You are on page 1of 58

Riga Gestalt Institute

Certification
paper
Student Brigita Kaleckaitė

„Gestalt Approach in Organizations:
Working with Human Resources”

Content

1. Summary
2. Summary in Latvian
3. Summary in Russian
4. Review
5. Introduction
6. Business consulting and psychotherapy
7. Introduction to Gestalt psychotherapy
8. Gestalt psychotherapy in organizations:
1. Gestalt approach - basic definitions in business
2. Gestalt consulting
3. Human resources management (HRM) and consulting
4. HRM and Gestalt approach in my organization
5. Gestalt cases:
a)

Case 1 – resistance at new employees’ selection process (Lithuania)

b)

Case 2 – 3 positive and 3 negative characteristics (Lithuania)

1

c)

Case 3 – “hot chair” in marketing research (Sweden)

d)

Case 4 – psychotherapy terms in the project (Sweden)

e)

Case 5 - one session regarding career plans (Lithuania)

f)

Case 6 – sick on cancer (Lithuania)

g)

Case 7 – new candidate selection and experiment (Lithuania)

h)

Case 8 – one session regarding career plans (Lithuania)

i)

Case 9 – team building experiment (Denmark)

j)

Case 10 – personal couching (Lithuania)

k)

Case 11 – body language (Sweden)

l)

Case 12 – internal portal implementation project (Lithuania)

m)

Case 13 – coaching for project manager (Latvia)

n)

Case 14 – coaching for presentation skills (Latvia)

o)

Case 15 – drawing social network for selecting process (Lithuania)

9. Literature

2

Summary
Currently there are many business consulting organizations offering for business
various services with different type of definitions. Each consulting company offers something
unique. During the last 30 years, especially nowadays, it is also very popular to use many
methods from psychoteraphy in business. I am describing in this certification paper one type of
psychotherapy called Gestalt psychotherapy. This therapy is known among psychologists and
doctors in Latvia and Lithuania, but still not very well known in the public. My studies at Riga
Gestalt Institute and working experience as a Human Resources manager in international
information systems implementation projects in Latvia, Sweden and Denmark allows me to
apply Gestalt to broader international employees’ community and it also gives me an opportunity
to compare how Gestalt methods are used in Scandinavian and in the Baltic countries.
The paper starts with a short introduction to Gestalt psychotherapy and describes the
main definitions used in therapy. Later it introduces the main concept of Gestalt approach in
business consulting and organizations. I also provide some reflections from my working
experience regarding differences in being Gestalt consultant in organizations from outside and
working as Gestalt consultant in a managerial position inside the company. As there is a
difference in having individual or group therapy, there is also a big difference between
consulting employees of another company or in your own company. There is a very delicate line
between business consulting and therapy, and it is Gestalt consultant’s responsibility to stop at
the line and say clearly to employees where the business ends and the theraphy start. Every
employee has right to say stop at this line.
The second part of the certification work provides 15 practical case studies from my
daily practical experience in applying Gestalt methods in the company. Case studies are from
different projects and countries: Lithuania, Latvia, Sweden and Denmark. All cases are
describing some problems at the office or in the project in one company having branches in
Latvia and Lithuania and one case is about relationships between two companies in one
Lithuanian project. These cases allow you to explore the real differences and similarities
between Gestalt psychotherapist, Gestalt consultant and HR manager work.

3

Kopsavilkums
Šobrīd ir liels skaits konsultatīvo organizāciju uzņēmējdarbības jautājumos, kuras
uzņēmumiem piedāvā dažāda veida pakalpojumus. Katra konsultatīvā kompānija piedāvā kaut
ko unikālu. Pēdējo 30 gadu laikā, un it sevišķi šobrīd, uzņēmējdarbībā ļoti populāra ir kļuvusi
dažādu psihoterapijas metožu piemērošana. Šajā diplomdarbā tiek aprakstīts viens no
psihoterapijas veidiem, kuru sauc par Geštalt psihoterapiju. Šī psihoterapija ir diezgan labi
zināma psihologiem un ārstiem Latvijā un Lietuvā, taču tā vēl aizvien nav plaši zināma. Mans
darbs Rīgas Geštalt institūtā un darba prakse, kas iekļauj cilvēciskos resursus starptautiskos
informācijas projektu ieviešanas laikā Latvijā, Zviedrijā un Dānijā, projektos ļauj man piemērot
Geštalt metodiku plašākai starptautiskajai darbinieku sabiedrībai, tā tāpat sniedz iespēju
salīdzināt piemērojamās Geštalt metodes Skandināvijas un Baltijas valstīs.
Darbs tiek uzsākts ar īsu ievadu Geštalt psihoterapijā un tas raksturo galvenos jēdzienus,
kuri tiek izmantoti šajā terapijā. Tālāk darbā tiek aplūkota galvenā Geštalt metodes koncepcija,
kura ir piemērojama konsultēšanai organizācijām. Darbā tāpat izsaku savus spriedelējumus par
Geštalt konsultanta darba ne organizācijā un par Geštalt konsultanta darba kompānijas iekšienē
vadītāja amatu atšķirībām. Tā kā ir novērojama atšķirība starp individuālo un grupas terapiju, ir
liela atšķirība starp citas kompānijas personāla un savas kompānijas personāla konsultēšanu.
Starp uzņēmējdarbības konsultēšanu un terapiju ir pavisam nesaskatāma robeža, tādēļ Geštalt
konsultantam jāapstājas pie robežas un skaidri jāpasaka darbinieka, ka uzņēmējdarbība beidzas
un sākas terapija. Katram darbiniekam ir tiesības pateikt „stop“ pie sasniegtās robežas.
Otrā diplomdarba darba daļā tiek apskatīti 15 pētījumu konkrēti piemēri no manas
ikdienas Geštalt metodikas piemērošanas kompānijā, kurā tika veikta prakse. Tiek realizēti
konkrēti piemēri, vadoties pēc dažādiem projektiem dažādās valstīs: Lietuvā, Zviedrijā un
Dānijā. Visos piemēros tiek aprakstītas konkrētas problēmas, kuras sastopamas kancelejā vai
vienas kompānijas, kurai ir filiāles Latvijā un Lietuvā, projektā, un viens no piemēriem ir saistīts
ar attiecībām starp divām kompānijām vienā Lietuvas projektā. Šie piemēri ļauj analizēt reālas
atšķirības un līdzības starp Geštalt psihoterapeita, Geštalt konsultanta un cilvēcisko resursu
speciālista darbu.

4

Резюме
В

настоящее

время

существует

множество

организаций

по

деловому

консультированию, предлагающие предпринимателям различные услуги, имеющие
различное

определение.

Каждая

консультирующая

компания

предлагает

нечто

уникальное. За последние 30 лет, особенно сегодня, в деловом предпринимательстве стало
очень популярным применение многих психотерапевтических методов. В этой дипломной
работе я описываю один из видов психотерапии, называемый Гештальт психотерапия. Эта
психотерапия известна среди психологов и врачей в Латвии и Литве, однако все еще
недостаточно известна в широких кругах. Моя учеба в Рижском Гештальт институте и
практика работы в качестве управляющего по людским ресурсам в международных
проектах по внедрению информационных систем в Латвии, Швеции и Дании позволяют
мне применить Гештальт-методику к более широкому международному сообществу
служащих, а также предоставляют мне возможность для сравнения применения Гештальт
методов в скандинавских и балтийских странах.
Работа начинается с краткого введения в Гештальт психотерапию и описывает
основные определения, используемые в терапии. Далее в работе представлена основная
концепция Гештальт-подхода к деловому консультированию и организациям. Я также
привожу некоторые размышления из своего рабочего опыта относительно различий
работы в качестве Гештальт консультанта вне организации и работы в качестве Гештальт
консультанта на руководящей должности внутри компании. Ввиду различия между
индивидуальной

и

групповой

терапией

существует

большое

различие

между

консультированием персонала другой компании или персонала своей компании. Между
деловым консультированием и терапией проходит очень хрупкая разделительная линия,
поэтому Гештальт консультант обязан остановиться перед этой линией и ясно сказать
работникам, где кончается предпринимательство и начинается терапия. Каждый работник
вправе сказать «стоп» перед этой линией.
Во второй части дипломной работы представлены 15 исследований на
конкретных примерах из моей ежедневной практики по применению Гештальт методики в
компании. Исследования на конкретных примерах проводились по различным проектам в
разных странах: Литве, Латвии, Швеции и Дании. Во всех примерах описываются
некоторые проблемы, существующие в канцелярии или в проекте одной компании,
5

имеющей филиалы в Латвии и Литве, а один из примеров связан с отношениями между
двумя компаниями в одном литовском проекте. Эти примеры позволяют анализировать
реальные различия и сходства между работой Гештальт психотерапевта, Гештальт
консультанта и управляющего по людским ресурсам.

6

Review by Supervisor of the Certification Paper
Сертификационная

работа

Бригиты

Калецкайте

представляет

собой

вид

тематической работы, основанной на реальной практике. Она посвящена узкому аспекту
применения гештальттерапии в рамках конкретной специализации: „Преминение
гештальподхода в оргонизации: работа с человеческими ресурсами” („Gestalt
approach in organizations: working with human resources”). Бригита Калецкайте является
специалистом в данной области и имеет реальный практический опыт работы в ней.
Структура работы включает девять части, содержание которых свидетельствует о
хорошей

ориентации

автора теме оронизацеонного

консультирования,

а также

способностях ее анализировать с позиций теории и методологии гештальттерапии.
Автором усвоены основные понятия данного направления психотерапии, а приводимые в
работе описания реальных случаев из практики указывают также на его способность
применять теорию гештальттерапии в организации своей практической работы в качестве
гештальтспециолиста и демонстрируют грамотное использование соответствующей
профессиональной терминологии.
Содержание сертификационной работы свидетельствует о том, что ее автором
глубоко проанализирован достаточный объем литературы по гештальттерапии и методом
оргонизационного консультирования, позволяющий компетентно осуществлять анализ
поднимаемых в работе проблем в облости человеческих ресурсов оргонизации.
Сертификационная работа Бригиты Калецкайте логична, структурирована и
содержит как личные рассуждения и выводы автора, так и ссылки на первоисточники. Ее
отличает авторский стиль изложения, аналитичность.
Работа оформлена в соответствии с требованиями, предъявляемыми к выпускным
работам РГИ. Ее качество соответствует искомой квалификации гештальтпрактика с
правом работать гештальттерапевтом под супервизией в процессе обучения на третьей
ступени программы РГИ.

Руководитель сертификационной работы
Артур Домбровский

7

Introduction
I am describing in this certification paper Gestalt approach in organizations from my
theoretical background as a student in Riga Gestalt Institute and as a human resources manager
(later HRM) in one of the biggest IT companies in the Baltic region. My practical experience
working in international information systems implementation projects in Latvia, Sweden and
Denmark allows me to apply Gestalt to broader international employees’ community and it also
gives me an opportunity to compare how Gestalt methods are used in Scandinavian and in the
Baltic countries. But as I am working inside the company, it narrows my possibility to use many
Gestalt intervention methods.
I am starting this paper with a short introduction to Gestalt psychotherapy, and then I’m
touching business consulting and using psychotherapy methods in business in general in all over
the world. I also provide some thoughts regarding differences in being Gestalt consultant in
organizations from outside and working as Gestalt consultant in a managerial position inside the
company. As there is a difference in having individual or group therapy, there is also a big
difference between consulting employees of another company or in your own company. I have
also still not found any research done in using Gestalt approach in HR manager position.
The second part of the certification work provides 15 practical case descriptions from
my daily practical experience in applying Gestalt in the company. These cases allow you to
explore the real differences and similarities between Gestalt psychotherapist, Gestalt consultant
and HR manager work.
Nowadays there are many ways of using psychotherapy. Ken Evans, a president of the
European Association for Gestalt Therapy (EAGT) provokes community of psychotherapist to
concentrate not only on the relationship therapist – client, but also actively participate in social
and business life. “The world of the therapy room can no longer ignore the world outside the
therapy room, which impinges directly or indirectly on therapist and client alike…. We are too
preoccupied with the intrapsychic and attend only to the interpersonal insofar as it relates to the
therapist-client dyad. ” [5, p.191] This paper is also a small contribution of Gestalt to the world
outside the therapy room.

8

Business Consulting and Psychotherapy

Business consulting services are expanding tremendously in Lithuania and Latvia
during the last ten years. There are so many consulting companies offering different kind of
trainings, organizational consultant services and coaching.

I am working as a human resource manager in one of the biggest IT companies in the
Baltic region and also studying at Riga Gestalt Institute. My position being on both sides,
business and consulting, allows me to evaluate quality of business consulting services from both
sides. There is a big gap between these two polarities in Latvia and Lithuania. Most of the HR
and business consultants have good knowledge in psychology but they do not have
understanding about doing business. They come to companies, make presentations about
theoretical part in business without having practical experience. Mostly they bring theory read
from business books and literature. But most of the organizations are looking for consultants
with practical business experience, not only with understanding about human relations and
psychology. Business people also read business literature.

From my practical experience and observations I totally agree that there are some myths
in organizational theories and practice, there is no ideal organization as there is no perfect human
being. Only consultants having practical experience in doing business can understand how
theories really differ from the real life situations. I am thoroughly persuaded that knowing
business practically is the primary requirement for a business consultant and only the secondary
requirement is psychology and business theory. Currently is vice versa in Lithuania and Latvia.
This is a reason why mature Baltic companies are using consulting services from West Europe
instead of having a local consultant. Of course, a consultant must be selected very carefully, as
not all consultants are experts in doing business too. Also in the 9th European Conference on
Gestalt Therapy in Athens (Greece) I have noticed that there two groups of Gestalt business
consultants: those who has a deep understanding of psychotherapy but no business and those
who are also excellent in companies management.

During the last 20-30 years it is very popular to use psychotherapy methods in business
consulting. It is very used in the USA and West Europe countries such as Denmark, Sweden, the
Netherlands an UK, Belgium and Germany. This trend is aligned with the business requirements
9

– currently the social skills (SQ) are the most valued skills in employees. Intensive global
competition among companies, narrow specialization of employees, orientation to work in 2-3
years projects jumping from one field to another requires of employees having good personal
and social skills. 40 years ago it was usual to measure employees’ IQ. 15-10 years ago there was
EQ the most valued thing in organizations. And now personal ability to work with other people,
good communication skills and analytical thinking are the main requirements for employees in
organizations. Only knowledge from books is not valid any more, know – how and social skills
are the most valued characteristics in employees.

This trend also influences a rush development of using psychotherapy methods in
business. Big corporates and organizations invest a lot into employee’s personal growth as it
helps to eliminate some psychological conflicts or problems, improve communication and
accelerate business process in organizations, create a positive working environment.

Manfred F.R.Kets de Vries, one of the famous business consultants in the USA using
psychotherapy and psychoanalysis in organizations, has noticed that organizations reflect the
inner world of the director in the company. “Keliaudamas šiais menkai pramintais takais,
pastebėjau aiškų ir nepaprastai įdomų ryšį tarp organizacijos vadovų asmeninių tikslų ir pačios
organizacijos tikslų. Vadovo vidinės psichologinės temos dažnai nulemia ir organizacijos
struktūrą ar prioritetus. Toks glaudus ryšys randasi todėl, kad mes esame tai, apie ką galvojame.
Kitaip tariant, visa mūsų esybė kyla kartu su mintimis; jomis formuojame savo pasaulį.
Suvokimas toks svarus, kad objektyvumas yra ne kas kita, kaip užmaskuotas subjektyvumas“
[48, 3 p.]. The author says that going from company to another he has noticed that personal goals
of the director are close related with the goals of the company. The main psychological themes
inside the director influence the structure and goals of the company. This connection between the
company and director is because we are what we think about. I and my thoughts make one unit.
Our objectivity is veiled subjectivity. I totally agree with the author. Our company has 8 different
departments managed by different department managers. I mean different talking about
managers as personalities. Their department members are so similar to their department
managers in life style, believes, talking manner, working and personal style. If I send any new
candidate to any department manager having different values, attitudes or style of life, no one is
employed.

Business is performed by people. People have their emotions, feelings, limits, problems,
attitudes and everything is transferred to organizational life. The manner of how you look at your
10

manager may seem at of how you look/looked at one of your parents. The problem in team work
may be similar to a problem which exists in the family. Even not to mention that most the
methods applied in family therapy can be applied to companies without any additional adoption.
An organization can be analyzed as an intimate system, a family; a team is a family, a board of
directors is a family; manager and employee relationship is relationship in a family.

There are many myths described in management books and taught at business schools
and universities. Business myths started with first books about management published in the 19th
century by Frederick Taylor, who is regarded as the father of scientific management and as one
of the first management consultants, describing about organizations and working processes as
rational, mechanic, conscious and easy predictive phenomenon. But the most decisions in
organizations are made irrational, employees have emotions and feelings, most of the
communication patterns come from families and past, good leadership theories do not raise
leaders.

This is another reason why psychotherapy in different forms is coming to business.
Creative thinking, emotions, relationships, life and work balance – these are the most popular
topics nowadays in business. Non-therapeutic interventions are used not only in organizations; it
is used educational, social and medical institutions. Hospitals, prisons, the Army, drug
dependency units, social services for the abused, church and any illnesses societies (AIDS,
cancer, diabetes) are using it. “Human science has penetrated and become accepted in all sectors.
This helps to facilitate contact and communication, manage conflicts, stimulate motivation,
cooperation, creativity and innovation; at all levels of hierarchy (managers, professionals,
employees and workers” [7, p. 39-40]. Only reading psychological books and articles do not
change person’s behavior or thinking. It takes time to assimilate and use in practice what have
you read.

There are different types of consultancy using psychotherapy in business: personal
employee consulting one-to-one, group consulting, consulting for personal growth, consulting to
solve some personal problems, a short or a long term employee’s coaching by psychotherapist,
managers’ group therapy in one organization one time a week, group therapy for CEO on
weekends and etc. Also different types of psychotherapy can be used in business: cognitive or
music psychotherapy, NLP, transactional analysis, psychodrama, psychoanalysis, analytical or
behavior psychotherapy, logotherapy or Gestalt psychotherapy or many other.

11

Gestalt psychotherapy has a wider scope as the psychotherapy in the usual sense. It can
be compared with “out of box thinking” training as it brings to a person a new vision of the
world and develops the personal resources, creativity and a new art of living.

12

Introduction to Gestalt Psychotherapy

Gestalt therapy can be also called imaginary psychodrama, as here-and-now therapy,
existential psychoanalysis, integrative psychotherapy or contact therapy, is an existential and
experiential psychotherapy. It concentrates on the individual's experience in the present moment,
the therapist-client relationship, and the environmental and social contexts in which these things
happens, and people make self-regulating adjustments as a result of the overall situation. Gestalt
psychotherapy emphasizes personal responsibility.

Gestalt therapy is not a new or modern therapy method. It is one of officially recognized
psychotherapy methods in the world. It is also one of about 15 recognized psychotherapy
methods in the Baltic region. Gestalt Institutes are established in all over the world (almost each
country has one institute, not to mentioned that in some countries there are more than 5 Gestalt
institutes, e.g. in Germany, France, USA). Fritz and Laura Perls founded the first Gestalt
Institute in New York City in 1952. Gestalt Institutes in former Soviet Union countries are
started to establish since 1990: Riga Gestalt Institute (Latvia). Gestalt Institute Minsk
(Byelorussia), Tartu Gestalt Institute (Estonia), some institutes in Russia (the most famous are in
Moscow and Sant Petersburg) and other Gestalt institutes or study centers. The European
Association for Gestalt Therapy (EAGT) is thriving and draws multiple hundreds to its
internationals conferences. The European Association for Gestalt Therapy (EAGT) was founded
in 1985, with the aim of gathering European individual Gestalt therapists, Training Institutes and
National Associations, of promoting Gestalt therapy in Europe, combining and exchanging
knowledge and resources, fostering a high professional standard for Gestalt therapy and
encouraging research. Today it is having many institutional and individual members from many
European countries.

The Association for the Advancement of Gestalt Therapy is an international community
(AAGT), unifying many Gestalt psychotherapist in the USA.
Gestalt therapy was co-founded by Fritz Perls, Laura Perls and Paul Goodman in the
1940s–1950s. I am not going to tell in this paper biography of Fritz Perls, “father” of this
therapy, it can be found in each book about Gestalt psychotherapy. It is only worth to mention
that Gestalt roots as also the roots of other kind of psychotherapies lies in psychoanalysis of
S.Freud.

13

Gestalt therapy was influenced not only psychological concepts but also it was shaped
by many other movements or science in the 20th century: Gestalt psychology, physics, Kurt
Lewin's systems and field theory, Zen Buddhism, psychodrama by Jacob Moreno, existential
phenomenology, theatrical performance, Martin Buber's philosophy of relationship and dialogue
(I - Thou), European phenomenology of Franz Brentano, Edmund Husserl, Martin Heidegger,
and Maurice Merleau-Ponty, the existentialism of Kierkegaard and Sartre, body and art therapy.
In addition Gestalt was a response to the social forces in society: the late 50s–60s movement
toward personal growth and the human potential movement. Gestalt therapy can be compared
with life style or philosophy. It is an art of living, not only a treatment method.

As it was mentioned before the therapy focuses on the moment-to-moment awareness,
living here-and-now, process what is going on. Gestalt Therapy is a growth oriented and
relational approach to assist people to enhance their development of self-awareness, to explore
and experience new options for living a fulfilling and meaningful life. Gestalt Therapy embodies
a holistic perspective, embracing a person's physical, psychological, intellectual, emotional,
interpersonal and spiritual experience. The aim is to be fully present in the here and now, to
attain full energetic expression in dealing with daily life and be fully who we are in body, mind
and spirit.

Since 1990 the literature focused on Gestalt therapy has flourished, including the
development of several professional Gestalt journals. Along the way, Gestalt therapy theory has
also been applied in organizational development and coaching work. Thus, currently, Gestalt
therapy training institutes often offer programs in both clinical and organization tracks. Gestalt is
also going the same transformation as our society. The world is changing; Gestalt is changing
and getting new forms too.
In fact, F. Perls considered his method too good to be reserved for the ill and the odd,
and he often spoke of it as “therapy for normal people”[7, p.3]. An increased awareness of
contact with others and the environment provides clearer opportunities for individuals to increase
the quality of their relationships and be able to discover new, creative solutions to their
wellbeing.
Nowadays Gestalt is a natural, universal approach, for people of all ages, all levels,
from diverse cultural background and in a variety of situations. … [7, p.4]
Gestalt therapy is used in a variety of situations, with multiple aims:

14

individual psychotherapy

couple therapy

family therapy

sexual therapy

group therapy

in organizations

in business [7, p. 3]

As this paper is concentrated on Gestalt approach in organizations, there will be further
introduction to the main concepts of Gestalt psychotherapy related with used definitions in
business in other sections. The next section of the paper will deal with the main definitions in
Gestalt. Later I will describe the main concept of Gestalt consulting and present the main
definitions about Gestalt only from business consulting perspective.

Important in Gestalt psychotheraphy is this strange word Gestalt. It is from German
language. Gestalt can be translated as “form, figure, and shape”. We are also talking about
Gestalt therapy as a “theory of shape or form”. The verb “gestalten” means “to give shape or
form”. This word was taken from Gestalt psychology. Gestalt psychology says that the way we
see things follows certain rules: a global appreciation cannot be reduced to the sensory
appreciation of each component. The whole is different from the sum of its parts. At the same
time, a part within a whole is different from the part of its own, or the same part within another
whole – the part’s identity depends upon its position and function relative to the whole [7, p.1-2).
For example – if you go to your friend’s Birthday and are hungry, first you see a lot of food on
the table. You see one component from the whole picture; you discover a figure, a Gestalt from
the whole context. If your needs are human relations and you are not hungry, first you would
recognize a shape at the Birthday party – a nice girls or a strange looking secret person.

The whole our life consists of many Gestalts, closed or unfinished. The main idea in
Gestalt therapy is that each person has many unclosed Gestalts in his/her life and it influences
our life and causes many problems. The main goal of Gestalt psychotherapist is to support a
client at closing his/her Gestalts.

Gestalt therapy focuses more on process (what is happening) than content (what is being
discussed). The emphasis is on what is being done, thought and felt at the moment rather than on
what was, might be, could be, or should be.
15

Gestalt therapy is a method of awareness, by which perceiving, feeling, and acting are
understood to be separate from interpreting, explaining and judging using old attitudes. This
distinction between direct experience and indirect or secondary interpretation is developed in the
process of therapy. The client learns to become aware of what they are doing psychologically
and how they can change it. By becoming aware of and transforming their process they develop
self acceptance and the ability to experience more in the "now" without so much interference
from baggage of the past.

The objective of Gestalt therapy, in addition to helping the client overcome symptoms,
is to enable him or her to become more fully and creatively alive and to be free from the blocks
and unfinished issues that may diminish optimum satisfaction, fulfillment, and growth. Thus, it
falls in the category of humanistic psychotherapies.

Gestalt is not about talking and analyzing. Gestalt is about making and experiencing. It
supports the client to make experiments and discover something new instead of the mere talking
about the possibility of something new.

The theory of self, contact cycle, resistance and awareness are the main things to
introduce. “Theory of self is about the theory of a notion – the self – which does not even exists”
[7, p.29] The theory is about your way of being. It deals with current phenomena at the contact
boundary, between your immediate environment and you. Our contacts as also our life happen in
cycles. Fritz Perls, Hefferline and Goodman have presented in his book four main time frames
organized around the cycle: forecontact, contacting, full contact and post-contact. Other Gestalt
therapists have added from 1 to 3 or more other parts in the contact cycle. S.Ginger has 5 stages,
Joseph Zinker 6 stages, Edvin Nevis 7 stages.

16

http://www.gestalt.on.ca/site/page.php?id=49

As Gestalt therapy avoids as much as possible to use highly intellectual words, I will
explain this cycle with a simple example. It is said in Gestalt that using intellectual words,
rationalizations and long verbalizations belongs also to defensive mechanisms. If anybody starts
telling the stories or theories with many scientific terms and academically phrases, he/she will be
interrupted and asked to tell the same thing using simple daily words.

Come back to the cycle of self.
Sensation: feeling something is stomach.
Awareness: “I’m hungry”
Mobilization of Energy: my attention shifts from this paper to thoughts about fridge.
Excitement: I remember that I have yoghurt in the fridge.
Action: I get up and go to take it.
Contact: I eat it.
Withdrawal: I am getting pleased and can work on Gestalt certification paper.
Awareness is the key to healthy working of the Gestalt Cycle.

17

S.Ginger describes with the simple words that during these stages of “Contact cycle”,
my self (as it was mentioned before my style of adapting to) works in 4 main modes that are
called in Gestalt the functions of self: id, personality, ego and middle mode. The id function
expresses the world of senses, needs and urges (e.g. hunger or sexual desire)

the personality is the my background, what is permanent in me, my personal history, my
self-image

the ego concerns my conscious and delibare choices, based on ego I make decisions

the middle mode – being neither active or passive, but both at once [7, p. 34]

In reality the contact cycle can be finished or not. It can be interrupted because of
resistance. The main defense mechanisms are introjections, projection, retroflection, deflection,
and confluence, proflection and other defense mechanisms. Each person has it everyday. It does
not mean that these mechanisms are bad habits and we have to liquidate it from our life. Actually
it is impossible. Gestalt encourages identifying these mechanisms and sort out which are not
helpful anymore. My projection for example influence my decision working as a human resource
manager as I imagine what employees’ need and continue working in direction to jolly up
employees’ daily work routine. The main defense mechanisms can be following:

Projection

Introjections

Confluence

Retroflection

Deflection

Projection is attributing one‘s own actions or feelings to another person. You can see
something on another person what you have. For example you are working on the project with
some collegues. You and another collegue, you both are responsible for project delivery. He is
unable to create a project plan and take a full responsibility of that. You are annoyed and think
that he is irresponsible. But actually you are also doing the same and acting irresponsible too.
Introjection is taking in or swallowing an experience as a "whole" without thinking or analyzing
it. It is not filtering experiences for what resonates with your personal truth. For example the
thought that „all the managers in business can not show their emotions“. This is an introject.
Who said so?

18

Confluence is inability to differentiate oneself from another person, there is no
boundary between you and me. For example, having the same opinion with other
employees‘opinion to avoid having to speak in publicity, often it is perceived as a “yes” person
with no personal opinion.

Retroflection is doing to yourself what you want to do to other people, or what you want
others to do to you. For example, swallowing anger to avoid conflict in the office.
Deflection is avoiding direct contact with another person, devaluate many serious and important
moments in your life. For example your colleague can tell you jokes all the time and do not
speak about his feelings.

Gestalt Psychotherapy in Organizations
Gestalt Approach: Basic Definitions in Business
The basic definitions and principals of Gestalt theory are applied in organizational
development too. There are also the same definitions as contact cycle of experience,
intervention, process, resistance, presence, awareness and other terms.
As I have mentioned before Gestalt is not a traditional psychotherapy as most of us used
to think. Gestalt therapy is indicated not for mentally ill, but for people having difficulties at any
period in their lives or just want to enrich the quality of life. Maybe for these reasons Gestalt
therapy has been progressively introduced in much different kind of organizations. For example
S.Ginger describes in his book a typical example of applying Gestalt in organization: French
National Subway corporation with 38 000 people decided to train Paris Metro workers to
fundamentals of Gestalt training called “coming into contact” in order to improve employees and
customers communication. The training consisted of theoretical and practical parts and each
employee attended 5-days training. [7, p.42] This was not the last time when Paris Gestalt
Institute organized training for big organizations. There are many more examples when Gestalt
psychotherapists are working in different companies. Even in Lithuania time to time I notice
some consultants who have attended Gestalt training seminars in Russia or Scandinavian
countries.
“Guru of Gestalt consulting” can be named Edwin Nevis, who has started practicing
Gestalt in business long time ago and described the baseline for other Gestalt practitioners. He
also has been working for a long time in the Gestalt Institute of Cleveland (USA). The institute
19

was established in 1954 by some of the earliest students of Fritz Perls, Laura Perls, Isadore
Fromm, and Paul Goodman. In 1966, GIC began introducing training programs that pioneered
the application of Gestalt theory to work with couples, families, groups, and organizations. Most
of the best Gestalt consultants started their career at this institute. Nowadays there are more than
50 Gestalt institutions all over the world preparing business consultants.
A book “Organizational Consulting: A Gestalt Approach” published by Edwin Nevis in
1987 describes the main principals of Gestalt consulting and it layed the foundation for using
Gestalt in business. The book introduces the main concept and the main definitions developed
later by other researchers. He describes Gestalt therapy as a conceptual and methodological base
from which helping professionals can craft their practice. He took the first the main definitions
from Gestalt therapy and introduced it to business world.
I will introduce the following Gestalt definitions from business perspective: contact,
cycle of experience intervention, resistance, process, presence, awareness, experiment and modes
of influence.
I am starting with cycle of experience. Gestalt psychotherapy appeals to the model of
contact which was described in this paper, in the section about the main Gestalt definitions. The
cycle describes what is happening with a person each moment with him/herself, environment,
and another person or group pf people. The cycle includes the following five phases (depending
on authors the number of phases is different): awareness, energy, action, contact, withdrawal. To
have a fully satisfying contact or to be fully present, all phases need to be experienced by a
person. It is possible to block a full experience of contact through specific behaviors called
resistances, such as projection, introjections, retroflection and confluence, which were also
described in details before. People use these resistances at different parts in the cycle of
experience with the result that contact is closed or minimized. The role of Gestalt consultant is to
raise resistances to the level of awareness so that more can be learned about them and the
potential for choosing differently can be increased.
Awareness is the full use of senses, it is a process what is happens in your field. It is
how we contact, how we feel, what we think. Gestalt consultant is awareness expert.
The main instrument of Gestalt is being with an employee at the same time, experience
awareness and observe environment. Nevis defines presence in terms of consulting work as. . .
“the living embodiment of knowledge: the theories and practices believed to be essential to bring
about change in people are manifested, symbolized or implied in the presence of the consultant.”
20

It is . . . the living out of values in such a way that in taking a stance, the intervener teaches these
important concepts. That which is important to the client’s learning process is exuded through
the consultant’s way of being. [13, p. 69-70]
Consultant can make influence. Nevis presents two modes of influence from which a
practitioner may choose: evocative and provocative. The evocative mode involves guiding
clients’ awareness to what is already happening, with the assumption that a heightened
awareness of the current state will produce new learning, decisions and behavior. A provocative
stance involves using a forceful intervention to cause something to happen. An example would
be confronting behavior. Any similar intervention that would cause an interruption of what is
happening with a call to focus sharply on whatever it is the consultant would like the group to
focus on is a provocative intervention.
Why to use Gestalt at organizations? It can improve relationships leading to more open
contact with each other. It makes fewer conflicts and helps to learn how to manage it. It can
create more honest environment and importance of what is going at the current situation. It can
be mentioned many reasons but the most important is personal development of each employee.
Usual business consulting speaks “business language”, it offers measurable results, Gestalt
speaks “Gestalt language” and brings awareness, process, and integrated approach to employees.
Gestalt consultant has to attend and observe a company and explore own feelings and thoughts.
He/she should focus on energy on client system, facilitate contact and support client.
He collects data about the company at “the present time” and mirrors and sharpens
client behavior.

21

Gestalt Consulting
Gestalt therapy and consulting in organizations are quiet new phenomena. Their basic
assumptions and definitions are created from Gestalt therapy theory from period of 1930-1965. It
was totally a new approach how to treat an employee. It was a revolution in business world.
“Gestalt therapy and organizational development are relatively new phenomena that derived their
basic assumptions from theories evolved during the period of 1930 – 1965. The development of
both approaches emerged of both in a time dominated by liberalism in intellectual, social,
political, economic, and technological thinking.” [12, p.110] It has later shifted to interventions
and action. Nevis called this period “conservativism” (1965-1995). Everyone sees that
globalization and emerging markets influence organizational and social changes in the world. It
means that organizations are also changing. What was really new in organizations for 30 years, it
is not new nowadays. During the period of 1945-1965 business consulting was focused on
awareness development. Integration of humanism and business requirements is characteristic for
the period 1965 – 1980. Most recently emphasis is on cost – cutting, productivity, organizational
renewal and change management. All these trends changes also Gestalt approach in business.
Nobody knows so far how organizations will look like in 10 years, but one thing is clear - if
Gestalt theory will be not developed in parallel with global changes, it will be not useful for
business.
Why Gestalt consulting? How it is different from usual business consulting and why
any company should buy Gestalt consulting services?
The main areas of Gestalt work are the following: relationships in systems, relationships
in the context of the field, being „here-and-now“, awareness, meaningful contact, working with
boundaries.

The main products consultant can offer: awareness, expression, creativity, trust, insight,
orientation, ability to deal with polarities, meaning, support, long-term solution, new vision,
integration, courage to stay here and now, better communication, change. So, Gestalt can offer
skills, tools and support, use a self as an instrument.

Methods: increasing awareness, dialogue, present-centered, not getting confluent,
exploration, exercises, feedback, respect, independency, sharing and coaching.
22

Uniqueness of Gestalt consultant is authencity, contact, perceiving of whole. Benefits of
business: open doors, awareness, change.

I agree with it, but I have some doubts in using it in IT field. Top management of my
company is used to see at figures and key performance indicators. They would not buy such type
of consulting services from outside, because this is a long term-solution and it is hard to apply
any measurement system to evaluate project success at the end of the project. I also doubt if
other companies oriented to delivery on time (result-oriented) would spend much time and
money for employee’s self-development. I do not say that top management is against these ideas.
No, they realize that it is important but it is not priority number one. There is no time for that
when people are working 12-14 hours daily to meet delivery targets and market needs.

EAGT creates standards for Gestalt in organizations. Currently it is mainly organized
and focused on Gestalt psychotherapy standards. But it is a growing need to separate training of
Gestalt psychotherapist and consultants. „The practitioner using the Gestalt principles however
has another function then the therapist using the same principles. The field of this practitioner is
working in demands besides the same principals with different expertise and skills, because of
the different field – function this practitioner is fulfilling. “[4]

23

Human Resources Management and Consulting

In the section above there was discussed how Gestalt can be used in Business consultant
work. Most of the literature in Gestalt is focused on consulting organizations from outside.
Mostly Gestalt therapist can work as consultant, coach, instructor and trainer.

Human resource manager is a person inside the company. It makes situation little bit
different.

The role of human resource management is increasing as organizations are changing
and are focusing on humans in organization. The range and scope of HRM activities are very
wide and it may contain the following functions:
 Human resource planning
 Recruitment, selection, induction
 Salary and wage administration including reward systems
 Organizational design and patterns of work
 Education, training, development
 Employee relations
 Employee services, welfare, health and safety. [11]

Mostly if a company is big, HR manager shares responsibility with line managers. Line
managers are responsible for their own staff day-to-day operations, technical knowledge of staff
and working conditions. HR manager provides expertise and advice and has broader aspects
affecting all staff and organization as a whole.

Companies face today five big challenges: globalization, growth, technology,
intellectual capital, change. These challenges provide HR with possibility to play one of the most
important roles in the company. But HR must know principals of business not only psychology
and human nature. HR should become:
 A partner with senior and line managers in strategy execution
 An expert in the way work is organized and executed to ensure costs and quality.
 a champion for employees, devoting him/herself to employees
 catalyst for organizational change
24

As know-how matters, human beings are important in organizations. HR professionals
have the opportunity to add values to business.

Browning, for example, lists ten ways to make HR effective:
1. be the catalyst for making things happen
2. avoid being the corporate soft touch
3. understand the whole business
4. keep people-management system simple
5. remember, line managers manage people, not HR
6. work with, not above, line managers
7. be super efficient in the transactional stuff
8. be leaders in the transactional stuff
9. help the business to manage change
10. accept that good “people ideas” exist outside HR. [11]

There is a tendency in business to put a human being in the front of each company.
Person, spirituality, life and work balance, green philosophy and emotions are valued. With this
trend the profession of HRM is becoming more valued too. And again – the companies are
creating the myth that HR manager is “mother Teresa”, a person to talk with for all employees.

What kind of personality should be Gestalt consultant?
Nevis outlines five basic roles / activities of Gestalt – oriented consultant:
1. To attend to the client system, observe, and selectively share observations of what you
see, hear, feel.
2. To attend to your own experiences (feelings, sensations, thoughts) and selectively share
these, establishing your presence in doing so.
3. To focus on energy in the client system and emergence of or lack of issues (common
figures) for which there is energy: to act to support mobilization of energy (joining) so
that something happens.
4. To facilitate clear, meaningful, heightened contacts between members of the client
system (including contact with you).
5. to help the group achieve heightened awareness of its process in completing units of
work, and to learn how to complete units of work so as to achieve closure around
problem areas of unfinished business. [13]

25

I believe that none of us, HR managers or Gestalt consultants, can ever achieve perfect
instrumentality. We can begin and continue the journey towards perfect instrumentality, but we
can never complete it. I hope that being HR and being business consultant requires the same
things except one – status changes the method of work. I like the idea of Hynek Vakenta, a
Gestalt consultant from the Czech Republic. According To his presentation at the 9th conference
of the European Association for Gestalt Therapy, Gestalt in organizations can be used in 3
phases:
 the first phase - it can be used as an internal tool (Gestalt is invisible)
 the second phase – a way of communication (Gestalt is slightly visible)
 The third phase - as a way of perceiving the organization (Gestalt is fully visible).

In my HR work I can use mostly the methods where Gestalt is invisible, and only with a
few employees Gestalt can be used as slightly visible.

As I have mentioned before that looking at the situation now in my company I realize
that people are overworked. They spend all the efforts and time to reach the best results. But
employees are frustrated, have no time for families and themselves. As HR manager I see the
problem that there is big lack on resources. As Gestalt psychotherapist or consultant I see that
many our employees are faced with a big amount of personal problems. If they will start working
on it, they will quit working in our company. This point also relates with a different positions in
organization – being external or internal consultant.

26

HRM and Gestalt Approach in My Organization
(Introduction to Practical Part)

I have been working for 4 years in one of the biggest IT companies in the Baltic region. It
is an international company operating in Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia and Poland. The company
operates in three core areas: application software development, enterprise systems implementation
and consulting, IT support and training. Currently we employ more than 400 professionals in four
countries; about 70% of them are men.
I started working here as a project coordinator in international system implementation
projects. It allowed me to explore working and living culture in Latvia, Sweden and Denmark.
Since August 2007 I have been working as a head of human resource department in Lithuania.
Exactly from that moment I have started to focus on organizational consulting during my studies
in Riga Gestalt Institute.
I worked as a teacher at American International School before. My main areas were
German, Social Studies, and Lithuania as a foreign language. I had no special psychological
praxis, but being with children and their parents as a classroom teacher for 4 years I have learnt
many practical things in psychology.
Reflecting the past year of experience using Gestalt approach in IT organizations I can
point some trends related with my psychotherapy studies and employees. Half of IT specialists in
my company are not ready to accept psychotherapy as intended to support people in their daily
life. They often ask me if I cure mentally ill people and do not trust me during communication
process. This type of employees relates psychotherapy with magic and witchcraft. I hope that is
also because of the similar tendency in the Baltic region, as psychotherapy is quite a new
discipline after fall of Soviet Union. I have noticed for example that many employees in Denmark
and Sweden take psychotherapy without any mystical attitude. No surprise if anybody goes to
psychotherapist or any therapy method is used in business. Situation is changing also in our
country; people are getting more informed about therapy and accept it not only as for mentally ill
people.
Another part of employees in my company takes it as my additional training allowing me
to develop my personal skills to be more qualified human resources specialist. Time to time I meet
a few employees who starts calling me almost each day and asking advice what to do in one or
another situation trying to transfer their responsibility on me. This group of employees is very
27

small, mostly I push them back telling that I am not going to take their problems and solve them at
one moment. If there is a need I send them to any therapist.
The fact that half of employees in IT sector are scared of psychotherapy, I have to use
Gestalt in minimal amounts.

Usage of those methods can not be similar to “client-

psychotherapist” relation. Action of consulting takes place not in the safe psychotherapist room
but in the real world. This also applies to the group of employees who are ready to change and
experience something new. I always repeat that I am not a therapist and suggest doing any
experiment very carefully. Only for employees who are psychologically “mature”, I suggest any
experiment at the beginning.
I read also in the book by Manfred F.R.Kets de Vries, “Leader at psychoanalytic”, that
they organize a group therapy for CEO’s, but before the first meeting is a very long selection
process. The author sends before a very long questionnaire to a manager to find out why this
manager wants to attend group therapy. Later he meets the manager for some discussions, and
only after that process the manager is allowed or not to join the group. The author states that only
“psychologically mature” managers can get any benefits from this type of therapy – business
consulting using psychotherapy methods.
I had also an idea last year to organize a small interest group for employees’ personal
growth. But later I realized that I cannot do it inside my company. Another important thing what
influences my Gestalt work is status in the company. As I am human resource manager, most of
the employees can not be very open with me as they know that I am next to other managers. It is
not secure to share personal problems with me. Also project or department managers will not
show me their sensitive part of life – they are independent, intelligent, aggressive and competent
in their field. If they ask for help, mostly they ask for help to their department members, but not
for themselves. It is not usual in business to speak about emotions, feelings and personal
problems. Everyone concentrates on speech, logical sentences and figures. Of course, all
employees are human beings, but another side of humans which is not showed at work, is present
at home, with friends or at psychotherapist.
So, the main four factors: IT sector, Baltic region, employees’ readiness for therapy and
my status inside the company influence my usage of Gestalt approach in the company. I have very
limited spectrum of methods. That is why I work sometimes not in any place in the company, but
in the bar or restaurant. As I have noticed employees feel more secure to speak about
psychological things outside the company.
28

Actually, “real” Gestalt consulting is outside the company. It provides more opportunities
to practice, not to mention client-therapist process in psychotherapy room. Mostly Gestalt
consulting is outside the company as consultant has to be someone who is not in a client system.
But even working with a short steps it is possible to see how it can greatly improve relationships at
work and enables employees to operate with a greater awareness and clarity. Of course it leads to
more open and clear communications. It does not lead to rapid changes in the whole company, but
it makes little changes in an employee what really affects working community.

29

GESTALT IN PRACTICE

Case 1 – Working with Projections (Lithuania)
I had a meeting with a new candidate Tomas. I read his CV before he came to our
meeting and felt sympathy with this man. He has on his CV similar facts in his life as mine. He
was jumping in his life from one study field to another; he is changing his job each 2nd or 3rd
year. He has Bachelor in Physics, Master of Arts in Management, worked as a German translator
at German Court, was a consultant at Youth Psychological Aid Centre, now is in IT business, has
international working experience, and also has similar hobbies and interests as mine. I have also
finished German studies,

worked with

international communities,

studying Gestalt

psychotherapy and switched to IT business. We were both from Vilnius, not married and of
similar age. These intersections made on me a good impression about the candidate.
Tomas came and the meeting was good, we had an interesting nice talk, we understood
each other very quickly, found many similarities in our lives, and I was pleased with the
candidate. After 20 minutes of the “discussion” I stepped back to analyze the situation what is
happening now, why do I have such a warm feeling during the whole process. I have noticed that
I do not let the candidate talk. I talked most of the time and shared my experience with him
without asking him to share his life and work experience. I was rather more focused on our
similarities than speaking about sales position and working requirements. I realized that I have
already decided to offer him an employment agreement without exploring him.
What was it? There were my projections on Tomas. I abolished the boundaries between
my and candidate’s environment and I was not able to evaluate Tomas critically. I saw in him me
and evaluated him as having the same character features as I have. I started feeling “the same” as
he did.
I proposed in me solution: stop talking, ask him questions, listen and observe him. Reject
my confluence and be open to a process. I expected to have a candidate qualification profile
without my predescriptions after that.
I stopped talking, started asking Tomas questions and listening to him without any
prepossession understanding that he is not me and he is having a different unique life experience.
He was talking and I started to analyze not as a similar person, but as a future sales manager
30

asking him questions about his achievements in his work. I found not just positive but also his
negative sides during the meeting.
My knowledge about resistance, about my projections, supported me during the
evaluation of a new candidate. I could be more critical and was able to see what I see but not
what I want. My unbiased evaluation form, of course containing also good things about Tomas,
was sent to Sales department manager. Department manager met Tomas, but he was not
employed.

31

Case 2 – Evaluation Experiment (Lithuania)

During a short discussion in the office with me, a project manager and project member
arose one problem. Project member Vita was not pleased with it that she is not getting evaluation
feedback from her project manager Dainius how she is performing in the project. Project
manager is not able to dedicate time on project members’ evaluation because of daily load
dealing with the customer. Vita was annoyed with the manager; manager was also dissatisfied
with critics.

We were three sitting in one room. As it was evening and no one else was in the project
room I offered a short simple experiment for them. Each of them says 3 positive and then 3
negatives things. This evaluation must be performed only from project side perspective – no
comments or critics outside project boundaries. When one speaks, other is not allowed to
comment, he/she can only listen. Vita is starting, project manager is the second. This method
came to me from Gestalt practice with family members then one of the family members talk,
anoother should listen. Note: both participants knew that I am studying at Gestalt Institute. They
agreed with the experiments, but they also have started the process with defense mechanism –
introject. They thought that “psychotherapist can see through any person and understand what is
going on in him/her”. Vita trusted me, Dainius – not. I took care for Vita and supposed that the
project manager is strong enough and ready to cope with the situation (my projection).

I expected to have pleased Vita having desired feedback on her work from the project
manager.

I sat between both participants and monitored the process. Vita started to name 3 best
and 3 bad things in project manager. Of course it was harder to name positive side of each
person, as in our culture we are used to talk more about negative sides of our work. After Vita
has finished, Dainius started to do the same regarding her. Vita’s face started to shine as she was
hearing good things about her, and she was also ready to hear constructive feedback from the
project manager about her performance what must be improved in the future. There was much
energy in their contact. Vita was in confluence with the project manager, and his evaluation was
for her very important as she was not able to evaluate herself without his comments.

32

Dainius started to shout on me at the same time the experiment was finished. It has
started in the fourth contact cycle phase, during disengagement. He was shouting almost 5
minutes with the statements that I am not a good psychotherapist. Project manager has expressed
clearly the function of personality; he has a very low self-esteem. But he has an image that
project manager must be strong, without emotions, fearless. Because of this introject he
interrupts the contact and starts shouting. I let him shout and did not say any word as it was not
therapy session, I was not able to start explaining to Darius what is happening now with him as
Vita was also sittng next to him. We were at the line where business ends and therapy starts. I am
not crossing this line, because I am working in the same company and I am not doing
psychotrepy with my employees. He stopped shouting, and we finished the process.

Only after a few months later I have reminded Dainius about that situation. He
remembered it good and we have analyzed what was happening on that day. We also started to
speak about introject that project manager has to be strong and what does it mean to be strong to
him. His father was always a leader in the family, and he always repeated to Dainius that he is a
weak boy, if he wants to reach something he must be strong and without any emotions among
other people.

We have never worked with Dainius on that later.

33

Case 3 – “Hot Chair” in Marketing (Sweden)

One of the biggest Swedish Insurance companies was creating a new insurance product
for young generation between age of 25 and 40. There was an initial project phase and every
project member was busy with it how this product should look like. All project members were at
kick-of meeting. About 40 people were divided into small group to work on the product from the
different perspectives: marketing, branding, information systems, product and sales.

As almost all of the project members were the same age of the target group - “hot chair”
method was proposed to use during the brainstorming about the product. It was possible to do in
Sweden, as Gestalt methods are used quiet often in Swedish organizations and most of the
people working in business know the main Gestalt principles. This experiment allows us to
gather many creative ideas for project implementation.

Each group members sat on the “hot chair” and answered to the questions about
insurance product. The project manager was moderator of the process. The questions were asked
spontaneously, e.g. “why do you need to insure tickets to the concerts? Do you often go to the
concert? What kind of music do you like? Why Madonna is so attractive to you? What does she
reminds you about? Do you have a girlfriend? What looks your daily life like? Etc.)

Many ideas about future product were gathered, sorted and used in marketing campaign.
In this experiment took part employees from Sweden, Denmark, Lithuania and Latvia. Swedes
and Danes accepted this experiment as a usual part of business, almost all of them knew what
“hot chair” method is. Lithuanian and Latvian IT specialist were impressed by the experiment
and creative approach, especially psychotherapy methods has being started to use in the Baltic
region recently.

Every group member was involved and interested. Marketing research got many fresh
ideas which were used and are used by selling the product. You can look for the project delivery
at www.atava.se

34

Case 4 – Working with Projections (Sweden)

Initial situation: I was involved in the project and have noticed by observing the project
members that were some simple communication issues in the project and it could be simply
improved if the project members would notice that
Proposed Solution: to present the main concept of Gestalt therapy, introducing some basics
about resistance and body language.
Expected result: improved communication in the project.
Experiment: this time it was more theoretically based experiment. First of all I was just talking
about it to the project manager, we had during the month some discussions regarding his body
language, we analyzed together his participation at the meeting with he customer and his
presentation skills. I have also introduced him definitions of projections, introjects and
confluence. It was not done at the same day, but step by step with practical examples analysis.
Outcome: the project manager got very interested to analyze behavior of him and project
members. There was always a situation that project members are claiming the customer that the
project does not go smoothly because any employee has not finished his/her task. After the
introduction on projections, the project manager asked first the project member in such a
situation: “OK, I understand that that project member from the customer has not completed 5
tasks. But let’s start first with the question: what tasks have you not finished?”
Method evaluation: It improved communication in the project. Also other project members got
involved in observation of other people and their body language.

The Gestalt therapist contrives experiments that lead the client to greater awareness and
fuller experience of his/her possibilities. Experiments can be focused on undoing projections or
retroflection. They can work to help the client with closure of unfinished Gestalts ("unfinished
business" such as unexpressed emotions towards somebody in the client's life). There are many
kinds of experiments that might be therapeutic. But the essence of the work is that it is
experiential rather than interpretive, and in this way distinguishes itself from the psychoanalytic.

It is very important to work with boundaries to increase awareness of each project
member, to explore the field in which they are operating.

35

Usually when we use terms “they, she, you” when we mean “I”, we are projecting or
talking about ourselves. It is very important to identify what you do not like in yourself, imagine
somebody else having it.

Case 5 – Drawing Career Line (Lithuania)

Martina (22 years) wanted to talk with me, to talk about her future plans in our
company. She has been working in the company for 6 months as an administrator. This job is the
first job in his life, and she does not know what kind of job she would like to do in the future.
She has finished Bachelor studies in Philosophy and has also plans to continue Master studies,
but she has no idea what does she wants to study. Her ego function was missing in her
phenomelogy as she had not clear expressed personality function. She lacks on foundation from
which she could explain who she is in her career. I invited her for one meeting to explore her
function personality and update her self-image from perspective of her career. Updated self
image could support her ego function in choosing a right job for her.

We met in our room after working hours. Martina told me that she does not like being
administrator as most of the time she has nothing to do. Her main duties are answering company
calls, meet the guests, and prepare coffee and tea. Her days are boring and slow. She feels like a
robot. At home she is a very creative person; she makes collages, draws and creates poems.

I have noticed already before that she is an open person and ready for any creative
ideas. I invited her to make an experiment. I asked her to draw the life line and reflection on that.
I gave Martina to do one of the most popular experiments in Gestalt: to draw her own lifeline
with the task to mark all the important moments in her life related with her career, profession,
studies, and interests.

She took pencils and started to work on it without any resistance. Her mother and father,
both were doctors. Everyone in her family was persuaded that she will also study medicine. She
had the same idea till the 12th grade. She took introject from their parents that she must be a
doctor. Suddenly she realized that she has no interest to be a doctor. She went to University to
study philosophy and was very happy with it. Now she is in business and does not know where
to go. As has no idea hat she will do after studies, receives no more introjects and support from
parents, she is lost.

36

We spent together one hour analyzing her picture. I have asked many questions to help
her to find out her wishes and feelings. Mostly she had no answers to the questions. Her id
fuction is also is missing, she can not clearly feel, see and hear. I tried always to emphasize on
becoming aware of what is happening here and now without any controlling.

This “session” was only the beginning for her “career journey”. We talked also how is
important to observe herself in each life moment and explore what does she like and how does
she feel. Authentic contact with other people and environment, awareness of repeated actions
and habbits, creative adjustment encourages us to experiment with the new solutions. Gestalt
adds feeling “here and now” which motivates us to change.

4-5 months passed after the described session. She is still searching for new
opportunities in her job and has already applied for Master studies in business management at
University.

37

Case 6 – Employee and Cancer (Lithuania)

One day I have noticed that one of our employees, Rita (25 years) were out of work for
about 3 weeks. I have reached her on skype. She was just a few days after the surgery. She had
an intensive stomach ache and was brought during the night to hospital. Her womb was operated;
one of the ovarian was removed as cancer cells were founded. She has never been to hospital
before.

As I had two operations in my life and have also some experience with women sick on
cancer, I had an idea to visit Rita at home and support her. As she was a new employee in our
company, we have never had a very close relationship before.

We agreed on time, I bought flowers and sushi and went to her. At the very beginning
of our conversation we agreed that everything what we talk today about illness is confidential
and we do not share it outside this room. We were sharing our experience. Rita was talking
much, my presence and similar experience was a good resource for our contact. I have noticed
that she was talking about serious things and smiling. She was devaluating her sadness. As we
were colleagues I could not use any direct intervention to stop it. I was just present to her for
listening her.

After this visit we were also communicating on phone or skype. I had always the feeling
that she is not open with me.

She came back to work and invited me on the same day for lunch. She started to speak
that she sees no meaning in her current job. She was sure that she will die in 2-3 years and she
has overdone her preferences and goals in her life. I asked her not to rush on the first day of
return to job and we continued speaking about some company matters.

After she came back from lunch, she brought application form that she resigns. I flew
into a fury. It was the real evidence to me that she was not open to me. I felt emotional hurt
because I treated her honestly and open. But I have nothing said to her, we are colleagues.

She left the company. In a few days she has contacted me. I was still angry on her, and
as we were not colleagues anymore, I wrote her that I can not maintain with her such kind of
contact and see no future for that.
38

Rita wrote me back that she was afraid of being open and transparent to me because of
my status. She looked at me as at HR manager. And my boyfriend, who is working in the same
company as a project manager, was Rita’s direct manager. She did not feel safe in having an
open contact with me. Power of “Double status” influenced our relationship. But as she has left
the company, we became close friends.

39

Case 7 – Employee Selection and Working with Experiments (Lithuania)

On average I have 2 daily meetings with new candidates for any position in our
company. Mostly come to the meeting young men or women, IT professionals between 21 – 24
years.

Our company has 8 departments working with different technologies, projects, and

different business. Also these departments have some differences in people. We have for
example 1 international department; most of the employees go to business trips from 1 week till
2 years. This department differentiates from others in flexibility. I mean almost all department
members are ready to go to business trip “here-and-now” without any additional question. Also
almost 85% of the employees are young, not married or divorced, without children, ready for
adventures. Another department, for example, focuses more on process and relationships in the
department, but not on the working results. Department members live as family members, spend
a lot of time together, and have similar hobbies and interests. Each personal event (Birthday,
finishing university, wedding) is celebrated together. Other not mentioned departments have
some distinct characteristics too.

During employee’s selection process I also pay a lot of attention on how a candidate
relates to current employees or which vision of the company he/she has. Does he/she like having
unpredicted next day? Is he/she ready to take a risk? Does he/she prefer close relionships with
humans to career? Does he/she like formal or informal communication with his/her boss? Does
he/she sees his/her job as the main part in his/her life or any hobby is more important to him/her?
And many other similar questions.

Sometimes I am also working with 4 different pictures to identify employees’
preferences. Actually I decide to use it only with more relaxed candidates, and mostly with
students. I have noticed that candidates more than 30 years old are more suspicious of doing this
experiment. Some of the candidates refused doing it.

I gave to a candidate to choose one picture from 4 which he/she likes the most and
describe what does he/she sees:
 Picture showing a successful business man
 Picture with mountains and a young man on skis
 Picture with robot and computer
 Picture with an ordinary simple young man working with PC on the street
40

If a candidate does not show resistance I go deeper with the experiment: I suggest
him/her to tell a short story from the position of being in this picture. Sometimes people break
the boundaries and tell opposite things confronting to their image before. It is harder to pretend
being perfect in process.

To my surprise statistically almost all the pictures are chosen with the same proportion.

41

Case 8 – Career Path (Lithuania)

One day one of the department managers called me and asked to meet one young
employee, actually his younger brother Mantas (22 years), and find out what is happening with
him. “No interest to work, no motivation. The company is not motivating employees, I see the
reason here. But please meet him and explain that he has to work in this company” – manager
said. The manager was not able to meet his younger brother as he is managing a project abroad,
far away from Lithuania, in South Africa.

I met Mantas at the lunch not to make him scared at the beginning and see if he can trust
me. We have never talked before. Mantas knew that I’m studying psychotherapy, so I wanted to
make his environment secure in case he also thinks that I am a “witch”.

We started with a small talk. Later he started claiming that he is not satisfied with the
working environment, with the company, with the project, with employees and also with his
department manager. He also named many things which are really negative in our company. He
feels that nobody takes care of him. I was just listening.

Then I started asking him questions “What do you want? Please tell me 3-5 things in
your life you want to achieve?” At first he was surprised; he started to name his wishes, but very
slowly. We found out that he does not know exactly what he wants. Lunch was over and we
agreed to meet one more time. I suggested doing him a test by Schein E. H. called “Career
Anchors” and see what kind of career he wants. [15; 16; 17] Nobody else can tell him what to do
in his life; he should take responsibility and take care for himself.

We met the second time and did the test. We discussed different roles and analyzed the
test carefully.

Suddenly he started to talk about his family. He has 2 elder brothers. His father is
mathematician. His both brothers finished Master in Mathematics and Informatics. Mantas had
also to study Mathematics, but nobody asked him if he wants to do it. Actually he doesn’t like
working with computer at all and he is dreaming about any other work in psychology, events
organization or film making. He does not like programming. He likes playing music, spending

42

time with people, acting and creating novels. I recommended him not to rush with the decision
and think what he wants.

He left my room and we have never had any meeting anymore. He is still working in
our company and I wonder what he has decided regarding his career plans.

43

Case 9 – Team Building Experiment (Denmark)

There was the beginning of the one-year IS implementation project in Copenhagen.
Latvians, Lithuanians, Swedish and Danish project members came to the official project kick-off
meeting. After the meeting we had to organize any activity to bring project members together, to
create an opportunity to know each other better and share values and beliefs. I have suggested a
creative experiment for the project members to live “here-and-now” and explore boundaries of
each other.

People were divided into 5 groups having team members of all nationalities. The groups
got three tasks to complete in one hour:
1. To take pictures outside the company this can introduce their team. There can be no
other people and no team members on the picture.
2. To gather as many things from the list as they can. The list consisted about 20 items as
beer can, used museum ticket, the little mermaid, green leaves and etc. It was not allowed
to buy any item; everything must be obtained with other methods.
3. To make a short presentation of the team with a picture (see task 1), slogan and song.

After this team building finishes, we have realized that team worked in different ways:
one team did all the tasks together in a row, another team made some team members responsible
for the particular task. By looking for the items, some of the people run 20 minutes till the
museum to get the used ticket, another e.g. stayed in the company building and created many
items by himself, another one – took it from the Internet. There was also an opportunity to
explore for everyone who likes working alone, who likes organizing a group, who is shy and
who is very serious.

Everyone liked the evening. It was so much energy in the room. There was a possibility
not only to know each other but also to experience the process of being now, living and creating
something right now.

44

Case 10 – Personal Coaching (Lithuania)

Dominykas (33 years) is very interested in self-development, psychology, coaching and
relationship with humans. He has joined our company recently and is one of a few employees
who pay more attention to human relations than to business or technologies.

He has about 7 years international working experience in Australia, Brazil, South
Africa, Japan and other countries. From the first day in our company he told us many stories
from his past. All the stories were unique, full of energy and jokes. But day after day many our
employees started to avoid him and were not interested in his stories anymore. He has noticed
that but was not able to understand why.

He knew that I am studying psychotherapy. Dominykas is single, living in his own
house with a cat and dog. He started to call me each evening and analyze his life. We agreed
from the very beginning regarding confidentiality. He also asked me to be his therapist, but as I
know from Gestalt practice that some sessions can evoke aggression, I did not agree to take a
role as a psychotherapist. In literature it is strongly recommended not mix two roles – business
consulting and psychotherapy, human resource management and psychotherapy, employees’
relation and client-psychotherapist relations. There is a clear line where human resource manager
or business consultant should stop and say to an employee “this is a clear moment/point that
business consulting finishes and psychotherapy starts, we shall stop here,” I did the same and
explained him the reasons. Of course I gave him phone number of another psychotherapist. We
agreed to communicate without any borders, be open and do not hide emotions as it usual in
business.

We met about for 8-10 “sessions”. And we also communicate on phone very
intensively. We analyzed his behaviour, believes, feelings and emotions. He also analyzed with
me his sessions with a real psychotherapist. As Dominykas was self-motivated to change, he did
each day huge sucses. He liked doing homework and observed his being here and now. Hi did
not know anything about Gestalt approach, but he lived according that principal. He is always in
process; he is most of the time aware of what he is doing.

Integral coaching draws on many sources: philosophy (especially 20th-century
philosophy), biology, hermeneutics, spirituality, adult development theory, neuroscience,
45

cognitive science and many more. Fundamental to this method is attending to the entire person
(body, mind, spirit, relationships, intentions, well-being, sense of belonging and meaning,
viability, and so on) and to have as the mutually shared focus the deepening development of the
client. This goes far beyond accomplishing goals and has far-reaching and long-lasting positive
effects in the client’s life. These results include a greater sense of personal efficacy, a deeper
experience of meaning and belonging, and a greater capacity to contribute.

I will not describe all the “sessions” with him. Mostly he called me at the peak of his
emotions and we analyzed what is going on: what does he feel, what does it mean to him at the
moment, and of course does it reminded him to any situation from his past.

I am in contact with him for 5-6 months; he is thankful to me that I am honest and say
the truth, I have from my side a great pleasure to work using some Gestalt methods outside the
client-psychotherapist room.

46

Case 11 – Body Language (Sweden)

Time to time I was going to the project to Stockholm where our project members from
Latvia and Lithuania are working. Most of the group leaders in this project have just started to
work in their positions, they are experts in IT field and business system they are implementing,
but they lack on communication and presentation skills, some theory and practice in psychology.
Project plans are tough; there is no time for additional training for project members.

I have started to use time at lunch and evening in the bar about body language,
presentation skills and some facts about human behavior. I have told them that I can recognize
e.g. in the bar if a couple at the table is having just a few dates or they are living together. We
were discussing all the gestures we see “here-and-now” and try to understand what it means. It
known that more that not only verbal communication is important. Vocal elements as tone of
voice, inflection and stammering tell us more about the speaker. Non-verbal elements are also of
high importance. [14]

We had no time for “normal” training. We used each minute and each time of our
presence to explore it. It was just a kick from my side, now project members are aware of what
they are speaking and how they are doing it.

The message is spreading among all the department members. Even those who have
never been to the project in Stockholm are interested in body language. One evening I heard as
the director of this business line said: “I never listen only to the speaker what he says. I observe
his body language. Not his words, but his body is the most important tool in communication”.
And I know where it has been started.

47

Case 12 – Internal Portal Implementation Project (Lithuania)
Organizational Case Study
Context (Company A):
 One of the leading IT companies in the Baltic region;
 More than 400 employees in Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia and Poland;
 Headquarter in Lithuania with 300 employees;
 11 independent departments, 7 IT departments having their own vision, goals, projects,
technologies (other 4 without it – Sales, Administration, Finance and Training center);
 Expansion in the last 2 years: from 150 to 300 people.
Issues
 Change from a small company to a big company;
 No written vision, attitudes, company procedures, rules and etc. Organizational culture
and traditions are only in verbal form, and nobody has time because of much work to
communicate it daily to employees;
 No internal communication channel, up to date information missing;
 One department member dos not know other department members.
Solution for internal communication improvement:
 Implementation of internal portal for the whole company to be used daily by employees.
Note: other solutions are not analyzed in this case study, we are focusing in this paper only
on one solution.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Project from 2008.05.01 till 2008.11.15
Participants: company A and company B (external services)
Company A - project members:
 Member AJ. – formal project manager and is also covering technical part of system
implementation (but has no deep technical know-how about software/hardware) , sales
manager, working in the company for 12 years. As a sales manager has a very good
communication skill. He knows personally the director of company B, is in good
relationship with him and he has recommend this company to COO. But AJ. has s bad
reputation by department managers in company A (receives no support from them in this
project), and as he had much bad experience from the past, he tries to hide a project from
the rest of the company, do not trust in success, communicates only verbal, avoids emails and written assignments, changes his mind according situation…
48

 Member AB. – HR, responsible for portal content and structure, working in the company
3 years, fresh baked HR manager (1 year), having trust and support from department
managers and COO, but there is a problem that each department manager thinks only
from his department point of view and is convinced that his technology or working style
is the best. AB. is lacking technological knowledge, trying to put all project members
together, except one – member AG. because of personal reasons.
 Member AC. – HR, assisting member AB., very creative and an active member, working
in the company less than 1 year. Very good communication skills, can find any solution,
flexible, working hard and passionate (self-motivated).
 Member AA. – one month in the company, enthusiastic, will be responsible later for
technical part of system implementation (will cover technical part, which is covering now
AJ.). Currently quiet and exploring the field: company and project.
 Member AT. – IT expert, working in the company 1 year, enthusiastic, very emotional,
getting very fast into stress and anger. Came to help member AB as a “superman”, but
did not mentioned anything that he has some very bad experience with the company B.
 Member AG. – department manager of technical department, has created one year ago an
internal portal for the whole company (very simple one and not user-friendly), employees
are not using it, but he is 100% sure that we don’t need any other portal. Not flexible,
“hard“ person to talk almost to all employees in the company. AJ. or AB. are
communicating with him regarding the project. He mostly communicates in the project
with member AJ.
 Member AE. – QA, project manager, is working abroad, has a good reputation in the
company, previous boss of member AB., she invited him to be QA to make sure the
project goes well.
Company B – project members (Implementer’s side):
 Member BL. – project manager, a shy woman, looks not confident enough, seems that
she has problem to express her opinion.
 Member BT. – technical adviser, good communication skills, friendly, looks relaxed.
 Member BV. – formal manager, a friend of our Member AJ., have never seen him.
 Member BM – technical adviser, husband of BL., has his own opinion, can argue,

49

Issues:
1. Company B members are shy and do not say public what they think – small company via
big company
2. Member BL. and BV. communicate with Member AJ., but member AB. does not gets
the feedback. A gap in communication channel.
3. Not a common view about project implementation (methodology)
4. Many personal issues in relationships.
Goals:
 Working together and reaching common goals
 Opened and direct communication with each other
Solutions:
 Clear described project members structure and responsibilities
 E-mail communication and meeting minutes
 Not only meetings and formal documentation, but also communication via mobile phone
 Joined presentation on Friday for department managers
 Eliminate member AT. from the project

Analysis from Gestalt perspective:

 The pre-contact is missing in the process. Company B was brought to company A without
any introduction. As pre-contact was not done, there is no trust to each other from both
sides. This part is the most important in working together. If it will be not solved in the
future, there is no more need to analyze other issues in this project.
 Phenomenology of company A and company B is different; there are some interruptions
in the process. There are also many interruptions in relationships among all project
members, but we are focusing on companies’ phenomenology, not on each project
member.
 The first interruption – introjection. Company B thinks that company A is big,
professional and powerful. Company B thinks they must listen to everything what bigger
company says because it is always right. Company B is not able to argue or say “no”
because it is small and has to be nice.
 The second strong one – projection. Member AB. do not trust member AJ. who is the
main person in communication with company B. As member AB. do not trust AJ., she
also do not trust company B – projects character of AJ. on company B.
50

Solutions:
 After party with project members from companies A & B (on the lake in yacht). It is an
opportunity to work on interruptions.
 Clear explanation of COO to department managers why company B was chosen to
implement portal. It can solve some misunderstandings in pre-contact phase.

51

Case 13 – Coaching for Project Manager (Latvia)

I was working for 2 weeks in of our implementation project in Riga, Latvia. Project
management group consisted of 6 members: 3 women and 3 men. 2 project managers and me
from our side, 2 women and 1 man from the customer side.

After each meeting I told to our two project managers how the meeting went: how
anybody looked like, what gestures were used, who was angry or pleased, and who took a
defensive position. The project was full of stress: everyone concentrated on delivery and quality,
on project plans and technology. It was hard for Ramunas (28 years) to work under the stress,
sometimes he looses his patience and starts shouting during the meetings. One day he said to me:
“Before you came to the project, everyone was concentrated on things which are important,
everyone spoke logical and analytical, no emotions or defense mechanisms. You came and
paradise is lost.” I continued commenting him the meetings and he pretended not listening to me.
But I have noticed that he is actually listening. From my experience I have noticed that managers
try being cool in other employees’ eyes, but if you stay with one of them he/she can talk about
such things as emotions.

We had dinner together in the evening. When I first told Ramunas that we should work
with our feelings and emotions, I have got mixed reaction. There was distance and mistrust. The
skepticism and critical thoughts are always welcome at the meeting, but not emotions or
relations. I invited Ramunas to explore his relationships with me and feel his reactions while
talking with me, to be aware of it. Of course I told him the main concept of Gestalt before to
make him interested in this small experiment. We started “working in pairs”. I was a speaker, he
was a listener. Listener had to notice what is going inside him. It was a very hard exercise,
evoking many negative feelings. He does not feel secure.

Most of the meetings in business are operating with past or future. The main topics of
the meetings are what has been done and what has to be done for the future. Present moment is
ignored. But when managers can focus on their feelings at the present time, their contact with
each other can be more real. What is really going in my inner and outer world can be different.
Intellectual and analytical contact is valued. The contact is mostly superficial. [19]

52

His respect for other project management members has increased, but we have never
continued working. I hope he is working now with himself and exploring what is happening in
the meeting “here-and-now”.

53

Case 14 – Coaching for Presentation Skills (Sweden)

I was working in a project in Stockholm. One of our employees, Martins (24 years) was
promoted from a programmer to a group leader. He was a potential group leader and had
experience in the information system, but he lacked on some personal skills like communication,
presentation skills and managing other people.

I had time and offered to Martins my support. We agreed that he will prepare
presentations during the day time, and evening he will present it to me as he would do that with
business people. We agreed also that I will observe him and tell him feedback at he same time he
is giving a presentation. I had to listen to the content (do I understand what he is saying in
English?), to listen to his voice (does it sound confident and peacefully?), to observe his behavior
(does he appear good in the eyes of business?), to examine his appearance as a whole picture
(does he evoke a positive impression on me?). There are many articles and books about
presentations skills, but learning by doing is the best way to practice it.

The first presentation is the most memorable for him and me: stuttering English,
shaking hands with a pencil, a golden chain on the neck, frozen movements.

We were practicing the whole month and he did a big progress. It is not practicing
presentation skills, it also comes to self-confidence, body language, hidden conflicts, past
experience, and of course – awareness of what is going right now, at the present situation.

54

Case 15 - Social Network (Lithuania)

HR team in my company consist (except me) of 3 young women, who are doing very
well administration work but lack on decision making, creative ideas, self confidence and
independent work. I always felt that I need someone who can do work without daily supervision,
a person to whom I can trust and a person who can communicate with most of our 300
employees.

There was a young man in one department, IT training consultant, who has very good
communication skills, has a lively interest in our organization and also in many different other
things outside the organization, was curious and “self-motivated”. A year ago I read a book
“Winning” by Jack Welsh, a former leader of General Electric, who was describing recruitment
process in his company. I totally agree with him that the main goal of selection process in the
company is to identify “self-motivated” persons, and employ them. Having an open mind,
analytical thinking and being self-motivated are very important. Only self motivated people can
achieve brilliant results and work independently. From my practical experience company’s
motivation and reward system can not raise employee’s satisfaction with work if he/she has no
self-motivation.

I observed Dominykas, a training consultant, and invited him to join to bowling
championship organization. He was also interested in my studies at Riga Gestalt Institute. At that
moment I was interested in my workshop preparation. Workshop was about social net and its
influence on people career. I have offered to Dominykas to make an experiment and draw his
social network. We did it together and analyzed his chart. He was surprised how many contacts
in his life he did himself. 32 from 40 contacts were started by him. He was the most active
person in making friends and we also explored how it influences his life now. He also had many
friends from having different professions and roles.

We analyzed what this drawing means to him now. He understood that he applies the
same behavior rules in our company: takes an active part to know each employee, is interested
not only in his department, but also in other departments and other IT Group companies.

After that I have invited him to join HR team. We are working with him 2 months, and I
would definitely say that he was the best choice for the position.
55

Literature

1. Change management. – Boston: Harvard Business Review School Press, 2002. – 205 p.
2. Code of Ethics. EAGT. Mode of access: http://www.eagt.org/
3. Dalai Lama. How to practice: the way of meaningful life. – London: Rider, 2002. – 226
p.
4. Draft standards for the accreditation of training programs in Gestalt in Organizations:
Standards coaching and OD consultancy for EAGT. Mode of access:
http://www.eagt.org/
5. Evans K. Living in the 21st Century: a Gestalt therapist’s search for a new paradigm. –
Gestalt Review, 11 (3), 2007. – 190-203 p.
6. Gelb M.J. How to think like Leonardo da Vinci: seven steps to genius everyday. – New
York: Bantam Dell, 2004. – 317 p.
7. Ginger S. Gestalt therapy the art of contact. – Paris: Marabout-EPG, 2003. – 264 p.
8. Gladweel M. Tipping point. – New York: Little Brown & Co, 2000. – 280 p.
9. Glenn E. M. Realizing what you’re made off.– Harvard Business Review, March 2007. 125-130p.
10. Managing your career. – Boston: Harvard Business Review School Press, 2002. – 205 p.
11. Mullins L.J. Management and Organizational Behavior. - 7th Edition, FT-Prentice Hall,
2005. – 1095 p.
12. Nevis E.C. Gestalt therapy and organizational development. A historical perspective. –
Gestalt Review, 1(2), 1997. – 110-130 p.
13. Nevis E.C. Organizational consulting: a Gestalt approach. - Gestalt Institute of
Cleveland: Press Book Series, 1987. – 240 p.
14. Pease A., Pease B. The definitive book of body language. – London: Orion House, 2004.
– 395 p.
15. Schein E.H. Career anchors. Facilitator’s guide. – San Francisco: Pfeiffer, 2006. – 24 p.
16. Schein E.H. Career anchors. Participant workbook. – San Francisco: Pfeiffer, 2006. – 61
p.
17. Schein E.H. Career anchors. Self assessment. – San Francisco: Pfeiffer, 2006. – 17 p.
18. Senge Peter M. The fifth discipline. The art & practice of the learning organization.Currency Doubleday, 1994. – 423 p.
19. Trevor J.B. Gestalt in the boardroom. - Gestalt Review, 4(3), 2000. – 176-193 p.
20. Welsch J. Winning. – New York: Harper Collins Books, 2005. – 365 p.
21. Энрайт Д. Гештальт, ведущий к просветлению. – 140 c.
22. Зингер Д. В поисках хорошей формы. Гештальт-терапия с супружескими парами и
семьями. – Класс, 2000 - … c.
23. Зинкевич-Куземкина Т.А., Олифирович Н.И., Велента Т.Ф. Психология семейных
кризисов. - Издательство Речь, 2005 - 360 с.
24. Лебедева Н., Иванова. Путешествие в Гештальт. Теория и практика. - С-П: Речь,
2004 – 549 c.
56

25. Невис Э. Организационное консультирование. - Издательство Пирожкова, 2002. 224 с.
26. Хильб M. Интегрированный менеджмент персонала. Цели — стратегии —
инструменты. – Москва: Дело и сервис, 2006. - 256 с.
27. Перлз Ф. Внутри и вне помойного ведра: Практикум по гештальт терапии. Петербург: XXI век 1995. – 448 с.
28. Перлз Ф. Эго, голод и агрессия. - Смысл, 2000. – 355 с.
29. Перлз Ф. Гештальт-Подход и Свидетель Терапии. – Москва: Институт
Психотерапии, 2003. – 217 c.
30. Перлз Ф., Гудмен П., Хефферлин Р. Практикум по гештальт-терапии. - Москва:
Институт Общегуманитарных Исследований, 2001. - 326 c.
31. Полстеp И., Полстеp М. Интегрированная гештальт-терапия. - Класс, 1997. - 272 c.
32. Полстер И. Обитаемый человек. - Класс, 1999 - … c.
33. Beck A. T. Kognityvinė terapija ir emociniai sutrikimai. – Vilnius: Via Recta, 2005. –
287 p.
34. Darbuotojų atranka konkurenciniam pranašumui įgyti. – Vilnius: Verslo žinios, 2006. –
163 p.
35. Frankl V.E. Žmogus ieško prasmės. - Vilnius: Katalikų pasaulis, 1997. – 125p.
36. Franklis V.E. Sielogyda. Gydytojo rūpestis – siela. – Vilnius: Vaga, 2007. – 360 p.
37. Froidas Z. Kasdienio gyvenimo psichopatologija. – Vilnius: Apostrofa, 2006. – 376 p.
38. Horney K. Neurotiška mūsų laikų asmenybė. – Vilnius: Apostrofa, 2004. – 288 p.
39. Yalom I.D. Melagis ant kušetės. – Vilnius: Vaga, 2007. – 448 p.
40. Yalom I.D. Kai Nyčė verkė. – Vilnius: Vaga, 2007. – 376 p.
41. Yalom I.D. Gydymas Šopenhaueriu. – Vilnius: Vaga, 2006. – 368 p.
42. Yalom I.D. Terapijos dovana. – Vilnius: Alma Litera, 2006. – 255 p.
43. Yalom I.D. Mamytė ir gyvenimo prasmė. – Vilnius: Vaga, 2006. – 280 p.
44. Joule R.V. Beavois J.L. Manipuliacijos vadovas padoriems piliečiams. – Vilnius: Alma
Litera, 2005. - 252 p.
45. Kočiūnas R. Grupinė psichoterapija Lietuvoje. – Vilnius: Via Recta, 1999. – 238 p.
46. Laurinaitis E., Milašiūnas E. Psichoterapija. Knyga profesionalams ir smalsiems. –
Vilnius: Vaistų žinios, 2008. – 404 p.
47. Lepeškienė V. Įvadas į Geštaltinės psichoterapijos teorija ir praktika. – Vilnius: Vilniaus
Universitetas, 2007. – 178 p.
48. Manfred F.R.Kets de Vries. Lyderis pas psichoanalitiką. Kaip pažinti save ir vadovauti
kitiems. Vilnius: UAB „Verslo žinios“, 2007. – 407 p.
49. Navaitis G. Lietuvos šeimos psichoterapinis aspektas. – Vilnius: Tyto Alba, 1999. – 193
p.
50. Navaitis G. Psichologinė parama vaikui. – Vilnius: Tyto Alba, 1997. – 184 p.
51. Psichologijos žodynas. – Vilnius: Mokslo ir enciklopedinjų leidykla, 1993. – 368 p.
52. Senų žmonių baimė. – Vilnius: Alma Litera, 2003. – 176p.
57

53. Ulrich D., Brockbank W. Personalo vadyba: vertės pasiūlymas. – Vilnius: UAB „Verslo
žinios“, 2007. – 316 p.
54. Dreitzel H.P. Gestalt und Prozess. Eine psychoterapische Diagnostik oder: der gesunde
Mensch hat wening Charakter. – Begisch Gladbach: EHP, 2004. – S. 137
55. Kreisman J.J., Straus H. I hasse dich – verlass mich nicht, Die schwarzweisse Welt der
Borderlinepersönlichkeit. – München: Hösel Verlag, 2004. – S. 278
56. Perls L. Leben an der Grenze. – Verlag Andreas Kohlhage, Bergisch Gladbach, 2005 – S.
194

58