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# Date…………………………….

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EXPERIMENT 5

Darlington and Cascode Amplifier Circuits

Objective
1. To calculate and measure DC and AC voltages in Darlington and cascade
connection circuits.
Equipment
1.
2.
3.
4.

Oscilloscope
DMM
Function generator
DC supply

Components
1. Resistors [100Ω, (1); 51Ω-1W, (1); 1kΩ, (1); 1.8kΩ, (1); 4.7kΩ, (1); 5.6kΩ, (1);
6.8kΩ, (1); 50kΩ pot, (1); 100kΩ, (1)]
2. Capacitors [0.001µF, (1); 10µF, (4)]
3. Transistors [2N3904,(or equivalent general purpose npn), (2); TIP120 (npn
Darlington), (1)]
Discussion
 Darlington Circuit: A Darlington connection (as shown in Fig. 23.1) provides a
pair of BJT transistors in a single IC package with effective beta (
equals to
the product of the individual transistor betas:
23.1
 The Darlington emitter-follower has higher input impedance than that of an
emitter-follower. The Darlington emitter-follower input impedance is:

23.2

2.3 23.7 Procedure: The students are expected to conduct the following instructions first in PROTEUS and then experimentally in the lab during the same lab session.5  The Voltage gain of Q2 is non-inverted and of magnitude 23.4  Cascode Circuit: A Cascode circuit . For the circuit of Fig. provides a commonemitter amplifier using Q1 directly connected to a common-base amplifier using Q2.001 µF TIP 120 E Figure 23-1 RE 390Ω 1/2W C2 10 µF . 23. Part 1. +Vcc ( 10V ) RB(variable) 2MΩ Vi C B C1 0. The voltage gain of stage Q1 is approximately 1. The output impedance of the Darlington emitter-follower is  The voltage gain of a Darlington emitter-follower circuit is: 23. 23. with the voltage Vo1 being opposite in polarity to that applied as Vi. Darlington Emitter-Follower Circuit a. 23.1 calculate the DC bias voltages and currents. as shown in Fig.6 Resulting in an overall gain: 23.

measure and record the DC bias values: (measured) = __________ (measured) = __________ Calculate the base and emitter DC currents: (calculated) = __________ (calculated) = __________ Calculate the value of transistor beta at this Q-point: (calculated) = __________ . Adjust the 2MΩ potentiometer ( to provide an emitter voltage. 23. input and output impedance.(calculated) = __________ (calculated) = __________ Calculate the theoretical values of voltage gain. = 5V. Using a DMM. (calculated) = __________ (calculated) = __________ (calculated) = __________ b. Construct the Darlington circuit of Fig.1.

= 100 kΩ. Darlington input and Output Impedance a. in series with . peak at 10 kHz. Using the oscilloscope observe and record the output voltage to assure that signal is not clipped or distorted. Apply an input signal = 1V. Connect a measurement resistor record input voltage . Calculate the input impedance: (calculated) = __________ Calculate the circuit output impedance: (calculated) = __________ b.) (measured) = __________ (measured) = __________ Calculate and record the AC voltage gain: __________ Part 2. Measure and .c. (Reduce the input signal amplitude if necessary.

(measured) = __________ Calculate the circuit input impedance using (calculated) = __________ Remove measurement resistor. 100Ω. . c. Measure and record resulting output voltage. Measure the output voltage. (measured) = _________ Calculate the output impedance using: (calculated) = _________ Compare the calculated and measured values of and . . (measured) = _________ Connect load resistor. with no load connected.

Part 3.2 (assuming base currents are much less than the voltage divider current).7 kΩ 00 RE 1 kΩ CE 10 µF (calculated) = __________ (calculated) = __________ (calculated) = __________ (calculated) = __________ (calculated) = __________ (calculated) = __________ . Cascode Amplifier a.8 kΩ RC 1. 23.8 kΩ C3 C2 Vo 10 µF 10 µF RB2 5.6 kΩ 𝛽 00 C1 Figure 23-2 Vi 𝛽 10 µF RB3 4. Calculate DC bias voltages and currents in the cascode amplifier of Fig. +Vcc ( 10V ) RB1 6.

Measure and record DC bias voltages. 23.2.Calculate the DC bias emitter currents: (calculated) = __________ (calculated) = __________ Calculate the transistor dynamic resistances: (calculated) = __________ (calculated) = __________ b. Connect the cascode circuit of Fig. (measured) = __________ (measured) = __________ (measured) = __________ (measured) = __________ (measured) = __________ (measured) = __________ Calculate the values of emitter currents: = __________ = __________ .

5 and 23.) Using the DMM measure. (Reduce the input signal amplitude if necessary. record the AC signals. Using Eqs. Using the oscilloscope observe the output waveform to assure that signal is not clipped or distorted. Apply an input signal = 10mV.Calculate the transistor dynamic resistances: = __________ = __________ c.6 calculate the AC voltage gain of each transistor stage: (calculated) = __________ (calculated) = __________ d. 23. peak at 10 kHz. (measured) = __________ (measured) = __________ (measured) = __________ Calculate and record the AC voltage gain: __________ .

Show amplitude and phase relations clearly. Using the oscilloscope. . e. . .__________ __________ Compare the measured voltage gains with those calculated in steps 3(c) and 3(d). and output of stage 2. output of stage 1. observe and record waveform for the input signal. .