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# IGCSE Mathematics – Matrices

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EXTENDED SKILLS

Introduction to matrices
A matrix is a rectangular array of numbers which are arranged in rows and
columns. Matrices are written in brackets.
Example 1
Jasmine kept a record of the weather each month. She recorded each day as
sunny, cloudy, wet or mixed. Each day was one of these four.
March had 5 sunny days, 10 cloudy days and 7 wet days.
April had 12 mixed days, 8 sunny days and 6 wet days.
May had 13 mixed days and equal numbers of sunny, cloudy and wet days.
a

Put this information in a table.

b

Form a matrix from the table above.

Solution :

From Example 1, we can see that

The headings for row and columns are omitted.
It has 3 rows and 4 columns. We say it is a 3 × 4 matrix (read that as
“three by four”). This is called the order of the matrix.
The numbers in a matrix are called the elements of the matrix.

Special matrices

A row matrix is a matrix which has only one row. Example :
A column matrix is a matrix which has only one column. Example :

A square matrix is a matrix which has equal numbers of rows and columns.
Example :

Two equal matrices have the same order and their corresponding elements
are also equal. Example :

Identify a specific element in a matrix
1

Example 2 (−82 A is the matrix a −5 16 −1 13 ) . The element which lies on the ith row and the jth column of a matrix A is denoted by aij. Example 3 By relating to Example 1.The row number and the column number of an element of a matrix are used to specify the position of the element. here is a similar matrix which Jasmine recorded for the same three months last year: ( 10 7 3 1 12 6 0 12 7 8 2 14 ) Add these two matrices together to get the totals for the two years: Solution : ( 5 10 7 9 8 4 6 12 6 6 6 13 ) ( + 10 7 3 1 12 6 0 12 7 8 2 14 ) = Multiplication of a matrix by a number 2 . State the element in row 1 and column 2 b row 2 and column 3 Solution : Addition and subtraction on Matrices Two matrices can be added or subtracted if both matrices have the same order.

New Zealand drew all 3 matches and gained 3 points.8 −3. Multiplying a matrix by a number is known as scalar multiplication. drew 1 and lost 1 and gained 4 points. Example 4 If Jasmine wants to estimate the figures for a ten year period she might calculate: 10 ( 5 10 7 9 8 4 6 12 6 6 6 13 ) = Practice 1 Ext 1 In one group in the 2010 Football World Cup these teams all played 3 matches. Show this information in a 4 × 4 matrix.The product of a matrix and a number is the matrix formed by multiplying each of the elements of the matrix by the number.4 884 921 752 0 445 65 ) How many elements does a 5 x 5 square matrix have? 3 . lost 1 and gained 2 points. Paraguay won 1 match. Italy drew 2 matches. Ext 2 Write down the order of these matrices: Ext 3 a (12 b ( ) c (2750 3 0 0 2 0 0 ) 2. Slovakia won 1. drew 2 and gained 5 points.5 3.

1R Ext B= 6 (1125 2018) – 2X = b e 0. Multiplying matrices 4 . Find matrix X. if possible: a 2P – R d 0.5(Q + S) 3(P – S) (59 168 ) ) ) c Q + 2R .Ext 4 A= (29 4 8 6 3 ) Find: a A+B d 4A Ext b (100 4 −2 −5 1 ) A–B e c B–A 0.5B 5 P= (1030 2040) Q= (2420 12 10 4 4 16 0 R= (2010 1010) S= (3610 18 0 6 6 4 0 Find.

if possible. 85. This can be illustrated as follows : Example 5 Find the product for each of the following. a () 1 (3 4 ) 2 (−12 −30 )( 21 1 −4 −2 0 b ( ) 3 4 −1 −5 1 6 ( 1 0 1 ) 2 3 1 c ) Solution : Practice 2 Ext 1 The number of adult. the product has the same number of rows as the first matrix and the same number of columns as the second matrix. For the case when the two matrices can be multiplied. student and child tickets sold for a football match are shown in this matrix: N = (240. 24) 5 .Two matrices can be multiplied when the number of columns for the first matrix is the same as the number of rows for the second matrix.

student and child tickets are shown in this matrix: C = () 20 16 10 a Ext 2 b What does NC show? Complete these multiplications: a Ext Calculate NC (51 23) (12 42) b (02 −21 ) ( 41 F= (30 H= ( ) 9 24 ¿ = ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ) 4 2 1 3 0 5 −2 −6 ¿ = ¿ ¿¿ 9 11 ¿ ¿¿ ¿ 3 5 6 2 1 ) G= (34 12) 4 −2 −2 3 1 1 Find: a GF d HF b e HG G2 c FH 6 .The cost. in dollars. of adult.

Example 6 Multiply matrix (10 23) with each of the following matrix. 7 . 3) and N= a b Ext () 3 0 4 Find MN Find NM 6 A= ( ) 1 0 0 2 1 0 3 2 1 B= ( ) 2 1 3 2 4 3 Find.Ext 4 X is a 3 × 5 matrix and Y is a 5 × 4 matrix. then I as an identity matrix or unit matrix. 1. Determine whether the matrix is an identity matrix. if possible: a AB b BA 2 × 2 matrices If AI = IA = A . a What is the order of XY? b How many elements does XY have? c Is it possible to calculate X2? Ext 5 M = (2.

All other elements are 0.    It is a square matrix. Zero matrix is a matrix with all the elements in it are zeros. There is only one identity matrix for each order. Practice 3 In this exercise Z = Ext 1 P= a Ext 2 M= a e (23 51) (00 00) ( 42 03) M+Z MI (−14 −31 ) and Q = PQ and I = (10 01) . (00 00) is a zero matrix. All elements in the leading diagonal are 1.(10 01) a (01 10) b From Example 6. an identity matrix has the following characteristics. Find d MZ 8 . Find: b QP c P2 b M+I c (M + I)2 d Q2 .

Can you predict what F5 and F6 will be? Work them out and check whether you are correct. which you should find. Show that A4 = kI for a particular value of k. F3 and F4.Ext 3 K= (12 −22 ) . (02 −20 ) . Find: a K2 b K + 2I c (K+2I)2 What do you notice about the answers to parts c and d? Ext 4 Can you find a 2 × 2 matrix M with the property that: M2 = Z but M ≠ Z ? Ext 5 F= a b Ext 6 A2 = d K2+4K +4I (01 11) Find F2. 9 .

The inverse matrix of A is denoted by A-1. We write AA-1 = A-1A = I Inverse matrices can only exist for square matrices. Step 2: Swap the positions of a and d change the signs of b and c. then A is the inverse matrix of B and B is the inverse matrix of A. Step 3: multiply the new matrix by 1 determinant Example 8 By using example 7b. Example 7 Determine whether A is the inverse matrix of B in each of the following. a A= b (27 14) A= (34 21) To find the inverse of    (ac bd ) B= (−74 −12 ) B= (−41 −23 ) : Step 1: Calculate ad – bc. how do we modify B to get the inverse function for A? 10 . This is called the determinant of the matrix.Inverse matrices If AB= BA = I .

Find |R| and |R2| Ext a (−22 34) c . Find the value of x if the determinant of M is: b (20 13) (64 −23 ) b (21 −8 −3 ) c (13 35) 11 .Example 9 Find the inverse of M = (13 –42) Practice 4 Ext Ext 1 2 Find the determinant of each of these matrices: a (35 24) M= ( 24 1x ) a 6 b –2 3 R= Ext 4 Find the inverse of each of these matrices: ( 41 72) d −3 (−2 −2 1 ) c d ( 48 126 ) 0 .

Ext 5 A= (21 43) B= (21 53) E= (−13 −52 ) F= (−13 −62 ) C= (21 63) D= (−13 −42 ) From this list find: a A matrix with a determinant of 2 b B–1 c E–1 d all the singular matrices Ext 8 If (21 53) X= (10 01) find matrix X 12 .