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# Robert Koerner

May 26th 2015

Line Integrals
Line Integral: An integral used to find the area under a curve in more than 2
dimensions
The line integral is a calculus tool used to solve for the area underneath a curve in
three dimensions of functions with 2 or 3 variables. This function is often defined as
f(x,y) with the points (x,y) which lie upon the curve C. The line integral on the
function f(x,y) along the curve C has the notation of

∫ f (x , y )
C

The definition of the line integral is:
n

∫ f ( x , y ) ds= lim ∑ f ( x i , y i )∆ s i
n → ∞ i=1

C

To convert the line integral into a normal 2-Dimensional integral the function will
include both the function, with parameterized variable functions and the arc length
for the 3rd Dimension. Parameterization: The process of changing a single function
into its parametric parts
f(x, y, z)  x=
y=
z=
Basic Parameterizations
Parametric X
Curve
Function

x2 y2
+ =1
a2 b2

Parametric Y
function

Bound

0 ≤t ≤2 π

x=acos ⁡( t )

x=bsin ⁡( t )

x=rcos(t )

y=rsin ⁡( t)

0 ≤t ≤2 π

f ( x )=¿

X =t

F(x) =

N/A

( x 0 , y 0 ) ¿( x 1 , y1 )

x=( 1−t ) x 0 +t x 1

y=( 1−t ) y 0 +t y 1

0 ≤t ≤1

2

2

x + y =r

2

The normal integral will look like this:
b

∫ f ( x , y ) ds=∫ f ( x ( t ) , y ( t ))
C

a

√(

dy 2 dy
+
dt
dt

2

) ( )

The function must be parameterized into a function x(t) and a function y(t). In the
arc length portion of the equation the x(t) and y(t) are to be differentiated then

.

y . y) C −C ∫ fdx+ gdy+ hdz=∫ f ( x . y . y ) ds C C1 C2 C3 C4 Applications: Calculate work done by force on an object W =∫ F∗dr C Calculations of Flux ∫ ⃗F × n^ ds C Calculations of Circulation τ =∫ ⃗ F × T^ ds C Operations of Line integrals: The direction of the curve only changes parameterization. y . not ∫ f ( x . z ) dx +∫ g( x . The line integral of piecewise curves can be found through the summation of each part of the curve. Examples:   Topographical Maps Temperature Maps .when solving for the 2-Dimensional Integral the x(t) and y(t) are inputted for x and y in the function of f(x. y ) ds+∫ f ( x . z )dy +∫ h ( x . z ) dz C C C C Fields Scalar Fields Scalar Field: A function of space which shows an extra dimension through many different mediums. y). y ) ds=∫ f ( x . y ) ds +∫ f ( x . y)=∫ f (x . The extra dimension can be shown through a variation in color in different parts of the coordinate plane or by the use of lines to show how close the next level of the extra dimension is. ∫ f ( x . y ) ds+∫ f ( x .

y . z (t )) C a √( dx 2 dy 2 dz + + dt dt dt 2 )( ) ( ) And can be visualized like this: Vector Fields Background… Vectors are defined by the function: c i⃗ +k ⃗j When there are c and k values to be inputted to the vector they represent the x and y portions of the vector. Vector fields are similar to slope fields. z ) ds=∫ f ( x ( t ) . however at each point. the vector includes a magnitude as well as x and y components. y (t ) . the coefficient of magnitude and the coefficient of ⃗j ⃗i is the x direction is the y direction magnitude of the vector.A line integral over a scalar field is of the same function defined earlier: b ∫ f ( x . k c Vector Field: A function whose solutions indicate a vector at any given point. In other words. They are most often used to show .

y . y . y .velocity and differ from the derivative graph of a function because of the directional component. . z ) Solving line integrals over the vector fields is most commonly done with the following formula: ∫ ⃗F × d r⃗ =∫ Pdx+Qdy+ Rdz C C This can be used to find such things as the effect of air resistance upon an object in flight or the work done upon an object in water with certain circulation patterns as would be defined by the Vector field. y . The vector field which would represent the velocity of a function f’(x) would be a 1 dimensional representation of the vectors with only magnitude because it would not show the directions. Vector Fields are defined as: ⃗ F ( x . x) The 3-Dimensional curves are defined as: ⃗ r (t)=x ( t ) i⃗ + y ( t ) ⃗j+ z (t) ⃗k This curve is considered smooth if this equality is true Examples:    Air Movement Fluid Movement Magnetic fields 2D Vector To integrate over vector fields. z ) . z ) . z )) And the curve that is being integrated along is defined as the following: ⃗r =( x . Q ( x . y . z ) =( P ( x . y . R ( x . the vector field is defined as the following: ⃗ F ( x . Vector fields come in any range of dimensions from one dimension to four including time.

∇ f =⟨ f x . Directional Derivative: The rate of change of a function in any direction defined by the variable u.The Fundamental Theorem of Line Integrals Partial Derivative: The derivative of a function with respect to one variable while the others are held constant. y ) =k The Fundamental Theorem of Line Integrals proof: b r ( t ) ] dt ∫ ∇ f × d r⃗ =∫ [ ∇ f ( ⃗r ( t ) ) ×⃗ C a b ¿∫ a b ¿∫ a ( ∂ f dx ∂ f dy ∂ f dz + + dt ∂ x dt ∂ y dt ∂ z dt ) where C is the smooth curve ⃗r (t) Directional Derivative Equation d ∂ f ∂f ∂f + + dt dt ∂ x ∂ y ∂ z ( ) Fundamental Theorem of Calculus . y )∨ ∂y ∂x The gradient of any vector is quite simply the partial derivative of each component of the vector function. D u f =∇ f × u= ∂f ∂f ∂f u+ u+ u ∂ x 1 ∂x 2 ∂ x 3 Contour: The lines created at equal intervals for a vector function that outline what the function looks like. f z⟩ Or in standard form: ∇ f =f x i⃗ +f y ⃗j +f z ⃗k A gradient vector field will have each of its vectors exactly perpendicular to the contours of that particular vector field. Contours are defined by the following equation: f ( x . Gradient Vector Field: A variation to a vector field where the function is partially differentiated in terms of each variable. f y . f x ( x .

r⃗ (t) f (¿)dt d ¿ dt b ¿∫ ¿ a ⃗r ( b )−f ( r⃗ ( a ) ) ∫ ∇ f × d r⃗ =f ¿ C .

" The Gradient and Directional Derivative. Paul. 10 May 2015. 8 May 2015. "Directional Derivatives. Paul." Paul's Online Notes." The Gradient and Directional Derivative. "Vector Fields. n.co. Lamar University. 2003. Web.. 16 May 2015. "The Gradient and Directional Derivative. Dawkins." Paul's Online Notes.p. Web. 2003. Web.html>. "The Gradient and Directional Derivative.d.netcomuk. "Fundamental Theorem for Line Integrals. 8 May 2015. "Vector Fields.Works Cited Dawkins. Web. N." Finding the Vector Equation of a Line. <http://kevinmehall. . 1996. Web.p. Dawkins. "Finding the Vector Equation of a Line.uk/~jenolive/vect3. 10 May 2015. <http://www. Lamar University. Lamar University. Kevin. 1996.net/p/equationexplorer/vectorfield.. Oregon State University. 2003. Web." Paul's Online Notes. Paul. Web.html>. Oregon State University. Mehall. 2010. N. 18 May 2015." Vector Field Online Graphing. 8 May 2015.