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fOG.P. axfMåf/f 24-26 clk|n 2003 df sf7df8f}dF f cfof]lht .sf] cjZoDefjL sf/s tŒj xf] .f]. .LÚ df k|:t't dfgjclwsf/sf] pNnª\3g cfGtl/s / cGt/f{li6«o ljTof.f]l.+.org j]a.f]sf] k[ystfjfbL k|jl[ QnfO{ 6]jf lbPsf] 5 M km/s wf/0ff /fVg] clwsf/.kmd].Dd]ng …b Ph]G8f ck\m 6«fG.fy} lj/f]wfef.fOG. Jofkf/b]lv .fOG.n .g\ 2003 k|sfzs . kmf]gM 5542544/5548142 • ˆofS..g kf6g9f]sf.+:s/0f M . kf]=a=g+= !^^. ljefhgsf] .n .f].g d08]nf © .org/baha ISBN 99933 43 45 5 . g]kfn .f]. axfM cg'jfbM lzjdfof d}gfnL k|yd .f/df b]vf k/]sf zlQmzfnL k[ystfjfbL cfGbf]ngnfO{ pk]Iffn] .M 5541196 Od]nM baha@himalassociation.Qf Ifo u/fpg'sf .n . – g]N. nlntk'/. b'Mvsf] s'/f.fO6M www.Ddsf If]qdf ljZjJofkL -aflxl/of_ zlQmx¿n] /fli6«o . ¿kdf .ª\3if{ x'g uPsf] 5 .3fp k'¥ofPsf] 5 .~rf/.fj{ef}d.himalassociation. axfM lxdfn P.{ gM OGSn'hg Og g]kfnL 8]df]jm]| .

fdflhs kl/j]z u'?ª.fdflhs ljz]iftf lyP .O{ / d+uf]nO{ hfltsf dflg.Dkbf x'gfn] lognfO{ Pscsf{sf lj/f]wLsf ¿kdf lng' kb}{g .lxi0f'tf Wj:t kf/] .1 c7f/f}F ztfAbLsf] dWolt/ uf]/vf /fHon] . pgnfO{ lxGb"x¿n] lzjsf] ¿k lbP klg tflGqs k/Dk/fdf pgL e}/jsf ¿kdf kfOG5g\ . lxGb"x¿n] dxfb]jnfO{ lqb]jdWo]sf Ps dfg]sfn] pgL kSs} klg zlQmzfnL zq' lyP xf]nf .Ldf lj:tf/ cleofg tyf zlQmsf cfwf/df k}mlnFb} hfG5g\ . hghfltsf k'/t] n] clxn] klg To.dtfd"ns hghflt lyP . ef]6–ad]n{ L efiff af]Ng] . ef/f]kn] L efifL / lxGb" j0ff{>ddf juL{st[ lyP . uf]/vfnL zf.d]l6Psf lyP . ljh]tfx¿ ss]. g]kfnsf] ef}uf]lns kl/lw ss]. clwsf+z /fHox¿ Pp6f s]Gb|laGb'af6 jl/kl/ ljsf. t/ kl5 g]kfn cfPsf ljh]tfx¿n] cfˆgf] efiff.-s_ p7fg j}rfl/s åGånfO{ k|efljt ug{ zlQm–lrXgx¿ k|of]u ul/G5 . oxL j|mddf tflGqs k'mjf{ dxfofgL bf]h]{ cyf{t\ ah|df ¿kfGt/ x'g uof] . g]kfn /fHosf] :yfkgf kxf8sf] d'Vo e"efudf lxdfnL / t/fO{ Onfsfx¿ ufe]/ ag]sf] xf] . . cflbjf. 1989. lqz"n / bf]h{] b'j} lxdfnL .f+:s[lts k|bz ] x¿ .sx¿åf/f /fhg}lts ¿kn] PsLs/0f ul/Psf] g]kfndf ljljw ef}uf]lns / . lqz"nsf] .+:sf/af6 To:tf] . cflbd zdg– wfdLsf] dGqnfO{ j|mdzM tflGqs ljlw / .nfO{ pkof]u u5{g \ . kf= 134 1984 lqz"n / bf]h{] M g]kfnL /fhgLltdf .x¿sf] hDsfe]6 ePsf] ynf] x'gfn] cfcfˆg} vfnsf . x'G5g\ / . tyfslyt P3f/f}F ztfAbLdf zª\s/frfo{sf] cfqmd0fkl5 klg g]kfnsf] d'6' sf7df8f}dF f wfld{s .L d+uf]nO{x¿ cfcfˆg} ynf] ePsf.'? u/]sf] .Fu 5 .Lsf] sfF8fnfO{ b}jL–af0fsf ¿kdf lnOGYof] .DaGw lxdfnosf dxfb]j. pbfx/0fsf nflu k/fk"j{sfndf b'D.fdflhs kl/j]z 1 .Ldf lj:tf/ cleofgsf] kmn:j¿k g]kfnsf] lgdf{0f ePsf] xf] .O{ hflt.+:s[lt / wd{ nfb\g] .2 /fHosf] d"n wd{ lxGb" tyf /fli6«o efiff uf]vf{nL 1 2 lqz"n / bf]h{] M g]kfnL /fhgLltdf .lxi0f'tf lyof] ."qfTds bz{gsf] kl/isf/n] lj:yflkt ub}{ uP .DaGwdf klg oxL s'/f nfu" x'G5 . g]kfnsf . a3{6.

.f] Joj:yfcg'. 1987 xf]km/.gcGtu{t kl5 cfPsf hghfltx¿ /fO{ / lnDa"sf . dof{bfqmddf s]xL pNn]v 5}g .dfhnfO{ tLg d'Vo ju{df ljefhg ul/of] .ndfg rk]6faf6 aRgsf nflu wd{tGqfTds zf.nL lxGb':tfgÚ egL kl/sNkgf u/] .dob]lv k|rngdf /lxcfPsf .sf] c5"t.3_ .f| ] >]0fL (2) df /flvof] . . o:tf] P]ltxfl.+:sf/nfO{ lnlka4 sfg'gsf ¿kdf d'ns ' L P]g hf/L ul/of] .g\ 1854 df g]kfnsf lxGb"s/0f ePsf s]xL efux¿df nfdf] .+.f| ] >]0fL (3) df /flvP .dfgtfsf] xssf] k|Tofe"lt u/]sf] 5 -wf/f 11. c5"tdWo]df klg 5f]Ol56f] xfNg gkg]{ / 5f]Ol56f] xfNg kg]{ egL ljefhg ul/of] . -v_ Psflwsf/jfbL /fHo–Joj:yf lxGb':tfgdf P3f/f}F ztfAbLdf d'.f/ /flvof]M4 (1) tfufwf/L (2) gdfl.s hftx¿nfO{ 7fn' :yflkt u¥of] . lnª\u. 1978.sf] k|ltlqmof:j¿k g]kfnsf kxf8df lxGb"x¿sf] k|efj km}ng yfNof] . kfNkfb]lv ljhok'/. cl3b]lv uf]/vf /fHosf] . o.s afWotfjz. g]jf/ a|fXd0fnfO{ 5]qLeGbf tNnf] :t/df /flvof] . /fd zfx (1605-1633) n] oxL 9fFrfnfO{ df]6fdf]6L ¿kdf cg'.+ljwfg 1990 n] /fHon] wd{./L …ljZjsf] Pp6}dfq lxGb' clw/fHodfÚ lqz"n / bf]h{] M g]kfnL /fhgLltdf . o.a}eGbf tNnf] >]0fL (5) df kj{t] sd. o. hghfltnfO{ …z'4Ú tyf …cz'4Ú hftsf aLrdf /fv]/ g]kfnL .'gj' f/nfO{ bf].fO{wdL{ cª\uh] zf. ef/tdf al9/x]sf] d'. uf]/vfnL zf.'? eof] .ndfg / To.-g]kfnL_ x'g uof] . JolQmsf hftsf cfwf/df Pp6} ck/fwdf klg km/skm/s .sf cfwf/df gful/sx¿nfO{ e]befj ug]{ 5}g eGg] s'/f pNn]v ub}{ .L hftx¿sf] JofVof u/]sf] 5}g . d'.g\ 1825 df afx'g rnfpg nfndf]x/ kfPsf .Gtfg 3tL{x¿ t].+j}wflgs clwsf/nfO{ s'l07t u/]sf] 5 .f/ afx'g. klxn] d'. o. cNk. rf}yf] >]0fL (4) df pNn]v ul/Psf 5j6f c5"t hftdf rf/ g]jf/sf pk.fy} . d'ns ' L P]g 3f]if0ff ePsf] gAa] jif{kl5 o. j0f{.k|sf/. t/ . lxGb"s/0fsf] cleofgdf hghflt e"ldsf] cltqmd0f ul/of] .k|sf/sf k/Dk/fut k|rngnfO{ :jLsf/ ug'{ eg]sf] hghflt / blntnfO{ lt/:sf/ ug{' / cGo If]qdf klg lje]b sfod /fVg' xf] . kf= 45 lqz"n / bf]h{] M g]kfnL /fhgLltdf .g] dtjfnL 3 4 2 u'?ª. kl/0ffd:j¿k lxGb"s/0f g]kfn /fHosf] d"ndGq tyf p2]Zo x'g uof] .] Ddsf hftnfO{ 5"t / rf}yf] / kfFrf}F >]0fLsf hftnfO{ c5"t dflgPsf] lyof] .DaGwL Joj:yfdf s]xL . g]kfnsf] . P]gsf] j}lbs hft–9fFrf j0f{–Joj:yfeGbf s]xL km/s lyof] .d"xsf tNnf hft /flvPsf lyP .Ddsf . k[YjLgf/fo0f zfxn] sf7df8f}F pkTosf lht]kl5 .fdflhs kl/j]z dfl./0f ub}{ uf]/vfdf nfu" u/] . t/fO{sf a|fXd0fx¿nfO{ tfufwf/L ju{df /flvPsf] eP tfklg 5]qL / g]jf/ a|fXd0feGbf tNnf] :t/df /flvof] .ndfgsf] cfqmd0f .gdf a|fXd0f s§/tfn] k|wfgtf kfof] . t/ ef/tdf d'unx¿sf] ktgkl5 O. csf]{ zAbdf.fdflhs .kl5 O.g] dtjfnL (4) 5f]Ol56f] xfNg gkg]{ c5"t (5) 5f]Ol56f] xfNg kg]{ c5"t cyf{t\ df h' lk+ (3) .DaGwdf o.j{ky| d kf6gsf Sofk'lrg kfb/Lx¿nfO{ b]z lgsfnf u/] / g]kfnnfO{ …c.fO{ wd{sf lj?4df lxGb" .hfo lbg] Joj:yf o.3 .g . pgLx¿nfO{ hftdf ljefhg ul/of] .ndfg / Dn]R5 -s'O/]_ lyP . d'ns ' L P]g n] dw].LdfGt Onfsfsf ef]6.dfhdf hft k|yf nfu" u/] .d"x / ltgsf] dft[efiffsf cfwf/df :yflkt ul/of] .d"x.sf . d'ns ' L P]g df ul/Psf] lyof] . tL ju{nfO{ klg lgDg kfFr dof{bf>]0fLcg'. g]kfnsf] /fli6«o klxrfg kj{t] lxGb" clehft .'? ePkl5 To.f/ agfpg] p2]Zon] g]kfnsf] zf.] yf¿. klxnf]bl] v t]. 5]qL / 7s'/Lh:tf kj{t] zf.ª\Vos hghflt tyf d'Qm bf. hfthflt / ljZjf.sx¿n] cfk"mnfO{ lxGb"klt 3f]if0ff u/] .]g zf.g\ 1992 df .+zf]wg ul/of] . sf7df8f}F pkTosfdf hol:ylt dNn (1382-1395) n] g]jf/ .]n hftx¿ / b'O{ g]jf/ pk.g k4lttkm{sf] ‰'sfp a9\of] . o.xof]uL /x]sf du/ / u'?ªx¿sf .fdflhs kl/j]z 3 .f| . k/Dk/fsf cfwf/df c5"tsf ¿kdf juL{s/0f ul/Psf hftsfnfO{ dlGb/ / kljq:yndf k|jz ] ug{] clwsf/ sfod ePg .+zf]wg ul/Psf] d'ns ' L P]gsf] Pp6f wf/fn] wfld{s :ynx¿df ul/g] k/Dk/fut k|rngx¿nfO{ dflgg] 5}g eGg] s'/f pNn]v u/]/ pk/f]Qm .

o.fdflhs kl/j]z 5 .L lqz"n / bf]h{] M g]kfnL /fhgLltdf . To.5 g]kfn w]/} nfdf] .fdflhs kl/j]z kfkm–rfg]s { f. dWosfnb]lv otfsf] g]kfnnfO{ x]g{] xf] eg] o.gsf a]nf (1960-1990) Ps ljlzi6 hftLo .d"xsf 5g\ .4 k|ltzt hflt . . s'g} klg b]zsf] jt{dfg :j¿knfO{ Oltxf. gofF klxrfg ePsf hfltx¿rflxF kxf8 tyf t/fO{ b'j} k|bz ] sf 5g\ . klZrd g]kfnsf 8'd -blnt_ dfly clxn] klg Ps ztfAbLcl3 s'dfpF / u8jfnsf 8'ddfly ul/g] h:tf] zf]if0f sfod} kfOG5 .Fu t'ngf ug]{ xf] eg] d'ns ' L P]gsf] k/Dk/fut hSs8af/] :ki6 x'G5 ..x¿sf] . kj{t] …pRrÚ hftx¿sf] >]i7tf sfod ug{sf nflu g]kfnL efiff / lxGb" wd{sf] cflwkTo sfod ul/of] . g]kfnL . .s]sf] 5}g .ª\Vos hfthfltx¿sf] 6fnf]–hf]8fO (patchwork) u/L tLg r/0fdf ljefhg u/]sf 5g\ .fdflhs :j¿k lgdf{0fsf r/0fnfO{ -s_ zfx tyf /f0ff zf. /fli6«o PsLs/0fsf] .gsfndf j|mdzM s§/ x'bF } uof] .fdflhs tYofª\sn] t cfˆgf] hftLo klxrfg sfod ug]{ lbzfdf hfu?stf.2 k|ltzt cGo .tnh / l6:6f gbLaLr km}lnPsf] .g\ 1990 df k|hftGqsf] k'g:yf{kgf kl5 ag]sf] g]kfnsf] . oxL cjlwdf ePsf] /fli6«o hgu0fgf 1952/54 df k|ydk6s wd{ / efiffsf cfwf/df tYofª\s phfu/ eof] .f+:s[lts kIfnfO{ hgu0fgfdf a]jf:tf ul/GYof] . klxnf] k|hftflGqs bzs /fhg}lts czflGtsf] a]nf ePsfn] . 36.sf tLgcf]6f :j¿kx¿ b]Vg .fd|fHojfbL g]kfn / (3) d]rL / dxfsfnL gbLaLr /x]sf] .g\ 1991 sf] hgu0fgfkl5 hfthflt .ª\Vos hghfltsf] 9fFrf. tyflk. -v_ k~rfotsfnsf] /fi6«jfbL :j¿k / -u_ .ª\Vofsf] 6 k|ltzt x'g cfpF5 .t x'g . o:tf] wd{. g]kfnL /fhgLltdf tfufwf/Lx¿sf] Psflwsf/ oyfjt\ 5 eg] d'ns ' L P]g af6 :jtGq l. t/fO{sf ‰G8} Psrf}yfO hg.g\ 1991 / 2001 sf] aLrsf] . Ps hgf ljZn]ifsn] g]kfnsf] . .Dd /fi6«sf ¿kdf ljsl. /fHon] ckgfPsf lje]bsf/L gLltn] ubf{ ax'rlr{t lbJof]kb]zdf pNn]v ePsf rf/ hftnfO{ k"mn / 5QL.a} hft÷hfltx¿ .g\ 1990 kl5sf] cNk. -g]kfndf hgu0fgf ug]{ rng O= 1911 b]lv g} .ª\Vof bf]Aa/ ePsf] 5 -tflnsf 1_ ..dfgtfsf cfwf/df v'nf k|lt:kwf{ ub{5g\ . .fdGtL g]kfn . g]kfndf 57.lSsd / bfhL{lnªsf g]kfnLefifLx¿n] g]kfnL Oltxf. snf / /fhgLltnfO{ kl/eflift ug]{ sfddf dfu{bz{g lbP .dob]lv :jfwLg /lxcfPsf] /fHo eP klg c‰.Fu k6Ss} d]n vFfb}g .gsfnsf] . j0f{nfO{ ‰f/ 7flgPsf] 5 . (2) .ª\Vof log} gofF hftsf /x]sf 5g\ . efiff / wd{. . -u_ ljljwtfsf] c8fg c7f/f}F ztfAbLsf] pQ/f4{bl] v g]kfnsf] /fHozlQmnfO{ .Dd klg lxGb"jfbL 5 h'g b]zsf] husf ¿kdf /x]sf ax'.g\ 2001 sf] hgu0fgfdf pNn]v ePsf gofF hft .dfhnfO{ . hft÷hflt M . 1997 u'?ª.fdflhs / cfly{s ¿kn] xf]Og .~rfng ug]{ gLlt cª\uLsf/ ul/of] . 2001.7 (1951-1960) 6 5 4 u'?ª.ª\VofTds kl/df0fsf] dxŒj x'G5 ._ k~rfotL zf.dfhsf] k|f¿k b]Vg .fd|fHojfbL :j¿k.d"xsf.fk]If /fHogLlt zfxb]lv /f0ff zf.ª\Vof g]kfnsf] s'n hg.n] lgb]l{ zt u/]sf] x'G5 .+:s[ltdf cGo .fdflhs 9fFrf clxn]. Pp6f wd{ / Pp6f efiffnfO{ dfq dfGotf lbFb} cfP klg g]kfnsf] .k|sf/.fdflhs÷.dob]lv /fHo–Joj:yfn] Pp6f .d"xsf / 6.'b9[ / s]lGb|st[ ug{sf nflu hghfltsf] klxrfgnfO{ gfd]6 ub}{ lxGb"s/0fsf cf8df zf.d"xx¿sf] .f+:s[lts ljljwtfnfO{ layf]Ng .g .lSsd / bfhL{lnªdf .fdflhs d'2fx¿ cf]‰n] df k/] . of] ljutsf] lxGb" g]kfnsf] cjz]if xf] eg] d]rL gbL k"j{ x]/d] f eljiosf] g]kfnL .r]ttf cfPsf] b]vfpF5 .dfh.fy} .'? ePsf] eP tfklg .6 k|hftGqdf ax'dtsf] sb/ x'G5 .}n] hg. g]kfn b]z ef}uf]lns ¿kn] dfq PsLs[t ePsf] 5 .lsG5 . oL gofF hft÷hfltsf dflg. . kf= 7 197-198 lqz"n / bf]h{] M g]kfnL /fhgLltdf .d"xnfO{ ljnLg ub}{ /fli6«o Pstf sfod ug]{ gLlt cg'./0f ul/Psf] lyof] .a} t/fO{sf 5g\ . g]kfndf d'ns ' L P]g sf kl08tx¿ k/Dk/fut sd{sf08 / rfs8Ldf Jo:t /x] eg] l.+ljwfgn] /fHonfO{ ax'hftLo / ax'eflifs /fi6«sf ¿kdf t :jLsf/ u¥of] t/ …lxGb' clw/fHosf]Ú cfj/0f eg] sfod} /fVof] .5 k|ltzt hft .g\ 1991 eGbf cl3sf /fli6«o hgu0fgfdf hft÷hfltsf cfwf/df tYofª\s lnOPsf] lyPg .flxTo.fdflhs lje]b / 5f]Ol56f] b}lgs cg'ejsf] jf:tljstf /lxcfPsf] 5 .lsG5M (1) sf7df8f}F pkTosfsf] k'/ftg g]kfn.Ldfkfl/sf] .+:s[lt.s]sf] 5}g .ª\Vofsf] . 2002 .g\ 1991 sf] hgu0fgfaf6 k|fKt hft÷hflt.DaGwL tYofª\sn] s] s'/f b]vfPsf] 5 eg] b'O{ ztfAbLeGbf a9L .

6 k|ltzt 5g\ .}.d"xx¿sf] hg.d"xsf 7.fdflhs hudfly d:of{ d"nsf zf. s'n * r'/f}6.9 6.ª\Vof ePsf] 5]qL .F ss].480 57.6 1.539 7.] hg.0 ljleGg hfthfltsf] hg.s'n hg.0 6. aL. s'. d'l:nd / l.399.070.ª\Vof Ps xhf/eGbf sd 5 .ª\Vof Ps xhf/b]lv 10 xhf/ 5 .x¿nfO{ cfˆg} vfnsf] 6 juL{s/0f v}F -v.ª\Vofdf 7"nf] cGt/ 5 . oxfFsf /}yfg] g]jf/x¿n] cGo k|bz ] sf dflg.d"xsf dflg.000 2 100. lxdfnL 4.ª\Vof 10 xhf/b]lv 50 xhf/.d"xx¿ 38 k|ltzt 5g\ eg] kj{t] hfltsf 26. leqL dw]z 6.0- 22 44 22 4.683 19.ª\VofdWo] ‰G8} b'Ol{ txfO kj{t] d"nsf 5g\ eg] PsltxfO dw].}F -ef]6_] g]jf -g]jf/_ gv'ns ] f .0 22.cf]6f .0 4.L_ . t/fO{ d"nsf hft .ª\Vof ju{.6 aª\ufnL.ª\Vof dfq 5 eg] .161 6.d"xsf] dfqf -Ü_ 1991 2001 j[l4 31 53 22 13.v.d"xdf 36 nfv -tflnsf 2_ .0 33.ª\Vofsf] .d"xx¿sf] hg.8 100.ª\Vof eGbf a9L hft hflt 2 500.000 eGbf sd hDdf lqz"n / bf]h{] M g]kfnL /fhgLltdf .d"xx¿sf] hg.4 1.000 10 6 - 16 10.000. klxnf] xf]. kfFr .000 2001 cGo s'n 4 - 6 2 1 5 17 3 - 20 50.000 6 13 3 22 - 4 - 4 50 $# 4 97 32.d]t ef}uf]lns If]q kj{t -kxf8_ dw]z -leqL dw]z.+:s[lt cfkm}F rflxF .107 0.293 36. g]jf/x¿sf] juL{s/0fcg'.0' 8fsf] hg._ d:of{ -dw]. c¿ 22 cf]6f .ª\Vof -k|ltzt_ 65.fdflhs kl/j]z k|ltzt 38. dw]z_ ynf] gv'ns ] f s'n gfdfs/0f u/]sf 5g\ M d+uf]nO{ d"nsfnfO{ .934 100. g]kfn b]zsf] p7fg sf7df8f}F pkTosfaf6 eof] .2 - 56 97 41 22.ª\VofnfO{ .8 100. kj{t] 5.x¿ 19.f/ 5M 1.L v= hflt 3.L u= cGo* 7.lsG5 .d"x s= hft 1.736. ltgLx¿sf] kj{t] / dw].117 1.d"xdf kb{5g\ -tflnsf 2_ . /f]rs kIf s] 5 eg] g]jf/L .0 lqz"n / bf]h{] M g]kfnL /fhgLltdf .000.0 b]zsf] jt{dfg hg.6 2.d"xsf] d"n ynf]sf cfwf/df .431.1 - 4 12 8 1. rf/cf]6f .}.d"x hDdf 24.ª\Vofdf /x]sf] 5 / pgLx¿ kfvf k/]sf 5g\ .267. 10 nfveGbf a9L hg. dw].F . tflnsf 1: . hg.530 26.000-1.8 1.d"xx¿ 5g\ h.Dd 5 . 164 tflnsf 2M hft÷hfltsf] hg.LaLrsf] cg'kftM hg.a} hfltsf] hg.5 k|ltzt tyf hflt .5 25 44 19 8.d]t x]g{ .a}eGbf a9L hg.7 11 20 9 6.L d"nsf .797 38. b'O{ bh{g .ª\Vof 2001 k|ltzt gofF . dw].dWo] rf/cf]6f hghflt .000-500.5 9 9 0 8.638.d"xx¿sf] hg. .8 s'n hg.000-100. v}F hft k|yf yf]k/]sf] ldl>t pkh xf] . kj{t] 2.ª\Vof 1 nfvb]lv 5 nfv 5 .038.f/ cfhsf] g]kfnsf] hg.787.0 - - - 1.000 13 11 - 24 1.O{ d"nsfnfO{ v}F / dw]zsfnfO{ d:of{ eGg] rng 5 .fdflhs agf]6 hft÷hflt hg.4 3 5 2 190.000-10.000 1.ª\Vof ePsf 5cf]6f .fdflhs .fdflhs kl/j]z 7 .ª\VofdWo] kj{t] d"nsf hft .ª\Vof lgDgfg'. lxdfn / leqL dw]z d"nsf] hg.8 7 7 0 251.9 k|ltzt 5g\ .ª\Vof 5 nfvb]lv 10 nfvaLrdf 5 .000-50.ª\Vof cNk.sx¿n].d"x.

.g\ 1991-2001 sf hgu0fgfdf wd{sf cfwf/df hg.]kf{ / ysfnL k5{g\ -tflnsf 4_ .6 83.ª\Vof kl/jt{gsf] dxŒjk"0f{ kIf hghflt .5 88. o:tf .d"xdf lwdfn.ª\VofeGbf cfˆgf] dft[efiff af]Ng] .8 92.d"xdf cfˆgf] dft[efiff af]Ng]sf] cg'kft 70 k|ltzteGbf a9L 5 . o.ª\Vof 14.g\ 1961 sf] hgu0fgfdf O.ª\Vofsf] 88.ª\Vof 1991 df ax'dt -50.d"xnfO{ dfq dfGotf lbPsf] lyof] .4 0. axfO{ wd{sf] pNn]v . csf]{lt/. .8 17.3 99. ysfnL* 17.8 0.6 83.f] u0fgfdf s'n hg.g\ 1991 sf] hgu0fgfdf ls/fFtL / l.g\ 1991 / 2001 sf 8 lqz"n / bf]h{] M g]kfnL /fhgLltdf .1 1.8 51.f] ck|jf.d"xx¿df cfˆgf] dft[efiff af]Ng]x¿sf] . lh/]n 5.8 6. 17 cf]6f hghflt / 12 cf]6f cGo efiff÷eflifsf ePsf] nut 5 . ef]6]÷.ª\Vof (48.6 k|ltztn] a9]sf] b]lvG5 / . o:tf] tYofÍaf6 g]kfn .g\ 2001 df ‰/]/ cNk.fFRr} g} clt w]/} efiffefifLsf] .6 2.0 89.8 49. tflnsf kl/jf/ != ef/f]k]nL g]kfnL @= ltAatL–ad]{nL #= d'08f $= b|flal8og cGo÷gv'ns ] f s'n 3: efiff kl/jf/sf cfwf/df hg.2 -2.8 75.6 18.3_ /x]sf]df .fO{ tyf h}g wd{ dfGg]x¿sf] tYofª\s pNn]v ul/of] eg] . 1991 2001 68.4 33.g\ 1952/54 sf] hgu0fgfdf lxGb".2 90.ª\Vof 31 ePsf]df 2001 df of] .]kf{* cfˆgf] dft[efiff af]Ng] hghfltsf] hg.ª\Vof -‰fFu8_ 88. af}4 / O:nfd tLg wfld{s . lnDa" 4.6 hghflt .3 48. /fO{÷ls/fFtL* 10. g]jf/ 14.ª\Vof 17 dfq b]vfOof] .ª\Vof cl3Nnf] bzssf 43 sf t'ngfdf 36]/ 36 ePsf] b]vfOof] eg] 1971 sf] hgu0fgfdf of] .8 100.0 efiff hg.v wd{fjnDaLsf] tYofª\s pNn]v 5 .1 47. . yf¿ 8.ª\Vofdf 36La9L ePsf] 5 . /fhL 3.ª\Vof 21. wfdL 9.2 20.3 50.gsf sf/0fn] x'g .4 82.d"xdf dfq cfˆgf] dft[efiff af]Ng]sf] cg'kft 36]sf] 5 .sf] ljk/Lt O:nfd wdf{jnDaL 46 k|ltzt. . df‰L 19.g\ 2001 df h}g / l.Ëd:yn k|dfl0ft ePsf] 5 . 1991 df efiff÷eflifsfsf] .0 92. af}4 wdf{jnDaLx¿ lqz"n / bf]h{] M g]kfnL /fhgLltdf . .g\ 1981 sf] hgu0fgfdf 18 cf]6f efiffsf] pNn]v lyof] . /fhj+zL 2.6 50.ª\Vofdf j[l4 xf] .fdflhs kl/j]z 9 .g\ 2001 sf] hgu0fgfcg'. 1991 / 2001 aLrsf] bzsdf efiff kl/jf/sf cfwf/df hg.0 64.d"x 1.4 46.f/ 8 cf]6f hghflt . s'dfnx¿df .6) df x'g k'Uof] .efiffM /fli6«o hgu0fgf 1952/54 df g]kfndf 53 cf]6f efiff÷eflifsfsf] u0fgf ul/Psf] lyof] .8 2.ª\Vof a9L b]lvPsf /fhj+zL / /fhL ckjfbsf ¿kdf b]lvPsf 5g\ .g\ 2001 sf] hgu0fgfdf dfq ul/of] -tflnsf 5_ .ª\Vofsf] tYofª\s t'ngf ubf{ tL 19 . lwdfn* 7.7 59.8 k|ltztdfq a9Øf] .0 18.v wdf{jnDaLx¿sf] hg.fdflhs kl/j]z hgu0fgfdf pknAw hghflt tyf df[tefiffsf] hg. kl/0ffd:j¿k g]kfnL efiff af]Ng]x¿sf] hg.6 k|ltztdfq a9]sf] 5 -tflnsf 3_ . kl5Nnf hgu0fgfx¿df g]kfnL efiffsf] k|eT' j b]vfpgsf nflu yf]/} efiff b]vfOof] .ª\Vof 36]sf] 5 .6 32.ª\Vof 36a9 -k|ltztdf_ 1991 2001 kl/jt{g 80 79.5 70. s'dfn 11.fx«} yf]/n} ] dfq cfˆgf] dft[efiff af]N5g\ . b|flal8og efiff af]Ng] hg. 2001 sf] hgu0fgfdf yk 22 cf]6f /fO{.6 75.d"x r]kfª 12.9 k|ltzt lxGb" ePsf] tYofª\s 5 . /fO{÷ls/fFtL.5 66.0 68.2 66.ª\Vof a9]/ 92 ePsf] 5 . tflnsf 4: hghflt .ª\Vof PsltxfO a9]sf] 5 eg] ef/f]k]nL dft[efiff ePsf] hg.ª\Vof s]xL 36a9 ePsf] 5 .d"xx¿dWo] 4 .1 0.0 23. u'?ª 15.5 88.6 k|ltztn] dfq j[l4 ePsf] 5 . ef]6÷] .1 88.9 86.2 86. .7 62.0 100.6 30. g]kfnL dft[efiff ePsf] hg.5 92.1 77.S5 -tflnsf 3_ . bg'jf/ 16. b/} 13. ltAatL–ad]n{ L dft[efiff ePsf] hg.4 100. du/ 18.7 20. hftLo hg.6 wd{M .5 60.ª\Vof cg'kft -k|ltztdf_ 1991 2001 104.ª\Vof 18. /fli6«o wd{sf ¿kdf /x]sf] lxGb" wd{ dfGg]sf] hg. .1 21.1 135. tfdfª 6.g\ 1961 df efiffx¿sf] .2 0. .

v / h}g wdf{jnDaLx¿n] cfˆgf] wd{ lxGb" wd{ n]vfPsfn] pgLx¿sf] .L.0 1961 0.0 28.d]t u/L Ps s/f]8eGbf a9L dflg. ToxfF kxf8af6 a.7 1991 1.7 1952/54 3. df}lns ls/fFt wd{ hgfpg] .2 46. .ª\Vof j[l4 c‰ 10 a9L ePsf] 5 . g]jf/ -60 k|ltzt_. logLx¿dWo] .g\ 1991 b]lv 2001 sf] hgu0fgfdf hft .7 100.fdflhs kl/j]z 6: hft÷hflt / wd{sf cfwf/df hg.L kb{5g\ . O:nfd wd{sf] hg.fdflhs kl/j]z 11 .9 k|ltzt k'us ] f] 5 .0 -45.gsf] If]qsf] gSzfª\sg ug{sf nflu logLx¿sf] hg. 69. lxGb" af}4 d'l:nd O. lqz"n / bf]h{] M g]kfnL /fhgLltdf .g\ 1991-2001 hft÷hflt / ju{ s= hft lxGb" .r]t ePsf] k|:6 b]lvG5 . 5. .6 1952/54 7. x]Ndf].ª\Vof 46 k|ltzt a9]sf] 5 eg] .5 4.d"xsf] hg. c‰ klg 5 nfveGbf a9L hghfltx¿n] lxGb" n]vfPsf] b]lvG5 .ª\Vof clws j[l4 ePsf] xf] . O.x¿ a.d"xx¿ kfvf nufOPsf 5g\ . To. ofvf d'Gw'd–k/Dk/f dfGg] j[l4 k|ltzt 25.fO{ h}g ls/fFtL -d'Gw'd_ l.S5 .ª\Vof 25.9 k|ltzn] a9]sf] 5 eg] af}4 wdf{jnDaLsf] hg.f]af.0 46. /fO{. hftsf cfwf/df blnt / ef}uf]lns cjl:yltsf cfwf/df dw].0 -36. cfk"mnfO{ lxGb" wdf{jnDaL bfaL ug]{ dflg. 8. d'Vo ¿kdf dw]. 4.8 10.2 k|ltztn] j[l4 ePsf] 5 -tflnsf 6_ . k/Dk/fut ¿kn] af}4 wd{ dfGg] hghflt .7 tflnsf wd{ 1.4 402. u'?ª.fOF . 1991 / 2001 sf aLrdf ls/fFtLx¿sf] hg.ª\Vof 36]sf] x'g . wd{ / efiffsf cfwf/df cfˆgf] klxrfg sfod ug{ .0 1961 0.'gj' f/.6 k|ltztdfq j[l4 ePsf] 5 .7 49.ª\Vof 69.ª\Vof t'ngf ug]{ xf] eg] hghfltx¿df .] AofF.fO{ wd{df gf6sLo j[l4 x'gfsf] d"n sf/0f wd{ kl/jt{g xf] .6 157. .7 k|ltztn] j[l4 ePsf] 5 .f+:s[lts hfu?stf cfPsf] :ki6 x'G5 . a]nf ls/fFt wd{ dfGg] ls/fFtL hg. .d"xx¿sf] hg.ª\Vof 157 k|ltzt a9]sf] 5 .7 3.L lqz"n / bf]h{] M g]kfnL /fhgLltdf . 7. tfdfª.d"x 49 k|ltztn] a9]sf] 5 .6 14.]kf{. hftLo cfGbf]ngsf] If]q klxrfg ug{ tyf eljiodf :jfoQ zf. jfn'ª af}4 wdf{jnDaL dfGg]] af}4 u= d'.x¿ hfltotf.1 157.ª\Vof kl/jt{g tflnsf -k|ltztdf_ hgu0fgfdf k|ydk6s pNn]v ePsf] ldlt 1991 2001 kl/jt{g 1952/54 86.7 69. t/fO{ k|bz ] dw].ª\Vofdf 28 k|ltzt j[l4 ePsf] 5 eg] ls/fFt -d'Gw'd_ wdf{jnDaLsf] hg. ut bzssf] hg.d"xx¿sf] hg.2 0.ª\Vofsf] ljt/0fsf] 9fFrf klxrfg ug'{ h?/L x'G5 .v axfO{ cGo÷gv'ns ] f] s'n 5: wd{sf cfwf/df hg./]sf sl/a 30 nfv.ª\Vof kl/jt{g.1 0.0 hft÷hflt .+:s[ltsf cfwf/df hghflt. ls/fFtLx¿ 157 k|ltzt.ndfg O:nfd d'l:nd.0 - 0.0 100.5 226.0 23.ª\VofdWo] 36 k|ltzt /x]sf]df 2001 df 73.fdflhs .0 0.fdflhs .sf] ljk/Lt.k|ltzt. r'/f}6] O:nfd wdfjnDaL dfGg] 3= ls/fFtL -d'Gw'd_ lnDa". csf]l{ t/.d"xx? /fHosf] kIfkftL Psflwsf/L gLltsf sf/0f d'Vo ¿kn] tLgcf]6f k|dv ' .L cfGbf]ngsf] s]Gb|laGb' ePsf] :jfefljs 5 . 3.2 14.f] .g\ 1991 df klxrfg ul/Psf] lyof] . o.ª\Vof 24.ª\Vofdf 14. ls/fFtLnfO{ wd{sf ¿kdf . 2.d"xx¿sf] hg. o.6 24.ª\Vofdf ePsf] j[l4 / k/Dk/fut wd{sf cfwf/df pgLx¿sf] hg.6 2001 - 0.d"x kxf8 -9_ dw]z 41 hftx¿ lxGb" wdf{jnDaL dfGg] v= hflt ef]6.9 69. ub{5g\ . 6.j{ky| d . af}4 wdf{jnDaL / ls/fFtLx¿n] lxGb" wd{ Tofu]/ cfˆgf] wd{ cFufn]sfn] pgLx¿sf] hg.fO{ wdf{jnDaLx¿ 226 k|ltztn] a9]sf 5g\ .DalGwt hfthflt .ª\Vof tYofª\sn] dflg. O.5 80.0 0.0 -3_ tLg h'wf¿ .sf] ljk/Lt l.0 1991 0.x¿sf] hg.

9 19.0 37. 11 cf]6f ef}uf]lns If]qx¿dWo] 5 cf]6f If]qdf hghfltx¿sf] afx'Notf 5 -tflnsf 7_ . 2002 P.2 24.3 5.ª\Vof j[l4 eP/ . 1991 df pgLx¿sf] .1 38.7 6.4 11.2 k|ltzt /x]sf] 5 . ltdL sxfF lyof} d hGdg] a]nf < ltdLn] s. 1992 12 2 tflnsf 7: hghflt.ª\Vof ljt/0f 5.fOF .ª\Vof 22 nfv ePsf]df of] .7 6.0 14.5 17.1 29.d"xx¿ t/fO{df s]lGb|t 5g\ .' x] s]zj.fdflhs kl/j]z lqz"n / bf]h{] M g]kfnL /fhgLltdf . of] j[l4 b]zsf] hg.2 0.4 16. ltg} b]jtfx¿sf * rf]vf]dn ] f Pp6f ef/tLo blnt JolQmsf] gfpF .6 0.8 k|ltztn] a9]sf] 5 .ª\Vofsf] 0.ª\Vofsf] 63.ª\Vofdf /x]sf] b]lvG5 eg] blntx¿ klZrddf a9L kfOG5 -tflnsf 7_ .nfO{ .f] ePsf] pgLx¿n] hft kl/jt{g u/]sfn] xf] . 2001 hDdfsf] k|b]zsf] k|b]zut hg. blnt cfGbf]ngsf/Lx¿n] blntx¿sf] .3 13.d"xx¿ g]kfnsf] k"jL{ / pQ/L efudf a9L 5g\ eg] blIf0f / klZrdaf6 a.4 16. tflnsf h]ln6. -gS.2 (3) blnt.5 ltdLn] dnfO{ of] h'gL lbg' lyof] eg] lsg dnfO{ o:tf] h'gLdf hGd < ltdLn] dnfO{ hGdg TofUof}M ltdL clt lgb{oL eof} .0 3./]/ cfPsf hft . hghflt / blntx¿sf] ljt/0f x]bf{ hghfltx¿ k"jL{ efudf cTolws .7 27.  klxnf].l" rt cflbjf.9 10.3 3.a}eGbf Go"g -3. hg.sf] 7Ls ljk/Lt c?0ff~rndf blntsf] .0 100.4 7.4 24. .L -hghflt_ sf] .Fu d]n vfG5 .ª\Vof s'n hg. g]kfnsf] k"jd{ f kg{] ef/tsf] c?0ff~rn k|bz ] df cg'.8 59.1 4.5 k|ltztdfq} 5 eg] lxdfrn k|bz ] df pgLx¿ 25.9 56. hghfltsf] s'n hg.1 k|ltztn] 36]sf] 5 / o.2 58.d"nsf hghflt / hft .f] k'sf/faf6 blntx¿ clt efUojfbL ePsf] b]vfpF5 .6 16.2 k|ltztdfq 5 .8 k|ltzt_ /x]sf] 5 eg] dWo lxdfnL If]qdf of] cg'kft 93.ª\Vof 30.ª\Vofsf] 13.0 41.d"xx¿ klZrd / blIf0fdf a9L 5g\ .3 4. o.3 k|ltzt 5g\ .d:ofx¿nfO{ :ki6 ub{5M 8 9 u'?ª.9 44.1 12.4 5.7 41.1 16.2 1.6 100.ª\Vof 7.9 8.ª\Vof_ s lxdfn (15) != klZrd (8) @= dWo -3_ #= k"j{ -4_ v kxf8 (36) $= klZrd (10) %= dWo (13) ^= sf7df8f}F pkTosf &= k"j{ (10) u leqL dw]z (6) *= klZrd (2) (= dWo (2) !)= k"j{ (2) 3 dw]z (18) !!= klZrd (4) !@= dWo (3) !#= k"j{ (18) g]kfn (75) hghflt / blnt hg.f/ g]kfndf klg blnt / hghfltx¿sf] cg'kft dw]zcg'.ª\Vof s'n hg.ª\VofnfO{ x]g{] xf] eg] kxf8L If]q tyf leqL dw]zdf hg.ª\Vof 64 nfvaf6 j[l4 eP/ 84 nfv k'us ] f] 5 .0 0.ª\Vofdf Ü hghflt cg'kft ef}uf]lns k|bz ] -lhNnfsf] .7 5 .3 0.8 1.}cg'.2 16.ª\Vof 8 4.7 46. 2001 hDdfsf] k|b]zsf] k|b]zut hg.ª\Vofsf] cg'kft klZrdaf6 k"jl{ t/ a9L 5 .fdflhs kl/j]z 13 .f/ km/s kfOG5 .g\ 1991 df blntx¿sf] hg.ª\Vof j[l4b/ 23 k|ltzteGbf a9L 5 .ª\Vofdf /x]sf blnt hft sfdLx¿sf] .9 34.5 k|ltzt lyof] .2 48.1 15. rf]vfd]nf9 sf] lgDg egfOn] blntx¿sf b'O{ d"n . klZrd lxdfnL If]qdf hghfltsf] cg'kft .ª\Vof 13.8 3. lqz"n / bf]h{] M g]kfnL /fhgLltdf .6 93.a}eGbf w]/} .8 10.ª\Vofdf Ü blnt cg'kft 31. cjlwdf pgLx¿sf] hg.f s / v_ 1991-2001 sf] bzsdf hghfltsf] . a]nf < rf]vf* laGtL u5{M x] k|e.4 5.3 7.ª\Vofsf] 14.5 5.9 7.4 38. o.2 11.9 2. k"j{ / pQ/af6 cfPsf d+uf]nO{ hghflt .5 3.ª\Vof w]/} a9L 5 eGg] bfaL u/] tfklg pgLx¿ s'n hg. .g\ 2001 df 25 nfv ePsf] 5 .4 47.6 k|ltztdfq 5g\ . dnfO{ gTofu .ª\Vof ljt/0fsf] of] 9fFrf pgLx¿sf] cfudg laGb'sf] 9fFrf.8 17.3 1.5 3.3 13.8 k|ltztn] dfq a9]sf] 5 .0 14.3 28.3fof} To. o.8 3.9 58. cyf{t\ pgLx¿sf] .5 11.6 8.ª\Vof s'n hg. s]zj k|e' lxGb" s[i0f eujfg\sf] csf]{ gfpF x'gfn] . csf{lt/ g]kfnsf] klZrddf kg{] lxdfrn k|bz ] df hghfltsf] .1 47.1 49.

gsfndf u08sL k|bz ] sf u'?ª / du/sf .cfzLjf{bsf cfwf/df 7"nf hftsf] /hfOF x'gfn] o:tf] k|fy{gf Joy{ 5 .a}eGbf a9L 38.3 k|ltzt t/fO{df. c7f/f}F ztfAbLsf] cGTolt/ lnDa" / tfdfª ljb|fx] ePsf] lyof] -tflnsf 8_ .D‰gfsf cfwf/df AoFT' ofpg .d"xx¿ cfa4 eP klg tLdWo] kxf8 / dw]zsf hghfltsf] .+of]ujz.|ft] M xs{ u'?ª. klg zf. d]/L 8].nfO{ sf]§Øfpg] xf] eg] ljleGg hghflt .d:ofdf w]/} leGgtf 5 .Qfwf/Lju{. 10 e§rg. kf= 140 lqz"n / bf]h{] M g]kfnL /fhgLltdf .'sb]j_ ljb|fx] b. sLlt{k/' sf g]jf/x¿sf] axfb'/Lk"0f{ k|lt/f]wnfO{ Ps hgf ljb]zL k|ToIfbzL{n] pNn]v u/]sf] kfOG5 .an zlQmsf ¿kdf :yflkt x'g5] g\ . s]xL yf]/d} fq .fdflhs kl/j]z 8: hghftLo÷.a}eGbf a9L b]lvG5 -tflnsf 7_ .g\ 1991 sf] hgu0fgfcg'.Gbe{df .g lnDa" efiffsf] bdg d'dL{ -tfdfª_ ljb|fx] vDa" -/fO{_ ljb|fx] u'?ª -.g\ 1964 df tflnsf jif{ 1770 1778 1793 1808 1858 1867 1870 1875 1876 1925 1937 1950 jr{:jsf nflu .5 k|ltzteGbf sd 5g\ eg] sf7df8f}F pkTosfdf g]jf/ blntx¿ gulgPsfn] @=! k|ltztdfq 5g\ .s]sf] 5}g . .fdflhs–cfly{s–/fhg}lts cjwf/0fx¿.g\ 1950/51 .d"xx¿ 7"nf hftx¿af6 zfl.~rfng u/]sf cGo . bf].10 . kxf8] blntx¿sf] efiff / .L . rt'¥ofO / s"6gLltsf cfwf/df ePsf] lyof] .}F alxisf/ -b'O{ /fO{nfO{ d[To'b08_ lnDa" efiffsf] bdg du/ -nvg_ ljb|fx] u'?ª -.2 k|ltzt lxdfnL e]udf 5g\ .ª\3if{ 1951 1964 Oltxf. @))# . . 41. blnt / dw]. klZrd lxdfnL If]q / klZrd leqL dw]zdf pgLx¿ s'n hg.2 k|ltzt.d"xx¿sf] lj/f]w.f+:s[lts lje]b tuf/f] /x]sf] 5 .ª\Vofsf] cg'kftdf .f+:s[lts 36gfx¿ 36gf lnDa" ljb|fx] / lgisf.t b'Mvb :d/0fdfq /xG5 . ToxfFsf hft÷hfltaLr cGt/sf .\ …c5"tÚ zAb xf]Rofpg] tyf u}/sfg'gL x'gfn] t6:y t/ zf]lift hgfpg] …blntÚ zAbaf6 kb:yfkgf ePsf] 5 .Ldf lj:tf/.fg_ ljb|fx] ls/fFtåf/f lsk6 pGd"ngsf] lj/f]w If]q c?0f k"j{ c?0f k"j{ g'jfsf]6 ef]hk'/ ndh'ª wgs'6f c?0f k"j{ uf]vf{ uf]vf{ kf6g sf7df8f}F k"j{ kxf8 g'jfsf]6 k"j{ kxf8 .ª\3df 48 hghflt . g]kfn hghflt dxf. Oltxf. k"jL{ lxdfn / kxf8 e]udf pgLx¿ 7.d"xx¿ Pp6f .f/ s'n blntsf] hg.ª\Vofsf] .'klt_ ljb|fx] l5l/ª gf]j{' nfdf / rf/ nfdfnfO{ b]z lgsfnf leIf'x¿nfO{ b]z lgsfnf -cd[tfgGb.f}F ztfAbLsf] k"jf{4df a'4sf] hGde"ld g]kfndf af}4 leIf'x¿nfO{ nlIft u/]/ wfld{s bdg ul/Psf] lyof] .sx¿ / pgLx¿sf] j}wtfsf] syf xf] .g] -. wd{ / . t/ pgLx¿aLr g} hftLo cf} If]qLo lje]bsf] lg/Gt/tfsf] sf/0f pgLx¿sf] cfGbf]ngdf c‰ tfnd]n x'g .fd"lxs :jfy{ /x]sf] kfOG5 . /f0ff zf.] pQm laGtL p4[t ul/Psf] k':tssf] zLif{s g} c5"taf6 blnt eGg] /x]sf] 5 .+:d/0fdf e/ kg]{ afWotf 5 ./ . hghfltx¿n] .ª\Vofsf] 16 k|ltzt 5g\ eg] klZrd kxf8df pgLx¿ s'n hg.5 k|ltzt 5g\ .lxt_ ls/fFtL ljb|fx] tfdfª -ls.fdflhs kl/j]z 15 . eg]sf] hlxNo} klg ljh]tfx¿sf] ufyf xf] / x?jfx¿l. k|fb]lzs ljt/0fsf lx. sAhf. .~rfng ul/Psf] /fhgLlts cfGbf]ngdf ls/fFt / tfdfªx¿n] klg cfˆgf] clwsf/sf nflu ljb|fx] u/]sf lyP . hËaxfb'/sf] zf. 2000. aL. 7.4 k|ltzt leqL dw]zdf / 5.fy} efiff.lsG5 .t /xFb} cfPsf 5g\ . …/fli6«otf / hghfltÚ. lnDa"x¿sf] e"lddflysf] k/Dk/fut clwsf/sf] cGTo ub}{ .f‰f ljifox¿ x'g—\ /fhg}lts :jfoQtf. hghflt. dw]. pgLx¿n] p7fOcfPsf .=_ g]kfnsf .L d"nsf . cfw'lgs g]kfnsf] Oltxf.xeflutf k|hftGqsf] dflysf k|efj d'2fx¿ lnP/ PsLs[t kxnsbdL ul/Pdf tL tLg pk]lIft .+3if{ / ljb|fx] sf s}og 36gfx¿ e]l6G5g\ .fan] klZrddf blntx¿sf] hg. blntx¿sf xsdf klg oxL s'/f nfu" x'G5 .gsf] lj?4df . lxdfn lstfa. lj:tfl/t g]kfnsf] :yfkgf . .dfgtf / cfly{s cj. cfqmds 14 lqz"n / bf]h{] M g]kfnL /fhgLltdf . cyf{t.fy} k"jL{ kxf8sf /fO{ / lnDa"x¿n] ljb|fx] u/]sf lyP .d"xsf gftfn] ltgLx¿aLr w]/} ljifodf . o:tf cgd]n kf6fx¿sf afah'b /fHoåf/f kfvf nufOPsf .fdflhs .ª\Vof kxf8df 46.DaGwdf.f| .uF ldN5 .ª\3if{x¿ lnlka4 gx'gfn] nf]s.+:s[lt .

fdflhs kl/j]z 17 .d"x ul/aLsf] /]vfd'lg al9/x]sf] s'/f klg tYofª\sn] b]vfPsf 5g\ .+/rgfdf pRr hftsf lxGb"x¿sf] xfnLd'xfnL /lxcfPsf] 5 .fdflhs .d[l4sf aLrdf .d"xsf / 3.fIf/tf tyf lzIffsf] :t/ pRr ePsf .8 k|ltzt 5 . g]kfnM dfgj ljsf. kxf8] hghfltx¿sf] k|ltJolQm cfo ? 6. ubf{ .dfgtfsf] xssf] ljk/Lt 5 . tflnsf 16 6 lqz"n / bf]h{] M g]kfnL /fhgLltdf . .d"x d'. hGdsf cfwf/df prgLr x'g] lxGb" dfGotfsf] hft k|yfdf cfwfl/t 5 .7 7.L hft blnt hft 27. 2003 P.2 k|ltzt hghflt .312 36. pRr hft .Dd dfq lzIff lbg kfpg] s'/f tf]ss ] f] 5 .]kf{ 35.921 42./sf/L tYofª\sn] g]kfnsf 42.911 23. lnDa".940 v efiff .0 7.fIf/tf b/ -k|ltzt_ k|ltJolQm cfo -?=df_ 58.603 3 wfld{s .+:sf/sf cfwf/df ckx]lnt 5g\ .603 5 eg] blntx¿sf] ?= 4.fIf/tf / cfo.744 s hft .f/ pRr lzIff k|fKt ug]{ dflg.2 6.}sf/0f hghfltx¿ ./sf/L efiff x'g5] Ú elgPsf] 5 .g\ 1998 df :yfgLo .6 7.lsk6 k|yf vf/]h ePkl5 k"jL{ kxf8df tLj| lj/f]wsf] nx/ rNof] .5 6.g / /fhgLltdf klg pgLx¿s} ks8 alnof] /x]sf] 5 . du/.953 u kxf8L hflt u'?ª. .12 cyjf.940 dfq /x]sf] 5 ./sf/L sfdsfhsf nflu lgif]w ul/Psf] 5 . o:tf] wfld{s / eflifs Psflwsf/sf sf/0f . pRr hft afx'g / 5]qLsf] k|ltJolQm cfo /fli6«o . o:tf] s[lqd lje]b 1990 sf] g]kfnsf] . 7.+ljwfgdf s]xL o:tf wf/fx¿ 5g\ h'g efiffut .d"x 1996 .jf]R {r 11 cbfntn] o.fIf/tf b/ 42 b]lv 58 k|ltzt /x]sf] 5 -tflnsf 9_ .1 k|ltzt blntx¿ lyP . hft:t/ hlt Go"g x'G5 lg/If/tf / ul/aL Tolt g} a9L x'G5 . o. pRr hftsfx¿df 34 b]lv 50 k|ltzt kl/jf/ ul/aLsf] /]vfd'lg /x]sf 5g\ eg] kxf8] d"nsf hghfltdf ul/aLsf] /]vfd'lg x'g] kl/jf/sf] dfqf 45 b]lv 71 k|ltzt 5 .} u/L . d}lynL tyf g]jf/L efiffnfO{ . hftut >]i7tf tyf . . csf{lt/.fIf/tf / cfly{s . 1991 sf] hgu0fgfcg'.f] b/ kj{t] hghfltx¿df 35./sf/L hflu/ / zlQm . lqz"n / bf]h{] M g]kfnL /fhgLltdf .DaGw 5 eGg] s'/f pknAw tYofª\sx¿n] k'li6 ub{5g\ .+/rgfdf . 7 lzIff / ./sf/L sfdsfhsf] nflu k|of]u ug{ k|of.673 tflnsf 9: .|ft] M CBS. wf/f 18 (2) n] hghfltsf dft[efiffdf k|fylds tx.6 k|ltzt kl/jf/ ul/aLsf] /]vfd'lg /x]sf] b]vfPsf] 5 .d"x g]jf/ 54. blnt hftsf 65 b]lv 68 k|ltzt kl/jf/ ul/aLsf] /]vfd'lg kb{5 .nfO{ cj}wflgs 3f]if0ff u¥of] .+:s[t efiffnfO{ eg] /fHon] . kl/jt{g ePsf] 5}g -tflnsf 10_ .d"xsf] k|ltJolQm cfo klg c¿eGbf a9L 5 .a} txsf] lzIffdf e/0f–kf]if0f ul//x]sf] 5 . /fO{. 1998. 1996.+ljwfgsf] wf/f 11 (3) df pNn]lvt . . ljZj AofÍ.ndfg 22.Qfwf/Lx¿sf] .dfgtfsf lj?4 5g\ . g]kfnsf] . g]kfndf af]lng] c¿ efiffx¿nfO{ …g]kfnsf] /fli6«o efiffÚ sf ¿kdf pNn]v ul/Psf] 5 / .g\ 1854 b]lvotf vf.fwgdfly pRr hftsf] Psflwsf/ ePsfn] k|zf. .fdflhs .LdfGt kfb{5 .d"xdf k|f9} . wf/f 6 (2) df …b]jgfu/L lnlkdf n]lvPsf] g]kfnL efiff /fi6«efiff x'g5] / .x/L If]qdf s]lGb|t g]jf/df 25 k|ltzt kl/jf/dfq ul/aLsf] /]vfd'lg /x]sf 5g\ . 1997 P NESAC af6 lnOPsf]. . 2000 u'?ª.1 6.8 k|ltzt pRr hftsf.fdflhs .336 27.x¿dWo] 88.fdflhs :t/ tn ePsf . To. g]kfnnfO{ …lxGb" /fHoÚ egL ul/Psf] 3f]if0ff u}/lxGb" hghflt / lxGb" blntx¿nfO{ pk]Iffsf] d"n :qf]t xf] lsgeg] o:tf] cjwf/0ffn] hghflt / blntnfO{ .x.f+:s[lts cfwf/df lje]b ul/Psf 5g\ eg] blntx¿ .8 4.fdflhs kl/j]z eGbf a9L 5 .8 11.0 9.d"x kj{t] afx'g kj{t] 5]qL dw]./b/ ?= 11 12 dxh{g. Pg]S. . k|ltj]bg. 6.2 k|ltzt / blntju{df 23.673 ª cGo g]kfn . s'g} klg g]kfnLsf] dft[efiff gePsf] . g]kfnsf] /fhsLo wd{ c‰} klg dflg.

7 k|ltztdfq lyP .8 97 8.kmn x'gx] ¿df 83.]sf] g]kfnL sfª\u.Gt'ng lghfdtL .f] ePsf] xf] . cfly{s jif{ 1996/97 b]lv 1997/98 df clws[tsf] kbdf lgj]bg lbg]x¿df 82. kf= 11 lqz"n / bf]h{] M g]kfnL /fhgLltdf .fdflhs dfGotf km]l/G5 eGg] 5}g .fnb]lv .afn tyf bnut wf/0ff g]sf /fk|kf . 5.9 138 11.0 1./sf/sf] lg0f{o / .0 /fhgLlts Joj:yfdf kl/jt{g x'gl] alQs} .=_ g]kfnsf] .sf] lglxt :jfy{ 5 .+/rgf .8 - - 212 100. .dfgtfsf af/]df .+ljwfg 1990 n] k"0f{ JolQmut :jtGqtf k|bfg ubf{ub{} klg /fHonfO{ …lxGb" clw/fHoÚ 3f]if0ff ug{' ljutsf] k|eT' jjfbL k|jl[ QnfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbg vf]Hg' xf] .0 k|ltzt hghflt lyP . To.9 k|ltzt afx'g–5]qL lyP eg] kj{t] d"nsf hghfltx¿ 3. hftLo / If]qLo lje]blj?4 cleofgnfO{ .4 - - 2 0.ª\Vof k|ltzt 166 78.o.k|sf/ hghflt .Qfwf/L ju{sf] .158 100. pRr hft pRr hft pRr hft hflt blnt hft cGo -hft s'n 1854s .3 6 2.Qfdf . 3.9 152 13.d"x / blntx¿ zf. tflnsf 10: .Qfdf /Xof] .b\efjgf Pdfn] Ö Ö Ö Ö Ö Ö If]qLo Ö Ö Ö Ö dfn] dfcf]jfbL Ö Ö Ö Ö Ö Ö Ö hftLo ÷If]qLo Ö . s= 22 l8.d"x 1. /fhg}lts bnx¿df pRr hfltsf] ks8n] ubf{ o.a} bnn] :jLsf/ u/]sf eP klg . g]kfnsf] u'?ª. 18 2002 aL. o. c‰ eGg] xf] eg]./sf/L kbdf clws[t x'gx] ¿df 69.a}eGbf nfdf] . …/fli6«otf / hghfltÚ.2 32 15. 2. . g]kfndf 1990 df k'gM:yflkt k|hftflGqs /fhg}lts Joj:yf k/Dk/fut .Gbe{df .dosf nflu . 2000.fdflhs kl/j]z hghflt .fdflhs .|ft] M xs{ u'?ª. t/.]Da/ 1854 sf] d'n'sL P]g cg'.+ljwfgsf] lgb]z { s l.ª\Vof -kj{t_] -g]jf/_ -dw]z_ gv'ns ] f]_ k|ltzt !(((v .g.]| .+:s[t efiffdf . ./sf/sf] lg0f{on] g]kfndf gofF a|fXd0fjfbsf] pbo ePsf] s'/fsf] k'li6 ub{5 . t/ . lqz"n / bf]h{] M g]kfnL /fhgLltdf .dfj]z ug{] p2]Zon] /flvPsf cf/If0fsf k|fjwfgnfO{ . 3. o:tf cfGbf]ngn] efiff.4fGtsf] wf/f 27 (10) df pk]lIftju{nfO{ .4 k|ltzt hghfltx¿ lyP . .fdflhs–cfly{s–/fhg}lts cjwf/0fx¿. kf= tflnsf 5.3 763 66. g]skf -dfcf]jfbL_ n] kLl8tju{sf ¿kdf /x]sf hghflt / blntx¿nfO{ kmsfpg'sf k5fl8 p. wd{.g] -. k]h 82 13 . clws[t kbdf .1 2 0.g\ 1983/84 df .5 k|ltzt hghfltsf lyP .a}eGbf k'/ftgjfbL wf/0ff /fv]sf] kfOG5 -tflnsf 11_ .fdflhs .fdflhs kl/j]z 19 . cfTdlg0f{osf] clwsf/ 1.Lldt /x]sf 5g\ .dfrf/ k|. 6.]| n] . . 2003 aL. 1990 .f/ v= uf]ljGb Gof}kfg].xefuL x'gaf6 jl~rt 5g\ .Ël7t ul//x]sf] 5 .]jfdf pRr hfltsf] Psflwsf/ c‰ a9\b} uPsf] b]lvG5 .f/0f ug]{ sDo'lg:6 ./sf/df a. xfn b]zdf b]vf k/]sf] hghflt cfGbf]ng :yflkt k|eT' jjfbL 9fFrfsf lj?4 nlIft 5 .do.3 k|ltzt pRr hftsf lyP eg] 3.sf] pN6f]. lghfdtL . d]/L 8]. 2003 . o.+:s[t efiffnfO{ dfWolds :s'ndf clgjfo{ u/fpg] sfª\u. 4.13 o:tf] c.0 k|ltzt pRr hftsf / 0.14 pgLx¿n] hghflt / blntx¿ 14 4 11: u'?ª.]jfsf] xfnsf] k|jl[ Qn] c‰ :ki6 kf5{ .ef :jfoQtf 6. lxdfn lstfa. .Dd .9 6 2.]sf a]nf s'g} klg bnn] tL k|fjwfg sfof{Gjogdf NofPgg\ .+/rgfdf cl8u 5g\ . 4.afn wd{lg/k]If /fi6« eflifs clwsf/ cf/If0f hftLo .fdGtL wf/0ffaf6 hsl8Psf] 5 . 2.g\ 2000/2001 df clws[t kbdf 5flgPsf JolQmx¿df 87.DaGwdf jfdkGyL kf6L+x{ ¿ hlt k|ultzLn b]lvP tfklg pgLx¿dWo] g]skf -Pdfn]_ dfq Tof] klg yf]/} ./sf/df a.fdflhs .Qfwf/Lju{x¿ k'/fg} .}n] pgLx¿sf egfO 3f]if0ffkqdf dfq .1 k|ltzt afx'g–5]qL lyP eg] 3.

fdflhs .d"xsf dfuk|lt Wofg glbO{ gx'g] tLg d'Vo o'lQm.+/rgfdfly k|Zg p7fPsf 5g\ .f| . o:tf .DaGwL b"/bzL{ nIo /fli6«otfaf/] /fhg}lts cjwf/0ff ax.DalGwt x'gfn]. h. clxn] efiff./sf nflu .gdf bdg ul/Psf tyf k~rfotL zf.f]rfO …hghflt .nfO{ o:tf pk]lIftju{tk{m nlIft ubf{.f] x'gdf kl/jlt{t /fhg}lts kl/l:ylt g} lg0ff{os sf/s xf] .15 klxnf] kIf.sf kl/rfos k|jl[ Q w]/} .d"xsf] . oL b'O{ wf/0ffaLr Psbd :ki6 nId0f/]vf x'gk' 5{ eGg] cfjZos 5}g .3fp k'Ub5 lsgeg] pk]lIftx¿ clwsf+z ul/a 5g\ .fdflhs zf]]if0f / cfly{s bl/b|tf xf] .]tL–dxfsfnL. eflifs cjx]ngf / gful/stf .dfgtf.f/ km/skm/s x'g . h'g lg/ª\sz ' Joj:yfdf lj/f]wL .Ddfgsf] cfzf ug'{ Joy{ xf] .d:of eg]sf wfld{s / eflifs c.f/tlTj (essentialist) klg elgG5. bf]. o.d"xsf] bdg tyf k|hftflGqs Joj:yfdf jftf{åf/f .Fu k|lt:kwf{ ug{] sfdsf nflu ltgLx¿nfO{ k|tLssf] ¿kdf k|of]u ug]{ tyf .}n] /fi6«lgdf{0f.f| ] kIf. wd{ / If]qLo lgi7fdf cfwfl/t cfGbf]ngsf/L . P]ltxfl.d"xx¿aLrsf] åGå Joj:yfkg klg cfjZos x'G5.f/ hftLo klxrfg / o.d:ofx¿sf] .hLjtf cl3sf zf.fdflhs c.{ To.gsfndf ePsf bdgx¿sf] kl/0flt xf] . 1994 a|f..flnª.S5 -tflnsf 12_ .dfgtf sfod /fv]/ k|hftflGqs d"NodfGotf / df}lns clwsf/sf] .d"xnfO{ kl/rfng ug{] tl/sfsf af/]df /flvG5 . 1977 cf]dg] . g]jf/ tfd.d]6b\ f.ul/a ePsfn] w]/} hftLo / If]qLo d'lQm df]rf{x¿nfO{ kl/rfng u/]sf 5g\ .d"xsf] Pstf cyjf .dfgtfaf/] .d"xleqsf ljlzi6 / lj/f]wLx¿n] . hftLo klxrfg jf jr{:j /fhg}lts :jfy{lagf klg sfod /xg . of] Pp6f /fli6«o .d"x. dfcf]jfbL cfGbf]ngn] hghflt / blntx¿nfO{ /fhg}lts k|lj|mofdf pNn]vgLo . sf cg'.fdflhs kl/j]z 21 . /fHosf] cGtlg{lxt zlQmdf Ifo x'G5 .] hGdhft .d:of xf]Og .dfwfg gu/]sfn] clxn]. hfltotf.Fu .f+:s[lts b[li6sf]0f klxrfg ug].Ddsf tL k|oTgx¿sf] k|efj uf}0f /x]sf] 5 . clxn]sf] g]kfndf b]vf k/]sf . …JolQmdf /fli6«otfsf] efjgf hufpg of] cfjZos 5 ls /fi6«sf] clttsf af/]df lgld{t syf . du/ft. hghfltn] ef]us ] f .fFrf] geP klg . dw].d:ofcg'. h.+ljwfgdf Joj:yf.f+:s[lts kl/jt{g.nfO{ .f| .'if'Kt /x]sf] efjgfsf] cleJolQm ePsf] xf] .d"xx¿n] Psflwsf/jfbL .df cfwf/e"t (primordialist) / sfls{o (intrumentalist) j}rfl/s wf/df 7"nf] cGt/ b]lvG5 .18 /fi6«lgdf{0fsf nflu k/:k/ lj/f]wL . -r_ a}7fg /fli6«o PsLs/0f eg]sf] cf1fkfng / Ps?ktfdfq xf]Og.Sb5 . t]. zfx tyf /f0ff zf. pk]lIftju{sf] pTyfgsf pkfox¿ pgLx¿sf] .f+:s[lts 18 75 lqz"n / bf]h{] M g]kfnL /fhgLltdf .d:of ef]lu/x]sf 5g\ .ª\Vofsf] cfwf efu cf]u6\g] lognfO{ g. ul/aL lgjf/0fnfO{ k|ToIf . blnt cflb k5{g\ eg] If]qLo d'lQm df]rf{x¿ .S5Ù . o:t}.do cl8u /xG5 . j:t'tM o:tf] . hftLo d'lQm df]rf{x¿df ls/fFt.16 hfltotf / /fli6«otfaf/]sf] cWoog /fhg}lts ¿kn] clek|l] /t . uf}0f /fhg}lts k|ltlglwTj / :jfoQtf cefj x'g\ eg] blntx¿sf] . 1991. /fi6«lgdf{0fsf nflu cl:tTjx¿sf ljleGg tx kl/rfngdf ljz]if Wofg lbg''kb{5 h.fdfGo ¿kdf ljZjf.f/ hftLo klxrfg cu'jfx¿af6 cfly{s jf /fhg}lts cj.[lht ul/Psf] x'G5 .N6fOG5 .df gofF d"No / cy{ hf]8g\ . bf].n] Pp6f l.gdf bafOPsf hftLo klxrfgn] clxn]sf] cg]stfd'vL gLlt lnPsf] k|hftflGqs k4ltdf k|:6 bafasf] ¿k lnPsf] 5 .17 t/ hghfltsf] klxrfgeGbf Jofks /fi6«lgdf{0fsf] s'/f x]g]{ xf] eg] sfls{o wf/0ffn] ljz]if dxŒj /fVb5 .ª\ut sf/0fx¿ 5g\ .] cfˆgf] :jfy{ /Iff ug{] / c¿ .fÍ]lts hdftsf nflu . .fdflhs .sf nflu /fHon] 15 16 17 u]ng/. g]kfndf hftLo efjgf gf}nf] cg'el" t xf]Og. .fdflhs .~rflnt sfo{qmdx¿n] . td'jfg.ª\uf] /fi6«kl| tsf] lgi7f / Pstf bzf{p5F  . To.] ljsf. kf= 20 dxŒjk"0f{ e"ldsf v]Ng .xeflutfsf] cj./ k|bfg u/]sf] 5 ./sf/åf/f . pk]lIft . ug{] vfnsf] x'g'k5{.fdflhs kl/j]z tfld/. tL k|tLsx¿ k|frLg x'g\ jf cfw'lgs eGg] s'/f uf}0f xf] . e]/L–s0ff{nL / dw]z x'g \ .+/rgfTds .fdflhs . .d:of xf] lsgeg] s'n hg.dfwfgx¿dWo] s]xL .nfO{ cfw'lgstf (modernism) klg elgG5.Lx¿n] kj{t] bdg.d:of . pk]lIft /xg' hghflt / blntx¿sf] dfq} . o. 1995 lqz"n / bf]h{] M g]kfnL /fhgLltdf . klxnf].s ¿kn] . sf cg'.

cfly{s 2.d:ofx¿ . /fhg}lts 5. s'g} ju{ jf .L .Sg] geP. 1972.'ljwfx¿ pkef]u ub{5g\ t/ clwsf+zn] cIf/. …ha.fIf/tf 3. wd{lg/k]If /fi6« hghfltsf efiffx¿nfO{ . eflifs lje]b 1. a]/f]huf/L 3.Ú19 a]/f]uhf/Lsf] .d"x klxrfg ug{ 7f].'s'Daf.fj{hlgs If]qdf cf/If0fsf] Joj:yf x'gk' 5{ . .'wf/x¿ .f/ ax'.tflnsf .fwgsf] pkof]u ug{ kfpg] jftfj/0f eb| vfnsf dfq 5g\ .d'bfox¿nfO{ .d]t lrGg] cj.f+:s[lts 1. .dfg'kflts k|ltlglwTj hftLo :jfoQtf t/fO{sf efiffx¿nfO{ ./sf/L dfGotf .Dd p7fOPsf hftLo tyf If]lqotf. If]qLo :jfoQtf /}yfg] / cfk|jf.L tyf hghfltsf :yfgLo cfjZostf k'lt{ ug{ .d:of blnt 1. k|hftflGqs jftfj/0fdf clxn]sf] g]kfnn] 7Ls oxL s'/fsf] cg'ej ul//x]sf] 5 .d:of . lgMz'Ns lzIff cf/If0fsf] Joj:yf j}slNks hLljsf]kfh{gsf pkfo hftut lgjf{rg cg]stf / .]gfdf egf{ 4.ª\qmflGtsf a]nf Hofb} .Lsf] klxrfg 1.fdflhs 1.fdflhs Gofo / /fhg}lts . 4. eflifs lje]b 2.+ljwfgn] k|Tofe"lt u/]sf] clwsf/ pkof]u ug{ .Qf–. clxn].dy{g hgfPsf] s'/f b]vfPsf] 5 . /fhg}lts cleJolQmx¿ hftLo x'g\ jf cGo./sf] ./ kfPsf x'bF g} g\.d:of .f+:s[lts 1.fIf/tf b/n] z}lIfs sfo{qmdsf nflu nlIft . 3.dfwfg x'g5]  . /fhg}lts uf}0f k|ltlglwTj 5. kj{ts ] f] jr{:j 4.+zf]wg u/]/ b]znfO{ wd{lg/k]If /fi6« agfPdf hghfltx¿dflysf] .fdflhs . cfwf/ pknAw u/fpF5 . 5. dw].+ljwfg . sd k|ltlglwTj 6. wd{lg/k]If /fHo 3.dfg'kflts k|ltlglwTjsf] cfjZostf 5 eg] blntx¿nfO{ pgLx¿dWo]af6 lgjf{lrt u/fpg . /fhg}lts If]qdf hghfltsf] .d"xx¿n] p7fPsf 19 22 lqz"n / bf]h{] M g]kfnL /fhgLltdf .ª\Vofdf /x]sf dw]. kf= 97 lqz"n / bf]h{] M g]kfnL /fhgLltdf . b]zdf . hflu/df kIfkft 2.a} k|fljlws .]G8.sf/fTds lje]bsf] gLlt rflxPsf] 5 .Lk clej[l4 ug]{ / e"ldxLgx¿nfO{ hUuf lbg] sfo{qmd x'gk' b{5 . To.DaGwL dfux¿df k|rlnt Joj:yfcGtu{t .Dd To:tf clwsf/ sfutdf dfq ./sf nflu . oxfFg/] hfPd tf]/] af]bs ] f] egfO pNn]vgLo 5. If]qLo :jfoQtfn] k|bz ] cg'. /fhg}lts 3. .Sg] blnt / hghfltsf nflu cj. .d"xx¿nfO{ cf/If0fsf . gful/stf .fIf/tf 4. .g 5.lsG5 clxn] h:tf] dgf]gogaf6 xf]Og .dfwfgsf nflu lk5l8Psf .d"x .d"x hghflt .d:of .x¿ lzIff cfh{g ug]{ . 4.f+:s[lts k|eT' j / blntdflysf] lje]bsf] . t/ zf. lzIff / lghfdtL If]qdf pRr hftsf] Psflwsf/ /x]sf] cj:yfdf k|lt:kwf{df cfpg g. 2./sf/L efiffsf] dfGotf lzIffdf k|fyldstf cf/If0f .fy} .fdflhs kl/j]z 23 .lqmo x'G5g\ .fdflhs zflGt eg]sf] kmut d[ut[i0ff xf] . hftLo lje]b cfly{s Go"g .sju{n] . a]/f]huf/L 4. /f]huf/Lsf nflu pk]lIft .dfgtfsf nflu pk]lIft .Lldt /xG5g\ .Dd b]zsf s]xL dflg. ljutsf tLgcf]6f cfdr'gfjn] klg hgtfn] d"nwf/sf] /fhgLltnfO{ . wfld{s lje]b 2.'wf/sf kIfx¿ 12: .dfgtfsf] s'g} cy{ /xFb}g .sf/fTds lje]b kb{5g\ . 6.fdflhs kl/j]z 6fpg. 3. cfly{s sd .lhnf] agfpF5 .L 2. x}sdjfbL zf. cGo efiffnfO{ klg ./sf/L efiffsf] dfGotf lbPdf dfWod efiffsf ¿kdf :yflkt g]kfnL efiffsf] Jofkstfdf vt/f b]lvGg . pgLx¿nfO{ Ifdtf clej[l4 ug{sf nflu lzIff / cfly{s cj.

t lj/f]wfef.S5g\ / cfTdlg0f{osf] clwsf/sf] gf/f p7\g] .n] /fli6«o Pstf clej[l4 ub{5 .g xf] .sf] cGTorflxF Ps hgf gfd'b Nofl6g–cd]l/sL .fdflhs kl/j]z 25 . –sfnf{] ˆo'Gt] lrq sM hghflt hg.f+:s[lts cr]tgn] .20 ˆo'Gt].Defjgf klg x'G5 .fg{' k/]sf] 5 h. csf]t{ k{m . 24 1996.Gb]z lbG5 ls .lsG5 / Tof] .ª\Vofsf] cg'kft.0% 2001 cf}.ª\3Lo zf.flxTosf/sf] egfOaf6 u5{M' 20 105 lqz"n / bf]h{] M g]kfnL /fhgLltdf .Gt'lnt ug{ . j}wflgs dfux¿nfO{ k"/f gug]{ xf] eg] pgLx¿ cfqmds / c‰ ljb|fx] fTds klg x'g . d}n] o. kf= 37. ca o. g]kfnn] clxn] cg]stfdf cfwfl/t /fli6«otfsf] cjwf/0ff cufl8 .sf] l:ylt o:tf] 5M Psflt/ cfly{s ljj]sn] xfdLnfO{ cfpFbf] ztfAbL ljZjcy{tGqsf] PsLs/0fsf] o'u x'g5 ] eG5.dfwfg Tof] laGb' xf] hxfF PsLs/0f / k[ystfsf dfux¿nfO{ . t/ ljj]s / sNkgfn] xfdLnfO{ eG5— .fdflhs kl/j]z lqz"n / bf]h{] M g]kfnL /fhgLltdf .g d08]nfsf] egfOaf6 u/]sf] lyPF .f] ztfAbL hftLo bafa / /fli6«otf hfu/0fsf] ztfAbL x'g5 ]  . n]vsf] yfngL clk|msL g]tf g]N.

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