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What is the basis of only allowing a 25% load variation on variable

springs. Would there be a problem with allowing a little be more
on an occasion.

To prevent significant system imbalance when using variable
spring supports, it is desired to have the difference between the
installed (cold) load and the operating (hot) load not be excessive.
For this reason the "variability" factor (essentially a ratio between
the hot and cold loads) is limited to 25% by MSS. Because the hot
load and pipe movement are dictated by the piping system, the
variability may be changed only by altering the spring rate. For
this reason, we provide different model springs (PTP-1, PTP-2,
PTP-4, PTP-6, and PTP-8) which will support the same hot load but
which provide for different spring rates.
In addition, a variablity of 25% or less also helps to prolong the
"Life cycle" of the spring coil by limiting possible deformation of
the spring coil. Therefore, increased variablity results in decrease
"life cycle". So the use of higher variability may be acceptable if
the decreased "life cycle" is acceptable.

Why are traps needed? To get the most possible heat from a coil. An inverted bucket steam trap (Figure 1). temperature. has an upside-down bucket or “open float.Steam Trap Basics What is a steam trap? A steam trap is a self-contained valve that automatically drains the condensate from a steam-containing enclosure. (Some traps pass live steam at a controlled rate. float and thermostatic. so it will be discharged along with the condensate. Condensate entering the trap causes the bucket to sink. while remaining closed to live steam. let’s look at how each type of trap works and review their operating principles. This element may be a bimetallic strip or a sealed bellows that is partially filled with a liquid. but they must to be kept free of condensate to prevent potentially disastrous water hammer. Like a thermostat on your furnace or air conditioner. Steam entering under the inverted and submerged bucket.) Most traps also pass air and other non-condensable gases while remaining closed to live steam. thermostatic.” and it operates on the difference in the density between steam and water. As . or any other steam-using device. it is necessary to remove the condensate as soon as it forms. thus discharging the condensate. How many different types of steam traps are there? There are four common trap types: inverted bucket. or density. opening the trap’s valve to discharge condensate. Steam increases the pressure inside the thermostatic element causing the trap to close. Steam pipes condense only a little steam. What makes them different? To differentiate between types of steam traps. A small vent in the top of the bucket allows accumulated air to pass through. Thermostatic trap valves open and close based on the expansion and contraction of a temperature-sensitive element. It is also necessary to vent the unavoidable non-condensable gases to obtain the best possible heat transfer. causes the bucket to float and closes the discharge valve. these traps operate on the difference in temperature between steam and the cooler condensate and air. usually distilled water. and thermodynamic or disc traps. A ball float opens the primary valve when sufficient condensate enters the trap to lift the float. A float and thermostatic trap (Figure 2) simply combines the actions of both temperature and density. How do traps work? All steam trap operation can be classified under one of three basic operating principles: velocity.

” It also may depend on your expectations. There were complaints about water spots on the surgical instruments that had been sterilized in an autoclave. Why is “dry steam” such a big deal? The best way to illustrate is by example from a medical facility. Disc traps. reaches the inlet orifice. condensate. The controlled bleed-off of steam pressure across the sealing face of the disc permits the trap to open again. there was condensate in the steam line leading to the autoclave. Unfortunately. or flash steam. pulling the disc toward the seat. As steam. This condensate was transported into the autoclave and deposited on the instruments resulting in water spots. and regulates the cycling rate. the most common form of thermodynamic trap. operate on the velocity principle. Why are steam traps so important? There are several good economic reasons. “It depends on the application and the operating requirements. the flow velocity increases. Increasing pressure in the control chamber snaps the disc closed. Have a long operating life. the problem was solved. Steam was being used in the sterilization process. Maximize efficiency of the heat exchange equipment being trapped.the unit drains. First it costs money to generate and transport steam throughout a facility for a range of applications including space heating. What makes one type of trap better than another? The simple answer is. Also. Have trouble-free operation with minimal adjustment or maintenance. steam. .” Furthermore. Condensate and air enter the trap and pass through an inlet orifice. air and non-condensable gases are removed as soon as they are formed. This energy is too expensive ($5 to $7 per 1. A separate thermostatic element at the top of the trap opens to discharge air and non-condensable gases as soon as there is a small temperature drop within the trap. The top six expectations from users of a steam trap are to:     Have minimum steam loss. it can create a slug of water (safety concern) that can be driven through the pipes with the power of a destructive “battering ram. When condensate. if condensate flowing along the bottom of the pipe is not removed. the steam has more surface area on which it can transfer heat energy. But.000 pounds) to waste and a steam trap maximizes a steam system’s efficiency. and air must occupy the same space inside the heat exchange device. the ball drops and the valve closes. steam in the presence of water or air is a less efficient energy transfer medium than dry steam. not unlike those in a kitchen dishwasher. By removing the condensate with a steam trap located very close to the autoclave. heating chamber and control chamber.

. “B” Below the equipment being drained. the rule of thumb is to place the trap inlet about 10-12 inches below the condensate drain connection. A six-inch dirt pocket should be provided to protect the trap against pieces of dirt and scale. gravity flow is bringing condensate to the trap. at some point we depend upon gravity to bring the condensate into the trap. The inspection process is made easier when the trap is accessible. Steam mains need extra attention and their drip legs should be sized generously. to inimize this counter-flow problem. Drip legs here should be no less than 4” when the pipe is 4” or larger. and will. air and steam are being displaced upward through the piping. traps should be: “A” Accessible. Avoid long runs of pipe to the trap. It is therefore necessary to inspect traps regularly. Where should traps be located? The short answer on trap location is to follow the basic “A-B-C” rule. “C” Close to the equipment being drained.  Provide maximum safety of operation. so that a failed trap does not waste steam for months or years on end. fail. Even though a heating coil and its steam trap may be operating at 250 psig steam pressure. Let’s be honest all traps can. For most heatexchange equipment. Operate reliably even under “dirty” steam conditions. At the same time. As noted above.

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