Reproduction only for non-commercial use.

© June 2007; revised 12 November 2009

Gallery Exhibit, Catalog Nos. 114 & 115 & 116 & 117 & 118 & 119 & 120 & 121 & 122 & 123 & 124 & 125 & 126 & 127 & 128 & 129 & 130 & 131 & 132 & 133 & 134 & 135 & 136 & 137 & 138 & 139 & 140 & 141 & 142

EDITOR’S NOTE This is not a stand-alone gallery exhibit, but a companion piece to she-philosopher.com’s digital edition of Michael Evans’ essay of 1980, “The Geometry of the Mind” (Lib. Cat. No. MWE1980). All 28 images featured here were compiled by Evans and reproduced in his essay for vol. 12, no. 4 of the Architectural Association Quarterly. The accompanying gloss for each facsimile is taken verbatim from Evans’ “References to the figures,” collated at the end of his printed essay on pp. 53–55. For more in-depth discussion of the images, see the full-text HTML transcription of Evans’ article in the she-philosopher.com LIBRARY. All pointers to section and note numbers mentioned by Evans refer to the body of his article; you can search for and easily locate them in she-philosopher.com’s digital edition of “The Geometry of the Mind”.

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Title page for vol. 12, no. 4 of the journal, Architectural Association Quarterly (published in 1980). With enlarged detail from Figure 20 of Michael Evans’ “The Geometry of the Mind”, Pons asinorum (The Asses’ Bridge). AAQuarterly Editor: Dennis Sharp. Journal design by: Anthony Favell, plus Ivor Kamlish and Associates (both of London). Printed by Lonsdale Universal Printing, Ltd. (of Bath), in “small crown quarto format.” Of note, this was the last issue of the small-format journal. Beginning with the first issue of 1981, AAQ switched to “a larger, squarer format” and was “completely redesigned,” in order “to keep abreast with the changes that have occurred in architectural publishing over the past few years, to expand the readership of the journal (particularly through international bookshops) and to take advantage of more economic printing methods.”. View an enlarged 1380 x 1932 pixel JPG image (348KB)

The 28 Illustrations from Michael Evans’

“The Geometry of the Mind”

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Figure 1. Schema of the spheres. (reproduced on p. 33 of Michael Evans’ “The Geometry of the Mind”) AS GLOSSED BY MICHAEL EVANS (on page 53): An astronomical diagram from a copy of one of the most ambitious handbooks of the early twelfth century. At the centre is the Earth, divided into three continents, with cardinal points and dimensions inscribed. It is surrounded by the phases of the Moon and the days of the lunar cycle, and the spheres of the seven Planets correlated with the seven heavens; the hours of the day are entered on the sphere of the Sun. The rota is divided radially into 12 sectors, corresponding to the zodiacal signs, which are inscribed on the perimeter; the radii are labelled with information about the Sun’s movement through the zodiac. The quadrants contain a polyglot vocabulary of astronomical terms. For a transcription of the labels, see A Derolez Lamberti S Avdomari canoni. Liber floridus ..., Ghent 1968, p. [96]. Leiden, Bibl Univ MS Voss lat F 31, fol 205v Lambert of S Omer, Liber floridus. France, late thirteenth century; 284 fols 12½ x 8½ in. Description in A Derolez (ed) Liber floridus colloquium. Papers Read at the International Meeting Held in the University Library Ghent on 3–5 September 1967 Ghent 1973, p. 41. (photograph, Bibliotek Universiteit, Leiden) View an enlarged 940 x 1296 pixel JPG image (348KB)

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Figure 2. Rota of the Five Sevens and quadripartite historical schema. (reproduced on p. 33 of Michael Evans’ “The Geometry of the Mind”) AS GLOSSED BY MICHAEL EVANS (on page 53): See section 7. London Bl MS Roy 14 B IX, final picture on roll. Peter of Poitiers arbor historiae. Saint Albans (?), c 1270; roll measures 20ft 9in x 1ft. Description in Royal MS catalogue cited note 84 above. (photograph, Warburg Institute) View an enlarged 980 x 1220 pixel JPG image (420KB)

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Figure 3. Graphic textual layout. (reproduced on p. 34 of Michael Evans’ “The Geometry of the Mind”) AS GLOSSED BY MICHAEL EVANS (on page 53): The opening matter describes the division of the soul into three faculties, Intellect, Memory and Will, and explains how each of these qualities embodies the other two. The argument is presented graphically by interpolating superimposed phrases articulated by linear elements within the sentence. This enables several different ideas to be expressed simultaneously within a relatively simple syntactical structure. The MS is an introduction to, and anthology of, the work of Ramon Lull, compiled by one of his most enthusiastic disciples. Paris BN MS lat 15450, fol 116r Thomas le Myésier Electorium magnum. Arras and Paris, completed 1323; 563 fols 14½ x 11 in. Description in Hillgarth, op cit note 45 above, pp. 348–97. (photograph, Bibliot[h]èque Nationale) View an enlarged 970 x 1215 pixel JPG image (411KB)

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Figure 4. Stemmatic analysis of “being” (ens reale). (reproduced on p. 34 of Michael Evans’ “The Geometry of the Mind”) AS GLOSSED BY MICHAEL EVANS (on page 53): Starting with the concept of existence, the diagram progressively subdivides it to cover every mode of being. Thus ens splits into cause and effect, effect into substance and accident, and so on. Transcription in Hillgarth, op cit note 45 above, table facing p. 422. From the same MS as figure 3, fol 94v. (photograph, Bibliothèque Nationale) View an enlarged 960 x 1285 pixel JPG image (319KB)

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Figure 5. Divisio scientiae, setting out the parts of learning. (reproduced on p. 36 of Michael Evans’ “The Geometry of the Mind”) AS GLOSSED BY MICHAEL EVANS (on pages 53–4): Sciencia divides into philosophy, eloquence, poetry and the mechanical arts. Philosophy subdivides into practice and theory; practice breaks down into ethics, economics and politics, which are further analysed; likewise theory, whose four parts are theology, natural science (physical), divination and mathematics. This last is made up of the quadrivium; eloquence furnishes the verbal arts of the trivium. For sources and analogues of this divisio, see the works cited in note 26 above. The stemma prefaces a compendium of 12 tables setting out religious concepts, often presenting parallels between two or more topics; on these compendia, see Saxl, op cit note 48 above, pp. 107–15. London BL MS Roy 1 B X, fol 1r Compendium of tables; Peter of Poitiers, Arbor historiae; tables of lections and Psalms; appended to earlier MS of the Bible. England, late fourteenth century; 43 fols 11¾ x 8¼ in. Description in Royal MS catalogue cited in note 84 above. (photograph, British Library) View an enlarged 970 x 1458 pixel JPG image (377KB)

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Figure 6. Tree of consanguinity. (reproduced on p. 36 of Michael Evans’ “The Geometry of the Mind”) AS GLOSSED BY MICHAEL EVANS (on page 54): The vacant panels just below the centre represent ipse (self) of either sex; above are “son” and “daughter”, “father” and “mother”, and an ascending list of direct ancestors with whom marriage is prohibited. A corresponding list of descendents appears below, and prohibited collateral relationships are set out to the left and right. Transcription in Derolez Lamberti cited in notes to figure 1 above, p. [74]. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibl MS 72 A 23, fol 80r Lambert of S Omer, Liber floridus Lille and Ninove (Belgium), dated 1460; 225 fols 16½ x 11¼ in. Description in Derolez Liber floridus cited in notes to figure 1 above, p. 40. (photograph, Koninklijke Bibliotek) View an enlarged 950 x 1457 pixel JPG image (366KB)

^ Figure 7 (verso/recto). Schema of world history. (reproduced on p. 37 of Michael Evans’ “The Geometry of the Mind”) AS GLOSSED BY MICHAEL EVANS (on page 54): The text is a summary of the first part of the Book of Judges; the columns, medallions and strapwork that surround it provide genealogical stemmata. Events in profane history are entered in the margins, and notable incidents are illustrated with sketches. The drawing at the beginning of the text shows the funeral of Joshua. See section 3.4. From the same MS as figure 5 fols 16v, 17r. (photograph, British Library) View an enlarged 960 x 1466 pixel JPG image (415KB) of the verso page; view an enlarged 990 x 1476 pixel JPG image (393KB) of the recto page

^ Figure 8 (verso/recto). Tree of Virtues; Cherub. (reproduced on p. 38 of Michael Evans’ “The Geometry of the Mind”) AS GLOSSED BY MICHAEL EVANS (on page 54): The Tree grows from a garden supported by three angels. Its trunk is identified as Humility, and inscribed “the way of life, the fruit of justice”. The branches are labelled with the seven Virtues, and the leaves set out their sub-divisions. The scroll at the top describes the benefits bestowed by each Virtue. See section 3.5. The Cherub displays the degrees of penance on scrolls over his wings; each wing has five labelled feathers analysing the penitential act. Thus the lowest wing on the left analyses Confession into tears, meditation, simple speech, modest knowledge and obedience. The text mentioned in section 4.4 gives a different division. From the same MS as figure 5 fols 16v, 17r. (photograph, British Library) View an enlarged 970 x 1455 pixel JPG image (441KB) of the verso page; view an enlarged 970 x 1466 pixel JPG image (446KB) of the recto page

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Figure 9. Tree of the Acts of the Passion. (reproduced on p. 39 of Michael Evans’ “The Geometry of the Mind”) AS GLOSSED BY MICHAEL EVANS (on page 54): The medallions on the trunk record seven events from the betrayal of Christ to His burial; these are paralleled on the left with the Canonical Hours, the seven times of daily prayer; and on the right with the natural gifts freely bestowed on Man by God (dona gratuita): the Senses, Consent and Free Will. The medallions are linked by verses that explain the parallels. Thus the top zone contains the service of Matins linked to the Betrayal by a verse about the singing of psalms in the middle of the night; the idea that links the Betrayal to the Sense of Hearing on the right is the believer crying out in fear of death. Although embellished with leaves and a trunk, this is structurally a table rather than a tree, and is to be read downwards. Whereabouts of MS unknown (formerly London dealer), fol 3r. Compendium of tables similar to those in MS Ar 83 (note 57 above) and the MS described in the notes to figure 5; plus personifications of three Vices accompanied by verses in Italian. Italy, fifteenth century; 11 folios, dimensions unknown. (photograph, Warburg Institute) View an enlarged 970 x 1295 pixel JPG image (378KB)

^ Figure 10 (verso/recto). Tables of Christian doctrine. (reproduced on p. 40 of Michael Evans’ “The Geometry of the Mind”) AS GLOSSED BY MICHAEL EVANS (on page 54): A more formalistic and complex version of the principle used in figure 9. There are four concepts in each table, and the links between them are sometimes causal. On the left are the seven Works of Mercy, linked to the Degrees of Wisdom, each of which leads to (quae ducit ad) an example of good manners (septem curialitates) paralleled with the Sacraments. The components on the right are the Petitions of the Lord’s Prayer, the Gifts of the Holy Ghost, seven Virtues and the seven Vices to which they are opposed (quae est contra). From the same MS as figure 5 fols 3v, 4r. (photograph, British Library) View an enlarged 970 x 1462 pixel JPG image (456KB) of the verso page; view an enlarged 960 x 1460 pixel JPG image (425KB) of the recto page

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Figure 11. House of Wisdom. (reproduced on p. 41 of Michael Evans’ “The Geometry of the Mind”) AS GLOSSED BY MICHAEL EVANS (on page 54): The House with its seven pillars provides the setting for an abbreviated Jesse Tree, in which all the ancestors of Christ between Jesse and the Virgin have to be taken as read. Above the House, the Tree ramifies into the Gifts of the Holy Ghost, to which are ascribed quasi-physical properties; eg Wisdom is labelled “stable, mobile”. Seven other entities are inscribed vertically above each of the Gifts; they are the Beatitudes, the Lord’s Prayer, the Voces Domini (Ps xxviii), the coronae triumphales (Apoc ii:7ff), the Creed, the various classes of Holy Writ, and the Virtues. Thus the manifold aspects of Wisdom itself are encapsulated and categorised. This is the final illustration to the Speculum virginum (see sections 4.2, 4.3); the opening picture is essentially similar, but omits the House and has a more extensive genealogy. Leipzig Univ Bibl MS 665, fol 144v. Speculum virginum. Saxony, late fourteenth century; 165 fols 13¼ x 10¼ in. Description in R Bruck Die Malereien in den Handschriften des Königreichs Sachsen Dresden 1906, pp. 233–38. (photograph, Universitäts Bibliotek, Leipzig) View an enlarged 960 x 1466 pixel JPG image (416KB)

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Figure 12. Tower of Wisdom. (reproduced on p. 41 of Michael Evans’ “The Geometry of the Mind”) AS GLOSSED BY MICHAEL EVANS (on page 54): The text right at the bottom of the Tower says “the Tower of Wisdom is read from below, ascending through the series of letters of the alphabet”; these are arranged vertically on the left. A is the foundation of the Tower: “Humility which is the mother of all the Virtues”. B is the bases of the columns; that on the left is Diligence. C and D are the column and its capital, in this case Prudence and Counsel. E denotes the steps into the Tower, labelled Prayer, Remorse and so on. F is the entablature, inscribed to the effect that the width of the Tower is Charity; an inscription up the side says that its height is Perseverance in the Good. G denotes the doors (Obedience and Patience) and windows, similarly allegorised. K–X are the courses of masonry; Virtues and moral injunctions. Y, the battlements, are Innocence, Purity, etc, concluding with Virginity. Z is the level of the guardians of the Tower, omitted in this example, but armed female personifications in other versions. See section 4.3. From the same MS as figure 9, fol 7r. (photograph, Warburg Institute) View an enlarged 990 x 1303 pixel JPG image (403KB)

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Figure 13. Rota of the Sevens. (reproduced on p. 42 of Michael Evans’ “The Geometry of the Mind”) AS GLOSSED BY MICHAEL EVANS (on page 54): The text within the central square explains that the figure contains the seven Petitions of the Lord’s Prayer in the outermost circle, and then, reading inwards, the Sacraments, the Gifts of the Holy Ghost, the metaphorical weapons of the Christian (based on Ephes vi:13ff), the Works of Mercy, the Virtues and their consequences, and the Vices. It concludes with instructions for reading the diagram: one should start at the cross (approximately 11 o’clock on the perimeter) and proceed inwards. Thus the first sector reads in translation: “Our Father which art in Heaven, hallowed be Thy name. Here we ask to be sons of God the Father / through this baptism is given for knowledge of the Son of God / and the Spirit of Wisdom for reverence of the Trinity / and the breastplate of Humility against Pride / thus we clothe the naked physically / we suffer with the needy spiritually / thus we acquire Prudence / and we drive out Pride”. See section 5.1. From the same MS as figure 9, fol 6r. (photograph, Warburg Institute) View an enlarged 970 x 1299 pixel JPG image (406KB)

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Figure 14. Volvelle of the Lullian ars. (reproduced on p. 42 of Michael Evans’ “The Geometry of the Mind”) AS GLOSSED BY MICHAEL EVANS (on page 54): The outer circle contains the rules or questions of the ars, then come the subjects, the absoluta and the relata; in the centre are the alphabetical letters B–K, the foundation of this nine-fold version of the system. Rotation of the discs enables the reader to formulate enquiries in various ways about any of the topics in one of several relationships to an absolute quality. Thus with the volvelle set as it is in the photograph, the sector slightly to the right of the bottom of the wheel frames questions in the category “how much?” (quantum) of the subject “Man”, in terms of the absolute principle “duration” and the relative quality “contrariety”. If the outer wheel were moved one sector clockwise, the question would be in the form “by what means?” (quare). See section 5.3. From the same MS as figure 3, fol 274r. (photograph, Bibliothèque Nationale) View an enlarged 960 x 1130 pixel JPG image (394KB)

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Figure 15. Schema of the spheres. (reproduced on p. 43 of Michael Evans’ “The Geometry of the Mind”) AS GLOSSED BY MICHAEL EVANS (on page 54): The diagram illustrates John of Sacrobosco De sphaera I; the text describes how the sphere of the cosmos is divided substantially into the primum mobile, the sphere of the fixed, stars, and the seven spheres of the Planets “as is shown in the accompanying figure”. The diagram adds the Elements of Fire, Air and Water between the sphere of the Moon and the Earth. New York Public Library MS 69, fol 81r. Sacrobosco Opera. Germany, late thirteenth century; 141 fols 6¾ x 5 in. Thorndike, op cit note 61 above, pp. 68, 69. London BL MS Add 30380 is a virtually identical copy of the work. (photograph, Adelaide Bennett) View an enlarged 950 x 1465 pixel JPG image (331KB)

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Figure 16. Schema of the Elements, Pure Air and the Planets. (reproduced on p. 43 of Michael Evans’ “The Geometry of the Mind”) AS GLOSSED BY MICHAEL EVANS (on page 55): This is the seventeenth figure from the Image du monde, and should properly show labelled circles, with perhaps stellar bodies in the outside circle. The inventive artist of this MS chose to show a conglomeration of gold spheres on a metallic blue ground, lightening to a yellowish grey in the centre to provide the visual suggestion of a solid sphere. The result is scientifically uninformative, but gives an indication of the way painters appropriated motifs from technical illustrations and used them to create unprecedented images. Paris, BN MS fr 14964, fol 74r. Goswin of Metz L’image du monde; Bestiary and Lapidary. N France, late thirteenth century; 208 fols 7 x 4¼ in. (photograph, Bibliothèque Nationale) View an enlarged 980 x 1469 pixel JPG image (410KB)

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Figure 17. Astronomical schema. (reproduced on p. 44 of Michael Evans’ “The Geometry of the Mind”) AS GLOSSED BY MICHAEL EVANS (on page 55): This sets out for the observer the relative positions of the zodiac, the Milky Way, the north and south poles, the equinoctial parallel and those of the solstices, and the horizon. A utilitarian diagram with no ornamental pretensions, it is nevertheless executed with sensitivity and a feeling for design. The draughtsmen who produced figures like this were not the artists who made the representational miniatures in MSS, but the designers of pen-drawn space-fillers in and around the text, as is revealed by the ink and some of the motifs used. From the same MS as figure 15, fol 141r. (photograph, Adelaide Bennett) View an enlarged 980 x 1305 pixel JPG image (294KB)

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Figure 18. Geared device for fortune-telling. (reproduced on p. 44 of Michael Evans’ “The Geometry of the Mind”) AS GLOSSED BY MICHAEL EVANS (on page 55): A peg is used to revolve the smaller wheel; the larger one comes to rest at a number which is to be interpreted using tables elsewhere in the book. This little machine is set into its front cover, and can be regarded as a slightly more sophisticated form of dice. See Skeat, op cit note 65 above. Oxford, Bodl MS Digby 46. “Bernardus” Experimentarius; other works on divination. England, fourteenth century. F Saxl, H Meier Catalogue of Astrological and Mythological Illuminated Manuscripts of the Latin Middle Ages iii Manuscripts in English Libraries London 1953, pp. 344, 45. (photograph, Bodleian Library) View an enlarged 960 x 1297 pixel JPG image (322KB)

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Figure 19. Tree of Porphyry. (reproduced on p. 45 of Michael Evans’ “The Geometry of the Mind”) AS GLOSSED BY MICHAEL EVANS (on page 55): A sixteenth-century version of the Antique schema. The genus “substance” at the top divides into corporeal and incorporeal species. The species of the genus “corporeal” are animate and inanimate, and so the tree descends through sensible and insensible animate bodies, through rational and irrational animals, to man and individual humans. See section 6.1. Paulus Venetus Logica Venice 1536, fol 8r. (photograph, Warburg Institute) View an enlarged 970 x 1305 pixel JPG image (331KB)

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Figure 20. Pons asinorum (The Asses’ Bridge). (reproduced on p. 46 of Michael Evans’ “The Geometry of the Mind”) AS GLOSSED BY MICHAEL EVANS (on page 55): A seventeenth-century parody of a notorious medieval logical figure, the “asses’ bridge”. In the Middle Ages the schema was more usually represented in reverse, with the predicate, or major term, of the syllogism on the left and the subject on the right. These two terms are represented by the letters A and E. The three possible relations of the middle term to either (consequent, antecedent and extraneous) are signified by the letters BCD. FGH. The nonce-words inscribed on the “planks” of the bridge are mnemonics for the 19 valid combinations of the three figures of the syllogism with premisses of different strength. For a more detailed explanation of how the “bridge” works, see C L Hamblin “An Improved Pons Asinorum?” Journal of the History of Philosophy xiv, 1976, pp. 131–36. It is unclear whether the present example illustrates the foolishness of those who fail to negotiate the pons asinorum, or of those who bother with it in the first place. Anonymous engraving bound into a MS in the possession of C B Schmitt, Warburg Institute; another state of the print, issued by Michael Haye, Louvain, is illustrated in the Louvain catalogue cited in note 3 above, no 336, p. 238. (photograph, Warburg Institute) View an enlarged 980 x 1301 pixel JPG image (402KB)

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Figure 21. Shield of Faith. (reproduced on p. 46 of Michael Evans’ “The Geometry of the Mind”) AS GLOSSED BY MICHAEL EVANS (on page 55): A demonstration of the doctrine of the Trinity in logical terms, using a triangular reformulation of the Square of Opposition as a heraldic device: the lines in orle and in pale are labelled so that they function as syncategoremata between the theological concepts inscribed in the roundels. The Persons are linked by non est to show their distinct natures; each is connected to the word Deus in the centre by the verb est, demonstrating their unity. The design is given wider application by the addition of an allusion to the doctrines of the Incarnation and Redemption: between Deus and Filius there is a cross labelled “the word was made flesh”. See section 6.3. Cambridge, Corpus Christi College MS 16, fol 45v Matthew Paris, Chronica maiora. Saint Albans, c1240–53; 286 fols 14– 1/5 x 9–3/5 in; shield measures 1¾ in across at top. Description of the heraldic aspects of the MS in A R Wagner A Catalogue of English Medieval Rolls of Arms (Aspilogia i) London 1950, p. 3. (photograph, Courtauld Institute) View an enlarged 450 x 374 pixel JPG image (51KB)

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Figure 22. The Trinity and the Vision of Ezekiel. (reproduced on p. 46 of Michael Evans’ “The Geometry of the Mind”) AS GLOSSED BY MICHAEL EVANS (on page 55): The three Persons hold a wheel within a wheel; the wheels themselves are made up of gold and silver discs, as are the spokes of the inner wheel. The spokes connecting the two wheels are curved radii tapering to a point; this is an inversion of an image associated with the Trinity elsewhere in the MS, a star-like body with curving rays; it ultimately derives from the figures of the Image du monde. The text facing the miniature describes the difficulty of expressing religious ideas literally, and the value of allegorical communication: “he talks best and more beautifully who is silent about God. The sayings of the Prophets are obscure ... we understand these allegorically so that we are redirected to the path of rightness” (Optime et pulchrius loquitur qui de Deo tacet. Obscura sunt prophetarum dicta ... ea allegorice interpretamur ut ad rectitudinis semitam reducamur). As elsewhere in the MS, part of this text has been erased, and a contemporary hand has rewritten it; in this case, the substitution is a reference to the Vision of Ezekiel. Presumably, the original did not sufficiently account for the picture, but the metaphor the artist has employed for his non-literal image is that of the scientific diagram. See section 6.4. New Haven, Yale University, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library MS 404, fol 102r. Devotional texts and pictures known as the “Rothschild Canticles”. N France, early fourteenth century; 192 fols 4¾ x 3–3/8 in. (photograph, Yale University) View an enlarged 960 x 1415 pixel JPG image (391KB)

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Figure 23. Schema of quaternities. (reproduced on p. 47 of Michael Evans’ “The Geometry of the Mind”) AS GLOSSED BY MICHAEL EVANS (on page 55): The figure uses the format of a wind-rose to set out the essential constituents of Time, Place, Matter and Man. Reading from the circumference inwards, the diagram itemises the cardinal points, the principal winds, the Elements, the Seasons, the Humours and the Ages of Man. The lesser winds appear in the diagonals, while the central rosette embodies Man surrounded by Year, World, Wind and Element. From the same MS as figure 17, fol 38v, illustrating Sacrobosco’s Computus. (photograph, Adelaide Bennett) View an enlarged 960 x 1413 pixel JPG image (381KB)

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Figure 24. Rota of the Five Sevens and quadripartite historical schema. (reproduced on p. 48 of Michael Evans’ “The Geometry of the Mind”) AS GLOSSED BY MICHAEL EVANS (on page 55): Another version of figure 2, probably closer to the original conception: the stemmatic divisions of the subjects in the rota are better delineated; the personification of Pride is distinguished by size and surround from the other Vices, and is thus clearly separated from the groups of septenaries; the textual matter is included within the design, not appended to it; and the rectangle that surrounds it with the chronological parallels has a beginning and an end. Oxford Bodleian Lyell MS 24. N France, early thirteenth century; single leaf, 20½ x 17 in. (photograph, Warburg Institute) View an enlarged 1480 x 1714 pixel JPG image (873KB)

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Figure 25. Rota of the Five Sevens and quadripartite historical schema. (reproduced on p. 49 of Michael Evans’ “The Geometry of the Mind”) AS GLOSSED BY MICHAEL EVANS (on page 55): Another version of figure 2, badly cropped but perhaps retaining yet more features of the original. The figure of Christ in the centre of figure 24 is a late thirteenth-century addition, repairing a hole that had been cut in the MS. The unaltered image in the centre of figure 25 is clearly intended to be seen as a parallel to that of Pride above, similarly framed and enthroned. Hence the sin of Lucifer is contrasted with the humility of Christ, contributing the ultimate polarities to this “representation of our Church”, its doctrines and what they refute. Present whereabouts of MS unknown (fomerly Florence dealer). France, twelfth century; single leaf, 17 x 12¼ in. For better photographs than were available to me when the figures for this article were made, see J Baer and Co Lagerkatalog 750. 1000 schöne and wertvolle Bücher, Handschriften ... dritter Teil Frankfort nd 1929? Taf 127, 128.) View an enlarged 980 x 1305 pixel JPG image (432KB)

Related Links • more on early-modern uses of diagrammatic trees in the GALLERY exhibit on “Kircher’s Information Trees” • a GALLERY exhibit on Wenceslaus Hollar’s parodic use of tree diagrams in his 1641 etching, The World is Ruled & Governed by Opinion • a GALLERY exhibit on Roeland Saverij’s early 17th-century chalk drawing, Melancholy Tree — a botanical image with psychic significations, and an early-modern expression of biophilia • more examples of the Jesse Tree used to diagram genealogy (e.g., Evans’ Figures 6 and 11) in the GALLERY exhibit on Francis Bacon’s family tree • more on issues relating to representation vs. symbolism and the emblematic imagination in the GALLERY exhibit on the “Emblem of the Athenian Society” • a LIBRARY monograph on Robert Wood’s paper instrument — known as an “emblematical garter” or “hieroglyphick of the year” — presented to the Royal Society in 1681, and described by Wood as “very easie and ready for Practice, either by Memory, Pen, or Clock-work.” Wood’s volvelle was published in the Society’s scientific journal for readers to cut out, paste on boards and/or transfer to other media, and was used for “adjusting the account of time by the moon, soe as not to miss one day in 24000 years,” as Robert Hooke wrote to Henri Justel, then secretary to Louis XIV. • an IN BRIEF topic on “The Arithmeticall Jewell,” “Napier’s Bones,” & other 17thcentury “mathematical engines” which built on medieval uses of rotae and volvelles in scientific work • more examples of rotae from the Middle Ages in the digital edition of the newlydiscovered medieval Arabic MS., The Book of Curiosities of the Sciences and Marvels for the Eyes, such as the Diagram of the Encompassing Sphere (MS Arab. c. 90, fols. 2b–3a) • example of a modern, computerized update of the medieval Tree of Porphyry (e.g., Evans’ Figure 19): the “Mammals Family Tree,” described as “the most complete family tree compiled for mammals.” The new “supertree” — a “zoomable, circular dendogram,” according to my colleague Steve Smith — is available online at the BBC News website, where it was posted as part of the BBC story on new findings relating to evolutionary theory (“Mammal rise ‘not linked’ to dinos”) reported on 28 March 2007.

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© June 2007; revised 12 November 2009

Gallery Exhibit, Catalog Nos. 114 & 115 & 116 & 117 & 118 & 119 & 120 & 122 & 123 & 124 & 125 & 126 & 127 & 128 & 129 & 130 & 131 & 133 & 134 & 135 & 136 & 137 & 138 & 139 & 140 & 141 & 142

EDITOR’S NOTE This is not a stand-alone gallery exhibit, but a companion piece to shephilosopher.com’s digital edition of Michael Evans’ essay of 1980, “The Geometry of the Mind” (Lib. Cat. No. MWE1980). All 28 images featured here were compiled by Evans and reproduced in his essay for vol. 12, no. 4 of the Architectural Association Quarterly. The accompanying gloss for each facsimile is taken verbatim from Evans’ “References to the figures,” collated at the end of his printed essay on pp. 53–55. For more in-depth discussion of the images, see the full-text HTML transcription of Evans’ article in the she-philosopher.com LIBRARY. All pointers to section and note numbers mentioned by Evans refer to the body of his article; you can search for and easily locate them in she-philosopher.com’s digital edition of “The Geometry of the Mind”.

Medieval Information Design, 12th through 15th centuries (with two 16th- & 17th-century reproductions)

< Title page for vol. 12, no. 4 of the journal, Architectural Association Quarterly (published in 1980). With enlarged detail from Figure 20 of Michael Evans’ “The Geometry of the Mind”, Pons asinorum The Asses’ Bridge). AAQuarterly Editor: Dennis Sharp. Journal design by: Anthony Favell, plus Ivor Kamlish and Associates (both of London). Printed by Lonsdale Universal Printing, Ltd. (of Bath), in “small crown quarto format.” Of note, this was the last issue of the small-format journal. Beginning with the first issue of 1981, AAQ switched to “a larger, squarer format” and was “completely redesigned,” in order “to keep abreast with the changes that have occurred in architectural publishing over the past few years, to expand the readership of the journal (particularly through international bookshops) and to take advantage of more economic printing methods.”. View an enlarged 1380 x 1932 pixel JPG image (348KB)

The 28 Illustrations from Michael Evans’ “The Geometry of the Mind”

< Figure 1. Schema of the spheres. (reproduced on p. 33 of Michael Evans’ “The Geometry of the Mind”) AS GLOSSED BY MICHAEL EVANS (on page 53): An astronomical diagram from a copy of one of the most ambitious handbooks of the early twelfth century. At the centre is the Earth, divided into three continents, with cardinal points and dimensions inscribed. It is surrounded by the phases of the Moon and the days of the lunar cycle, and the spheres of the seven Planets correlated with the seven heavens; the hours of the day are entered on the sphere of the Sun. The is divided radially into 12 sectors, corresponding to the zodiacal signs, which are inscribed on the perimeter; the radii are labelled with information about the Sun’s movement through the zodiac. The quadrants contain a polyglot vocabulary of astronomical terms. For a transcription of the labels, see A Derolez Lamberti S Avdomari canoni. Liber floridus ..., Ghent 1968, p. [96]. Leiden, Bibl Univ MS Voss lat F 31, fol 205v Lambert of S Omer, floridus. France, late thirteenth century; 284 fols 12½ x 8½ in. Description in A Derolez (ed) Liber floridus colloquium. Papers Read at the International Meeting Held in the University Library Ghent on 3–5 September 1967 Ghent 1973, p. 41. (photograph, Bibliotek Universiteit, Leiden) View an enlarged 940 x 1296 pixel JPG image (348KB)

< Figure 2. Rota of the Five Sevens and quadripartite historical schema. (reproduced on p. 33 of Michael Evans’ “The Geometry of the Mind”) AS GLOSSED BY MICHAEL EVANS (on page 53): See section 7. London Bl MS Roy 14 B IX, final picture on roll. Peter of Poitiers historiae. Saint Albans (?), c 1270; roll measures 20ft 9in x 1ft. Description in Royal MS catalogue cited note 84 above. (photograph, Warburg Institute) View an enlarged 980 x 1220 pixel JPG image (420KB)

< Figure 3. Graphic textual layout. (reproduced on p. 34 of Michael Evans’ “The Geometry of the Mind”) AS GLOSSED BY MICHAEL EVANS (on page 53): The opening matter describes the division of the soul into three faculties, Intellect, Memory and Will, and explains how each of these qualities embodies the other two. The argument is presented graphically by interpolating superimposed phrases articulated by linear elements within the sentence. This enables several different ideas to be expressed simultaneously within a relatively simple syntactical structure. The MS is an introduction to, and anthology of, the work of Ramon Lull, compiled by one of his most enthusiastic disciples. Paris BN MS lat 15450, fol 116r Thomas le Myésier Electorium magnum. Arras and Paris, completed 1323; 563 fols 14½ x 11 in. Description in Hillgarth, op cit note 45 above, pp. 348–97. (photograph, Bibliot[h]èque Nationale) View an enlarged 970 x 1215 pixel JPG image (411KB)

< Figure 4. Stemmatic analysis of “being” (ens reale). (reproduced on p. 34 of Michael Evans’ “The Geometry of the Mind”) AS GLOSSED BY MICHAEL EVANS (on page 53): Starting with the concept of existence, the diagram progressively subdivides it to cover every mode of being. Thus ens splits into cause and effect, effect into substance and accident, and so on. Transcription in Hillgarth, op cit note 45 above, table facing p. 422. From the same MS as figure 3, fol 94v. (photograph, Bibliothèque Nationale) View an enlarged 960 x 1285 pixel JPG image (319KB)

< Figure 5. Divisio scientiae, setting out the parts of learning. (reproduced on p. 36 of Michael Evans’ “The Geometry of the Mind”) AS GLOSSED BY MICHAEL EVANS (on pages 53–4): Sciencia divides into philosophy, eloquence, poetry and the mechanical arts. Philosophy subdivides into practice and theory; practice breaks down into ethics, economics and politics, which are further analysed; likewise theory, whose four parts are theology, natural science physical), divination and mathematics. This last is made up of the quadrivium; eloquence furnishes the verbal arts of the trivium. For sources and analogues of this divisio, see the works cited in note 26 above. The stemma prefaces a compendium of 12 tables setting out religious concepts, often presenting parallels between two or more topics; on these compendia, see Saxl, op cit note 48 above, pp. 107–15. London BL MS Roy 1 B X, fol 1r Compendium of tables; Peter of Poitiers, Arbor historiae; tables of lections and Psalms; appended to earlier MS of the Bible. England, late fourteenth century; 43 fols 11¾ x 8¼ in. Description in Royal MS catalogue cited in note 84 above. (photograph, British Library) View an enlarged 970 x 1458 pixel JPG image (377KB)

< Figure 6. Tree of consanguinity. (reproduced on p. 36 of Michael Evans’ “The Geometry of the Mind”) AS GLOSSED BY MICHAEL EVANS (on page 54): The vacant panels just below the centre represent ipse (self) of either sex; above are “son” and “daughter”, “father” and “mother”, and an ascending list of direct ancestors with whom marriage is prohibited. A corresponding list of descendents appears below, and prohibited collateral relationships are set out to the left and right. Transcription in Derolez Lamberti cited in notes to figure 1 above, p. [74]. The Hague, Koninklijke Bibl MS 72 A 23, fol 80r Lambert of S Liber floridus Lille and Ninove (Belgium), dated 1460; 225 fols 16½ x 11¼ in. Description in Derolez Liber floridus cited in notes to figure 1 above, p. 40. (photograph, Koninklijke Bibliotek) View an enlarged 950 x 1457 pixel JPG image (366KB)

^ Figure 7 (verso/recto). Schema of world history. (reproduced on p. 37 of Michael Evans’ “The Geometry of the Mind”) AS GLOSSED BY MICHAEL EVANS (on page 54): The text is a summary of the first part of the Book of Judges; the columns, medallions and strapwork that surround it provide genealogical stemmata. Events in profane history are entered in the margins, and notable incidents are illustrated with sketches. The drawing at the beginning of the text shows the funeral of Joshua. See section 3.4. From the same MS as figure 5 fols 16v, 17r. (photograph, British Library) View an enlarged 960 x 1466 pixel JPG image (415KB) of the verso page; view an enlarged 990 x 1476 pixel JPG image (393KB) of the recto page

^ Figure 8 (verso/recto). Tree of Virtues; Cherub. (reproduced on p. 38 of Michael Evans’ “The Geometry of the Mind”) AS GLOSSED BY MICHAEL EVANS (on page 54): The Tree grows from a garden supported by three angels. Its trunk is identified as Humility, and inscribed “the way of life, the fruit of justice”. The branches are labelled with the seven Virtues, and the leaves set out their sub-divisions. The scroll at the top describes the benefits bestowed by each Virtue. See section 3.5. The Cherub displays the degrees of penance on scrolls over his wings; each wing has five labelled feathers analysing the penitential act. Thus the lowest wing on the left analyses Confession into tears, meditation, simple speech, modest knowledge and obedience. The text mentioned in section 4.4 gives a different division. From the same MS as figure 5 fols 16v, 17r. (photograph, British Library) View an enlarged 970 x 1455 pixel JPG image (441KB) of the verso page; view an enlarged 970 x 1466 pixel JPG image (446KB) of the recto page

< Figure 9. Tree of the Acts of the Passion. (reproduced on p. 39 of Michael Evans’ “The Geometry of the Mind”) AS GLOSSED BY MICHAEL EVANS (on page 54): The medallions on the trunk record seven events from the betrayal of Christ to His burial; these are paralleled on the left with the Canonical Hours, the seven times of daily prayer; and on the right with the natural gifts freely bestowed on Man by God (dona gratuita): the Senses, Consent and Free Will. The medallions are linked by verses that explain the parallels. Thus the top zone contains the service of Matins linked to the Betrayal by a verse about the singing of psalms in the middle of the night; the idea that links the Betrayal to the Sense of Hearing on the right is the believer crying out in fear of death. Although embellished with leaves and a trunk, this is structurally a table rather than a tree, and is to be read downwards. Whereabouts of MS unknown (formerly London dealer), fol 3r. Compendium of tables similar to those in MS Ar 83 (note 57 above) and the MS described in the notes to figure 5; plus personifications of three Vices accompanied by verses in Italian. Italy, fifteenth century; 11 folios, dimensions unknown. (photograph, Warburg Institute) View an enlarged 970 x 1295 pixel JPG image (378KB)

^ Figure 10 (verso/recto). Tables of Christian doctrine. (reproduced on p. 40 of Michael Evans’ “The Geometry of the Mind”) AS GLOSSED BY MICHAEL EVANS (on page 54): A more formalistic and complex version of the principle used in figure 9. There are four concepts in each table, and the links between them are sometimes causal. On the left are the seven Works of Mercy, linked to the Degrees of Wisdom, each of which leads to (quae ducit ad) an example of good manners (septem curialitates) paralleled with the Sacraments. The components on the right are the Petitions of the Lord’s Prayer, the Gifts of the Holy Ghost, seven Virtues and the seven Vices to which they are opposed (quae est contra). From the same MS as figure 5 fols 3v, 4r. (photograph, British Library) View an enlarged 970 x 1462 pixel JPG image (456KB) of the verso page; view an enlarged 960 x 1460 pixel JPG image (425KB) of the recto page

< Figure 11. House of Wisdom. (reproduced on p. 41 of Michael Evans’ “The Geometry of the Mind”) AS GLOSSED BY MICHAEL EVANS (on page 54): The House with its seven pillars provides the setting for an abbreviated Jesse Tree, in which all the ancestors of Christ between Jesse and the Virgin have to be taken as read. Above the House, the Tree ramifies into the Gifts of the Holy Ghost, to which are ascribed quasiphysical properties; eg Wisdom is labelled “stable, mobile”. Seven other entities are inscribed vertically above each of the Gifts; they are the Beatitudes, the Lord’s Prayer, the Voces Domini (Ps xxviii), the coronae triumphales (Apoc ii:7ff), the Creed, the various classes of Holy Writ, and the Virtues. Thus the manifold aspects of Wisdom itself are encapsulated and categorised. This is the final illustration to the Speculum virginum (see sections 4.2, 4.3); the opening picture is essentially similar, but omits the House and has a more extensive genealogy. Leipzig Univ Bibl MS 665, fol 144v. Speculum virginum. Saxony, late fourteenth century; 165 fols 13¼ x 10¼ in. Description in R Bruck Die Malereien in den Handschriften des Königreichs Sachsen Dresden 1906, pp. 233–38. (photograph, Universitäts Bibliotek, Leipzig) View an enlarged 960 x 1466 pixel JPG image (416KB)

< Figure 12. Tower of Wisdom. (reproduced on p. 41 of Michael Evans’ “The Geometry of the Mind”) AS GLOSSED BY MICHAEL EVANS (on page 54): The text right at the bottom of the Tower says “the Tower of Wisdom is read from below, ascending through the series of letters of the alphabet”; these are arranged vertically on the left. A is the foundation of the Tower: “Humility which is the mother of all the Virtues”. B is the bases of the columns; that on the left is Diligence. C and D are the column and its capital, in this case Prudence and Counsel. E denotes the steps into the Tower, labelled Prayer, Remorse and so on. F is the entablature, inscribed to the effect that the width of the Tower is Charity; an inscription up the side says that its height is Perseverance in the Good. G denotes the doors (Obedience and Patience) and windows, similarly allegorised. K–X are the courses of masonry; Virtues and moral injunctions. Y, the battlements, are Innocence, Purity, etc, concluding with Virginity. Z is the level of the guardians of the Tower, omitted in this example, but armed female personifications in other versions. See section 4.3. From the same MS as figure 9, fol 7r. (photograph, Warburg Institute) View an enlarged 990 x 1303 pixel JPG image (403KB)

< Figure 13. Rota of the Sevens. (reproduced on p. 42 of Michael Evans’ “The Geometry of the Mind”) AS GLOSSED BY MICHAEL EVANS (on page 54): The text within the central square explains that the figure contains the seven Petitions of the Lord’s Prayer in the outermost circle, and then, reading inwards, the Sacraments, the Gifts of the Holy Ghost, the metaphorical weapons of the Christian (based on Ephes vi:13ff), the Works of Mercy, the Virtues and their consequences, and the Vices. It concludes with instructions for reading the diagram: one should start at the cross (approximately 11 o’clock on the perimeter) and proceed inwards. Thus the first sector reads in translation: “Our Father which art in Heaven, hallowed be Thy name. Here we ask to be sons of God the Father / through this baptism is given for knowledge of the Son of God / and the Spirit of Wisdom for reverence of the Trinity / and the breastplate of Humility against Pride / thus we clothe the naked physically / we suffer with the needy spiritually / thus we acquire Prudence / and we drive out Pride”. See section 5.1. From the same MS as figure 9, fol 6r. (photograph, Warburg Institute) View an enlarged 970 x 1299 pixel JPG image (406KB)

< Figure 14. Volvelle of the Lullian ars. (reproduced on p. 42 of Michael Evans’ “The Geometry of the Mind”) AS GLOSSED BY MICHAEL EVANS (on page 54): The outer circle contains the rules or questions of the ars, then come the subjects, the absoluta and the relata; in the centre are the alphabetical letters B–K, the foundation of this nine-fold version of the system. Rotation of the discs enables the reader to formulate enquiries in various ways about any of the topics in one of several relationships to an absolute quality. Thus with the volvelle set as it is in the photograph, the sector slightly to the right of the bottom of the wheel frames questions in the category “how much?” (quantum) of the subject “Man”, in terms of the absolute principle “duration” and the relative quality “contrariety”. If the outer wheel were moved one sector clockwise, the question would be in the form “by what means?” (quare). See section 5.3. From the same MS as figure 3, fol 274r. (photograph, Bibliothèque Nationale) View an enlarged 960 x 1130 pixel JPG image (394KB)

< Figure 15. Schema of the spheres. (reproduced on p. 43 of Michael Evans’ “The Geometry of the Mind”) AS GLOSSED BY MICHAEL EVANS (on page 54): The diagram illustrates John of Sacrobosco De sphaera I; the text describes how the sphere of the cosmos is divided substantially into the primum mobile, the sphere of the fixed, stars, and the seven spheres of the Planets “as is shown in the accompanying figure”. The diagram adds the Elements of Fire, Air and Water between the sphere of the Moon and the New York Public Library MS 69, fol 81r. Sacrobosco Opera. Germany, late thirteenth century; 141 fols 6¾ x 5 in. Thorndike, op cit note 61 above, pp. 68, 69. London BL MS Add 30380 is a virtually identical copy of the work. (photograph, Adelaide Bennett) View an enlarged 950 x 1465 pixel JPG image (331KB)

< Figure 16. Schema of the Elements, Pure Air and the Planets. (reproduced on p. 43 of Michael Evans’ “The Geometry of the Mind”) AS GLOSSED BY MICHAEL EVANS (on page 55): This is the seventeenth figure from the Image du monde, and should properly show labelled circles, with perhaps stellar bodies in the outside circle. The inventive artist of this MS chose to show a conglomeration of gold spheres on a metallic blue ground, lightening to a yellowish grey in the centre to provide the visual suggestion of a solid sphere. The result is scientifically uninformative, but gives an indication of the way painters appropriated motifs from technical illustrations and used them to create unprecedented images. Paris, BN MS fr 14964, fol 74r. Goswin of Metz L’image du ; Bestiary and Lapidary. N France, late thirteenth century; 208 fols 7 x 4¼ in. (photograph, Bibliothèque Nationale) View an enlarged 980 x 1469 pixel JPG image (410KB)

< Figure 17. Astronomical schema. (reproduced on p. 44 of Michael Evans’ “The Geometry of the Mind”) AS GLOSSED BY MICHAEL EVANS (on page 55): This sets out for the observer the relative positions of the zodiac, the Milky Way, the north and south poles, the equinoctial parallel and those of the solstices, and the horizon. A utilitarian diagram with no ornamental pretensions, it is nevertheless executed with sensitivity and a feeling for design. The draughtsmen who produced figures like this were not the artists who made the representational miniatures in MSS, but the designers of pen-drawn space-fillers in and around the text, as is revealed by the ink and some of the motifs used. From the same MS as figure 15, fol 141r. (photograph, Adelaide Bennett) View an enlarged 980 x 1305 pixel JPG image (294KB)

< Figure 18. Geared device for fortune-telling. (reproduced on p. 44 of Michael Evans’ “The Geometry of the Mind”) AS GLOSSED BY MICHAEL EVANS (on page 55): A peg is used to revolve the smaller wheel; the larger one comes to rest at a number which is to be interpreted using tables elsewhere in the book. This little machine is set into its front cover, and can be regarded as a slightly more sophisticated form of dice. See Skeat, op cit note 65 above. Oxford, Bodl MS Digby 46. “Bernardus” Experimentarius; other works on divination. England, fourteenth century. F Saxl, H Meier Catalogue of Astrological and Mythological Illuminated Manuscripts of the Latin Middle Ages iii Manuscripts in English Libraries London 1953, pp. 344, 45. (photograph, Bodleian Library) View an enlarged 960 x 1297 pixel JPG image (322KB)

< Figure 19. Tree of Porphyry. (reproduced on p. 45 of Michael Evans’ “The Geometry of the Mind”) AS GLOSSED BY MICHAEL EVANS (on page 55): A sixteenth-century version of the Antique schema. The genus “substance” at the top divides into corporeal and incorporeal species. The species of the genus “corporeal” are animate and inanimate, and so the tree descends through sensible and insensible animate bodies, through rational and irrational animals, to man and individual humans. See section 6.1. Paulus Venetus Logica Venice 1536, fol 8r. (photograph, Warburg Institute) View an enlarged 970 x 1305 pixel JPG image (331KB)

< Figure 20. Pons asinorum (The Asses’ Bridge). (reproduced on p. 46 of Michael Evans’ “The Geometry of the Mind”) AS GLOSSED BY MICHAEL EVANS (on page 55): A seventeenth-century parody of a notorious medieval logical figure, the “asses’ bridge”. In the Middle Ages the schema was more usually represented in reverse, with the predicate, or major term, of the syllogism on the left and the subject on the right. These two terms are represented by the letters A and E. The three possible relations of the middle term to either (consequent, antecedent and extraneous) are signified by the letters BCD. FGH. The nonce-words inscribed on the “planks” of the bridge are mnemonics for the 19 valid combinations of the three figures of the syllogism with premisses of different strength. For a more detailed explanation of how the “bridge” works, see C L Hamblin “An Improved Asinorum?” Journal of the History of Philosophy xiv, 1976, pp. 131– 36. It is unclear whether the present example illustrates the foolishness of those who fail to negotiate the pons asinorum, or of those who bother with it in the first place. Anonymous engraving bound into a MS in the possession of C B Schmitt, Warburg Institute; another state of the print, issued by Michael Haye, Louvain, is illustrated in the Louvain catalogue cited in note 3 above, no 336, p. 238. (photograph, Warburg Institute) View an enlarged 980 x 1301 pixel JPG image (402KB)

< Figure 21. Shield of Faith. (reproduced on p. 46 of Michael Evans’ “The Geometry of the Mind”) AS GLOSSED BY MICHAEL EVANS (on page 55): A demonstration of the doctrine of the Trinity in logical terms, using a triangular reformulation of the Square of Opposition as a heraldic device: the lines in orle and in pale are labelled so that they function as syncategoremata between the theological concepts inscribed in the roundels. The Persons are linked by non est to show their distinct natures; each is connected to the word Deus in the centre by the verb est, demonstrating their unity. The design is given wider application by the addition of an allusion to the doctrines of the Incarnation and Redemption: between Deus and Filius there is a cross labelled “the word was made flesh”. See section 6.3. Cambridge, Corpus Christi College MS 16, fol 45v Matthew Chronica maiora. Saint Albans, c1240–53; 286 fols 14–1/5 x 9–3/5 in; shield measures 1¾ in across at top. Description of the heraldic aspects of the MS in A R Wagner A Catalogue of English Medieval Rolls of Arms (Aspilogia i) London 1950, (photograph, Courtauld Institute) View an enlarged 450 x 374 pixel JPG image (51KB)

< Figure 22. The Trinity and the Vision of Ezekiel. (reproduced on p. 46 of Michael Evans’ “The Geometry of the Mind”) AS GLOSSED BY MICHAEL EVANS (on page 55): The three Persons hold a wheel within a wheel; the wheels themselves are made up of gold and silver discs, as are the spokes of the inner wheel. The spokes connecting the two wheels are curved radii tapering to a point; this is an inversion of an image associated with the Trinity elsewhere in the MS, a star-like body with curving rays; it ultimately derives from the figures of the Image du monde. The text facing the miniature describes the difficulty of expressing religious ideas literally, and the value of allegorical communication: “he talks best and more beautifully who is silent about God. The sayings of the Prophets are obscure ... we understand these allegorically so that we are redirected to the path of rightness” (Optime et pulchrius loquitur qui de Deo tacet. Obscura prophetarum dicta ... ea allegorice interpretamur ut ad rectitudinis semitam reducamur). As elsewhere in the MS, part of this text has been erased, and a contemporary hand has rewritten it; in this case, the substitution is a reference to the Vision of Ezekiel. Presumably, the original did not sufficiently account for the picture, but the metaphor the artist has employed for his non-literal image is that of the scientific diagram. See section 6.4. New Haven, Yale University, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library MS 404, fol 102r. Devotional texts and pictures known as the “Rothschild Canticles”. N France, early fourteenth century; 192 fols 4¾ x 3–3/8 in. (photograph, Yale University) View an enlarged 960 x 1415 pixel JPG image (391KB)

< Figure 23. Schema of quaternities. (reproduced on p. 47 of Michael Evans’ “The Geometry of the Mind”) AS GLOSSED BY MICHAEL EVANS (on page 55): The figure uses the format of a wind-rose to set out the essential constituents of Time, Place, Matter and Man. Reading from the circumference inwards, the diagram itemises the cardinal points, the principal winds, the Elements, the Seasons, the Humours and the Ages of Man. The lesser winds appear in the diagonals, while the central rosette embodies Man surrounded by Year, World, Wind and Element. From the same MS as figure 17, fol 38v, illustrating Sacrobosco’s Computus. (photograph, Adelaide Bennett) View an enlarged 960 x 1413 pixel JPG image (381KB)

< Figure 24. Rota of the Five Sevens and quadripartite historical schema. (reproduced on p. 48 of Michael Evans’ “The Geometry of the Mind”) AS GLOSSED BY MICHAEL EVANS (on page 55): Another version of figure 2, probably closer to the original conception: the stemmatic divisions of the subjects in the rota are better delineated; the personification of Pride is distinguished by size and surround from the other Vices, and is thus clearly separated from the groups of septenaries; the textual matter is included within the design, not appended to it; and the rectangle that surrounds it with the chronological parallels has a beginning and an end. Oxford Bodleian Lyell MS 24. N France, early thirteenth century; single leaf, 20½ x 17 in. (photograph, Warburg Institute) View an enlarged 1480 x 1714 pixel JPG image (873KB)

< Figure 25. Rota of the Five Sevens and quadripartite historical schema. (reproduced on p. 49 of Michael Evans’ “The Geometry of the Mind”) AS GLOSSED BY MICHAEL EVANS (on page 55): Another version of figure 2, badly cropped but perhaps retaining yet more features of the original. The figure of Christ in the centre of figure 24 is a late thirteenth-century addition, repairing a hole that had been cut in the MS. The unaltered image in the centre of figure 25 is clearly intended to be seen as a parallel to that of Pride above, similarly framed and enthroned. Hence the sin of Lucifer is contrasted with the humility of Christ, contributing the ultimate polarities to this “representation of our Church”, its doctrines and what they refute. Present whereabouts of MS unknown (fomerly Florence dealer). France, twelfth century; single leaf, 17 x 12¼ in. For better photographs than were available to me when the figures for this article were made, see J Baer and Co Lagerkatalog 750. 1000 and wertvolle Bücher, Handschriften ... dritter Teil Frankfort nd 1929? Taf 127, 128.) View an enlarged 980 x 1305 pixel JPG image (432KB)

Related Links • more on early-modern uses of diagrammatic trees in the GALLERY exhibit on “Kircher’s Information Trees” • a GALLERY exhibit on Wenceslaus Hollar’s parodic use of tree diagrams in his 1641 etching, The World is Ruled & Governed by Opinion • a GALLERY exhibit on Roeland Saverij’s early 17th-century chalk drawing, Melancholy Tree — a botanical image with psychic significations, and an early-modern expression of biophilia • more examples of the Jesse Tree used to diagram genealogy (e.g., Evans’ Figures 6 and 11) in the GALLERY exhibit on Francis Bacon’s family tree • more on issues relating to representation vs. symbolism and the emblematic imagination in the GALLERY exhibit on the “Emblem of the Athenian Society” • a LIBRARY monograph on Robert Wood’s paper instrument — known as an “emblematical garter” or “hieroglyphick of the year” — presented to the Royal Society in 1681, and described by Wood as “very easie and ready for Practice, either by Memory, Pen, or Clock-work.” Wood’s volvelle was published in the Society’s scientific journal for readers to cut out, paste on boards and/or transfer to other media, and was used for “adjusting the account of time by the moon, soe as not to miss one day in 24000 years,” as Robert Hooke wrote to Henri Justel, then secretary to Louis XIV. • an IN BRIEF topic on “The Arithmeticall Jewell,” “Napier’s Bones,” & other 17th-century “mathematical engines” which built on medieval uses of rotae and volvelles in scientific work • more examples of rotae from the Middle Ages in the digital edition of the newlydiscovered medieval Arabic MS., The Book of Curiosities of the Sciences and Marvels for the Eyes, such as the Diagram of the Encompassing Sphere (MS Arab. c. 90, fols. 2b–3a) • example of a modern, computerized update of the medieval Tree of Porphyry (e.g., Evans’ Figure 19): the “Mammals Family Tree,” described as “the most complete family tree compiled for mammals.” The new “supertree” — a “zoomable, circular dendogram,” according to my colleague Steve Smith — is available online at the BBC News website, where it was posted as part of the BBC story on new findings relating to evolutionary theory (“Mammal rise ‘not linked’ to dinos”) reported on 28 March 2007.

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