specification of objective or criteria. 2. Those objectives may be classified in term of several types of speaking performance: 1. naturalize many case to language teachers.Teaching English as Foreign Language On the other hand. While this is purely phonetic level of oral production. and speaking study like study other cases in study of language. That is why the teachers have big challenge to enable their students to master English well. speaking can be called as oral communication and speaking is one of skills in English learning. Brown (2003:141) states as with all effective tests. This become one important subject that teacher should given. Intensive A second type of speaking frequently employed in assessment contexts is the production of short stretches of oral language designed to demonstrate competence in Te a c h i n g S p e a k i n g 17 . especially speaking English in class or out of the class. lexical and grammatical properties of language may be conclude in the criterion performance. Speaking is only an oral trail of abilities that it got from structure and vocabulary. Imitative At one end of a continuum of types of speaking performance is the ability to simply parrot back (imitate) a word or phrase or possibly a sentence. Freeman (in Risnadedi.

and English by the end of the 16th century. juncture). reading aloud. but it was displaced by French. standard greetings and a small talk. religion. (1657). Examples of extensive assessment tasks include directed response tasks. covering the entire school curriculum. commerce.1. and government in much of the Western world. B. the origins of modern language education are in the study and teaching of Latin in the 17thcentury. He is one of the first theorists to write systematically about how languages are learnt and about pedagogical methodology for language acquisition. In this work. Latin had for many centuries been the dominant language of education.Teaching English as Foreign Language a narrow band of grammatical. John Amos Comenius (1592-1670) was one of many people who tried to reverse this trend. lexical of phonological relationship (such as prosodic element-intonation. phrasal. He composed a complete course for learning Latin. Te a c h i n g S p e a k i n g 17 . Responsive Responsive assessment tasks included interaction and test comprehension but at the somewhat limited level of very short conversations. rhythm. simple request and comments and the like. Comenius also outlined his theory of language acquisition. He held that language acquisition must be allied with sensation and experience. 3.1 Ancient to Mediaeval period Although the need to learn foreign languages is almost as old as human history itself. Historical Description in Learning and Teaching Speaking Historical Background: History of Foreign Language Education 6. culminating in his Opera Didactica Omnia. sentence and dialogue completion limited picture-cued task including simple sequences and relationship up to the simple sentence level. stress. Italian.

The study of Latin diminished from the study of a living language to be used in the real world to a subject in the school curriculum.Teaching English as Foreign Language Teaching must be oral. studying grammatical rules and translating abstract sentences. pictures of them. Oral work was minimal. As a result. Based on the purely academic study of Latin. Heinrich Gottfried Ollendorff (1803-1865). Rodgers. It was then claimed that its study developed intellectual abilities. and Harold Palmer (1877-1949). 19th-20th century Innovation in foreign language teaching began in the 19th century and became very rapid in the 20th century. Orbis Sensualium Pictus (The Visible World in Pictures. Henry Sweet (1845-1912). 1. each trying to be a major improvement over the previous or contemporary methods. 18thcentury The study of modern languages did not become part of the curriculum of European schools until the 18th century. The earliest applied linguists included Jean Manesca (1778?-1838). he also published the world's first illustrated children's book. It led to a number of different and sometimes conflicting methods. 1658). students of modern languages did much of the same exercises. 2001: 3 2. This tradition-inspired method became known as the 'GrammarTranslation Method' (Richards. and students were instead required to memorise grammatical rules and apply these to decode written texts in the target language. Otto Jespersen (1860-1943). Theodore. Such decline brought about a new justification for its study. and failing that. The schoolroom should have models of things. and the study of Latin grammar became an end in and for itself. They worked on setting language teaching Te a c h i n g S p e a k i n g 17 .

the language of informal speech. Its purpose is to develop relationships between speakers. Refers to objects or abstract concepts. transactional. 4. 2. event or situation. Transactional Getting information or making a deal. Expressive The speakers emotions feeling and attitudes. Shows the speakers judgements/feelings about a person. expressive. It has specific purpose and is driven by needs and wants rather than sociability. Te a c h i n g S p e a k i n g 17 . Refential Provides the listener with information. C. 1. 3. Phatic Small talk. phatic = IRETP = I Read Even Tricky Pages I admit its not a great link to the subject or a particularly great pneumonic so if you can think of a better one leave it in the comment section. Types of Spoken Language Here’s a pneumonic to help you remember each type: Interactional. Interactional Social function. The speaker assumes knowledge from the listener-the listener has to know the context before they can understand the references. Used social purpose.Teaching English as Foreign Language principles and approaches based on linguistic and psychological theories. referential. 5. but they left many of the specific practical details for others to devise.

Characteristics of Spoken Language Related to Speaking Some courses fail the learners in that they fail to distinguish between spoken and written language. The litmus test for this assertion is to ask whether the syllabus/curriculum treats spoken language as something distinct from written language with its own grammar.Teaching English as Foreign Language D. If productive skills work is a vehicle for the teaching of structures rather than training for skill and sub-skill acquisition then the course would probably have to be described as a grammar based course. are some of the features of spoken language as I have identified them. Here then. Te a c h i n g S p e a k i n g 17 . no matter how communicative it is hyped up to be. syntax and lexicon.

and attitudes in part due to the vast range of nuances.  Negotiation of meaning is common and often a large part of any conversation.  Speech is very suited to social (phatic – i. especially informal. The lexicon of speech is usually characteristically vague using words which refer specifically to the situation. opinions.  Spoken language makes greater use of shared knowledge than written language. It is also good at expressing social relationships. which can be expressed by prosody and accompanying non-verbal features. Nonsense vocabulary is often not written and may have no standard spelling (whatchamacallit). Lengthy co-ordinate sentences (joining sentences with co-ordinates such as “and” are normal and are often of considerable complexity.  Many words and constructions are characteristic of.  There is an opportunity to rethink an utterance whilst it is in progress. Te a c h i n g S p e a k i n g 17 . speech. in here. errors once spoken cannot be undone. right now.e. As such.Teaching English as Foreign Language  Sentence boundaries are at best unclear though intonation and pause divide long discourse into more manageable chunks. such as passing the time of day or “creating an atmosphere” or any situation where unplanned and casual discourse is desirable. for example: that one.  Participants are usually face-to-face and so can rely on feedback (extralinguistic cues to aid meaning). Obscenity may be replaced with graphic euphemism (S*D *T). Deictic (see: deixis) expressions are very commonly used. “chewing the fat”) functions. However. the interlocutor must live with the consequences.

This includes making tonal distinctions.Teaching English as Foreign Language  Interruptions and overlapping are normal and are generally very common. put words together in correct word order. 5.  Interlocutors give and receive immediate feedback. Modern grammars. use the correct forms of words.  It has many routines and this can make it very predictable. take an entirely different view however. pronounce the distinctive sounds of a language clearly enough so that people can distinguish them. Te a c h i n g S p e a k i n g 17 . use stress and rhythmic patterns.  Speech makes use of many formulaic expressions.  Frequently displays ellipsis. changes in the tense.  Speech acts are usually considered ungrammatical in terms of traditional Latin-based grammars. each situation has its own discourse which have been historically and socially defined.  Negotiation of topic is also very important: yes but…. But. use vocabulary appropriately. 2. For example you never say. or gender. 4. and intonation patterns of the language clearly enough so that people can understand what is said. for example. namely socio-linguistic analysis of natural language. The speaker has to: 1. Micro – Skills of Speaking Here are some of the micro-skills involved in speaking. “Give me a banana” in a bread shop. right then…. E. anyway…. 3. This may mean. case.

depending on your objectives Accuracy is the extent to which students’ speech matches what peopleactually say when they use the target language. 2. etc. disconnected little grammar exercises where we go around the room calling on students one by one to pick the right answer. with few hesitat ions or unnatural pauses. for status.Teaching English as Foreign Language 6. make the discourse hang together so that people can follow what you are saying. It is not easy to keep coming up with meaningful interaction. Provide intrinsically motivating techniques Try at all times to appeal to students’ ultimate goals and interests. 9. make the main ideas stand out from supporting ideas or information. Even in those techniques that don’t send students into ecstasy. Focus on both fluency and accuracy. Fluency is the exte nt towhich speakers use the language quickly and confidently. Encourage the use of authentic language in meaningful contexts This theme has been played time and again. it usually pays to tell them. 7. help them to see how the activity will benefit them. object. say. Often students don’t know why we ask them to do certain things. word searches. verb. F. and for “being all that they can be”. It takes energy and creativity Te a c h i n g S p e a k i n g 17 . Principles in Teaching Speaking 1. We all succumb to the temptation to do. to their need for knowledge. make clear to the listener the main sentence constituents. such as subject. 3. by whatever means the language uses. false starts. for achieving competence and autonomy. use the register or language variety that is appropriate to the situation and the relationship to the conversation partner. 8.

Don’t lose out on opportunities to integrate these two skills. As you design and use speaking technique. Skills in producing language are often initiated through comprehension. but even then you are in a position to be of great benefit. They simply have not thought about developing their own personal strategies for accomplishing oral communicative purposes. chapters 5 and 8) is one that few beginning language students are aware of. Capitalize on the natural link between speaking and listening Many interactive techniques that involve speaking will also of course include listening. give directions. In ESL situations. and have a chance to practice. 4. The concept of strategic competence (see Chapter 16:PLLT. 6. to ask questions. We ask questions. As you are perhaps focusing on speaking goals. Give students opportunities to initiate oral communication A good deal of typical classroom interaction is characterized by teacher initiation of language. students are totally dependent on the teacher for useful linguistic feedback.Teaching English as Foreign Language to devise authentic contexts and meaningful interaction. Technique of Teaching Speaking in Classroom Te a c h i n g S p e a k i n g 17 . 5. to control conversations. 7. It is important that you take advantage of your knowledge of English to inject the kinds of corrective feedback that are appropriate for the moment. but with the help of a storehouse of teacher resource material. to nominate topics. and provide information and students have been conditioned only to “speak when spoken to. and the two skills can reinforce each other. they may get such feedback “out there” beyond the classroom. and to change the subject. G. Your classroom can be done in which students become aware of.” Part of oral communication competence is the ability to initiate conversation. listening goals may naturally coincide. Provide appropriate feedback and correction In most EFL situations. it can be done. ask yourself if you have allowed students to initiate language. Encourage the development of speaking strategies.

1990: 13) writes that when teaching speaking or producing skill. CONCLUSSION Speaking is a productive skill. introducing new language 2. such as word. Te a c h i n g S p e a k i n g 17 . Other technique used for teaching speaking: 1. which is meaningful. information gap by using pictures 2. it is a mental process. phrases. we can apply three major stage. In this stage teacher can ask students to pronounce the unfamiliar words. those are: 1. and sentences used to convey a message to a listener.Teaching English as Foreign Language Harmer (in Tarigan. communicative activities. by using song 4. Theoritically. by using mysterious thing CHAPTER 3 THE END A. the teacher should find out the genre or the text. by using photographs 3. according to O’Grady (1996) . So the speech production is the process by which the speakers turn their mental concept into their spoken utterences to convey a message to their listeners in the communicative interaction. This means that it is a psychological process by which a speaker puts a mental concept into some linguistic form. practice 3. find out the meaning of the expression used in the text. When introducing new language.

So.com/2012/07/macro-skills-of-speaking-hereare. 2002. Harmer. as teachers. 2000. It is an important part of everyday interaction and most often the first impression of a person is based on his/her ability to speak fluently and comprehensively. REFERENCES Brown.Teaching English as Foreign Language And speaking is the skill that the students will be judged upon most in reallife situations. B. http://11mk2.blogspot. Inc: New York.html Te a c h i n g S p e a k i n g 17 . Addison Wesley Longman. Malaysia: Pearson Education Limited. we have a responsibility to prepare the students as much as possible to be able to speak in English in the real world outside the classroom. H. The Practice of English Language Teaching. Douglas. Jeremy. Principles of Language Learning and Teaching.

Teaching English as Foreign Language http://surianyade.html http://miguelbengoa.com/elt/?p=60 Te a c h i n g S p e a k i n g 17 .com/2012/11/principles-for-teachingspeaking.blogspot.