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Ryan Madden – 22358188

MED3207 – Global Convergences
CW2 - 3000 Word Reflective Essay which analyses one student production from another
course in relation to two issues discussed in the module.

Question 4 - What role might new technologies play in creating new markets for your
chosen production?

In my third academic year, I was involved in the production of a short film titled, Number
39, Give us a Line. The film centred on the drug-abused underworld of a bingo hall.
Throughout this essay I will explore what is meant by the term new technology, and
discuss whether these technologies are actually new, or simply recycled ideas. I will then
look into how new technologies could potentially open and create new markets for my
chosen production of Number 39, Give us a Line (Later to be referred to as simply
Number 39). I will divide the new technologies into three area’s, Online Streaming, Online
Presence, and new and advancing Equipment. Finally, I will evaluate and discuss an
audience study which asks audiences about the potential reaches of a short film, and what
technologies can do to create newer markets.

What is New Media? Or new technologies? Livingstone suggests that that “simple
question is often answered by listing new technological developments” (Livingstone:
1999). Livingstone is being very broad here, but she implies that it’s not a difficult task to
determine what’s new in the technological world. What appears to be a difficult question

. There is a proposed precedented reasoning for how these technologies can be successfully integrated into current culture however. 1665). actors largely choose from the set of understandings available to them” (Munir: 2005. is just how a new technological advancement is adopted into the widespread community with success. While the approach is criticised for “over-simplifying the complexity of our relationship with the media” (Kellner: 2007). The implication of this from Hargadon et al is that consumers alike must have some basic knowledge of how to function the technology. and why institutions might adopt this method of advancing their technologies . It suggests that consumers absorb information via media. it’s still an applicable approach. This could be applied to consumers absorbing the information of how to function previous iterations of technologies.The Protectionist Approach. In essence. while “alternatives languish” (Munir: 2005. with Munir et al stating it’s a “question that has troubled researchers for some time”.on this topic however. 1665). In Media Literacy. and in turn learn the information. They go on to state that “in order to enhance the chance of a new technology or practice being adopted. 1665). convert and adopt the new technology. Hargadon and Douglas (2001) have argued that when “interpreting a radically new technology. the institutions which house the new technologies will alter existing technologies so that consumers already familiar with the older versions will be able to accept. and so in turn are literate enough to function the new technologies. institutional entrepreneurs would try to alter these understandings or ‘schemas’ and ‘scripts’ to their advantage” (Munir: 2005. there’s an approach that explains the behaviour of consumers in this instance.

Give us a Line. In 2014.4 million in 2014. The statistic states that the primary cinema format prior the millennium. but now the technologies have simply advanced to give consumers ‘a more immersive experience’. In just four years. Analogue. this new iteration of the technology almost tripled in it’s figures. and ultimately complimented to the global box office of “$36. Both 3D and Digital projections are updated versions of past technologies. now only occupies 10% of global screens.New technology in media is largely embraced. up 1% over 2013’s total” (MPAA Market Statistics: 2015). 3D and Digital Projection has vastly increased in markets over the past five years. These two statistics agree with Hargadon and Douglas’ suggestion for why advancing technologies can be a success. but it’s important to note that these technologies expand markets of texts that have already substantial financial and public backing. there was combined total of 64. rendering a 3D converted digital projection of it quite .905 3D screens globally. Another statistic of note regarding advancing technologies is that now “over 90% of the world’s cinema screens are now digital” (MPAA Stats: 2015). both have the same core of the visual medium being projected to the consumers eyes. Another positive new technology receives however is the increased markets it opens for the industry. In the MPAA’s Theatrical Market Statistics Report for 2014.385 3D screens globally. as it’s a student film. In 2010. as some of it are huge advancements in the industry. there was a total of 22. As stated. it is clear certain technologies have increased the quantity of cinema-goers. but these technologies wouldn’t create new markets for the likes of Number 39. New and advancing technologies can and do create new markets for the industry. meaning it has neither financial or public backing.

Online streaming has taken huge strides in expanding its market in recent years. there are several other areas of new and advancing technologies that could benefit the film and create new markets. with 2015 projected at housing 2016). However. 3). YouTube is a video sharing website that established in 2005 and was one of the pioneering websites of the Web 2. These figures on YouTube alone suggest there’s a consumer market Number 39 could reach. In just six years. online video growth is significant. This first area that could create new markets is that of Online Streaming. Number 39 could gain a public following. With such a substantially sized growing market. Most notably that of YouTube. which in turn could lead to further financial .futile. it’s fair to say there’s precedent for it to be utilised by Number 39 to expand its reach.0 transition. with the latest figures stating “the number of people watching YouTube each day has increased by 40% since March 2014” (YouTube: 2015). “video was being uploaded at the rate 20 hours of video per minute” (Snelson: 2009. Vimeo and Netflix. In May of 2009. the figure has more than doubled. As stated earlier. 44 million US citizens participated in watching online television. and YouTube has had a large part to add to that.905%” and in 2009 YouTube was ranked “as the third most popular website according to Web traffic statistics”. “From 2003 to 2009 the online video audience grew 339% and the amount of time spent viewing video online grew 1. In 2009.2 million US citizens watching online television (statista. With such an abundance of potential consumers available.

YouTube offers “both free access to content and an easy to use distribution system” (Snelson: 2009. and allows the creator to potentially showcase the production on a more professional stage. such as a film festival. with the finances now allowed to be spent wisely on the rest of the production. or Vimeo. not just showcasing the entirety of the production. previously unreachable markets for no charge is of course beneficial. As opposed to YouTube. it’s clear Vimeo is marketing itself as a smaller. The ability to showcase productions to new. Number 39 could benefit from this. Again. Peter Rea believes that with the introduction of Vimeo.benefits for future productions. YouTube also offers the opportunity for marketing and promotion of a product. it enables the creator to gain access to once unreachable consumers. raising production values. Which is the next positive of YouTube as an advancing technology to a production of Number 39’s model . greater bandwidth. and no advertising over the creators videos (Vimeo: 2016). with Vimeo potentially . From it’s availability. 14). but also enables free advertising and promotion. 402). which offers the creator more storage. visual artists are now using the internet as a viable distribution outlet for their short works (2015. professional tools.the finance of it. 125). Cunningham suggests that many producers use YouTube “for trailers. and typically cross-promote their films online” (Cunningham: 2010. Some believe Vimeo is a more professional digital service to showcase productions. more professional video service to showcase visual content. which is a positive to students and young filmmakers. Vimeo offers a ‘PRO’ package.

the Internet attracts the most interest (Livingstone. a potential niche market. especially to its two predecessors in this essay. Her suggestion does have validity. 1999). This is a positive for young filmmakers who don’t have big budgets. Although Netflix is synonymous with streaming big budget films. it’s very unlikely it would have the public knowledge or traction behind it to gain the attention of a major corporation. The statistics and figures that showcase what success Netflix is are unmatched and incomparable. “the company also has quietly become the exclusive distributor of more than 100 indie films” (Biba: 2013). Number 39 would not benefit from the loss of financials paid in order to obtain this professional market via a paid ‘PRO’ package however. With just under half the population accessing the internet. “Netflix is the world’s leading Internet television network with over 69 million members in over 60 countries enjoying more than 100 million hours of TV shows and movies per day” (Netflix: 2016). a production’s Online Presence alone could create numerous new markets. with the internet currently housing over 3. that big corporations still support up and coming cinema. Livingstone believes of all the new technologies.creating a market for more professional consumers. While Netflix could assist in reaching a large market for Number 39. it is definitely worth noting even the Independent films of Netflix have a budget that casts a large shadow over the likes of Number 39.25 billion users (Internet Live Stats: 2016). However. self-distribution would be the best recommendation for gaining a larger market for Number 39. This area of advancing technology enables creators with several new markets for . Ultimately.

Another one. One. but would rather the fictional characters continue their narrative from the TV show. Jenkins. It’s worth noting that this concept of storytelling doesn’t always engage it’s consumers. “alongside the television episodes a number of games have been created for the programme’s website (www. suggested it “represents a process where integral elements of a fiction get dispersed systematically across multiple delivery channels for the purpose of creating a unified and coordinated entertainment experience” (Jenkins. more immersive story. A greater market could be reached by maximising the storytelling of Number 2006: 95). Transmedia storytelling is a concept from post-Millennium which enables creators to use multi-platforms to tell a broader. While the transmedia packages enhance the storytelling . who popularised the concept. which enables consumers to learn their media while engaging with it. This concept is also driven by the aforementioned Protectionist Approach. Evans ran a focus group to find the success or failures of Spooks’ transmedia packages and found it not be to identifiable with its audience. for example. naturally. so in turn. is a greater quantity of consumer market for the production to using the convergence of the advancing technology of the internet. with some consumers simply not identifying with it.their productions. BBC show Spooks provided a very successful transmedia package. set within the same diegetic world as the series” (Evans: 2007). is reaching a market of quality. “they [the audience] reject the kind of viewing position offered by the games in favour of one more familiar to them from the series” (Evans: 2007).uk/drama/ spooks). She found that “participants do not want to step inside the fictional world”.

Although there are countless pieces of equipment being released each month. “At the time of writing. Lastly. “Both organizations [P&G and GE] acknowledged the importance of incorporating social media into their IMC [integrated marketing communications] strategies and promotional efforts” (Mangold: 2009. 125). it’s suggestible for a . The power and reach social media can produce is at times unmatched. and produces a 4K image. I’m going to put a small focus on the Panasonic GH4 as a piece of an advancing technology to assist Number 39. with even larger corporations regarding the technology as imperative to marketing in today’s culture. the equipment. mass market. It’s clear that social media is a powerful tool in creating new markets for all industries. so Number 39 could definitely benefit from reaching a broader. there’s another area of new technology to make note of. This piece of equipment. With the high quality product coming at a reasonable price. The camera ranges from around £700. is a great asset to low budget short films for several reasons. released in Mid-2014. 10). Online presence is a very substantial asset for creating new mass markets for a production’s promotion and marketing also. evidence suggests there’s potential to lose and close potential markets when executed poorly. [it] was the only 4K-enabled DSLR available on the market” (Valle: 2015. 358). and typically cross-promote their films online using Facebook and Twitter” (Cunningham: 2010.experience. Cunningham found that many filmmakers use YouTube and Vimeo “for trailers. something which some higher budgeted films don’t currently match.

netflix. I later asked my participants what they thought was the best Online Streaming service was that would benefit student films. 4k.00. there’s neither to financial nor public backing to get Number 39 in theatres or on Netflix. almost doubling Vimeo’s 1.20. which would allow me to know if simply having new technologies on Number 39 would create new markets. 8k” (Participant 3). What was clear to me here. IMAX” (Participant 9). I ran an audience study to evaluate and discuss what audiences’ perception of new technology was. This was asked to evaluate whether audiences had an interest in new technologies. I think there’s a good focus on my participants to gather a valid representation of a short film audience. and the quality the content was presented to them in. As quoted of Number 39’s standard to utilise this piece of equipment in order to raise it’s production value. Netflix was at 1. One participant quoted “3d. 3D. was that this audience had in interest in how they watch their content. and mainstream. This aligns with my earlier suggestions that 4K Production Values could create a market for a more quality-driven market. as my . I did this via a questionnaire. This is a positive sign for Number 39’s market. but unfortunately I only received 10 questionnaires back. YouTube was the best ranked at 3. which creates a more quality-driven market.80. Unfortunately for Number 39. while another suggested “4K. I asked participants if they could list any new technologies that have recently became known. The answers were of similar tone. Although I would have liked the number to have been greater. Netflix. this audience has a substantial interest in projections of content that this short film could not aspire to.

This juxtaposes my findings with Question One slightly. four of my participants claimed they had no idea what new equipment had came out. I found that new technologies are predominantly based on existing technologies. as all participants agree in social media’s importance in promotion. Three participants suggested Facebook was simply ‘more popular’. Vine scored a 1. and it’s a financially sound choice of promotion.70. While I found the likes of 3D. They have a large interest in the quality the content is shown in. I asked my participants what they considered to be the best social media for promoting a short film.30. I found the likes of YouTube and Vimeo to be a very logical and successful . while two participants suggested the power and reach of hashtags on Twitter was substantially greater.audience know that when looking for a short/student film. Facebook came out on top with a score of 2. but gives me a more solid understanding of my audience.00. and only one participant referenced a 4K quality. and the answers were divided between the top two social media’s. with Twitter close behind with 2. Lastly. IMAX and Netflix a futile option for distribution of my short film. but have almost no interest in what equipment provides that quality. YouTube and Vimeo are the two most likely forms of distribution. with each iteration adding potential to create a new market for their products. In conclusion. regarding a question asking about new equipment. Regarding the Online Presence of a product. These answers bode well for Number 39’s promotion. I asked my participants why they picket their number one’s.

rendering this study a success. p59-66. Sonia. It was found and vastly agreed that social media is a very substantially important role in modern day marketing. I’ve found there are many new and advancing technologies that could assist in creating and expanding new markets for Number 39 to a high standard. This supports my suggestion of a GH4 for Number 39 which provides a 4KHD quality image at an affordable price. (1999). raising the production values. Nelson. 26 (1). ensuring a maximised market. p1665-1670. My audience study gave positives towards the distribution of short films also as it was found audiences know where to look for short or student films.approach to self distribution. New Media. This is positive as I found from my audience study that the quality of 4K images was desired. only the quality of the content. with Vimeo even adding a potential to aim for a more professionally-driven market. (2005). New Media and Society. This boded well again for Number 39 as social media comes at no cost other than your time. The Birth of the 'Kodak Moment': Institutional Entrepreneurship and the Adoption of New Technologies. 1 (1).. Kamal A. Bibliography Livingstone. Munir. Organization Studies. . My audience study confirmed that audiences have next to no interest in what equipment is used on productions. Phillips. New Audiences?. Overall.

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com.119-127. Elizabeth.wired. Media International Australia. Audience Agency and Trans-Media Drama. McDonnell. (2013). Producing and Directing the Short Film and Video. p. (2010).com/upgrade. 30 (1) . (2015). Netflix Overview.internetlivestats. (2016).com. Character. Jon. Rates of Change: online Distribution As Disruptive technology in the film industry. Available: http://ir. Stuart. Irving. Available: http://www.09/ netflix. London: Performing Arts. Media. Evans. p. Rea.401-403. New York: New York University. Last accessed 7th January Available: http://www.Cunningham. Last accessed 7th January 2016. Membership Options. Erin. (2007).html. Available: https://vimeo. Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide. 136 (1). Jenkins. Culture and Society. Biba. Netflix Presents. Henry (2006). David K. Last accessed 7th January 2016. (2015). (2015). Peter. Last accessed 7th January 2016. Live Stats. John.

David J. 1 (1) Link to my Questionnaire Questions . (2015). Faulds. 357— p. (2015).https://www. Give us a Line. OUR watch?v=4x4x3iTw04k. Last accessed 7th January 2016. .Mangold. Business Horizons. W. Number 39. Social media: The new hybrid element of the promotion mix. DANIEL VALLE. Available: https://www. (2009).surveymonkey. Glynn. 52 (1).uk/r/8GJ2RMC Madden. THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF FINE ARTS.