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Cicero ad Atticum

Author(s): Louise Dodge
Source: The American Journal of Philology, Vol. 22, No. 4 (1901), pp. 439-441
Published by: The Johns Hopkins University Press
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tamen hocferundum nullo modo est (Cic. and it seems quite clear that Roman ideas concerning the inviolability of private letters were very much less strict than ours. as is assumed by Tyrrell (supra) and others. Praef. . cf. so far agreeing with his brother and quoting his words. Ph. Ad fam. 835. Berl. p. but an example may not be superfluous:fac ita esse. ita . 3) de re publica breviter ad te 'Controv. Cicero writes in reply: Lucreti poemata ut scribis ita sunt mullis luminibus ingeni. So (Ep. which is obviously correct. L. to which. HENDRICKSON. we have his own explicit statements. Vol. . tamen. This content downloaded from 195.. . sed or tamen. as has been said. That there was disagreement between the two in some respect is suggested by the words which follow: Sed cum veneris-' but we'll discuss the matter more fully when you come. and not ingeni . A passage of similar import and brevity of expression I owe to my colleague. F. 439 Quintus-that is. ad Att.NO TES. II 14I). . SFor this interpretation and punctuation of the text." Apart from the objection to tamen which others have felt. amen artis. plurimum tamen arte adiuta. is so common that it seems to me a Roman reader must have grouped the words together in this manner most naturally. Finally. 2: Verum haec propediem et multa alia coram. We should therefore expect to find Roman letter-writers resorting to all manner of devices to render their private correspondence unintelligible to prying eyes.99 on Tue. the succeeding words point.1 Apparently Quintus had written that the verses of Lucretius were characterized by multis luminibus ingeni.. col. The postal facilities of ancient Rome were precarious at best. I. and there is plenty of testimony to the fact that they did so. G. 1891. XII I. The form of expression is a familiar one. CICERO AD ATTICUM. in contrast to ita. 182). I 17. who cites a parallel usage from Seneca Rhet. and recently by Norden (Antike Kunstprosa.78. Marx. it would seem to me unnatural that Cicero should repeat verbatim or essentially the judgment of Quintus unless it were to express a partial dissent from it. 20 May 2014 04:11:16 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . In Cicero's case. Professor W.109. Verr. G. the formula of partial agreement and exception. memoria ei natura quidem felix. II 20. Hale. . Woch. and had either expressed the opinion or implied that they lacked in ars. but he adds in dissent mullae tamen artis. And so in our passage the relation is ita sunt .

Turning now to the internal evidence of the text. si perfidelem habebo cui dem. that Cicero's ever prudent friend felt so keenly the danger which attended their correspondence in 705 as to have doubted the desirability of writing at all. X 8. aut. (posthac ad te aut.) The two periods of Cicero's life when such precautions would have been most needful.440 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHILOLOGY. tu tamen intelleges." and who was able to use the most complex. neque utar meo chirographo neque signo. si modo erunt eiusmodi litterae.109.)and modified in the next letter. quas in alienum incidere nolim. II I9. scribam. were the months of his exile (696-7) and those which elapsed between the June day 706 when he finally followed Pompey over seas and his pardon by Caesar more than a year after the battle of Pharsalia. These letters comprise the third and eleventh books ad Atticum. dXXqyopitaLobscurabo. Another suggestion is made by Cicero Att. 5. 20 May 2014 04:11:16 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . We know from Att. for Atticus' sake if not for his own.99 on Tue. si obscure scribam. variously altered by editors who have thought emendation necessary. and we know that Cicero disregarded the delicate intimation even while admitting its wisdom. Me faciam Laelium et te Atticum. for he undoubtedly had at hand an expert amanuensis. Still harder would it have been for him in 696 or 707 to deny himself such an outlet for his conflicting emotions as was afforded by these most free and intimate epistolary outpourings. i. in eis epistolis me Furium te cetera erunt ev Laelium. iam enim charta ipsa ne nos prodat pertimesco: itaque posthac. (II 20. and still less that he was too much disturbed in mind during those trying times to have the patience requisite for employing a difficult cipher. aivLyMoir. si erunt mihi plura ad te scribenda. we are struck by the entire absence in these two books of those Greek epithets and quotations which occur so frequently in most of the other letters to Atticus.. 5 quod scripseram me Furio scripturum. scribam plane omnia. faciam. This content downloaded from 195. might we not satisfactorily explain the absence of Greek words by supposing that he adopted some such simple expedient as that of moving the letters of the Latin alphabet a certain number of 'Reading of M. nihil necesse est tuum nomen mutare. We need not suppose that he is referring to the comparative laboriousness of following a code. who possessed the key to all his But "enigmas.when he makes use-as he does so often at these times-of such phrases as plura scribere non possum and non queo plura scribere.78. and that he compromised the matter by employing a cipher seems at least a plausible theory.

but in their own alphabet. because of the different order in which the letters occur in the two alphabets as well as the presence in the Greek of the doubleconsonant symbols. In the current volume of this Journal XXII. 'Mahdmdlra signifies as well a high minister as an elephant-driver. as Cicero has done in the third and eleventh books. a well-known term to denote a minister of high rank. J.a/arpat oi -rparlyyoi trap 'Ivols.h.azdrpa (as to the accent. In the Amorakosa commentary found in the edition of Vamanacharya Jhalakikar. isolated groups of foreign characters must have given the clue to the cipher. I8I) mahati mdtrd yeadm te mahdmdard.' So the Medinikosa. for their significance would have been suggestive to the inquisitive reader.78. LOUISE DODGE. S. MAMATPAI. 20 May 2014 04:11:16 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Bombay. I would propose another explanation which gives both a simpler account of the word itself and one more in accordance with phonetics. while. iauacdrparepresents Skrt. The only feasible way would have been to keep to the vernacular. the small. mahdmdtrah. With respect to one of them fa. it may have been considered an adequate term for rendering tolerably well the name by which the Indian high officials were designated. Cp. I95 foil.NO TES.99 on Tue. if they too had been transposed. 30 This content downloaded from 195. I890. That mahdmdtra in Greek transcription must become a. according to the code.109. two American scholars have tried with greater or less probability to carry back to their Indian original form a numberof Indian glosses in the Lexicon of Hesychios. In literature the word is very common in both acceptations. cp. Mfahdmdrdh samrddhe cdmdtye hastipakd dhipe. the right etymology is given (p. SPEYER. GRONINGEN. orpaT?7yoe as equivalent of the Roman praetor. In my opinion.. p. is almost evident. Nor could the letters of the Greek words have been transposed and then written in Latin characters. and as crparr'yosis employed in a wider sense than to denote mere military power. Its translation by rrparnyol may have been made by Megasthenes or some other source of information about Indian matters in the time of the Diadochoi. matra). 441 places forward or back? Greek words could not have been left intact on such a page.