ARROYO GRANDE CC....................................................................................................... ................4 bellaire vk---aff.....................................................................................................

............ ...............6 bishop guertin cp---aff........................................................................................................... ..........9 Blake LM---aff........................................................................................................ ........................12 bronx science mb and hd............................................................................................ ..................17 Calhoun JB -- AFF................................................................................................................. ..........22 carrolton ---all teams ....................................................................................................... .............27 CENTERVILLE CY---AFF................................................................................................. ..................32 Chattahoochee High School km, fl, bp---aff...................................................................................34 coppell kb................................................................................................................................. .....39 colleyville mn – aff ....................................................................................... ................................41 DAMIEN ALL- AFF................................................................................................................ ...........43 Dowling NA---aff..................................................................................................... .......................49 Edina SM---aff....................................................................................................................... .........51 FULLERTON UNION PS AND GS---AFF.................................................................................... .........54 gbn oz & ls---aff..................................................................................................................... ........57 gbs lp- aff.................................................................................................................... ..................60 Gbs QZ—AFF......................................................................................................... ........................66 Grapevine BG- aff.................................................................................................................. ........68 Grapevine hp—AFF................................................................................................................... .....70 HEBRON WW 1AC................................................................................................................ ..........82 henry sibley-- aff................................................................................................... ........................86 ........................................................................................................................................... ..........88 Highland Park MN---aff................................................................................... ...............................89 Highland Park MN GO---aff............................................................................. ...............................92 HIGHLAND PARK JL---aff.......................................................................................................... .......95 Highland Park TX – AFF............................................................................................................... ...99 ......................................................................................................................................... ..........103 HOMEWOOD-FLOSSMOR---aff...................................................................................... ................104

Hutchinson AC---aff............................................................................................ .........................110 jack C. Hays DS---aff.................................................................................................................... 112 jenks---aff .................................................................................................................. .................114 jesuit---aff............................................................................................................................. .......116 kinkaid all---aff............................................................................................... .............................119 lakeland lm---AFF........................................................................................................................ .122 law magnet da.............................................................................................. ..............................125 lexington ls--aff ................................................................................................ ..........................126 new trier all teams---aff......................................................................................................... ......130 Maine East KK/AH---aff................................................................................... .............................134 Meadows BS/SK.............................................................................................................. .............136 norman br--aff...................................................................................................... .......................143 notre dame da........................................................................................................................ .....150 pace cs---AFF...................................................................................................................... .........153 PINE CREST US-- AFF................................................................................................ ...................156 PUTNAM CITY CF---AFF................................................................................ ................................163 shawnee mission east kl---aff.......................................................................................... ............165 Shawnee mission east MP – AFF......................................................................................... .........167 spash lm- aff................................................................................................ ...............................172 St. Marks All Cases---aff.............................................................................. ................................174 ......................................................................................................................................... ..........177 st. stevens pv---AFF.......................................................................................................... ...........177 STEPHEN F . AUSTIN---AFF.................................................................................................. .........179 Stoneman Douglas WF-- AFF..................................................................................... ..................181 wayzata bs---aff.......................................................................................................................... .183 WDM Valley EV/HR---aff............................................................................................. ..................186 westminster aj and as---aff........................................................................................................ ..188 westwood db---aff..................................................................................... ..................................195 WICHITA EAST AL--AFF.............................................................................................................. ...198

......................................................................................................................................... ..........200 woodward mp---aff................................................................................................... ...................201

ARROYO GRANDE CC On his first day in office President George W. Bush re-instated the Mexico City Policy, or Global Gag Rule, originally established by the Regan administration – this policy represents a global culture war advanced by the New Right – it treats women from sub-Saharan Africa as powerless and in need of Western benevolence – The Gag Rule supports a basic denial of choice to women and represents the acceptance of an ideology which assumes these women are not capable of choice in the first place – this policy assures a constant re-inscription of patriarchy – and a dangerous ideology which projects the degradation of women in the international sphere James Gathii, Professor of International Commercial Law at Albany Law School, Fall 2006, UC Davis Journal of International Law and Politics, "Exporting Culture Wars, pp 79-81 lexis "The New Right's ideologies... that reinforce and compound patriarchy." The Global Gag Rule represents the dangerous intersection of far Right American ideology and conservative practices in Sub-Saharan Africa – both of which assure the continuation of gender inequality – refusal of funding for organizations which promote decriminalization of abortion further entrenches sexual violence James Gathii, Professor of International Commercial Law at Albany Law School, Fall 2006, UC Davis Journal of International Law and Politics, "Exporting Culture Wars, pp 82-85 "The underlying moral basis of the global gag rule... individual fre choice and equality of opportunity for women" The state is responsible for the construction of an epistemology of male dominance –the Global Gag Rule structures these social relations by exporting a patriarchal ideology to Africa James Gathii, Professor of International Commercial Law at Albany Law School, Fall 2006, UC Davis Journal of International Law and Politics, "Exporting Culture Wars", pp 77-79 "the state participates in the sexual politics of male dominance... increases women's access to equal opportunties with men." This commitment to ideology runs directly counter to the interest of women, the Gag rule has transformed the relationship between the U.S and those we assist from a partnership to a fathership Susana Galdos Silva, Co-Founder of Movimiento Manuela Ramos, Executive Director of ReproSalud, Center for Reproductive Rights, February 14, 2001, http://www.reproductiverights.org/pr_01_0214ggrsilva.html, "We believe in democracy, as you do, citizens of the United States.... It has given my hope." The Far Rights attempt to define the female body is a strategy of denying individuation for women – this is a form of violence against the self which denies access to personhood Cornell, professor of law, women's studies and political science at Rutgers University, 2002 (Drucilla, Dismembered Selves, page 343 gjm) "The Kacanian account allows u to understand... we need to explore Lacan's explanation of the constitution of selfhood" This patriarchal structure necessitate domination and violence – the New Right's

deployment of masculine dominance is the root of all oppression – refusal to question this social system assures the continuation of all violence hooks, professor of English at City College, 2004 (bell, The Will to Change: Men, Masculinity and Love. P 26-27) "citizens in this nation fear challenging patriarchy... led to the slaughter of millions of people on the planet" The Gag Rule is just the tip of the iceberg- the right's success in influencing foreign policy on abortion spills over. The Gag rule represents a push for a Christian world order regardless of the cost Yifat Susskind, Communications Director—MADRE, 2007, It's Not Just an Abortion Ban: The Christian Right's Global Agenda, http://www.madre.org/articles/usfp/christianright.5.07.html) "After the initial shock of the recent supreme court ruling... and more neoliberal economic policies that promise greater uin to the world's poor people and ecology." PLAN TEXT: We demand that: The United States federal government substantially increase its public health assistance to topically defined regions of Africa by repealing the Global Gag Rule and substantially increasing family planning assistance to nongovernemental organizations that counsel on abortion. Demanding the foreclosed promises of universal human rights allows us to read the letter of the law against itself, catastrophically rupturing the exclusive politics of the status quo by resisting our own passive subjectivity Zizek 1997 (Slavoj Zizek, Senior Researcher at the Institute for Social Studies in Ljubljana, The Plague of Fantasies, 1997, pg. 28-29) "Let us imagine a more down-to-earth situatoin when... the ultimate triumph of anything whete it be freedom or terror. Our demand is not an end but a beginning." The state and law can be used to allow for the struggle of individuals within the system, providing rights for individuals is the first step to counter-act oppression Sara Murphy, Professor of literature, cultural studies, and gender theory at the Gallatin School of Individualized Studies of New York University, 1998, http://www.cddc.vt.edu/feminism/Cornell.html "Rather than understanding the person as fixed... Cornell shifts the terms of debate in feminism, law and cultural policies."

BELLAIRE VK---AFF THE UNITED STATES FEDERAL GOVERNMENT SHOULD SUBSTANTIALLY INCREASE ITS PUBLIC HEALTH ASSISTANCE BY GUARANTEEING FUNDING AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE ‘WATER FOR THE POOR ACT OF 2005’ FOR SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA. Contention 1 is Inherency The Water for the Poor Act has currently received $200 million. However, only $10 million reached its intended destination of Sub-Saharan Africa Michael Campana, Director of Water and Watersheds at Arizona State Univesity, 5/19/2007, http://aquadoc.typepad.com/waterwired/2007/05/water_as_a_fore.html. [This post will … not a Water for the War act.] The world is at a tipping point – water scarcity is exacerbated by a number of global trends – it makes all problems more likely C.S.I.S., 5 Center for Strategic Int’l Studies – Sandia National Laboratory [“Global Water Futures: Addressing Our Global Water Future,” 9/30/05, White Paper, http://www.sandia.gov/water/docs/CSIS-SNL_OGWF_9-28-05.PDF] [THEME ONE: Already at crisis … affecting global water supply and demand.] Contention 2 is Disease Africa south of the Sahara is being devastated by waterborne diseases – it is responsible for 80% of all diseases Lenntech, 7- Waterweb – online water database, March 9, Waterweb, (http://www.lenntech.com/Waterbornediseases/waterborne-diseases.htm, P1) Dimension of the problem … in Africa south of the Sahara (*). Water borne diseases are the world’s number 1 killer – 4000 kids every day, 3.4 million people a year Berman, 5 Science and Medicine Correspondent [Jessica, 17 March, WHO: Waterborne Disease is World's Leading Killer, Washington, http://www.voanews.com/english/archive/2005-03/2005-03-17voa34.cfm?CFID=93767752&CFTOKEN=55192494] The World Health … sick individuals. Epidemics will cause human extinction – they are fast and historically likely Discover, 2k [“Twenty Ways the World Could End” by Corey Powell in Discover Magazine, October 2000, http://discovermagazine.com/2000/oct/featworld] If Earth doesn't do … New World. Empirically, USAID water and sanitation projects have rendered success—Iraq proves IRC, 5 (specialists of fields of importance to the water and sanitation sector, including information science, information and communication technology, engineering, sociology, anthropology, economics, and journalism, “Iraq: USAID says 11.8 million will benefit from water projects,” http://www.irc.nl/page/16588) USAID says that …Baghdad's population. Clean water is better than any vaccine for Africa Watkins, 6 lead author of the UN Human Development Report Kevin, Africa Focus, Africa: Water, Health, and Development, Nov 24, http://www.africa.upenn.edu/afrfocus/afrfocus112406.html Women, Water and Development … glass of clean water. Clean water solves for infected persons too – means it prevents and improves those lives that are otherwise lost in the current water quagmire Okong'o, 6 - Mshale Senior Correspondent [Edwin, 12/01/2006[, ‘Magic’ in a Packet Brings Safe Drinking Water to Kenyans, http://www.mshale.com/article.cfm?articleID=1328] Clean drinking …embark on the program. Contention 3 is Poverty Poverty in Africa south of the Sahara is inevitable absent water reform – water scarcity and inequitable water systems are the root cause of impoverished conditions Barker , 2k (Randolph economist at the International Water Management Institute, with Barbara van Koppen, Department of Irrigation and Soil and Water Conservation at Wageningen Agricultural University, and Tushaar Shah, Principal

Researcher at the International Water Management Institute, “A global perspective on water scarcity and poverty: Achievements and challenges for water resources management”, IWMI, 2k, http://www.iwmi.cgiar.org/pubs/WWVisn/WSandPov.htm) Poverty eradication … production is about 5 percent. Poverty is structural violence at its worst, killing 18 million people a year, compared to around 100,000 a year in armed conflict. Moreover, structural violence is inextricably related to the causes of war and is the root of all conflict Gilligan, 1996 (James, Professor of Psychiatry at the Harvard Medical School and Director of the Center for the Study of Violence, p. 195-96) The deadliest form … inextricably related to each other, as cause to effect. Absent a transition away from this lens of political calculation, where large-scale war is our foremost concern make extinction inevitable. We must acknowledge our non-human enemies, such as poverty and water pollution to target violence at its root. Shallow suppression of social conflicts is rendered insufficient and only perpetuates conflict on a greater scale Sandy and Perkins, 2 (Leo R. veteran of the U.S. Navy and an active member of Veterans for Peace, Inc., co founder of Peace Studies at Plymouth State College and at Rivier College, Ray; teaches philosophy at Plymouth State College, The Nature of Peace and Its Implications for Peace Education”, Online journal of peace and conflict resolution, Issue 4.2, Spring 02, http://www.trinstitute.org/ojpcr/4_2natp.htm Any attempt to articulate … underlying causes of conflict that produce violence" (Woolman, 1985, p.8). Water access is the lynchpin to eliminating poverty globally. Without it, all other efforts are doomed to fail. C.S.I.S., 5 Center for Strategic Int’l Studies – Sandia National Laboratory [“Global Water Futures: Addressing Our Global Water Future,” 9/30/05, White Paper, http://www.sandia.gov/water/docs/CSIS-SNL_OGWF_9-28-05.PDF] Water as a U.S. … compelling in the future. Contention 4 is Gender Lack of clean water access subjugates womyn to the role of fetchers – they spend their lives gathering water and nothing else – only by taking steps to solve for water scarcity can we open space for gender equality IRIN, 7 integrated Regional Information networks [Running Dry: the humanitarian impact of the global water crisis, http://www.irinnews.org/InDepthMain.aspx?InDepthId=13&ReportId=61125] “The world’s water resources …guaranteed the right to actively participate in shaping water-management policy. This burden of lack of clean water access condemns womyn to a life of disease, lack of opportunities and virtual slavery— empowerment of African womyn is uniquely key to liberate Africa from other problems Unicef, 5 [“Women, Water and Hygiene are key to change in Africa”, Sep. 14 http://www.unicef.org/media/media_28260.html] The consequences … child mortality and low productivity." The subjugation of womyn must be rejected or we risk extinction of humanity—feminist nature of thought can transform militaristic institutions. Womyn empowerment is vital to solve any conflict Steans, 98 Senior Lecturer, International Relations Theory, University of Birmingham [Jill, Gender and International Relations: An Introduction, p. 102-103] In this view, not only … feminist 'revisions' are the subject of chapter 5. Negative Peace is not enough—advancing rights protections for gender are vital to transforming social norms that make war inevitable Bunch, 3 Executive Director of the Center for Women's Global Leadership at Douglass College, Rutgers, (Charlotte, Canadian Woman Studies 22 n.2, Fall/Winter 2002-2003, firstsearch) First, what do we mean by … deep changes in the war system. (10-11)

Water solutions offer womyn an opportunity to overcome gender disparities—water management is necessary for womyn to challenge social and cultural norms C.S.I.S. , 5 Center for Strategic Int’l Studies – Sandia National Laboratory [“Global Water Futures: Addressing Our Global Water Future,” 9/30/05, White Paper, http://www.sandia.gov/water/docs/CSIS-SNL_OGWF_9-28-05.PDF] Gender Equality Involving … undoubtedly lead to sustainable solutions (Faure 2003). Contention 5 is Solvency The Water for the Poor Act would enact a thought-out strategy that specifically addresses water security, effective sanitation programs, development efforts. Additionally, the plan would involve an alignment and enhancement of existing water and sanitation initiatives. Wilson Center. Event Summary. 2/14/06. “Next Steps for The Senator Paul Simon Water for the Poor Act (VIDEO)” http://www.wilsoncenter.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=events.event_summary&event_id=168642 "Water is crucial for life, but … extend the story, [and] look creatively” in future endeavors. Finally, the United States is vital to find a global solution to water shortages – a commitment would help to coordinate key agencies that take advantage of unique U.S. knowledge – and any other actor won’t be able to coordinate other governments, US agencies, and NGO’s to insure sustainable success. C.S.I.S. 05 Center for Strategic Int’l Studies – Sandia National Laboratory [“Global Water Futures: Addressing Our Global Water Future,” 9/30/05, White Paper, http://www.sandia.gov/water/docs/CSIS-SNL_OGWF_9-28-05.PDF] As the United States faces …maintain peace and prosperity at home and abroad.

BISHOP GUERTIN CP---AFF Plan: The United States federal government should establish a Global Health Service to expand the capacity of community health workers in the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief focus countries in the area designated by the resolution. Contention 1 is Diseases Assistance is being increased but will be ineffective without a more robust health care workforce The Joint Learning Initiative, 4 (The Joint Learning Initiative is a consortium of over 100 global health leaders, “Human resources for health: overcoming the crisis,” The Lancet Vol 364 Iss 9449, pages 1984-1990, November 27- December 3, Science Direct database) In particular, Africa’s poor health infrastructure cripples efforts to prevent disease spread Garret, 7 (Laurie, Senior Fellow for Global Health at the Council on Foreign Relations, “Prepared Statement Before the Senate Subcommittee on State, Foreign Operations and Related Programs,” 4-18-2007, www.cfr.org/publication/13130/) In the short term, there will be millions of preventable death EACH YEAR States News Service, 7 (“Bipartisan Group of Senators Introduce African Health Capacity Investment of 2007”, March 7, Lexis-Nexis Universe) The impact outweighs any disadvantage – AIDS kills hundreds of millions of people, causes genocide, ethnic cleansing and economic collapse – this both makes war more likely and magnifies its impact Singer, 2 (Peter W., Senior Fellow at the Brookings Institution: Director of the 21st Century Defense Initiative, PhD in Government Harvard University, Department of Defense-Balkans Task Force, “AIDS and International Security”, Spring 2002, Survival Vol. 44, No. 1, Spring 2002, Pg. 145-148, www.brookings.edu/dybdocroot/views/articles/fellows/2002_singer.pdf) The cycle of AIDS transmission and war will allow the virus to mutate, become airborne and spread worldwide Singer, 2 (Peter W., Senior Fellow at the Brookings Institution: Director of the 21st Century Defense Initiative, PhD in Government Harvard University, Department of Defense-Balkans Task Force, “AIDS and International Security”, Spring 2002, Survival Vol. 44, No. 1, Spring 2002, Pg. 145-148, www.brookings.edu/dybdocroot/views/articles/fellows/2002_singer.pdf) The impact is extinction Muchiri, 2000 (Michael Kibaara; Staff Member at Ministry of Education in Nairobi; “Will Annan finally put out Africa’s fires?” Jakarta Post; March 6; Lexis-Nexis Universe) A Global Health Service will mobilize thousands of health workers – federal leadership is key Mullan, 7 (Fitzhugh, MD, Department of Health Policy, George Washington University, JAMA, “Responding to the Global HIV/AIDS Crisis: A Peace Corps for Health,” 2-21-2007, 297:744-746, American Medical Association Journals database) The Global Health Service will quickly serve as a catalyst to build new healthcare capacity Davis , 5 (Paul Davis, Director of Government Relations @ Health Global Access Project,“Strategic US Initiatives for Health Workforce Self Sufficiency in Developing Nations,” Health Gap Global Access Project, 12-1-2005, http://healthgap.org/HCWmemo.html) The plan will create a sustainable health system that is not susceptible to brain drain Davis , 5 (Paul Davis, Director of Government Relations @ Health Global Access Project,“Strategic US Initiatives for Health Workforce Self Sufficiency in Developing Nations,” Health Gap Global Access Project, 12-1-2005, http://healthgap.org/HCWmemo.html) Community health workers provide a long-term solution to Africa’s healthcare worker shortage – they won’t migrate from the country Dovio, 5 (Dr. Delanyo Dovlo, Chief of Party @ Population Council, Accra, Ghana and Former District Director of Medical Services, Former Regional Director in the Western Region, and the Former National Director of Human Resource Development. “Filling the gaps: Introducing substitute health workers in Africa.” id21 Insights Health, Vol 7, August 2005, www.id21.org/insights/insights-h07/insights-issh07-art05.html) Contention 2 is Public Health Diplomacy U.S. credibility is at an all time low – a commitment to public health is necessary to repair America’s image Fortin, 7 (Fred, worked in health care delivery for over 35 years and his experience ranges from mental health crisis intervention, child abuse prevention, studying AIDS in Africa, to university teaching and corporate health care strategic

policy development, World Health Care Blog, “Soft Power and U.S. Health Care Revisited,” 6-12-2007, www.worldhealthcareblog.org/2007/06/12/soft-power-and-us-health-care-revisited/) Building upon the PEPFAR will help the U.S. rekindle international partnerships and create a sustainable foundation for benevolent hegemony The Lancet, 5 (Editorial, “America at home and abroad,” Jan 1-Jan 7, 2005, vol. 365, no. 945, Proquest) In particular, the Global Health Service will uniquely foster relationships and multicultural understanding to overwhelm anti-American abroad Mullan, et al, 5 (Fitzhugh Mullan, Professor of Prevention and Community Health at George Washington University, Claire Panosian, Patricia Cuff, Editors, Board of Global Health at the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies, Healers Abroad: Americans Responding to the Human Resource Crisis in HIV/AIDS, 4-19-2005, www.nap.edu/catalog/11270.html#toc) This positive image of America promoted by the GHS will persist over time Mullan, et al, 5 (Fitzhugh Mullan, Professor of Prevention and Community Health at George Washington University, Claire Panosian, Patricia Cuff, Editors, Board of Global Health at the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies, Healers Abroad: Americans Responding to the Human Resource Crisis in HIV/AIDS, 4-19-2005, www.nap.edu/catalog/11270.html#toc) A commitment to improving public health abroad is essential to reverse negative perceptions of the U.S. and sustain soft power leadership Benatar & Fox, 5 (Solomon R. Benatar – Professor of Medicine and Bioethics at the University of Capetown, and Renée C. Fox – Professor of Sociology and Bioethics at the University of Pennsylvania, Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, “Meeting Threats to Global Health: A call for American leadership,” 48.3 (2005) 344-361, Project Muse, JMP) Soft power is key to hard power – its decline will cause domestic isolationism Nye, 4 (Joseph, dean of the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard, Political Science Quarterly, Summer, ebsco) The collapse of U.S. soft power will shatter global cooperation – making nuclear proliferation, environmental destruction, failed states and diseases inevitable Reiffel, 5 (Lex, Visiting Fellow at the Global Economy and Development Center of the Brookings Institution, The Brookings Institution, Reaching Out: Americans Serving Overseas, 12-27-2005, www.brookings.edu/views/papers/20051207rieffel.pdf) Finally, the collapse of U.S. leadership will unleash conflicts – resulting great power wars Thayer, 6 (Bradley A., Assistant Professor of Political Science at the University of Minnesota, Duluth, The National Interest, November -December, “In Defense of Primacy”, lexis) Contention 3 is Terrorism Failed states in Sub-Saharan Africa will are becoming hubs for terrorists – allowing for an attack against the U.S. Dempsey, 6 (Thomas, Director of African Studies @ U.S. Army War College and served as a strategic intelligence analyst for Africa at the John F. Kennedy Special Warfare Center and as Chief of Africa Branch for the Defense Intelligence Agency, Counterterrorism in African Failed States: Challenges and Potential Solutions, April, http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pdffiles/pub649.pdf) There is an immediate and significant risk that these terrorist hubs will obtain nuclear weapons – risking an attack on the U.S. homeland Dempsey, 6 (Thomas, Director of African Studies @ U.S. Army War College and served as a strategic intelligence analyst for Africa at the John F. Kennedy Special Warfare Center and as Chief of Africa Branch for the Defense Intelligence Agency, Counterterrorism in African Failed States: Challenges and Potential Solutions, April, http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pdffiles/pub649.pdf) U.S. lashout will kill hundreds of millions Easterbrook, 1 (Greg, Fellow at the Brookings Institute, CNN, “America's New War: Nuclear Threats,” 11-1-2001, http://transcripts.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0111/01/gal.00.html) Nuclear terrorism will cause extinction Sid-Ahmed, 4 (Mohamed, Managing Editor for Al-Ahali, “Extinction!” August 26-September 1, Issue no. 705, http://weekly.ahram.org.eg/2004/705/op5.htm)

In addition, the lack of US involvement in African affairs has decreased US credibility within the continent – reversal of this trend is crucial to prevent African instability, a collapse of free trade and hegemony, and environmental catastrophes Sisk, 96 (Timothy, “Future U.S. Engagement in Africa Opportunities and Obstacles for Conflict Management” – United States Institute of Peace, July 1996, Special Report No. 17, http://www.usip.org/pubs/specialreports/early/USAfrica1.html) The plan will build international cooperation to successful carry out the war on terror Senator Frist, 6 (Senator Bill Frist, Senate Majority Leader, National Review Online, “Corps Diplomacy: A Healthy Approach,” 2-7-2006, www.nationalreview.com/comment/frist200602070749.asp, JMP) Targeted public health assistance will improve the image of the U.S. in Africa and prevent terrorism from failed states Tsang, 6 (Steve, PhD Philosophy University of Oxford, Intelligence and Human Rights in the Are of Global Terrorism, Praeger Security International, Westport Connecticut, London, Pg. 162-163.) The result is trust and dialogue with countries will pave the way for the resolution of conflicts Indianapolis Star – quoting Former Senate Major Leader Bill Frist – 2007 (Bill Theobald, “Frist targets global health: Former Senate majority leader sees health care as the 'currency of peace'” 6-3-2007, www.indystar.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20070603/NATIONWORLD/706030435/-1/LOCAL17)

BLAKE LM---AFF US has the ability to alleviate health care problems in sub-Saharan Africa, but current military medical assistance is too modest in scope Fox, US Army Colonel, Commander of Bayne-Jones Army Hospital, 98 [C. William, Jr., “Phantom Warriors: Disease as a Threat to US National Security”, PARAMETERS, US Army War College Quarterly, Winter 97-98, http://www.carlisle.army.mil/usawc/Parameters/97winter/fox.htm, Accessed 7/3/07] The United states has the resources… fallen far short of their potential.

Lack of resources and training exacerbates conditions in Africa, putting more at risk from instability and unnecessary suffering Fox, US Army Colonel, Commander of Bayne-Jones Army Hospital, 98 [C. William, Jr., “Phantom Warriors: Disease as a Threat to US National Security”, PARAMETERS, US Army War College Quarterly, Winter 97-98, http://www.carlisle.army.mil/usawc/Parameters/97winter/fox.htm, Accessed 7/3/07] Government services of the type and effectiveness… lack of resources and limited training.

Plan: The United States federal government should substantially increase its public health assistance by expanding long-term MEDFLAG operations to include a permanent partnership element and the provision of all necessary specialists, equipment and supplies to Kenya, Nigeria, Ethiopia and South Africa

Adv. 1 is disease Many diseases are afflicting Africa now – these diseases include HIV, Ebola, Drug resistant strains of tuberculosis and malaria, and epidemics Fox, US Army Colonel, Commander of Bayne-Jones Army Hospital, 98 [C. William, Jr., “Phantom Warriors: Disease as a Threat to US National Security”, PARAMETERS, US Army War College Quarterly, Winter 97-98, http://www.carlisle.army.mil/usawc/Parameters/97winter/fox.htm, Accessed 7/3/07] The phantom warriors, scientifically…infectious diarrhea caused by typhoid or cholera.

AIDS kills millions as we speak and threatens extinction Mathiu, Journalist for Africa News, 2000 (Mutuma, AFRICA NEWS, July 15, 2000, online) Every age has its killer…so hopelessly in jeopardy. In spite of treatments, tuberculosis also threatens millions of lives each year Times of Zambia, 2006

(“Zambia; Kamwala Boy Zumla Leads Fight Against Tuberculosis On World TB Day Launch”, March 23, 2006, Africa News, accessed on Lexis 6/21/07) It is an indisputable fact….havoc among our population. Disease in Africa is endemic – a new Black Plague threatens the African continent – US Assistance is necessary and we have an obligation as Americans to act Carroll 2001 (Terry Carroll 2001, Col. US Army; US Army War College Strategy Research Project, Engagement of Marraige: The Case for an Expanded Military Medical Role In Africa; March 27; http://www.stormingmedia.us/98/9840/A984093.html) New and emerging infections… and programs appears axiomatic. As a result, disease outbreaks put Africa and the world at risk of extinction-level events Fox, Command Surgeon of the Joint Readiness Training Center and MD, 97 (William C., “MILITARY MEDICAL OPERATIONS IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA: THE DoD "POINT OF THE SPEAR" FOR A NEW CENTURY”, Volume XV of Essays on Strategy, National Defense University, June 24, 1997, http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pdffiles/PUB202.pdf, pg 7, accessed on July 2, 2007) HIV is a pandemic killer….of weapons of mass destruction. U.S. Medflag operations are a uniquely effective way to address the root of disease and spur comprehensive,coordinated approaches to public health in sub-Saharan Africa Fox ‘98 (C. William, M.D., Command Surgeon – Joint Readiness Training Center, “Phantom Warriors”, Parameters, Winter, http://www.carlisle.army.mil/USAWC/PARAMETERS/97winter/fox.htm) Addressing the root causes of…involving entire subregions. Bolstering military medical assistance will solve – expanding medical civic action projects will facilitate research and capacity building necessary to stabilize and integrate health care in Sub-Saharan Africa. Failure to act makes crises inevitable. Fox, US Army Colonel, Commander of Bayne-Jones Army Hospital, 98 [C. William, Jr., “Phantom Warriors: Disease as a Threat to US National Security”, PARAMETERS, US Army War College Quarterly, Winter 97-98, http://www.carlisle.army.mil/usawc/Parameters/97winter/fox.htm, Accessed 7/3/07] To encourage the development…the next African humanitarian disaster. Eliminating AIDS in African militaries is a crucial pre-requisite to solving the overall pandemic

Elbe ‘02 (Stefan, Lecturer in International Relations at the University of Warwick, International Security, Fall) This emerging symbiosis between… international security issue.

Adv. 2 is Hegemony The US and China are fighting a political war for regional interests in Sub-Saharan Africa, and China is winning control of regional anchor states. Absent action by the US, our interests will be lost Lovelace 07 (Douglas, Director of Strategic Studies Institute, Forward to “Political Warfare in Sub-Saharan Africa”, March) Africa today has emerged…and uses it seriously. And, this political warfare is waged through methods such as health aid, development, and education Chau 07 (Donovan, MOState Department of Defense and Strategic Studies, Expert in threats emerging from Africa for AMTI (an ex-special ops security group), “Political Warfare in Sub-Saharan Africa” March) A clear, concise, and…of peoples and culture. And, China’s expansion is driving its military power Zweig and Jianhai 05 (David, director of the center on China’s Transnational Relations at the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, and Bi, postdoctoral fellow at the same location, Foreign Affairs, “China’s Global Hunt for Energy”, September/October, http://fullaccess.foreignaffairs.org/20050901faessay84503/david-zweig-bi-jianhai/china-s-global-hunt-for-energy.html) A big test of the…could block China’s oil transport route Chinese military expansion will collapse US hegemony O’Connell 06 (Meghan, UPI, “China Threatens to Rival American Power Status”, June 22, http://www.spacewar.com/reports/China_Threatens_To_Rival_American_Power_Status.html) China’s rapid military expansion over…have a global impact.”

And, Expanding MEDFLAG operations in Africa sends a crucial signal of U.S. international engagement—it’s a test case for soft power and leadership – It overcomes all your arguments about the State of USengagement and reverses the SQ decline in Soft Power Carroll, 01 (Colonel Terry, “Engagement or Marriage: The Case for an Expanded Military Medical Role in Africa”, Army War, College Strategy Report, http://www.stormingmedia.us/98/9840/A984093.html)

Rapid changes in the power structure of a unipolar world cause extinction Nye 90, former assistant secretary of defense and president of Harvard's Kennedy school of government (Joseph, Bound To Lead: The Changing Nature Of American Power 1990, p. 16-17) Some suggest that…as we know it may end. American primacy solves war, economic crisis, human rights, poverty disease, prolif

Sweig 06, Senior Fellow for Latin America Studies and Director for Latin America Studies (Julia, FRIENDLY FIRE, 2006, p. 40) It may be lonely…guarantee of success. The collapse of U.S. leadership will spark wars around the globe Brooks 06, senior fellow at The Heritage Foundation (Peter, “Why they need us: Imagine a world without America”, Heritage Foundation Commentary, july 4th) This picture isn’t pretty… assistance to needy countries Subpoint B is the Economy (1/2) Chinese hege collapses our ability to preserve oil supplies Zweig and Jianhai 05 (David, director of the center on China’s Transnational Relations at the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, and Bi, postdoctoral fellow at the same location, Foreign Affairs, “China’s Global Hunt for Energy”, September/October, http://fullaccess.foreignaffairs.org/20050901faessay84503/david-zweig-bi-jianhai/china-s-global-hunt-for-energy.html) The United States has recently…a Chinese military attack. Shortages would deck the economy – no more stable labor markets The Economist, 04 (April 23) China is already on the…frayed as in tatters. Economic collapse causes nuclear war and risks extinction Bearden 00 T.E., LTC U.S. Army (Retired), [“The Unnecessary Energy Crisis: How to Solve It Quickly,” http://www.freerepublic.com/forum/a3aaf97f22e23.htm, June 24] History bears out that…many decades MEDFLAG exercises are effective tools for political warfare and defense strategy – experts conclude that MEDFLAG is the single most important way for the US to access Africa Fox 97 (William Jr, Army Lieutenant Colonel, Special Forces officer and flight surgeon, “Military Medical Operations in SubSaharan Africa” June 24) But, if such…recent MEDFLAG missions. Medical civic action projects facilitate and enhance local and regional disaster response capabilities, while also bolstering US preparedness, strengthening regional stability Larson, Navy Mass Communication Specialist 2nd Class Commander, Naval Forces Europe Public Affairs, 7-3-07 (Rosa, Medical exercise begins in Gabon, http://www.eucom.mil/english/FullStory.asp?art=1355, Date Accessed: 7-6-07) More than 65 U.S. military…enhancing regional relationships. We have political warfare capabilities – for example, air force MEDFLAG operations to give public health assistance Chau 07

(Donovan, MOState Department of Defense and Strategic Studies, Expert in threats emerging from Africa for AMTI (an ex-special ops security group), “Political Warfare in Sub-Saharan Africa” March) The U.S. Air Force… within its support units

BRONX SCIENCE MB AND HD CONTENTION ONE – INHERENCY

THE UNITED STATES CURRENTLY EXPORTS ITS GROWING HEAPS OF ELECTRONIC WASTE IN ORDER TO AVOID STRICT DOMESTIC REGULATIONS. Betsy M. Billinghurst, JD Candidate – U Colorado School of Law, ‘5 (Spring, 16 COLO. J. INT'L ENVTL. L. & POL'Y 399)

Electronic waste ("e-waste") is the fastest-growing waste problem today……. exposure to hazardous wastes contained within the imported electronic wastes. 10

E-WASTE IS INCREASINGLY DUMPED IN AFRICA BECAUSE OTHERS HAVE TIGHT REGULATIONS. Jerome Douglas, November 29, 2006 (“E-waste from advanced nations creating toxic dumping grounds in Asia, Africa”, http://www.newstarget.com/021197.html)

In recent times, much of this electronic waste has found its way to Asian countries…… and phones are defunct -- in other words, e-waste."

CONTENTION TWO – NEOLIBERALISM

NEOLIBERAL MARKET MODELS DEMAND THAT AFRICAN COUNTRIES TAKE OUR WASTE IN THE NAME OF EFFICIENCY. THIS SUBJECTS THE MOST VULNERABLE TO THE MOST HAZARD. Alastair Iles, research fellow at Energy and Resources group and University of California, ‘4 (Global Environmental Politics - Volume 4, Number 4, pp. 76-107, Project Muse)

Environmental justice refers to the idea that human activities—…….l and economic developments to create vulnerable populations.

THE NEOLIBERAL DIVISION OF LABOR FORCES OTHERS TO DEAL WITH THE ONGOING RISKS OF OUR WASTE SO WE CAN FANTASIZE ABOUT THE RISKS OF NUCLEAR EXCHANGE. THIS DEPRIORITIZATION OF STRUCTURAL VIOLENCE IS ITSELF A FORM OF EXTERMINATION. Masahide Kato, Department of Political Science – University of Hawaii, ‘93 (Alternatives 18, p. 346-350, “Nuclear Globalism”)

The pseudo-universalistic rhetoric of globalism is a discursive ……. throughout nuclear criticism by linking the technostrategic interface to the formation of discourse.

THE PRIORITIZATION OF THE IDEALIZED MARKET OVER PEOPLE LEADS TO EXTINCTION. Boaventura de Sousa Santos, Professor of Sociology - University of Coimbra, 03 (Bad Subjects, Issue #63, April, bad.eserver.org/issues/2003/63/santos.html)

According to Franz Hinkelammert, the West has repeatedly been under the illusion that it should try to save humanity by destroying part of it. ……. into a machine of horror and destruction.

CONTENTION THREE – SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY

THE TECHNOLOGY INDUSTRY SWEEPS E-WASTE UNDER THE RUG BY EXPORTING IT TO AFRICA—AMERICAN CONSUMERS BLINDLY BUY ELECTRONICS WITHOUT QUESTIONING THE COLLATERAL DAMAGE OF OWNING THE LATEST TECHNOLOGY. BASEL ACTION NETWORK, 2007 [DIANE SOLOMAN, “TOXIC OUTSOURCING”, http://www.ban.org/ban_news/2007/070321_toxic_outsourcing.html]

21 March 2007 – Al Gore's February visit to Silicon Valley and …….. breaking E-stuff apart by hand to recapture whatever can be sold.

MAKING OTHERS PAY THE COST OF AMERICAN CONSUMPTION CREATES A MORAL HAZARD THAT DESTROYS ACCOUNTABILITY. SNYDER, PROFESSOR AT PRINCETON, 1997 [“INSTITUTIONAL REFORM: AN APPLICATION OF ORGANIZATIONAL THEORY TO REFORM THE INTELLIGENCE COMMUNITY”, DIANE, http://www.fas.org/irp/eprint/snyder/organization.htm]

The problems of hierarchy were mentioned in passing above…….. theory (see section on Problematic Internal Institutional Pathologies for intelligence-specific examples).

THE EXAMPLE OF E-WASTE HIGHLIGHTS THE PRODUCTION OF RISK IN INTERNATIONAL TRADE AND IRRESPONSIBLE CONSUMERISM.

ALASTAIR ILES, POSTDOCTORAL RESEARCH FELLOW AT THE ENERGY AND RESOURCES GROUP AT UC, “MAPPING ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE IN TECHNOLOGY FLOW”, GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLITICS, 2004 [PROJECT MUSE]

Electronic wastes exemplify the pattern of technology and materials flows ………. They highlight the global politics of producing and consuming risks.

THIS IRRESPONSIBLE CONSUMERISM GENERATES ITS OWN WORST-CASE, APOCALYPTIC THREATS TO JUSTIFY DUMPING SYSTEMIC RISKS ON OTHERS. Kathleen Stewart, Anthropology – UT Austin, & Susan Harding, Anthropology – UCSC, ‘99 (Annual Review of Anthropology, Vol. 28: 285-310, “BAD ENDINGS: American Apocalypsis”)

Modernity is both a condition of possibility for the contemporary apocalyptic ……. amnesia in the form of dreams of love and freedom achieved and miraculous new beginnings.

EXTINCTION RESULTS - THIS 'TRAFFIC IN RISK' THREATENS LIFE AT EVERY SCALE. Nicholas Low, Lecturer – U Melbourne, & Brendan Gleeson, Fellow - Australian Nat’l U, ‘98 (University, Justice, Society, and Nature: an Exploration of Political Ecology, p. 103-104)

Of course, as Ulrich Beck (1992; 1995) has shown us, the question of environmental ……. threatens to entrench the injustice of global uneven development.

THUS, WE OFFER THE FOLLOWING PLAN:

THE JUDICIAL BRANCH OF THE UNITED STATES FEDERAL GOVERNMENT SHOULD RULE IN THE NEXT AVAILABLE AND APPROPRIATE CASE AND ON THE GROUNDS OF THE BASEL CONVENTION THAT THE UNITED STATES FEDERAL GOVERNMENT MUST PROVIDE SUFFICIENT AND PROPORTIONATE TAXES FOR TECHNICAL AND FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE TO AFRICA SOUTH OF THE SAHARA FOR SAFE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL OF UNITED STATES’ ELECTRONIC WASTE EXPORTS TO AFRICA SOUTH OF THE SAHARA.

CONTENTION FOUR – SOLVENCY

THE PLAN’S FOCUS ON WASTE DISPOSAL CREATES A HOT POTATO THAT POLITICIZES THE ENTIRE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL ORDER. WHAT’S REALLY AT STAKE ARE THE RISKS WE’RE WILLING TO RECOGNIZE AND PRIORITIZE. Ulrich Beck, Professor for Sociology at the University of Munich, British Journal of Sociology Professor at the London School of Economics and Sciences, ‘92

(“Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity”, p. 76-77)

Where modernization risks have been 'recognized' – and there is a lot involved in that, ……. field for a partial redistribution of power – partially retaining the old formal responsibilities, partially expressly altering them.

THE PLAN CONFRONTS CONSUMERS WITH THE SOCIAL COST OF THEIR CONSUMPTION. DAS-GUPTA, PhD Economics, 04 [“SOURCES OF GOVERNMENT FINANCE”, GOOGLE”]

Regulatory or "Pigouvian" taxes are taxes the government ………Pigouvian principles apply are taxes on demerit goods or "sin taxes". Excises on liquor and tobacco are examples.

CONTESTING OVER CONSUMPTION OF COMPUTERS CHALLENGES ALL PRACTICE OF CONSUMPTION AND INEQUALITY.

Amos Batto, Indiana Peace and Justice Network & Grad Student History – U Indiana, ‘6 (“A Better Upgrade, Not a Faster Throw-Away,” http://www.ciber-runa.net/guide/BetterUpgrade--ActivistGuide.html)

Computer consumption in the US is part …….and link you into collective efforts for reform.

US-AFRICA TRADE IN HAZARDOUS WASTE SHOULD BE GOVERNED BY CUSTOMARY INTERNATIONAL LAW UNDER THE BASEL CONVENTION. Takako Morita, JD UC Hastings, ‘5 (Georgetown International Environmental Law Reivew, Summer, “NIMBY Syndrome”)

Every country has a right to engage in business transactions with ……. "do not derogate from the environmentally sound management of hazardous wastes."66

OUR PLAN IS MUCH MORE THAN THE LATEST “SECURITY PATCH”—WE REPROGRAM THE GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION OF RISK SMITH, EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR OF SILICON VALLEY TOXICS COALITION, & RAPHAEL, ASST. PROFESSOR OF COMMUNICATION, 03 [“HIGH TECH GOES GREEN”, TED & CHAD, http://www.yesmagazine.org/article.asp?ID=596]

The European solutionThe European Union is way ahead ……. By downloading Europe’s program to the US, we can finally begin to clean up the “clean industry” around the globe.

MANDATORY TAXES ARE KEY TO FORCE ACCOUNTABILITY AND TO REIGN IN DUMPING. Howard F. Chang, Assoc Prof of Law – USC Law Center, ‘95 (Georgetown Law Journal, 83 Geo. L.J. 2131)

1. Sticks Deter Overuse of the Environment Under the reasoning of the GATT panels, countries would be shielded from sanctions, and (at least under the reasoning of the 1991 GATT panel) …….. a perverse incentive for more countries to harm the environment in anticipation of such an agreement. 105

CALHOUN JB -- AFF

Observation One: Inherency

The Department of Defense's MEDFLAG program fails in the status quo due to short-term, irregular implementation Paul W. Pruden Lieutenant Commander, Medical Service Corps, United States Navy, 2-13-2006, "Should Medical Humanitarian and Civic Assistance Activities Focus on Building Public Health Capacity in Africa to Better Influence Theater Security Cooperation Objectives?" http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA463935, p. 9-10

Therefore we present the following plan: The United States Federal Government should substantially increase public health assistance by creating research and surveillance clinics in east, west, central and southern Africa that will support long-term MEDFLAG missions dedicated to public health activities.

Advantage One: Disease Containment

Infectious disease kills millions of Africans every year Paul W. Pruden Lieutenant Commander, Medical Service Corps, United States Navy, 2-13-2006, "Should Medical Humanitarian and Civic Assistance Activities Focus on Building Public Health Capacity in Africa to Better Influence Theater Security Cooperation Objectives?" http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA463935, p. 6-7

This creates the potential for dangerous disease mutations that could spread globally Denis Kaufman, with the Defense Intelligence Agency, 2-21-2001, "Medical Intelligence: A Theater Engagement Tool," p. 6-7, https://carlisle-www.army.mil/srp/ex_paper/Kaufman_D_C_01.pdf

Unchecked disease causes human extinction South China Morning Post, 1-4-1996 (Dr. Ben Abraham= "called "one of the 100 greatest minds in history" by super-IQ society Mensa" and owner of "Toronto-based biotechnology company, Structured Biologicals Inc" according to same article)

Diseases have the potential to cause global economic chaos from overreaction Kaletsky 2003 (principal economic commentator and an Associate Editor of The Times; New Zealand Business Roundtable, July 2003) "It is perhaps because the stakes are so high today that investors and businessmen have become so"

Global economic decline causes extinction Lt. Col, Tom Bearden, PhD Nuclear Engineering, April 25, 2000, http://www.cheniere.org/correspondence/042500%20%20modified.htm

The US military is uniquely vulnerable to bioweapon threats now due to poor training of medical personnel Captain Joseph W. DeFeo, United Sates Navy, 3-15-2006, "JOINT MEDICAL READINESS: ARE WE READY TO ANSWER THE WMD THREAT?," http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA449697 p. 7

Effective response to any bioweapon attack would rely on military consequence management capabilities James Jay Carafano, Ph.D. and Senior Research Fellow at The Heritage Foundation, September 15, 2005 (Improving the National Response to Catastrophic Disaster, Statement before the Committee on Government Reform, http://www.heritage.org/Research/HomelandDefense/tst091505a.cfm#_ftnref1) "Most disasters, including terrorist attacks, can be handled by emergency responders. Only catastrophic"

The risk of bio-attack is high—we isolate three scenarios

A. International attack

The risk of biological terrorism is high and centered in Africa—surveillance and response measures are key B. Njuguna '05 (James Thuo Njuguna holds a master of science degree in biotechnology and is currently completing his PhD in medical parasitology at the University of Bonn. He previously worked for the International Livestock Research Institute in Nairobi on control of trypanosomosis and malaria. African Security Review Vol 14 No 1, 2005 -http://www.iss.co.za/index.php?link_id=3&slink_id=1967&link_type=12&slink_type=12&tmpl_id=3 )

Uncontained bioattack leads to extinction—the risk is greater than nuclear war Ochs '02 (Richard Ochs, ANALYST FOR THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS WORKING GROUP, July 9 2002 -"BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS MUST BE ABOLISHED IMMEDIATELY" -http://www.freefromterror.net/other_articles/abolish.html)

The capacity to minimize the death toll in a domestic attack is crucial – large casualties ensures a US response that escalates to nuclear war. Conley '03 (Lt Col Harry W. is chief of the Systems Analysis Branch, Directorate of Requirements, Headquarters Air Combat Command (ACC), Langley AFB, Virginia. Air & Space Power Journal - Spring 2003 -http://www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil/airchronicles/apj/apj03/spr03/conley.html

C. Power Projection

Military vulnerability to bioweapons will deter US power projection Susan Martin, Professor of War Studies at King's College, March 2002, Journal of Strategic Studies, p. 63

US leadership is essential to prevent global nuclear exchange. Zalmay Khalilzad, RAND, The Washington Quarterly, Spring 1995

Advantage Three: Conflict Resolution

The U.S. has committed to siting a new military command in Africa. Its effectiveness will depend on integrating humanitarian soft power missions alongside hard power assets J. Peter Pham, Director of the Nelson Institute for International and Public Affairs and a Research Fellow of the Institute for Infrastructure and Information Assurance, 2-15-07, World Defense Review, http://worlddefensereview.com/pham021507.shtml

Unbalanced hard power means U.S. presence will be a source for African repression and instability Ezekiel Pajibo, executive director of the Liberia-Based Center for Democratic Empowerment and Emira Woods, the codirector of Foreign Policy In Focus at the Institute for Policy Studies, 9-6-2007, "AFRICOM: Wrong for Liberia, Disastrous for Africa," http://news.newamericamedia.org/news/view_article.html?article_id=5bc524c3606c66ad230a15ba52917d74 "The Bush administration's new obsession with AFRICOM and its militaristic approach has many malign"

MEDFLAG exercises are the single best way to increase DOD soft power on the continent and build deep U.S.-African relations Dan Henk, Colonel, External Researcher at the Strategic Studies Institute of the U.S. Army War College, March 1998, "Uncharted Paths, Uncertain Vision: U.S. Military Involvements in Sub-Saharan Africa in the Wake of the Cold War," http://stinet.dtic.mil/oai/oai?&verb=getRecord&metadataPrefix=html&identifier=ADA365414 , p. 35-36

U.S.-African bilateral ties are essential to continental peace and stability Richard Catoire, Commander in the US Navy, Winter 2000, Parameters, http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0IBR/is_4_30/ai_74522168/pg_6 "Despite--or perhaps because of--the conflicts on the continent, African countries themselves are"

U.S. conflict management credibility is key to prevent war, genocide and environmental devastation Timothy Sisk, Brookings Institute Program Officer, July 1996, Future U.S. Engagement in Africa Opportunities and Obstacles for Conflict Management http://www.usip.org/pubs/specialreports/early/USAfrica1.html "Africa's marginalization in U.S. foreign policy has increasingly become a reality; this disengagement"

African conflicts lead to nuclear war Dr. Jeffrey Deutsch, founder of the Rabid Tiger Project, a political risk consulting and related research firm, 11-18-02, http://www.rabidtigers.com/rtn/newsletterv2n9.html

Observation Two: Solvency

Regional clinics integrated with MEDFLAG exercises leads to effective disease surveillance and containment capabilities, for natural and intentional pathogen threats Colonel C. William Fox, Jr., M.D., Commander of Bayne-Jones Army Hospital, where he concurrently serves as Command Surgeon of the Joint Readiness Training Center, Winter 1997-98, Parameters, http://www.carlisle.army.mil/USAWC/PARAMETERS/97winter/fox.htm

Longterm MEDCAP deployments strengthens training, solves any of the programs current weaknesses, and builds sustainable public health capacity Lieutenant Colonel Doug Logee, Army Pediatrician who is currently assigned to Brooke Army Medical Center and director of the San Antonio Military Pediatric Center's civil military- medical training program in Honduras, February 2007, "Can We Build a Better Medical Civic Assistance Program?" The DISAM Journal, http://www.disam.dsca.mil/pubs/Journal%20Index/Journals/Journal_Index/Vol%2029_1/Lougee.pdf, p. 70-72

The military is the best actor—no other entity possesses similar capabilities Paul W. Pruden Lieutenant Commander, Medical Service Corps, United States Navy, 2-13-2006, "Should Medical Humanitarian and Civic Assistance Activities Focus on Building Public Health Capacity in Africa to Better Influence Theater Security Cooperation Objectives?" http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA463935, p. 16

DOD run regional research centers are integral to prevent global disease spread and guarantee effective countermeasures to bioattack Colonel C. William Fox, Jr., M.D., Commander of Bayne-Jones Army Hospital, where he concurrently serves as Command Surgeon of the Joint Readiness Training Center, Winter 1997-98, Parameters, http://www.carlisle.army.mil/USAWC/PARAMETERS/97winter/fox.htm

Effective surveillance and response capabilities checks the impact to bioterrorism Richard A. Falkenrath, Assistant Professor of Public Policy at the John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, Spring 2001, International Security, p. 159-160

Bioterror response capabilities deters the development of bioweapons Stephen Flynn, Senior Fellow in National Security Studies at the Council on Foreign Relations, September/October 2004, Foreign Affairs, accessed electronically

Finally—MEDFLAG missions deter conflict, increase force readiness and solve public health Major Jeffrey L. Bryant, 1-3-1997, graduate Air Command and Staff College, Assessing the Long-Term Health Benefits of Medical Humanitarian Civic Assistance Missions, http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA398474, p. 3-4

CARROLTON ---ALL TEAMS
Observation One: Inherency

The Department of Defense's MEDFLAG program fails in the status quo due to short-term, irregular implementation Paul W. Pruden Lieutenant Commander, Medical Service Corps, United States Navy, 2-13-2006, "Should Medical Humanitarian and Civic Assistance Activities Focus on Building Public Health Capacity in Africa to Better Influence Theater Security Cooperation Objectives?" http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA463935, p. 9-10

Therefore we present the following plan: The United States Federal Government should substantially increase public health assistance by creating research and surveillance clinics in east, west, central and southern Africa that will support long-term MEDFLAG missions dedicated to public health activities.

Advantage One: Disease Containment

Infectious disease kills millions of Africans every year Paul W. Pruden Lieutenant Commander, Medical Service Corps, United States Navy, 2-13-2006, "Should Medical Humanitarian and Civic Assistance Activities Focus on Building Public Health Capacity in Africa to Better Influence Theater Security Cooperation Objectives?" http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA463935, p. 6-7

This creates the potential for dangerous disease mutations that could spread globally Denis Kaufman, with the Defense Intelligence Agency, 2-21-2001, "Medical Intelligence: A Theater Engagement Tool," p. 6-7, https://carlisle-www.army.mil/srp/ex_paper/Kaufman_D_C_01.pdf

Unchecked disease causes human extinction South China Morning Post, 1-4-1996 (Dr. Ben Abraham= "called "one of the 100 greatest minds in history" by super-IQ society Mensa" and owner of "Toronto-based biotechnology company, Structured Biologicals Inc" according to same article)

Diseases have the potential to cause global economic chaos from overreaction Kaletsky 2003 (principal economic commentator and an Associate Editor of The Times; New Zealand Business Roundtable, July 2003) "It is perhaps because the stakes are so high today that investors and businessmen have become so"

Global economic decline causes extinction Lt. Col, Tom Bearden, PhD Nuclear Engineering, April 25, 2000, http://www.cheniere.org/correspondence/042500%20%20modified.htm

The US military is uniquely vulnerable to bioweapon threats now due to poor training of medical personnel Captain Joseph W. DeFeo, United Sates Navy, 3-15-2006, "JOINT MEDICAL READINESS: ARE WE READY TO ANSWER THE WMD THREAT?," http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA449697 p. 7

Effective response to any bioweapon attack would rely on military consequence management capabilities James Jay Carafano, Ph.D. and Senior Research Fellow at The Heritage Foundation, September 15, 2005 (Improving the National Response to Catastrophic Disaster, Statement before the Committee on Government Reform, http://www.heritage.org/Research/HomelandDefense/tst091505a.cfm#_ftnref1) "Most disasters, including terrorist attacks, can be handled by emergency responders. Only catastrophic"

The risk of bio-attack is high—we isolate three scenarios

A. International attack

The risk of biological terrorism is high and centered in Africa—surveillance and response measures are key B. Njuguna '05 (James Thuo Njuguna holds a master of science degree in biotechnology and is currently completing his PhD in medical parasitology at the University of Bonn. He previously worked for the International Livestock Research Institute in Nairobi on control of trypanosomosis and malaria. African Security Review Vol 14 No 1, 2005 -http://www.iss.co.za/index.php?link_id=3&slink_id=1967&link_type=12&slink_type=12&tmpl_id=3 )

Uncontained bioattack leads to extinction—the risk is greater than nuclear war Ochs '02 (Richard Ochs, ANALYST FOR THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS WORKING GROUP, July 9 2002 -"BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS MUST BE ABOLISHED IMMEDIATELY" -http://www.freefromterror.net/other_articles/abolish.html)

The capacity to minimize the death toll in a domestic attack is crucial – large casualties ensures a US response that escalates to nuclear war. Conley '03 (Lt Col Harry W. is chief of the Systems Analysis Branch, Directorate of Requirements, Headquarters Air Combat Command (ACC), Langley AFB, Virginia. Air & Space Power Journal - Spring 2003 -http://www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil/airchronicles/apj/apj03/spr03/conley.html

C. Power Projection

Military vulnerability to bioweapons will deter US power projection Susan Martin, Professor of War Studies at King's College, March 2002, Journal of Strategic Studies, p. 63

US leadership is essential to prevent global nuclear exchange. Zalmay Khalilzad, RAND, The Washington Quarterly, Spring 1995

Advantage Three: Conflict Resolution

The U.S. has committed to siting a new military command in Africa. Its effectiveness will depend on integrating humanitarian soft power missions alongside hard power assets J. Peter Pham, Director of the Nelson Institute for International and Public Affairs and a Research Fellow of the Institute for Infrastructure and Information Assurance, 2-15-07, World Defense Review, http://worlddefensereview.com/pham021507.shtml

Unbalanced hard power means U.S. presence will be a source for African repression and instability Ezekiel Pajibo, executive director of the Liberia-Based Center for Democratic Empowerment and Emira Woods, the codirector of Foreign Policy In Focus at the Institute for Policy Studies, 9-6-2007, "AFRICOM: Wrong for Liberia, Disastrous for Africa," http://news.newamericamedia.org/news/view_article.html?article_id=5bc524c3606c66ad230a15ba52917d74 "The Bush administration's new obsession with AFRICOM and its militaristic approach has many malign"

MEDFLAG exercises are the single best way to increase DOD soft power on the continent and build deep U.S.-African relations Dan Henk, Colonel, External Researcher at the Strategic Studies Institute of the U.S. Army War College, March 1998, "Uncharted Paths, Uncertain Vision: U.S. Military Involvements in Sub-Saharan Africa in the Wake of the Cold War," http://stinet.dtic.mil/oai/oai?&verb=getRecord&metadataPrefix=html&identifier=ADA365414 , p. 35-36

U.S.-African bilateral ties are essential to continental peace and stability Richard Catoire, Commander in the US Navy, Winter 2000, Parameters, http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0IBR/is_4_30/ai_74522168/pg_6 "Despite--or perhaps because of--the conflicts on the continent, African countries themselves are"

U.S. conflict management credibility is key to prevent war, genocide and environmental devastation Timothy Sisk, Brookings Institute Program Officer, July 1996, Future U.S. Engagement in Africa Opportunities and Obstacles for Conflict Management http://www.usip.org/pubs/specialreports/early/USAfrica1.html "Africa's marginalization in U.S. foreign policy has increasingly become a reality; this disengagement"

African conflicts lead to nuclear war Dr. Jeffrey Deutsch, founder of the Rabid Tiger Project, a political risk consulting and related research firm, 11-18-02, http://www.rabidtigers.com/rtn/newsletterv2n9.html

Observation Two: Solvency

Regional clinics integrated with MEDFLAG exercises leads to effective disease surveillance and containment capabilities, for natural and intentional pathogen threats Colonel C. William Fox, Jr., M.D., Commander of Bayne-Jones Army Hospital, where he concurrently serves as Command Surgeon of the Joint Readiness Training Center, Winter 1997-98, Parameters, http://www.carlisle.army.mil/USAWC/PARAMETERS/97winter/fox.htm

Longterm MEDCAP deployments strengthens training, solves any of the programs current weaknesses, and builds sustainable public health capacity Lieutenant Colonel Doug Logee, Army Pediatrician who is currently assigned to Brooke Army Medical Center and director of the San Antonio Military Pediatric Center's civil military- medical training program in Honduras, February 2007, "Can We Build a Better Medical Civic Assistance Program?" The DISAM Journal, http://www.disam.dsca.mil/pubs/Journal%20Index/Journals/Journal_Index/Vol%2029_1/Lougee.pdf, p. 70-72

The military is the best actor—no other entity possesses similar capabilities Paul W. Pruden Lieutenant Commander, Medical Service Corps, United States Navy, 2-13-2006, "Should Medical Humanitarian and Civic Assistance Activities Focus on Building Public Health Capacity in Africa to Better Influence Theater Security Cooperation Objectives?" http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA463935, p. 16

DOD run regional research centers are integral to prevent global disease spread and guarantee effective countermeasures to bioattack Colonel C. William Fox, Jr., M.D., Commander of Bayne-Jones Army Hospital, where he concurrently serves as Command Surgeon of the Joint Readiness Training Center, Winter 1997-98, Parameters, http://www.carlisle.army.mil/USAWC/PARAMETERS/97winter/fox.htm

Effective surveillance and response capabilities checks the impact to bioterrorism Richard A. Falkenrath, Assistant Professor of Public Policy at the John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, Spring 2001, International Security, p. 159-160

Bioterror response capabilities deters the development of bioweapons Stephen Flynn, Senior Fellow in National Security Studies at the Council on Foreign Relations, September/October 2004, Foreign Affairs, accessed electronically

Finally—MEDFLAG missions deter conflict, increase force readiness and solve public health Major Jeffrey L. Bryant, 1-3-1997, graduate Air Command and Staff College, Assessing the Long-Term Health Benefits of Medical Humanitarian Civic Assistance Missions, http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA398474, p. 3-4

CENTERVILLE CY---AFF Contention one is the status quo Initially note that the refugee is the damned figure in international politics, contemporary discourse creates them as outsiders and allows them to be placed in a zone of indistinction Diken sociology at Lancaster U 2k4 (Burlent, “from refugee camps to grated communities: biopolitics and the end of the city” Citizenship studies vol 8 no 1) Current policies dictate that health services are offered only to refugees with ID-cards; this reinforces the idea that refugees are less than acknowledged citizens Regt 07 (Marina de Regt, PhD Amsterdam School for Social Science Research, “Refugee, Woman, and Domestic Worker: The Multiple Tensions Faced by Somali Women in Yemen,” July 2007) The nation state must be the primary actor in our attempt to denaturalize the exclusions of sovereignty. Integrating currently excluded refugees throws the concept of national identity into doubt- the boundary between the insides and outsides of sovereignty becomes indeterminate and porous. Such a move is necessary to human survival and the possibility of politics. Agamben prof phil @ U Verona 1994 (Giorgio, “We Refugees,” http://www.egs/edu/faculty/agamben/agamben-werefugees.thml) The figure of the refugee should be used to initiate political resistance against sovereignty. Criticizing the denial of healthcare rights to refugees exposes the less-than-human status given to non-citizens. This subhuman positioning of life is a prelude to the worst atrocities in human history. Agamben prof phil @ U Verona 1994 (Giorgio, “We Refugees,” http://www.egs/edu/faculty/agamben/agamben-werefugees.thml) Next, maintaining sovereignty through borders allows for violence and the perpetuation of wars, only through integration of refugees into local communities can we reject this notion of defining identity based on borders. Tuathail 98 (Gearóid Ó, Professor of Government and International Affairs and Director of the Masters of Public and International Affairs program, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Rethinking Geopolitics) (Questia) Finally, reinforcing the boundaries of the African nation state is particularly dangerous, these artificial products of colonialism lack legitimacy and culminate in extinction Mutua 95 (Makau wa, Visiting Professor, Harvard Law School, Director of the Human Rights Center, and Chair o f the Kenya Human Rights Commission, “WHY REDRAW THE MAP OF AFRICA: A Moral and Legal Inquiry,” Michigan Journal of International Law, Summer, accessed through Lexis) The United States federal government should substantially increase its public health assistance to areas designated by the resolution through development assisted integration of refugees with local communities. We will clarify. Contention II is solvency Local integration is a comparatively better solution for refugees, it allows for the strengthening of overall services for everyone, not just those who are citizens of a particular country. This notion that all people should be recognized as equal regardless of citizenship is capable of creating political change. Feldman 2k7 (Sarah, works for Migration and Refugee Services at the US Conference of Catholic Bishops, “Development Assisted Integration: A Viable Alternative to Long Term Residence in Refugee Camps?” The Fletcher Journal of Human Security, Vol XXII) Moreover, development assisted integration is distinct from the curret camp system, refugees are no longer separated from the rest of the population; integration allows flexibility for both refugees and locals by strengthening existing services. Feldman 2k7 (Sarah, works for Migration and Refugee Services at the US Conference of Catholic Bishops, “Development Assisted Integration: A Viable Alternative to Long Term Residence in Refugee Camps?” The Fletcher Journal of Human Security, Vol XXII) Next, the US is key, it contributes the most money to refugee programs and refugees themselves look to the US Ogata 2k (Sadako, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, “Ten Years of Refugee Work: Lessons from the Past, Directions for the Future, 11-15-2000, http://www.carnegieendowment.org/events/index.cfm?fa=eventDetail&id=233&)

Moreover, endorsing an ethic of care for refugees that recognizes and accepts people and their needs as important is essential to finding a true solution, only then is global social justice is possible Robinson 2k6 (Fiona, Department of Political Science at Carleton University, “Care, Gender and Global Social Justice: Rethinking ‘Ethical Globalization,’” Journal of Global Ethics Vol. 2 No. 1 June 2006, pp. 5-25) Finally, the ethic of care produces contextual sensitivity and reveals the interdependence of humyn beings, only through changing policies through the ethic of care can we successfully address inequality Hankivsky 2k6 (Olena, Professor of Political Science at Simon Fraser University, “Imagining Ethical Globalization: The Contributions of a Care Ethic,” Journal of Global Ethics Vol. 2 No. 1 June 2006, pp. 91-110)

CHATTAHOOCHEE HIGH SCHOOL KM, FL, BP---AFF Hooch KM, FL, BP FIRST – The Status Quo The 2005 Water for the Poor Act was a great first step – but it has been ignored and plans are to decrease water assistance to Africa south of the Sahara. BLUMENAUER 5 – 16 – 07 Representative – House Ways & Means Committee – leading congressional Water Expert [Earl, “Hearing of the Subcommittee on Africa and global health of the house committee on foreign affairs” Federal News Service] Our legislation was supposed to be the first step I find it incomprehensible.

AND – the U.S. is spending tons on water assistance – just not to the area most at need ASSOCIATED PRESS 5 – 16 (“U.N. official tells U.S. Congress about worldwide water defecit.” http://hdr.undp.org/hdr2006/press/coverage/UNtellsCongresswaterdeficit.pdf) Water and sanitation deficits affect about 50 percent issue by developing capacity.

ADVANTAGE ONE – Democracy Democracy is spreading – Africa is a vital spot for the support of democratic reforms – they are making changes already – U.S. support in the form of unconditioned unattached assistance is vital to success globally LYMAN 7 – 17 – 07 Adjunct Senior Fellow for Africa Policy Studies [Princeton N., “Prepared Testimony Before the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations Subcommittee on African Affairs,” Democracy in Africa,” from cfr.org] Mr. Chairman, members of the Committee, thank you effort. without a stronger reaction and a more vigorous preventive

Providing water assistance is vital to establishing democracy – water management creates sustainability of governments, transparency in resource management, and regional and national coordination – all are vital to sustaining inevitable moves towards democratic norms. SIMON 06 Senator & Author of the Water for the Poor Act of 2005 [Paul, “Executive Summary,” http://www.state.gov/g/oes/rls/rpts/67447.htm] 3.3 Strengthen regional stability and build just, democratic, and responsive institutions societies. It continues . . . 5. The USG Strategy for the Water and Sanitation Sector in Developing Countries Okavango, and the Amu and Syr Darya . water include the Nile, the prosperous, and democratic

Failure to move towards democracy sacrifices billions of lives. Authoritarian regimes are history’s number one killer – this outweighs every impact in the round. RUMMEL 06 professor of political science at the University of Hawaii [R.J. This is from his Blog "Why Foster Global Freedom?,", 3/7, http://freedomspeace.blogspot.com/2006/03/why-fosterglobal-freedom.html) Today, billions of human beings are still subject to impoverishment power kills absolutely. bloodiest wars. In short, power kills; absolute

Sustainable democratization of the world solves every impact. Allowing states to backslide results in global nuclear war. All the haters are wrong. MURAVCHIK ’01 Resident Scholar – American Enterprise Institute

[Joshua, “Democracy and Nuclear Peace,” 7-11-01, Presented before the NPEC/IGCC Summer Faculty Seminar, UC-San Diego, www.npec-web.org/syllabi/muravchik.htm] The greatest impetus for world peace democracy may be still more remote.

ADVANTAGE TWO – Water Wars Dwindling water supplies in Africa south of the Sahara will spark tras-boundary conflicts IRIN 04 Integrated Regional Information Networks [“Africa: Diminishing Water Resources Could Fuel Conflict – Experts” November 5th (http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/natres/water/2004/1105diminishing.htm)] Dwindling water resources in Africa could lead to conflicts more than one country, further fuelling potential clashes.

PLUS - Water wars are the most likely form of conflict today – scarcity makes them inevitable CSIS 05 Center for Strategic and International Studies [“Addressing our Global Water Future” White Paper, September 30th (http://water.csis.org/050928_ogwf.pdf)] Taken together, all of these factors—from the rising imbalance of supply Orange, Salween, Senegal, Tumen and Zambezi. Limpopo, Mekong, Ob (Ertis), Okavango,

AND – working together on water creates frameworks for conflict resolution in other areas, decreasing the likelihood of wars Dabelko 05 Director of the Environmental Change and Security Program at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars [Geoffrey D. “Congressional Testimony: Water and Sanitation” June 29th (www.wilsoncenter.org/news/docs/testimonyHR1973.doc)] Most of United States’ water development aid is given to a handful of countries program in the Middle East. Water Makes Good Neighbors”

US action on water is crucial – it is the only nation that can effectively coordinate action and expertise. Focus on water issues is crucial to the effectiveness of U.S. foreign policy – all other efforts will fail absent water leadership. CSIS 05 Center for Strategic and International Studies [“Addressing our Global Water Future” White Paper, September 30th (http://water.csis.org/050928_ogwf.pdf)] Finding 13: Water can be a powerful and effective foreign policy tool water as a foreign policy priority. awareness and education campaign to elevate

U.S. action in Africa south of the Sahara is vital to a successful and sustainable U.S. foreign policy PETERSON 07 The Senior VP of CSIS – yeah that one. [Erik, “Below the Surface: U.S. International Water Policy,” CSIS.org] As we scan the more distant time horizons, the dimensions of the water challenge will probably increase significantly political will to put a far-sighted strategy into place. Sustainable U.S. foreign policy prevents multiple scenarios for nuclear conflict – prefer it to all other alternatives Kagan 07 Senior Associate at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace [Robert “End of Dreams, Return of History” Policy Review (http://www.hoover.org/publications/policyreview/8552512.html#n10)] Finally, there is the United States itself. As a matter of national policy stretching involvement will provide an easier path. American influence and global

And – water shortages in Africa will spark a global nuclear escalation that culminates human extinction – acting now is key NASCA 06 National Association for Scientific & Cultural Appreciation [ “Water Shortages – Only A Matter Of Time.” http://www.nasca.org.uk/Strange_relics_/water/water.html) Water is one of the prime essentials for life as we know it. The plain fact is - no water, no life! obvious answer. which there will be no

And – even one conflict over water would unleash a global nuclear war WEINER 90 Prof at Princeton Department of Molecular Biology [Johnathan, The Next 100 Years: Shaping the Fate of Our Living Earth, p. 214] If we do not destroy warheads the world has stockpiled since Trinity.

Thus the plan – The United States federal government should expand access to safe water in topically designated areas. CONTENTION THREE - Solvency US action is vital – we are the only ones who can lead on the issue of water. The Water for the Poor act was a first step – but funding and implementing are vital to eliminating the water crisis KEATING 3 – 22 – 06 Research Associate, Global Strategy Institute, Center for Strategic and Int’l Studies [Laura, “Water Makes Sense,” Global Strategy Institute of CSIS, http://www.csis.org/component/option,com_csis_progj/task,view/id,573/] It is only fitting that on this thirteenth World Water Day challenges and a clear set of policy guidelines.

FINALLY – a commitment to public health assistance through a water policy to Africa south of the Sahara is vital to ending water scarcity. Only US action can solve for global prioritization, transparency, equity, coordination, capacity building, and sustainability. LOCHERY 5 – 16 – 07 Water Team Director for CARE [Peter, “Beyond the Status Quo: Bringing Down Barriers to Water and Sanitation Provision in Africa through Implementation of the Senator Paul Simon Water for the Poor Act Testimony before the United States House of Representatives Committee on Foreign Affairs Subcommittee on Africa and Global Health,” http://www.care.org/newsroom/articles/2007/05/lochery_water_testimony.pdf] Access to safe water and sanitation is as fundamental to life sidelined for far too long. CHURCHILL MV The Bush Administration has conditioned USAID support for indigenous NGO's in Sub-Saharan Africa on these agencies' willingness to sign an Anti-Prostitution Pledge. The pledge unfairly conflates sex trafficking with sex work, and is the primary weapon in the United States' global campaign against prostitution. This ensures gross violations of sex workers' rights and nullifies efforts to combat HIV and AIDS additional investments in a sector that has been

Cohen, Director of Government Affair at the Guttmacher Institute, March 2005 [Susan A., "Ominous Convergence: Sex Trafficking, Prostitution and International Family Planning," The Guttmacher Report on Public Policy 8 (1), http://www.guttmacher.org/pubs/tgr/08/1/ gr080112.html]

Sex trafficking is one component of the broader problem of trafficking in persons...do not qualify for U.S. government support.

The moral crusade against prostitution relies upon sensationalized images of helpless, innocent victims of sexual depravity. This generates a full-blown moral panic surrounding the policing of sexuality and justifies repressive and counter-productive responses against sex workers themselves. Because the normalization of prostitution increases oversight and human rights protections while decreasing illegal trafficking, the U.S. policy should be opposed for both ethical and practical reasons

Weitzer, Professor of Sociology at George Washington University, 2006 [Ronald, "Moral Crusade Against Prostitution," Society 43 (3), March-April, p. 33 - 38, metapress] A robust, new moral crusade against prostitution and sex trafficking has arisen...many good reasons to oppose the shift in American policy on sex trafficking.

And, this linkage with colonialism is not tenuous-historically the third world has been the demonized object against which western identity has been defined. No where is this more true than in representations of non-western women and sexual propriety. The current crusade against prostitution mirrors the victorian campaigns for the establishment of a normative, well-defined, proper feminine sexuality. This both elevates westerners as agents of moral rectitude and degrades nonwestern women as either passive objects of violence or immoral sexual deviants, justifying neo-colonial interventions

Scoular, Senior Lecture at Strathclyde University Law School, 2004 [Jane, "The 'subject' of prostitution: Interpreting the discursive, symbolic and material position of sex/work in feminist theory," Feminist Theory 5(3), sagepublications, 350352] In contrast, Walkowitz's work on Prostitution..challenge hierarchical relations.

There has never been a greater need for critical interrogations of our attitudes toward sex than now-sex panics are not simply isolated instances of violence, but are the ideological channel through which social violence is expressed and justified-In a militarist world with nuclear weapons, panics over sexuality can create unthinkable destruction

Rubin, Assistant Professor of Anthropology at the University of Michigan, 1993 [Gayle S. "Thinking Sex: Notes for a Radical Theory of the Politics of Sexuality," The Lesbian and Gay Studies Reader, Eds. Abelove, Barale, & Halperin, p. 39] The time has come to think about sex...genuinely liberatory body of thought about sexuality.

Thus we demand: that the United States federal government should increase public health assistance to Sub-Saharan Africa by rescinding the Anti-Prostitution Pledge

The Anti-Prostitution Pledge is detrimental to public health assistance in Sub-Saharan Africa. Without the ability to provide education, resources and support for sex workers, sex trafficking increases, AIDS and HIV spread more rapidly, sex workers are subject to rampant human rights abuses and prostitution is driven underground. It is necessary to rescind this pledge in order to radically improve responses to each of these concerns

Letter to President Bush Opposing Mandatory 'Anti-Prostitution Pledge,' May 18, 2005 ["U.S.: Restrictive Policies Undermine Anti-AIDS Efforts, Letter to President Bush Opposing Mandatory 'Anti-Prostitution Pledge,' which Threatens Lives of Sex Workers and Trafficking Victims," http://hrw.org/campaigns/hivaids/hiv-aids-letter/] The undersigned represent a diverse group of public health....promoting the basic human rights and freedom of speech of all persons.

our challenge to global violence is not abstract-the equation of monstrosity with sexual deviance produces precisely the ideolgoical maelstrom that fuels the us/them politics of global violence. The recent efforts to stabilize compulsory, monogamous, congugal heterosexuality speak to the link between sexual propriety and nationalism, a link which must be challenged if we are ever to escape the terrifying logic of "either you are for us or against us." The consequences of inaction include complicity in the face of militaristic imperialism, domination and mass slaughter

Puar & Rai, 2002, Assistant professor of women's studies and geography at Rutgers & Cultural and literary studies at the New School University [Jasbir K. & Amit S., "Monster, Terrorist, Fag: The War on Terrorism and the Production of Docile Patriots," Social Text 20.3 (2002), project muse] How are gender and sexuality central to the current "war on terrorism?".....queerness into narratives of modernity, patriotism, and nationalism.

COPPELL KB
Coppell KB – Reparations Plan: The United States federal government should substantially increase its public health assistance to so-called sub-Saharan Africa. Chapter 1: The Apartheid Past The public health failures in Africa are a result of ongoing US colonialism. The US must address the question of reparations to recognize and reconcile centuries of apartheid. Africa Action "Reparations" 2007 (http://www.africaaction.org/resources/issues/reparations.php) “Today’s massive global inequalities. ….. …. consequences of centuries of global apartheid.” And, the on-going colonial effects on Africa's public health demands assistance as reparations. Steve Miller, The Washington Times, September 11, 2001. "We can document, to this day,….. to rebuilding public health systems in Africa.” Public Health assistance development is necessary for autonomy from the politico-economic hegemony of the West M. Shamsul Haque, PhD in Public Administration from University of Souther Californa, 1999 (“Restructuring Development Theories and Policies”) “Following such a theoretical restructuring… culture, knowledge, and information” And, this continued colonialism contributes to immeasurable dehumanization and death Nobel Peace Prize laureate, Archbishop Desmond Tutu 5 September 2001 Ecumenical caucus statement at World Conference Against Racism http://www.oikoumene.org/index.php?id=2442.) “Racism dehumanizes, disempowers, and marginalizes the victims of racism, past and present.” Chapter 2: We must confront our privilege Representation shapes the way policies towards Africa are created – representations of Africa as the "Other" justifies cultural domination – we must question our framing and representations in the context of Africa. Lucy Jarosz, University of Washington Department of Geography, 1992, Geografiska Annaler Series B Human Geography, Vol. 74, No. 2., p. 105-115, JSTOR “Writing and representations are at the heart of… remainder of this paper.” Coppell KB – Reparations We must not make excuses, Putting ourselves first continues colonialism, these excuses are the cause of violence in Africa. Riat Abrahamsen, Department of Internatino Politics – University of Wales, 2005, Alternatives 30, Blair's Africa: "The Polics of Securitization of Fear" “The process of securitization does not necessarily…continue to their solution.” Even if we didn’t commit the racist acts we still must hold the government responsible because of the economic benefits of colonialism Human right watch, 2001 (An Approach to Reparations, http://hrw.org/english/docs/2001/07/19/global285.htm “Once the appropriate beneficiaries of reparations…. since they, too, presumably have benefited from the advanced economy they joined.” All of the reasons why reparations could be impractical just describe the necessity for reparations.

Martha Biondi, member of the Department of African American Studies, 2003 “The Rise of the Reparations Movement”, http://rhr.dukejournals.org/cgi/reprint/2003/87/5.pdf And, many arguments against action should be considered as nothing more than excuses for racism. The response is to confront racism by acting and taking steps to avoid the excuses. Nicholas Soucy © 2004. Historical Lies & Excuses: An Examination of the Illogical Justification for Bigotry http://www.ethicalatheist.com/docs/bigotry_article.html “As decades pass and as critical evaluation of historical documents is done…. responsibility for choosing immorality, and working to deny this choice in the future.” And, Err of the side of probable impacts - their so called experts don’t understand the future of political affairs and cannot accurately predict events. They are as accurate as monkey’s throwing dart. Menand 2005 (Louis ,phd Colombia and Robert M. and Anne T. Bass Professor of English and American Literature and Language at Harvard University., The New Yorker, 12-05-2005, http://www.newyorker.com/critics/content/articles/051205crbo_books1 ) “Prediction is one of the pleasures of life. Conversation would wither without it… Think for yourself.” Coppell KB – Reparations And, suppressing phrase like “sub-Saharan” because it is offensive preserves its injurious meaning – only by using the language can space be opened to reconstruct a more humane meaning – terms like ‘so-called’ are key to acknowledge the arbitrariness of colonially constructed boundaries. John Agnew, professor at University of California, Los Angeles, “Progress in Human Geography,” 28,5 (2004) pp. 619–640. “The question inevitably arises as to…. but with his failure to note its novelty.” Finally, a discourse of reparations is necessary to breakdown the colonial relationship with Africa, responses should not be to fear spending we can not increase taxes or interest rates not reject reparations, rather realize voting aff is to reject all colonialism. Salih Booker, executive director of Africa Action. June 19, 2003 (Who owes whom? AIDS and reparations Christian Science Monitor, http://www.africaaction.org/desk/csm0306.htm). “The movement for reparations in the US… that the AIDS pandemic requires.” Health assistance is inevitable – people want assistance – the question should not be whether but how to give aid Richard Peet, BSc (economics from the London School of Economic, 1999, “Theories of Development”) “In the case of development, however…. it emerges in quit different forms depending on circumstance.” Major war is obsolete – there’s no risk of war between powerful members of the international system due to the high costs of war and the steep decline in the rewards from winning Mandelbaum 99 (Michael Mandelbaum, Prof. American Foreign Policy John Hopkins University, Spring 1999, “Is major war obsolete?” Survival Vol: 48) “It is major war, not war in general…. of fighting a major war: and a steep decline in the rewards of winning one.”

COLLEYVILLE MN – AFF Plan: The United States federal government should provide necessary funding for The Water for the Poor Act of 2005 for topical areas. Contention One: Water Wars The Water for the Poor Act is being ignored – resulting in cuts to at need areas in Africa Blumenauer 07 Representative – House Ways & Means Committee – leading congressional Water Expert May 16th [Earl, “Hearing of the Subcommittee on Africa and global health of the house committee on foreign affairs” Federal News Service] Tensions are rising in Africa due to climate change and millions are dying each year – conflict is guaranteed Japan Times June 9, 2007, “Climate change raises threat of water wars” Mikhail Gorbachev, chairman of the Board of Green Cross International, Jean-Michel Severino, CEO of the French Development Agency, l/n Water shortages in Africa escalate to global nuclear war NASCA 06 National Association for Scientific & Cultural Appreciation “Water Shortages – Only A Matter Of Time.” http://www.nasca.org.uk/Strange_relics_/water/water.html) And the brink is miniscule – one conflict over water would unleash a global nuclear war Weiner 90 Prof at Princeton Department of Molecular Biology, Johnathan, The Next 100 Years: Shaping the Fate of Our Living Earth, p. 214 Finally, water is a catalyst for conflict and Africa is a critical hotspot – US leadership over water is vital to deter conflict Bierwirth 02 Colonel, US Army War College Roy C., “U.S. International Fresh Water Policy – Need, Analysis, and Recommendation,” USAWC Strategy Research Project Contention Two: Leadership United States action on water can coordinate and create global action to combat water scarcity – focusing on Africa will create global awareness which will sustain US leadership, promote democracy, and prevent failed states – all other actors will fail C.S.I.S. 05 Center for Strategic Int’l Studies – Sandia National Laboratory “Global Water Futures: Addressing Our Global Water Future,” 9/30/05, White Paper, http://www.sandia.gov/water/docs/CSIS-SNL_OGWF_9-28-05.PDF

Water scarcity causes terrorism due to failed states Morris 07 Chair, Millennium Water Alliance, Malcolm S., “Hearing of the Subcommittee on Africa and global health of the house committee on foreign affairs” Federal News Service Terrorism in Africa is uniquely dangerous because it allows groups to access nuclear weapons Dempsey 06 Director of African Studies in the Dept of National Security and Strategy @ US Army War College, Thomas, Counterterrorism in African Failed States: Challenges and Potential Solutions, http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pdffiles/pub649.pdf The impact is extinction Sid Ahmed 04 Al-Ahram, Political Analyst, Mohamed, “Extinction!,” http://weekly.ahram.org.eg/2004/705/op5.htm The plan is vital to increase our international image and sustain soft power leadership Peterson 07 the Senior Vice President of CSIS, June 21st [Erik, “Below the Surface: U.S. international Water Policy,” http://www.csis.org/component/option,com_csis_progj/task,view/id,969/ Soft power is key to hard power and the war on terrorism – its decline will cause domestic isolationism Nye – Dean of Government at Harvard – 2004 (Joseph, dean of the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard, Political Science Quarterly, Summer, ebsco)

We control the direction of every impact – A collapse of hegemony would result in great power wars and extinction Thayer 2006 [Bradley A., Assistant Professor of Political Science at the University of Minnesota, Duluth, The National Interest, November -December, “In Defense of Primacy”, lexis] Contention Three: Solvency Funding the Water for the Poor act is vital to eliminate the water crisis – US action is key Keating 06 March 22nd, Research Associate, Global Strategy Institute, Center for Strategic and International Studies, Laura, “Water Makes Sense” Global Strategy Institute of CSIS, http://www.csis.org/component/option,com_csis_progj/task,viewid,573 A commitment to public health assistance through a water policy to Africa is critical to ending water scarcity. Only US action can solve core causes of scarcity Lochery 07 May 16th, Water Team Director for CARE, Peter, “Beyond the Status Quo: Bringing Down Barriers to Water and Sanitation Provision in Africa through Implementation of the Senator Paul Simon: Water for the Poor Act Testimony before the United States House of Representatives Committee on Foreign Affairs Subcommittee on Africa and Global Health,” http://www.care.org/newsroom/articles/2007/05/lochery_water_testimony.pdf And, only the US can coordinate agencies and enable other governments and NGOs to ensure sustainable success CSIS 05 Center for Strategic International Studies – Sandia National Laboratory, “Global Water Futures: Addressing Our Global Water Future,” 9/30, White Paper, http://www.sandia.gov/water/docs/CSIS-SNL_OGWF_928-05.PDF

DAMIEN ALL- AFF
Observation One: The Status Quo

First, In response to the bombings of our embassies in Kenya and Tanzania, the U.S. destroyed the Al Shifa pharmaceutical plant in Sudan because we thought it was producing CBWs – Instead of cooperating with Sudan, we took a go-in-alone approach European Sudanese Public Affairs Council, 98 (September, “Confused, Inconclusive And Contradictory”: An Assessment And Analysis Of The American Government’s “Evidence” For The Cruise Missile Attack On Sudan” http://www.espac.org/al_shifa_pages/al-shifa_1.asp) On 7 August 1998… damaged in the strike.5

Second, The U.S. made a mistake – The plant wasn’t making CBWs – Our intelligence was bad Ahmed, Director of the Institute for Policy Research & Development, Researcher at the Islamic Human Rights Commission, teaches undergraduate courses in International Relations at the University of Sussex, ’01 (Nafeez, October 22, “United States Terrorism in the Sudan: The Bombing of Al-Shifa and its Strategic Role in U.S.-Sudan Relations” http://www.mediamonitors.net/mosaddeq16.html) However, several… supply the plant.” [11]

Third, We destroyed Africa’s single most important facility in the provision of medicine Becker, of the International Action Center in New York & Members of Former Attorney General Ramsey Clark’s delegation to the El Shifa Pharmaceutical Plant which gathered evidence refuting the claim that the plant made CBWs, 98 (Richard, “Sudan: Diversionary Bombing,” web site of the Institute for Media Analysis, www.covertaction.org/content/view/105/75/) The plant was privately… are found immediately."23

Specifically, Destroying the plant undermined Africa’s access to malaria medication Clark, of the Newstatesmen, 3-20-2K (Malcom, “Bad air and rank hypocrisy” Newstatesmen, http://www.newstatesman.com/200003200023) Even the cheapest… in September 1998.

Last, We still haven’t taken responsibility for our mistake by providing compensation for the attack even though Sudan wants us to BBC News, 8-20-’07 (“Sudan Commemorates Al-Shifa Bombing, Hopes For Better Relations With USA” lexis) In commemoration… incorrect evidence.

Observation Two: Terrorism Credibility

First, Refusal to take responsibility destroys our international credibility and cooperation needed to fight terrorism and guarantees future terrorist attacks Mideast Mirror, 1998 (Aug 24th, “Why Washington's Arab allies won't support its missile strikes”) Since the raids, one… with the Americans.

Second, Taking responsibility and rebuilding the plant is critical to creating the international cooperation needed to solve terrorism Lewis, twice winner of the Pulitzer Prize, taught at Columbia University’s Graduate School of Journalism and James Madison chair in First Amendment issues, ’99 (Anthony, September 1, “Abroad at Home; Weighing the Price” New York Times, lexis) With its special power… is more complicated.

And, Terrorism risks complete extinction Alexander, Professor & Director Inter-University Center for Terrorism, 2K (Yonah, “Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century: Threats and Responses,” Depaul Business Law Journal, Fall 1999 / Spring 2000) More specifically,… civilization itself.

We’ll Isolate Several Scenarios:

Scenario One: Nuclear Terrorism First, New terrorists are increasingly likely to both acquire and use nuclear weapons Lippman, Professor of Criminal Justice at the University of Illinois-Chicago, 2K3 (Matthew, “The New Terrorism and International Law,” Tulsa Journal of Comparative and International Law, Volume 10) The contemporary… political objectives. n62

Second, That causes escalation and full-scale nuclear retaliation Speice, JD Candidate Marshall-Wythe School of Law, College of William and Mary, ’06 (Patrick, February, “Negligence And Nuclear Nonproliferation: Eliminating The Current Liability Barrier To Bilateral U.S.-Russian Nonproliferation Assistance Programs” 47 Wm and Mary L. Rev. 1427, William and Mary Law Review, lexis) The potential consequences… use of nuclear weapons. 53

Scenario Two: Bioterrorism First, terrorists are on the verge of acquiring bioweapons – they won’t be deterred Van Evera, Professor of Political Science and International Relations at MIT, ’06 (Stephen, September, “Confronting The Specter Of Nuclear Terrorism: Special Editor: Graham Allison: Assessing U.S. Strategy In The War On Terror” 607 Annals 10, American Academy of Political and Social Science, lexis) Two worrisome long-term… now have customers.

Second, International cooperation is the only way to prevent catastrophic bioterrorism Joseph, Under Secretary for Arms Control and International Security, ’06 (Robert, March 29, “U.S. Strategy to Combat the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction” Written Statement to the Senate Armed Services Committee Subcommittee on Emerging Threats and Capabilities, http://www.state.gov/t/us/rm/63877.htm) The final challenge that… path of action."

Third, Even one bioterror attack would kill millions Livingstone, chief executive of GlobalOptions, considered one of the nation’s preeminent authorities on terrorism, ’99 (Neil, February 3, “Clinton Anti-Terror Plan Is Correct” Newsday, lexis) Even more frightening… over the military.

And, Even a small attack would cause nuclear retaliation triggering nuclear World War III Hymers, Ret. Lt. Colonel in the US Army, published over a hundred articles, summa cum laude Masters Degree in Theology, 2K1 (Robert, “The Roots of Terrorism”, http://www.rlhymersjr.com/Online_Sermons/11-0401PM_TheRootsOfTerrorism.html) It could be smallpox… a real Christian!

And, Our impact is bigger than any impact they will read. Use of a bioweapon causes extinction Ochs, has published articles in the Baltimore Sun, Baltimore Chronicle, Science magazine and the website: www.freefromterror.net, past president of the Aberdeen Proving Ground Superfund Citizens Coalition, member of the Depleted Uranium Task force of the Military Toxics Project and a member of the Chemical Weapons Working Group, 6-92K2 (Richard, “Biological Weapons Must Be Abolished Immediately,” http://www.freefromterror.net/other_articles/abolish.html) Of all the weapons… the highest of all crimes.

Scenario Three: South Asia First, Terrorists will target South Asia and trigger an Indo-Pak nuclear exchange and uncontrolled nuclear proliferation Alexander, Senior Fellow at the Potomac Institute for Policy Studies, Director of its International Center for Terrorism Studies, Director of the Inter-University Center for Terrorism Studies and Co-Director of the Inter-University Center for Legal Studies, 2K (Yonah, April 11, “South Asian storm clouds” Jerusalem Post)

The possibility of terrorists… What should then be done?

Second, That nuclear war escalates and causes extinction Caldicott, Former Prof @ Harvard, Founder of the Nuclear Policy Research Institute, Nobel Peace Prize Nominee, 2K2 (Helen, The New Nuclear Danger, p. xii) The use of Pakistani… life on earth.

And, Proliferation causes massive nuclear war Utgoff, Deputy Director of the Strategy, Forces, and Resource Division of the Institute for Defense Analysis, ‘02 (Victor, Survival, “Proliferation, Missile Defence and American Ambitions”) In sum, widespread… whole nations.

Scenario Four: Isolationism New terrorist attacks will cause isolationism Juster, Unde Secretary of Commerce for Industry and Security, ’02 (Kenneth, August 15, “Corporate Sector Workshop: Senior Corporate Leadership Perspective” http://www.bis.doc.gov/news/2002/kijspeecharlington8_15.htm) New Targets of Terrorism… and economic power

Nuclear War Khalilzad, Policy Analyst at the Rand Corporation, 95 (Zalmay, “Losing the Moment?: The United States and the World after the Cold War,” The Washington Quarterly, Spring) Under the third option… balance of power system.

The United States federal government should pass H.R. 5290 of the 106th Congress

Observation 3: We Solve

First, The plan is necessary to restore our global image, our credibility, and international cooperation needed to solve international crises Lane, Chairman of the Center for Contemporary Diplomacy, 1998 (William, “U.S. Urged to Back U.N. Investigation into Sudan Attack”, US Newswire) "The time has come… foreign installation."

Second, Just apologizing isn’t enough – it’s a hollow gesture – offering compensation is critical

Mideast Mirror, 1998 (Sep 25th, “You can't fight terrorism without consistency and dialogue, U.S. told”) Sudan, for example… with deeds.

Third, The consensus is on our side – the plant wasn’t producing weapons – not taking any responsibility because it could have crushes our credibility Ahmed, Director of the Institute for Policy Research & Development, Researcher at the Islamic Human Rights Commission, teaches undergraduate courses in International Relations at the University of Sussex, ’01 (Nafeez, October 22, “United States Terrorism in the Sudan: The Bombing of Al-Shifa and its Strategic Role in U.S.-Sudan Relations” http://www.mediamonitors.net/mosaddeq16.html) The Independent thus… our government.”[18]

Fourth, The plan is critical to properly compensating the victims and getting the plant rebuilt. Waiting to act only furthers the injustice and does more damage to our global leadership Bandow, Senior Fellow at the Cato Institute, 8-10-2K1 (Doug, “Making it right in Sudan; U.S. owes damages for pharmaceutical bombing,” Washington Times) Three years ago, in… administration's reputation.

Observation Four – Pre-Empts

First, Your corruption arguments don’t link Rohrabacher, Republican Representative from the 46th District in California, 9-25-2K (Dana, “H.R. 5290 [106th]: To provide private relief for Salah Idris of Saudi Arabia and El Shifa Pharmaceuticals Industries Company relating to the bombing and destruction of the El Shifa Pharmaceutical plant in Khartoum, Sudan, and for other purposes,” http://www.govtrack.us/congress/billtext.xpd?bill=h106-5290) No part of the amounts appropriated… exceed $1,000.

Second, Your aid trade-off disad doesn’t link Rohrabacher, Republican Representative from the 46th District in California, 9-25-2K (Dana, “H.R. 5290 [106th]: To provide private relief for Salah Idris of Saudi Arabia and El Shifa Pharmaceuticals Industries Company relating to the bombing and destruction of the El Shifa Pharmaceutical plant in Khartoum, Sudan, and for other purposes,” http://www.govtrack.us/congress/billtext.xpd?bill=h106-5290) The Secretary of the… the United States.

Third, Providing aid to increase pharmaceutical manufacturing is at the heart of the topic Garrett, Senior Fellow in Global Health at the Council on Foreign Relations, 4-18-2K7 (Laurie, “Fiscal 2008 Appropriations: State, Foreign Operations,” Statement to Committee on Senate Appropriations Subcommittee on State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs, CQ Congressional Testimony)

As you look over… the 20th Century.

And, All of your perception disads aren’t unique – We already unfroze the owners bank accounts The Independent, ‘99 (May 4th, “U.S. Admits Sudan Bombing Mistake”) In an admission that… to recover compensation.

And, You can’t win a unique disad – We are the biggest donor to Sudan already Bureau of African Affairs, 8-15-’07 (State Department Documents and Publications, “Fact Sheet: United States Policy on Sudan” lexis) Overall Policy Sudan… Sudan in 2006.

And, Bush has quadrupled aid to Africa and Sudan already Agence France-Presse 2-5-2K7 (“US boosts foreign aid as part of international security drive, P. Lexis) US foreign aid will… president in 2001.

DOWLING NA---AFF The United States Joint Chiefs of Staff should expand the Medical Civil Action Projects phase of the Medical Conflagration exercises to include a permanent partnership element in Kenya, Ethiopia, Nigeria, and South Africa using normal means funding. Enforcement is guaranteed. Inherency: First, the current policy of the DoD in Africa is failing miserably, it lacks cohesion, funding, and Africa is not gien a high strategic priority. While the Joint Chiefs of Staff are entrusted with African Policy, they have failed to provide a clear strategy. Carafano and Gardiner 2003 [www.heritage.org/research/Africa/bg1697.cfm “US Military Assistance for Africa: A Better Solution” The currently leadership ….attention and resources Moreover, one program that has shown promise, the MEDFLAG series, has not been utilized in a signinifact manner – David Henk 1999. “uncharted pathes; uncertain vision: US Military Involvelemt in Sub-Saharan Africa in the Wake of the Cold War” “despite their merits…. See a medflag.” Advantage one: Heg – there’s two internals – A. Soft Power- Expanding MEDFLAG is a test case of US leadership and African health policies will boost the US image. Carroll 01 “Engagement or Marriage: The Case foran Expanded Military Medical Role in Africa” Army war college strategy report. And, soft power is key to hard power and an effective war on terrorism Nye 04 “The decline of america’s soft power” foreign affairs. Anti-Americanism ahs increased in recent years…..leverage in international affairs Terrorism causes extinction – Alexander 2003 Heg deters nuclear war – Khalilzad 95 B. Medical Readiness – Medical readiness is at an all-time low Brewin 07 – www.govexec.com/dailyfed/0507/053107bb1.htm “army report backs upgrades in combat medical units” Fortunately MEDFLAG opertions boost medical readiness by providing training – Fox 97 [“military medical operations in sub-saharan Africa”] a number of authorities….range of health Medical readiness is key to over-all readiness – doctors provide critical care to active duty operations – Peake 04 www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3723/is_200405/ai_n9383933/pg_3 “army medical department promotes the readiness of the force” every purple heart….behavioral health concerns” Strong military readiness is critical to maintain us hegemony Owens 2006 “a balanced force structure to achieve a liberal world order” Advantage Two: China First, Chinese influcen in Africa is expanding rapidly – this is undermining US interests in the region. Brookes 07 [ www.heritage.org/research/africa/h11006.cfm “on the evidence, ... Years to come. Chinese oil is key to expansion Brookes and Shin 2006 [www.heritage.org/research/asiaandthepacific/bg1916.cfm “china’s influence in Africa: Implications for the United States” for the past decade…eastern oil imports Failure to maintain oil will lead to hegemonic decline of china Haider 2005 yaleglobal.yale.edu/display.article?id=5411 “oil fuels beijing’s new power game” china’s rise as a major economic player… supplanting us influence. Failure to pull the plug on the Chinese hegemonic project risks war Zweig and Jianhai 05 “china’s global hunt for energy” Foreign Affairs. China’s resources hunt…mutual perceptions.

US-China War risks extinction – Straits Times 2K Finally, Chinese perceptions of US containment are inevitable- the US must actively engage in a policy of containment now to avoid major power wars in the future – Kagan , Robert 97. “what china knows that we don’t; the case for a new strategy of containment” 1-20, lexis. The advocates of engagement…a “resolute stand.” Solvency – The Joint Chiefs of Staff are successful at training and building military ties – empirically proven Brown 06 “Medical exercise helps CNE-C6F Strengthen ties with Ghana” the medical training…. Pruden added. And, US medflag programs are key to effective health infrastructure and coordination in Africa. Fox 98 “Phantom warriors” parameters, winter. Addressing the root causes…entire subregions And, the military is key –they are better at planning, deploying technology, and building military relations Pruden 06. “Should medical Humanitarian and Civic Assistance Activities Focus on Building Public health Capacity in Africa To Better influence theater security cooperation objectives?” some may argue that some other entity……revolve around public health Medflags can provide important tools of political warfare that will push Chinese interests out of Africa Chau 2007. “political warfare in sub-saharan Africa:U. S> capabilities and Chinese operations in Ethiopia, Kenya, Nigeria, and south Africa. Strategic studies institute. The U. S. government possesses numerous…. Operations are performed. And, this policy approach is key- postmodern criticisms fail – Nasium, Jim 05. “Why postmodernists are so lazy” “journal of anthropological inquiry and fakery” “postmodernists tend to forget…annihilation.”

EDINA SM---AFF Contention 1 is Inherency Sub-Saharan Africa is plagued with water sanitation problems that cause millions of deaths annually; however no action has been taken to actively address the problem. United Nations Development Program, 11/9/06 (Press Release: World Water and Sanitation Crisis Urgently Needs a Global Action Plan, http://www.globalpolicy.org/socecon/gpg/2006/1109humdev.htm) Water is fundamental to all aspects of life and this problem is particularly acute in sub-Saharan Africa. Lochery '07 (Peter, Water Team Director. Beyond the Status Quo: Bringing Down Barriers to Water and Sanitation Provision in Africa through Implementation of the Senator Paul Simon Water for the Poor Act Testimony. May 16, http://www.care.org/newsroom/articles/2007/05/lochery_water_testimony.pdf) Water scarcity has a massive effect on public health in Africa Council on Foreign Relations, 8-7-06, (http://www.cfr.org/publication/11240/) Contention 2 is Structural Violence; We isolate three specific forms: First is Disease: Sub-Saharan Africa is being devastated by waterborne diseases – it is responsible for 80% of all diseases Lenntech, 3/9/07, Waterweb, http://www.lenntech.com/Waterborne-diseases/waterborne-diseases.htm, P1) AND – water borne diseases are the world’s number 1 killer – 4000 kids every day, 3.4 million people a year – no other risk comes close to the magnitude

BERMAN 3/17/05 Science and Medicine Correspondent [Jessica, 17 March, WHO: Waterborne Disease is World's Leading Killer, Washington, http://www.voanews.com/english/archive/2005-03/2005-03-17-voa34.cfm?CFID=93767752&CFTOKEN=55192494] Second is hunger: Competition for water is preventing farmers from growing food and causing overexploitation of water resources. Randolph Barker , economist at the International Water Management Institute, with Barbara van Koppen, Department of Irrigation and Soil and Water Conservation at Wageningen Agricultural University, and Tushaar Shah, Principal Researcher at the International Water Management Institute, “A global perspective on water scarcity and poverty: Achievements and challenges for water resources management”, IWMI, 2k http://www.iwmi.cgiar.org/pubs/WWVisn/WSandPov.htm These food shortages are killing millions now and even more in the future. REUTERS 6 – 27 - 07 (Reuters Foundation, “African hunger”, last reviewed 6/20/2007, http://www.alertnet.org/db/crisisprofiles/AF_HUN.htm?v=in_detail) And third is Poverty: In addition accessible, inexpensive water is necessary to reduce poverty that kills billions. C.S.I.S. 05 Center for Strategic Int’l Studies – Sandia National Laboratory [“Global Water Futures: Addressing Our Global Water Future,” 9/30/05, White Paper, http://www.sandia.gov/water/docs/CSIS-SNL_OGWF_9-28-05.PDF] And finally the impact: Structural violence is the equivalent of an ongoing nuclear war. It is worse than even nuclear conflict. Gilligan 96 [James, Professor of Psychiatry at the Harvard Medical School, Director of the Center for the Study of Violence, and a member of the Academic Advisory Council of the National Campaign Against Youth Violence, “Violence: Our Deadly Epidemic and its Causes”, p. 191-196] Contention 3 is Neoliberalism.

In the future the water shortage will only get worse as international financial institutions exploit this crisis by forcing small countries towards privatization. William Finnegan, 4/8/02, “The world is running out of fresh water, and the fight to control it has begun.” AGP.org, http://www.nadir.org/nadir/initiativ/agp/free/imf/bolivia/txt/2002/0408leasing_rain.htm And, these private enterprises set unfair terms that determine sanitation and price, further preventing clean water from reaching the impoverished. Mandhane Board Member, Young Women's Anti-Violence Speakers Bureau 2005 (Renu, What is the effect of water privatization on the right to water?, Association for Women’s Rights In Development, www.awid.org/go.php?stid=822) This exploitation amounts to a form of structural violence which amounts to colonialism and slavery at the hands of a rabid neoliberalism. International intervention is the only way to reverse the trend. Joia S Mukherjee. Medical Director of Partners in Health. 2007. “Structural Violence, Poverty and the AIDS Pandemic” http://www.palgrave-journals.com/development/journal/v50/n2/full/1100376a.html Water privatization risks extinction through greed REILLY 02 Dean of the Nathan Weiss Graduate College [Kristie, “Not a Drop to Drink,” 10/11/02, http://www.inthesetimes.org/issue/26/25/culture1.shtml Water privatization causes violence, social unrest, disease and a loss of jobs Lundberg, founder of the Culture Change organization 2005 (Jan ,Water privatization and the rising conflict ,Culture Change- a nonprofit organization founded in ‘88, Jun 29, http://www.culturechange.org/eletter-water.html) Privatization fails – only a common good approach will succeed ASHTON 02 - is a Water Resources and Quality Specialist at CSIR's Division of Water, Environment and Forestry Technology in Pretoria, South Africa. VASNA RAMASAR is an HIV/Aids researcher in the CSIR's Division of Water, Environment & Forestry Technology in Congella, South Africa [Peter, HYDROPOLITICS IN THE DEVELOPING WORLD:A SOUTHERN AFRICAN PERSPECTIVE, edi.Anthony Turton & Roland Henwood,pg217-219] The global cost of these neoliberal commitments is massive human suffering and endless war. Giroux 06 (Global Television Network Chair in Communication Studies at McMaster University, Summer, Henry A., Stormy Weather Katrina and the Politics of Disposability, p. 84-85) This makes extinction inevitable. Santos 03 [Boaventura de Sousa, April, director of the Center for Social Studies at the University of Coimbra, Bad Subjects Magazine, Issue #63, http://bad.eserver.org/issues/2003/63/santos.html] Thus the plan: The United States federal government should provide all necessary resources for the provision of non-private water assistance to sub-Saharan Africa. Contention 4 is Solvency Funding through the Water for the Poor Act is necessary to eliminate water shortages; it ensures prioritization, coordination, transparency, and expertise. LOCHERY 5 – 16 – 07 Water Team Director for CARE [Peter, “Beyond the Status Quo: Bringing Down Barriers to Water and Sanitation Provision in Africa through Implementation of the Senator Paul Simon Water for the Poor Act Testimony before the United States House of Representatives Committee on Foreign Affairs Subcommittee on Africa and Global Health,” http://www.care.org/newsroom/articles/2007/05/lochery_water_testimony.pdf] US is the only country in the world with the diplomatic clout to ensure global cooperation on water. Any other alternative leads to conflict. BIERWIRTH 02 Colonel, US Army War College [Roy C., “U.S. International Fresh Water Policy – Need, Analysis, and Recommendation,” USAWC Strategy Research Project]

Only the US has a large range of private and public partnerships which ensure adequate resources and positively influence the behavior of local businesses. SIMON 06 Senator & Author of the Water for the Poor Act of 2005 [Paul, “Executive Summary,” http://www.state.gov/g/oes/rls/rpts/67447.htm ] AND – the world is at a tipping point – water scarcity is exacerbated by a number of global trends – it makes all problems more likely. C.S.I.S. 05 Center for Strategic Int’l Studies – Sandia National Laboratory [“Global Water Futures: Addressing Our Global Water Future,” 9/30/05, White Paper, http://www.sandia.gov/water/docs/CSIS-SNL_OGWF_9-28-05.PDF]

AND - There is an absolute duty by States to take actions to insure access to water by all persons – specifically assistance must be given regardless of the reason for inaction BRUNDTLAND & MELLO 03 Director-General W.H.O. & UN High Commission for Human Rights [Dr Gro Harlem & Sergio Vieira de, The Right to Water, pdf available online, http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/rtwrev.pdf] Water reform from the U.S. can effectively combat poverty Moore, Acting Deputy Assistant Administrator for Environment Bureau for Economic Growth, Agriculture and Trade. April 2002 (Franklin, "Integrated Water Resources Management: A Framework for Action in Freshwater and Coastal Systems." http://www.usaid.gov/our_work/environment/water/booklets.broch/iwrm.framework.booklet.pdf)

FULLERTON UNION PS AND GS---AFF FULLERTON UNION HIGH SCHOOL: GS AND PS- WATER AFF CONTENTION ONE: THE STATUS QUO 1. CONGRESS PASSED THE WATER FOR THE POOR ACT IN 2005 BUT THE BILL REMAINS WOEFULLY UNDER FUNDED. NRDC, Natural Resources Defense Council, January 2007, (http://www.nrdc.org/international/water/safewater.pdf) 2. CURRENT FUNDS FOR THE WATER FOR THE POOR ACT ARE MISDIRECTED- THE PROGRAM MUST BE REFOCUSED ON AFRICA. Hauter 2007 [Wenonah, Executive Director of Food and Water Watch. April 23, 3007, Water For The Poor Act 2005; Accessed online: http://www.foodandwaterwatch.org/water/right/state%20department%20comment%20%20water%20for%20the%20por%20report.dot ] 3. WE CONTROL THE UNIQUENESS ON ALL AID BAD ARGUMENTS BECAUSE THE US HAS AN AD HOC, UNCOORDINATED WATER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM IN THE STATUS QUO- A COMPREHENSIVE APPROACH IS NEEDED TO BOOST EFFICIENCY AND PREVENT WASTED SPENDING. CSIS 05, (9-30 Center for Strategic & International Studies Global water futures. http://www.sandia.gov/water/docs/csis/snl_ogwf_9-28-05.Pdf PLAN: THE UNITED STATES FEDERAL GOVERNMENT SHOULD FULLY FUND AND ENFORCE THE TOPICAL SECTIONS OF PL 109-121. ADVANTAGE ONE: DISEASE 1. WATERBORNE DISEASES LIKE SCHISTOMIASIS ARE DEVASTATING AFRICA DUE TO LACK OF ACCESS TO SAFE DRINKING WATER. Lantech 3-9-07 – Waterweb – online water database Waterweb, (http://www.lenntech.com/waterborne-diseases/waterborne-diseases.htm P1) 2. UNSAFE WATER ALSO SPREADS GUINEA WORMS. Julie L Gerberding, Director, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention U.S. Department of Health and Human Servives September 26, 2006 CQ Congressional Quarterly, INITIATIVE TO COMBAT HUNGER, Lexis 3. CONTAMINATED WATER ALSO SPREADS TYPHOID. Pakistan Newswire 07 (The Pakistan Newswire Karachi, May 18, 2007) P LexisNexis 4. UNCHECKED WATERBORNE DISEASE RISKS 30-50 MILLION LIVES BY 2020. CSIS (9-30 Center for Strategic & International Studies, Global Water futures. http://www.sanda.goc.water.docs/CSISSNL_OGWF_9-28-05.pdf ) 5. THE SYSTEMIC IMPACT OF WATERBORNE DISEASE TRUMPS THEIR WAR IMPACTS. Enviornment News Service 02 (March 22 “World Security Depends on Averting Water Wars” http://www.ens-newswire.com/ens/mar2002/2002-03-2201.asp) 6. THEIR ALTERNATE CAUSE ARGUMENTS ARE IRRELEVANT BECAUSE CLEAN WATER IS A PREREQUISITE TO SOLVING DISEASES. Lantech 3-9-07 – Waterweb – online water database Waterweb, (http://www.lenntech.com/waterborne-diseases/waterborne-diseases.htm P1) 7. CLEAN WATER AND AN IMPROVED SANITATION STRUCTURE WOULD SOLVE MILLIONS OF DISEASE DEATHS. WHO, November 2004 online, http://www.who.int/water_sanitation/publications/facts2004/en ADVANTAGE TWO: STRUCTURAL VIOLENCE

1. IN THE STATUS QUO THERE IS A RUSH TO ALLOW PRIVATE COMPANIES TO FILL IN FOR THE LACK OF A COMPREHENSIVE WATER STRATEGY- THIS SYSTEM FAILS TO DECONTAMINATE WATER AND CREATES INEQUITY IN TERMS OF THE MANAGEMENT AND DISTRIBUTION OF WATER. Van Overbeke 2004 (Dustin, Water Privatization Conflicts, http://academic.evergreen.edu/g/grossmaz/VANOVEDR/) 2. PRIVATIZATION PREVENTS EQUAL ACCESS TO WATER. (Fishbone, Consultant International Debate Association, 2—7.) (Aaron, The Struggle for water: Increasing demands on a vital resource, pg 5-183 m. trouville.) 3. LACK OF ACCESS TO CLEAN WATER CAUSES POVERTY. Jesse N.K. Mugambi, Professor of Philosophy and Religious Stidies at the Iniversity of Nairobi in Kenya, and Gaim Kebreab, Water and Sanitation Engineer (M. Sc.) and works in the Department for Politics o Development in the Norwegian Church, FRESH WATER TO ERADICATE POVERTY) 4. POVERTY IS THE DEADLIEST FORM OF VIOLENCE. STRUCTURAL INEQUITY IS THE ROOT CAUSE OF OTHER VIOLENCE. THE TERMINAL IMPACT IS THE EQUIVALENT TO ONGOIMG THERMO NUCLEAR WAR. Gilligan 96 (James, Professor of Psychiatry at the Harvard Medical School, Director of the Center for the Study of Violence, and a member of the Academic Advisory Council of the National Campaign Against Youth Violence, “Violence: Our Deadly Epidemic and its Causes” p 191-196) 5. PRIVATIZATION OF THE WATER SUPPLY CAUSES STRUCTURAL VIOLENCE AND EXTINCTION. (Fishbone, Consultant International Debate Association, 2—7.) (Aaron, The Struggle for water: Increasing demands on a vital resource, pg 5-183 m. trouville.) 6. EQUITABLE ACCESS TO WATER REDUCES POVERTY. United Nations Development Programme, 2006 (United Nations Development Programme, http://hdr.undp.org/hdr2006 , 10/3/06 E Camacho) 7. ACCESS TO CLEAN WATER SHATTERS THE CYCLE OF POVERTY. CSIS 2005, ( Global Water futures Center for Strategic and International Studies, Sandia National Laboratiries, September 30, http://water.csis.org/050928_ogwf.pdf ) ADVANTAGE THREE: DEMOCRACY 1. EQUITABLE DISTRIBUTION OF WATER ENHANCES STABILITY IN AND BETWEEN COUNTRIES AND ENCOURAGES PARTICIPATORY DECISION MAKING. Committee of International Relations, 2006 online: http://commdocs.house.gov/committees/intlrel/hfa22262.000/hfa22262_0.ht,#0 2. WATER ASSISTANCE ELIDES THE CONDITIONS FOR EFFECTIVE DEMOCRACIES. EFFECTIVE WATER MANAGEMENT IS A WAY FOR GOVERNMENTS TO MEET THE NEEDS OF THE PEOPLE. Simon 06, Senator & Author of the Water for The Poor Act of 2005 [ Paul, “Executive Summary,” http://www.state.gov/g/ocs/rls/rpts/67447.htm ]

3. WATER MANAGEMENT IS KEY TO PREVENT DEMOCRATIC INSTABILITY. CSIS 05, (9-30 Center for Strategic & International Studies Global water futures. http://www.sandia.gov/water/docs/csis/snl_ogwf_9-28-05.Pdf 4. DEMOCRATIC INSTABILITY RISKS EXTINCTION. Diamond 95 [Larry diamond, Senior Research Fellow at the Hoover Institute, Promting democracy in the 1990’s 1995 p 6-7] 5. THE SPREAD OF DEMOCRAC PREVENTS ALL CONFLICT. Rummel 97, (RJ, political science at the University of Hawaii, 1997, http://www.hawaii.edu/powerkills/pk.chap1.htm) 6. THE BUSH DOCTRINE MAKES NEGATIVE FORMS OF DEMOCRACY PROMOTION INEVITABLE, TO REVERSE THIS TREND WE MUST FOCUS ON GOOD GOVERNANCE IN AREA’S OF SEEMIGLY LITTLE STRATEGIC INTEREST. Amosu July 18, 2007 (Akwe, Senior Policy Analyst Open Society Institute, Democracy in Sub-Saharan Africa: Trends and Transitions, http://www.opensocietypolicycenter.org/resources/publication.php?docId=132)

7. THE DEMOCRATIC NORMS ENCOURAGED BY THE PLAN OVERCOME CORRUPTION. CSIS 05, (9-30 Center for Strategic & International Studies Global water futures. – Sandia National Laboratory [ Global ater Futures “Addressing our Global Water utures 9/30/05, White Paper http://www.sandia.gov/water/docs/csis-snl-ogwf_9-28-05.pdf ] CONTENTION TWO: SOLVENCY 1. OUR PLAN PROMOTES HUMAN HEALTH, GENDER EQUITY, ECONOMIC GROWTH, ECOLOGICAL BALANCE, AND COOPERATION IN AFRICA. Committee of International Relations 2006, online: http://commdocs.house.gov/committees/intlrel/hfa22262.000/hfa22262_0.html#0 2. THE US HAS THE BEST TECHNICAL CAPACITY, KNOWLEDGE BASE, AND BUDGET TO TARGET WATER SCARCITY. A COMPREHENSIVE US WATER POLICY IS KEY TO SOLVE. CSIS 2005, ( Global Water futures Center for Strategic and International Studies, Sandia National Laboratiries, September 30, http://water.csis.org/050928_ogwf.pdf ) 3. DECISIVE US ACTION IS KEY TO ENCOURAGE OTHERS TO ACT ON THE ISSUE OF WATER SCARCITY, AND DEMOCRACY. Keating 2006, (Laura, Water Makes Sense, CSIS Global Strategy Institute, www.csis.org/media/cis/pubs/060322_worldwater.pdf March 22) 4. US LOGISTICS AND TECHNICAL EXPERTISE ARE SECOND TO NONE. Simon 06, Senator & Author of the Water for The Poor Act of 2005 [ Paul, “Executive Summary,” http://www.state.gov/g/ocs/rls/rpts/67447.htm ] 5. OUR PLAN SOLVES ACCESS AND CONTAMINATION. State Department, “Senator Paul Simon, Water for the Poor Act of 2005, 2005, Senator Paul Simon: http://www.state.gov/g/oes/rls/rpts/67447.htm )

GBN OZ & LS---AFF 1AC PLAN THE UNITED STATES FEDERAL GOVERNMENT SHOULD PROVIDE SUPPORT TO FAMILY PLANNING PROGRAMS SOUTH OF THE SAHARA IN AFRICA, REGARDLESS OF THEIR PROMOTION OF ABORTION. 1AC LEADERSHIP ADV Advantage one is leadership— U.S credibility is at an all time low - a commitment to global health care will restore U.S health leadership Fortin, 7 (Fred, worked in health care delivery for over 35 years and his experience ranges from mental health crisis intervention, child abuse prevention, studying AIDS in Africa, to university teaching and corporate health care strategic policy development, World Health Care Blog, “Soft Power and U.S. Health Care Revisited,” 6-12-2007, www.worldhealthcareblog.org/2007/06/12/soft-power-and-us-health-care-revisited/) First, we may be able to …our job to make it work. The gag rule has caused massive waves of clinic closures in sub-Saharan Africa—this is detrimental to U.S. health diplomacy and destroys African health infrastructure and maternal health Motluk, 04 (Alison, New Scientist, “A healthy strategy for whom exactly?”, 10/9) The impact of the Mexico…in New York. The impact is 700 deaths a day Frederick T. Sai, advisor to the president of Ghana on HIV/AIDS, Sept/Oct 2004 (http://www.worldwatch.org/system/files/EP175G.pdf) Pregnancy and … and deliveries. Maternal health is the most important measure of health credibility Garrett, 07 Senior Fellow for Global Health at the Council on Foreign Relations (Laurie, “The Challenge of Global Health”, Foreign Affairs, Jan/Feb, http://www.foreignaffairs.org/20070101faessay86103/laurie-garrett/the-challenge-ofglobal-health.html) Instead of setting a…global health movement. US leadership on global health policy is essential to preventing spread of newly emerging diseases, like drug resistant TB and bird flu, by creating incentives for countries to abide by international norms Scott Barrett, Professor of Environmental Economics and International Political Economy, Director of the International Policy program, and Director of the Global Health and Foreign Policy Initiative at SAIS, 6/4/07 “XDR-TB and U.S. Foreign Policy”, http://blogs.sais-jhu.edu/globalhealth/?cat=5 The story of …U.S. foreign policy. Drug resistant TB kills billions Bob Unruh, News Editor for Worldnetdaily, 6/24/07 Untreatable TB threat 'apocalyptic scenario': 30,000 infected annually now, but toll could become 8 million 'time bombs', http://www.worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=56340 The World Health Organization is …" said Espinale. 1AC POPULATION ADV Advantage two is population— Global population trends are skyrocketing---the high concentration of youth in Sub-Saharan Africa makes it the biggest source of global population pressures and overwhelms fertility declines elsewhere PAI, 2007 (http://www.populationaction.org/Publications/Fact_Sheets/FS32/Summary.shtml) Demographic … is under age 20. Current trends of rapid population growth are the root cause of ethnic conflicts, environmental degredation, and economic stagnation—only family planning programs can reverse this cycle OPT, 06 (Optimum Population Trust, “Population Growth – Impact on the Millennium Development Goals” http://www.appg-popdevrh.org.uk/Publications/Population%20Hearings/Evidence/OPT%20evidence.doc) 3. Particularly in conditions … broken, without coercion. Conflicts stemming from rapid, unsustainable population growth and resource scarcities will shape future American foreign policy—only US leadership in international family planning efforts can prevent extinction through environmental collapse— supporting family planning now far outweighs the costs Timothy E. Wirth, former US Senator from Colorado, former Undersecretary of State for Global Affairs, PHD, Stanford, US Department of State Dispatch, July 25, 1994

The changes and the … we all go down together. Overpopulation is the single greatest threat to human survival—the burden of proof is on them since damage from excessive reproduction is irreversible—we must act now to reign in global fertility rates Ken Smail, Anthropology at Kenyon College, Sept/Oct 2004 (http://www.worldwatch.org/system/files/EP175M.pdf) Obviously, a demographic … promulgated in the early 1980s. Increasing Sub-Saharan growth rates causes massive soil erosion, deforestation, loss of biodiversity, and destruction of carbon resources that are vital to global environmental sustainability Kristalina Georgieva, Environment Director of the World Bank, Making Sustainable Commitments: An Environment Strategy for the World Bank, 2001, pg 129-138 Sub-Saharan Africa faces many … and further stressing weakgovernment budgets. Biodiversity is key to planetary survival Paul Warner, life sciences at American University, August 1994 (Politics and Life Sciences) p. 177 Massive extinction of species …as the stakes. And, the Sub-Saharan population spike overloads food capacities and destroys soil fertility and crop yields. Frederick T. Sai, advisor to the president of Ghana on HIV/AIDS, Sept/Oct 2004 (http://www.worldwatch.org/system/files/EP175G.pdf) Rapid population growth …, and gathering fuelwood. Falling crop yields and food scarcity leads to world war three William Calvin, theoretical neurophysiologist at the University of Washington, Atlantic Monthly, January, The Great Climate Flip-Flop, Vol 281, No. 1, 1998, p. 47-64 The population-… from the North Atlantic. Our arguments are historically proven—technology doesn’t solve and the destruction of environmental resources is the most likely scenario for state collapse and global instability Diamond, 03 - professor of geography and of environmental health sciences at UCLA (Jared, “The Last Americans: Environmental Collapse and the End of Civilization http://www.mindfully.org/Heritage/2003/Civilization-Collapse-EndJun03.htm) One of the disturbing facts … countries on these lists. 1AC SOLVENCY Solvency And, increasing family planning access could stabilize the world population in a decade Brown. 2003. – President of the Earth Policy Institute (Lester, Chapter 10 Responding to the social challenge. Plan B: Rescuing a planet under stress and a civilization in trouble. 2003. http://www.earth-policy.org/Books/PB/PBch10_ss2.htm) Slowing world population …hildren per family. 1AC SOLVENCY USAID involvement’s essential to engaging African leaders solving for local adaptation Donald S. Shepard et al, health policy at Brandeis University, June 2003 (Studies in Family Planning 34.2) The regionalization strategy featured … consistent messages. Increasing US family planning is the only way to sustain global involvement Wendy Turnbull, policy analyst at PAI, January 1996 (http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0KDK/is_1996_Jan_1/ai_n18607203/pg_1) Currently, about …integrated manner. Ending ideological restrictions on family planning funding’s the only way to galvanize globa support and provide critical productive services Adam Sonfield, Senior Public Policy Associate at the Guttmacher Institute, Winter 2006 (http://www.guttmacher.org/pubs/gpr/09/1/gpr090110.html) Sadly, the donor … leadership role. Only the plan restores trust and partnerships that’s key to NGO cooperation Molly Diachok et al, Policy Associate at Center for Reproductive Rights, October 2k (http://www.reproductiverights.org/pdf/pub_bp_bushggr_violation.pdf) USAID international … “federalized,” i.e., subjected, in effect, to the global gag rule.

No international donor can replicate USAID expertise---only USAID possesses the network of contacts and the research infrastructure critical to sustainability of reproductive programs Susan A. Cohen, policy development associate at the Alan Guttmacher Institute, 1997 (http://www.guttmacher.org/pubs/ib15.html) For this small price, … Depo-Provera.

GBS LP- AFF OBSERVATION ONE: INHERENCY

AMERICAN AID AGENCIES ONLY DISTRIBUTE CONDOMS MADE IN THE UNITED STATES—THIS BOTH REDUCES THE NUMBER OF CONDOMS PROVIDED BY USAID AND ALSO SENDS A SIGNAL THAT THE U.S. DOESN’T SUPPORT THEIR USE—THIS POLICY IS MODELLED IN UGANDA TO DECREASE EMPHASIS ON CONDOMS

HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH 2004 (“The United States’ War on Condoms” December, http://hrw.org/backgrounder/hivaids/condoms1204/2.htm)

The United States has traditionally … for funds from USAID.

THIS MODELLING OF U.S. POLICY DISRUPTS THE BALANCE BETWEEN CONDOMS AND OTHER PREVENTION PROGRAMS—THE UGANDAN POPULATION BECOMES DISTRUSTFUL OF THE GOVERNMENT AND DOESN’T USE CONDOMS—THIS HAS CAUSED HIV RATES TO SURGE

THE INDEPENDENT, JUNE 1 2006 (http://news.independent.co.uk/world/africa/article622736.ece)

Abstinence is working for Isaac …Aids, a local NGO says.

OBSERVATION TWO: THE ADVANTAGES

ADVANTAGE ONE: AIDS

HIV INFECTIONS CONTINUE TO RISE—ONLY CONDOMS CAN PREVENT THIS INCREASE AND NO OTHER METHOD CAN SUCCEED WITHOUT THEM

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION 2004 (WHO and UNAIDS, Position Statement On Condoms and HIV Prevention, July 2004, http://www.hivpolicy.org/Library/HPP000102.pdf)

Condom use is a critical … sustained control of the epidemic.

UGANDA’S REVERSION TO ABSTINENCE WILL CRIPPLE GLOBAL EFFORTS TO SOLVE HIV—UGANDA IS A KEY MODEL

COHEN AND TATE 2005 (Jonathan, researcher in the HIV/AIDS and Human Rights Program, Tony, researcher in Children’s Rights Division, both Human Rights Watch, “The Less They Know, The Better: Abstinence Only in HIV/AIDS Programs in Uganda,” March, http://hrw.org/reports/2005/uganda0305/index.htm)

To its credit, Uganda … the global AIDS pandemic.

AIDS HOLLOWS OUT AFRICAN MILITARIES AND MAKES DEPLOYMENT UNCERTAIN—THIS CAUSES DOMESTIC INSTABILITY, ALLIANCE COLLAPSE, AND INVITES AGGRESSION FROM OTHER STATES

SINGER 2002 (Peter, John M. Olin Post-doctoral Fellow, Foreign Policy Studies at the Brookings Institution, Survival, Spring. This is not the bioethicist/activist Peter Singer.)

The results are devastating … infection rates as classified information.25

WAR IN AFRICA WILL RESULT IN INTERVENTION AND NUCLEAR WAR

DEUTSCH 2002 (Jeffrey, Political Risk Consultant and Ph.D in Economics, The Rabid Tiger Newsletter, Vol 2, No 9, Nov 18, http://list.webengr.com/pipermail/picoipo/2002-November/000208.html)

The Rabid Tiger Project believes … love to go fishing.

200 MILLION PEOPLE WILL BE LIVING WITH HIV BY 2020—THIS REDUCES THE OVERALL IMMUNITY OF THE HUMAN SPECIES AND INCREASES THE RISK OF PANDEMICS FROM RE-EMERGING, NEW, AND CURRENT DISEASES

NEWSDAY 2001 (http://www.aegis.com/news/NEWSDAY/2001/ND010505.html, May 31)

Today, with the AIDS epidemic … DNA to cause disease. THE IMPACT OUTWEIGHS ALL DISADVANTAGES—EMERGING DISEASES ARE THE GREATEST THREAT TO HUMAN SURVIVAL

ZIMMERMAN AND ZIMMERMAN 1996 (Barry and David, both have M.S. degrees from Long Island University, Killer Germs p 132)

Then came AIDS…… Robin Marantz Hening.) ADVANTAGE TWO: OVERPOPULATION THE BUY AMERICAN STANDARD ON CONDOMS IS DRIVING AN INCREASE IN THE UGANDAN POPULATION—U.S. POLICY IS MODELED BY UGANDANS—THIS WILL RESULT IN A POPULATION CRISIS THAT WILL COLLAPSE THE COUNTRY AND CAUSE REGIONAL WAR

LEITCH 2005 (Robert, Writer at US Medicine, “The Elephant in the Sitting Room,” US Medicine, November http://www.usmedicine.com/column.cfm?columnID=213&issueID=81)

My search for clues as to … deckchairs on their personal Titanic. POPULATION GROWTH IS IN UGANDA IS RAPIDLY DESTROYING ECOSYSTEMS AND THREATENING GLOBAL BIODIVERSITY

EILU AND WINTERBOTTOM 2006 (Dr. Gerald, Senior Lecturer of Forest Ecology/Biodiversity Conservation, Makerere University; Bob, senior environmental planning and natural resource management expert at USAID, “Uganda Biodiversity and Tropical Forest Assessment,” July, http://epiq2admin.web.aplus.net/pubs/uganda_biodiversity_final.pdf)

The Albertine Rift is … average of 42 people/km2.

AND, POPULATION GROWTH IS THE BIGGEST FACTOR IN ENVIRONMENTAL DAMAGE IN UGANDA—IT CAUSES MASSIVE POVERTY AND DEFORESTATION

AFRICA NEWS 5-7-2007 (The Author is an Agricultural Economist in Kampala, How population growth rate is threatening environment)

Uganda's population growth rate… source of livelihood.

LOSS OF BIODIVERSITY RESULTS IN HUMAN EXTINCTION

DINER 1994 (Maj. David, Instructor at the US Army JAG School, 143 Mil. L. Rev. 161)

1. Why Do We Care? -- … closer to the abyss. Thus the plan: The United States federal government should require that the United States Agency for International Development increase the number of condoms it distributes in the Republic of Uganda. The United States Agency for International Development should implement this increase by procuring the least expensive condoms that meet or exceed its quality standards for condom distribution programs. OBSERVATION THREE: SOLVENCY THE PLAN WOULD TRIPLE THE NUMBER OF CONDOMS PROVIDED TO UGANDA

UNITED PRESS INTERNATIONAL 8-14-2001

Authorities in the United States face a … Nations condom procurement officer.

HISTORY PROVES—BEFORE BUY AMERICAN, UGANDAN EFFORTS TO FIGHT HIV WERE SOLVING—WITHOUT U.S. ACTION, THE UGANDAN GOVERNMENT WILL CONTINUE TO BE PRESSURED TO DE-EMPHASIZE CONDOMS

CENTER FOR HEALTH AND GENDER EQUITY 2005 (Press release, AIDS Activists Protest Uganda's Condom Shortage, August 30)

(Manhattan) A coalition of AIDS …Smith of ACT UP.

A PLETHORA OF STUDIES AND EXAMPLES PROVE THAT CONDOM DISTRIBUTION SOLVES HIV

FELDBLUM ET AL 2003 (P J Feldblum, M J Welsh, M J Steiner, Family Health International, Sexually Transmitted Infections, August)

As documented by solid … success stories to date. (11)

ONLY THE U.S. CAN SOLVE AIDS—

NO OTHER COUNTRY IS EVEN REMOTELY CAPABLE OF THE NECESSARY GLOBAL LEADERSHIP

GARRISON 2004 (Jim, president of the State of the World Forum, America as Empire, http://www.wie.org/j24/garrison.asp)

The major difference … need for effective global governance.

AND, AMERICAN LEADERSHIP IS KEY TO ACTION BY OTHER DONORS HYDE 03 (Henry, Chairman of the House Committee on International Relations, testimony before congress on May 21, http://foreignaffairs.house.gov/archives/108/news0521.htm)

America does not have to …, we believe, will follow.

US DE-EMPHASIS ON CONDOMS CAUSES STIGMA AGAINST THEM THE INDEPENDENT 06 (Public health and religion: Aids, America, abstinence..., http://news.independent.co.uk/world/africa/article622736.ece)

Even senior members … prostitutes and homosexuals.

Contention Four is our framework for evaluating debate:

The aff must read a topical plan text, and the negative must advocate either the status quo or a competitive policy alternative.

This is good: A. Predictability—there are in infinite number of competing frameworks to evaluate a debate—the resolution requires federal government action, which is the only predictable framework. Mearsheimer 95 (John, Professor of Political Science at the University of Chicago, International Security, Winter 94/95)

Nevertheless, critical theorists … more peaceful.

B. Aff choice—the aff should be allowed to pick the framework because the negative can obviate 8 minutes of the 1ac by declaring a different framework—this is unfair and undermines the educational value of debate.

C. Burden of rejoinder—the most basic negative requirement is that they have to disprove the aff, which means they must respond to it directly. Changing the framework of the debate does not disprove the claims made in the 1ac, it just offers another non-competitive observation.

D. Education—policy debates are critical to education about government action, whether you like the state or not. Refusal to debate specific policy alternatives cedes the whole discussion to elites. Walt 91 (Stephen, Professor at the University of Chicago, International Studies Quarterly 35)

A second norm is … few self-interested parties.

CRITIQUE WITHOUT MATERIAL ACTION PARALYZES POLITICAL ACTION AND ALLOWS THE MOST DANGEROUS ELEMENTS OF SOCIETY TO SOLIDIFY THEIR POWER

COOK 92 (Anthony, Associate Professor, Georgetown Law School, New England Law Review, Spring)

The effect of deconstructing … wealth and power.

GOVERNMENT ACTION IS KEY—ACTIVISM IS IMPORTANT ONLY TO THE EXTENT THAT IT CAUSES GOVERNMENT ACTION

PIOT 2005 (Dr. Peter, Director of UNAIDS, “Why AIDS is Exceptional,” Feb 8, http://www.lse.ac.uk/collections/LSEPublicLecturesAndEvents/pdf/20050208-PiotAIDS2.pdf)

Activism is vitally … point or beyond today.

GBS QZ—AFF Plan: The United States federal government should substantially increase its family planning assistance to nongovernmental organizations within topically designated countries regardless of their compliance with the requirements established by the Mexico City Policy. CONTENTION ONE: HUMAN RIGHTS SUBPOINT A: REPRODUCTIVE IMPERIALISM THE GLOBAL GAG RULE IS IMPERIALISM THAT HOLD AS HOSTAGES IMPOVERISHED WOMEN AROUND THE WORLD Neacsu 02 [Dana, reference librarian at the Arthur W. Diamond Law Library of the Columbia University Law School and a New York attorney, Law Review of Michigan State University - Detroit College of Law, "Imposing Sexual Restraint Abroad," Winter 2002, lexis] “The reinstatement of the Mexico … the extent can only be guessed until it is too late. 68” THIS REFUSAL TO FUND ADEQUATE HEALTH CARE IS RENDERING ENTIRE POPULATIONS DISPOSABLE THAT CAN BE DESTROYED AT THE WHIMS OF THE STATE HERNANDEZ-TRUYOL - Mabie & Levin Professor of Law – 2006 (Berta Esperanza, U.C. Davis Journal of International Law & Policy, “On Disposable People and Human Well-Being: Health, Money and Power,” Fall, 2006, Lexis) ”Moreover, although a treatment may be palliative … people and instead to center human well-being in the health paradigm.” FAMILY PLANNING STRATEGIES VOID OF HUMAN RIGHTS IS EASILY COOPTED BY EXTREMIST POPULATION CONTROL IDEOLOGY – SETS US ON A PATH TO EUGENICS AND GENOCIDE SPAHN 1997 [Elizabeth, professor of law @ New England School of Law, ENVIRONMENTAL LAW, 12/22, http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Feeling+grounded:+a+gendered+view+of+population+control.(Symposium+on...a020526962] “As those of us who have been through…even female infanticide until the much needed son is produced.(41)” EUGENICS WILL RESULT IN GENOCIDE, TOTALITARIANISM, AND THE COLLAPSE HUMAN GENETIC DIVERSITY— THE IMPACT IS EXTINCTION VAKNIN 2006 (Shmuel, Ph.D. in the Philosophy of Physics, “Racing Down: Eugenics and the Future of the Human Species,” Last Mod 11-16-2006, samvak.tripod.com/eugenics.html) “Does the evolutionary process culminate in … species' chances of survival more than any eugenic scheme.” SUBPOINT B: NGO LINKAGES THE PLAN IS NECESSARY TO THE ENTIRETY OF THE HUMAN RIGHTS MOVEMENT – THE GAG RULE CHILLS ALLIANCES BETWEEN NGOS WHICH IS NECESSARY TO THE PROMOTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS Neier, 2001 [Aryah, President of the Open Society Institute and founder of Human Rights Watch, Testimony before the Committee on Foreign Relations, July 19, http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgibin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=107_senate_hearings&docid=f:75604.wais] “My testimony addresses the central advocacy role … important political issues, these extraterritorial associations and communications must be afforded the highest protection.” CURTAILING FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION MAKES ALL FORMS OF WAR AND GENOCIDE POSSIBLE. A ROBUST NETWORK OF NGOS COMMITTED TO HUMAN RIGHTS PROTECTION IS THE ONLY HEDGE AGAINST INTERNATIONAL CONFLICT

D’Souza, 96 Executive Director of Article 19, International Centre Against Censorship (Frances, “Freedom of Expression: The First Freedom?”, Hearing before the Committee on Foreign Affairs, Security and Defence Policy Subcommittee on Human Rights, European Parliament, 4/25, http://www.europarl.europa.eu/hearings/19960425/droi/freedom_en.htm) “In the absence of freedom of expression … which continue to occur could have been prevented.” CONTENTION TWO: AIDS THE GAG RULE ATTACKS THE PRIMARY FRONTLINE DEFENSE AGAINST THE SPREAD OF HIV/AIDS – IT PREVENTS FAMILY PLANNING AND MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES TO THE MOST VULNERABLE POPULATIONS – FOR MANY WOMEN, FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES ARE THE ONLY HEALTH SERVICES THEY RECEIVE The Lancet, 14 March 2003. (“‘Pro-life’ policy threatens US HIV/AIDS initiative,” Sciencedirect.com) “But, if implemented, the policy will … homes, families, and communities—is cruel.” HIV INFECTIONS CONTINUE TO RISE—ONLY CONDOMS CAN PREVENT THIS INCREASE AND NO OTHER METHOD CAN SUCCEED WITHOUT THEM WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION 2K4 (WHO and UNAIDS, Position Statement On Condoms and HIV Prevention, July 2004, http://www.hivpolicy.org/Library/HPP000102.pdf) “Condom use is a critical element … sustained control of the epidemic.” AND, AFRICAN AIDS WILL SPREAD GLOBALLY CAUSING HUMAN EXTINCTION MUCHIRI 2K (Michael Kibaara, Staff Member at Ministry of Education in Nairobi,“Will Annan finally put out Africa’s fires?” Jakarta Post, March 6, ln) *gender paraphrased* “The executive director of UNAIDS,…race and maybe the human race.” US LEADERSHIP IS ESSENTIAL TO COMBATING THE AIDS EPIDEMIC – WE ARE THE COUNTRY THAT CONTROLS THE TECHNOLOGY, RESOURCES, AND KNOWLEDGE TO SOLVE ZEITZ, CO-DIRECTOR OF GLOBAL AIDS ALLIANCE, 2001 [Dr. Paul S., “Recommendations on the US Role in the Global Fight on HIV/AIDS”, TESTIMONY BEFORE THE HOUSE COMMITTEE ON INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS, June 07, online] “Since the beginning of the … strengthening the attractiveness of new markets.” USAID HAS DECADES OF EXPERIENCE IN CREATING CULTURALLY SENSITIVE STRATEGIES TO PROMOTE FAMILY PLANNING—NO OTHER DONOR HAS THEIR EXPERIENCE. SHEPARD ET AL 2K3 - Professor, Schneider lnstitute for Health Policy at Brandeis University (Donald, June 2003, Studies in Family Planning, Volume 34.2, “Cost-effectiveness of USAID’s Regional Program for Family Planning in West Africa.”) “The regionalization strategy featured a forced … may have focused management and ensured consistent messages.

GRAPEVINE BG- AFF Current us debt relief strategy focuses on international institutions like the imf and world bank and ties debt to poverty reduction plans these plans increase poverty and famine, decrease health and social services, and destroy the environment. The demands of glocal civil society for debt cancellation are dismissed in favor of structural adjustment programs that turn debt elief into conditional aid disadvantaging Africa Sharma prof csu sad and kumar prof econ maharishi dayanand univ 2002 race and class 43 4 debt relief- indentured servitude for the third world p 51-2 “for the past decade and a half…that will create a stable and predictable environment for private sector activities” Africa’s massive debt is illegitimate debilitating health initiatives and a new form of slavery Africa action.org, dc based organization that works for pol eco and social justice in Africa, no date given “campaign to cancel africa’s debt” www.africaaction.org/campagn_new/debt_more.php Africa’s massive external debt burden is the single biggest obstacle…..after centuries of exploitation. They ask, “who really owes whom?” We in the socalled west operate under the comfortable illusion hat the world is at peace. The world is at war everyday hundreds of millions of people are under attack from aggressive economic forces supported by the united states. In this war, debt is the weapon of choice. Scholl & arrizabalaga argenitine scial anthropologist and argentine lawyer 2004 ann and facundo “the human face of the economics” February 27 zmag.org/content/showarticle.cfm?itemid=5048 When argentina failed to pay portions of 132 billion……more hunger, more deaths and more ‘economic’ terror Moreover this war is waged directly on the odies of Africans debt has rolled back every public health gain achieved during the 20th century and promises to amplify the effects of existing crises on the continent. Every policy is rendered impossible through the incredible burden that debt imposes on African nations. The immediate cancellation of this debt is essential to correcting each of these problems Colgan director of policy analysis and communications at Africa action april 2002 annlouise “hazardous to health: the world bank and imf in Africa,” Africa action positions paper, africaaction.org/action/sap0204.htm Over the past two decades, the world bank………harmful policies of these institutions War is not an event with a clear and identifiable beginning and end that is performed by states but instead an everyday presence. Crisis driven politics distract from the violence of the everyday war Cuomo 96 hypata 11:4 “war is not just an event: reflections on the significance of everyday violence” p 30+ Philosophical attention to war has typically appeared in the form…….and other state-funded militaristic campaigns. Bystanders of the aids crisis perform the slaughter of innocents on a mass scale in their complicity we must act against dehumanization Barabara ann strassberg professor of sociology at aurora university march 2003 zygon “the plague of blood: hiv aids and ethics of the global health-care challenge” vol 38 no 1 Once we put together what we have said…. Commonalities and uniqueness, unity and diversity. Ethics exist in time, space, and society in our aids situation the us must take on a new ethic of care starting here in this room to survive Barabara ann strassberg professor of sociology at aurora university march 2003 zygon “the plague of blood: hiv aids and ethics of the global health-care challenge” vol 38 no 1 Praxis, including moral praxis, is also embedded in time…….but lose the global war against hiv and aids. Poverty is an ongoing genocide and thermonuclear war Mumia abu jamal 98 Mumia.nl/tccdmaj/quietdv.htm a quiet and deadly violence 9/19, accessed 11/07/05 It has often been observed that America…..throughout the world” Thus the plan The united states federal government should substantially expand its public health assistance to topically designated areas by providing unconditional bilateral debt cancellation, in the form of grants, for the prevention and treatment of communicable disease epidemics Debt cancellation is critical to expanding art treatment for hiv/aids in ssa and expanding the ph budgets of those countries. Such proposals would require the mobilization of civil society to counter neoliberal policies that undermine public health systems necessary to fight hiv

Dr. mckow et all jan 2005 american journal of public health 95 1 expanding access to antiretroviral therapy in sub-saharan Africa; avoiding the pitfalls and dangers, capitalizing on the opportunities” mccoy drPH BMed MSc Loweenson PhD aitken MA ngulube Phd MBChB muula MPH MBBS Kureyi Mphil Ijumba MPH and Rowson MSc At the same time, the cancellation of ssa’s unfair debt burden….. health systems, and treatment activism The us must lead the international charge for debt relief. For every dollar the us gives the international community will giv 8. failure for the us to act dooms all international efforts Leach 99 republican chairman of the house banking and financial services committee july 1999 des moines register moral compass guides help poor nations pg 9 Relieving the debt burdens of the world’s poorest countries…. Attendant social and cpital costs be averted The call for debt cancellation should be inserted into our debates. We use debt cancellation as a prism to analyze global financial relations in general. Millions of people would see more clearly the nature of exploitation in the global economic system. Keet aug 00 development and practice 10 3 4 the international anti-debt campaign- an activist view from ‘the south’ to actvists in ‘the noth’… and the south” At one end is the view that (some sort of) debt cancellation is…. And the global institutions they use in shaping the ‘global economy’.

GRAPEVINE HP—AFF

Plan: the United States Federal Government should substantially increase public health assistance by increasing funding for reproductive health services in Sub- Saharan Africa regardless of the requirements of the Mexico City Policy. We reserve the right to clarify.

Contention 1: Inherency The gag rule revokes funding from key NGO’s, including prior donations Charlotte Hord and Merrill Wolf April 2004, Director of Policy at IPAS and IPAS writer, “Breaking the Cycle of unsafe Abortion in Africa” For example, after the US… planning agencies in another 13.

Funding for reproductive health assistance is adequate. Shereen El Feki, healthcare correspondent, The Economist Magazine, THE BIRTH OF REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH: A DIFFICULT DELIVERY 2004. Last year, a global spending… (or $8.1 billion in today’s dollars) by 2005.

Bush will veto any attempt to overturn the Gag Rule Taylor September 6th 2007 Andrew, writer for the Associated Press, “Senate Passes Foreign Aid Bill” The senate voted Thursday to… to accept U.S. –donated conraceptives.

Bush will veto attempts to remove the Gag Rule. Carter September 7, 2007 Michael “US senate votes to over-turn ban on abortion information and funding overseas” President Bush can veto bills… to remove the gag rule.

Contention 2: Free Speech

The global gag rule violates international law by stifling free speech. Hoodbhoy, Flaherty, and Higgins 05 (Mehika, martin, and Tracy, 2003-2004 Fellow, Crowley Program in International Human Rights, M.A., Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, Tufts University, Joseph R. Crowley Program in International Human Rights, Fordham Professor of Law and codirector, Joseph R. Crowley Program in International Human Rights, SPECIAL REPORT: EXPORTING DESPAIR: THE HUMAN RIGHTS IMPLICATIONS OF U.S. RESTRICTIONS ON FOREIGN HEALTH CARE FUNDING IN KENYA

The ICCPR’s provisions on freedom of expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive, and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers. Second, to the extent that the Mexico City Policy reduces the availability of information concerning reproductive health to the clients of such NGO’s, it may compromise their rights under Article 19, as well.

Improving Africa’s public health care system builds trust between the state and society; this trust solves tyranny by checking power and establishing social order.

Streefland, 2004. (Pieter [medical Anthropology Unit, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands] Public Health care under pressure in Sub-Saharan Africa”

According to Garrett, the provision of health care by the state is based on trust between that state and its citizens. Rather than simply being shaped by the societal values, a trusting and trusted health system can contribute to building wider social values and social order.

Free speech is a paramount value that is an essential ground to democratic politics. Roxoborough 2k2 Dworkin adocates Constitutional provision as one of the most important mechanisms that empower individuals in a political community. In order for government to achieve democracy, it must provide “vehicles” that allow for active participation for individuals who desire change.- not just the majority.

Democracy promotion is essential to prevent many scenerios for war and extinction. Diamond, 1995

Other threats , This hardly exhausts the lists of threats to our security and well being in the coming years and decades. Because, within their own borders, they respect competition, civil liberties, property rights, and the rule of law, democracies are the only reliable foundation on which a new world order of international security and prosperity can be built.

The people of the world will speak out about abortion rights if the gag rule is repeated. This will increase free speech worldwide. Center for Reproductive Law and Policy 2001 June 6, President George W. Bush Sued by Center for Reproductive Law and Policy: Global Gag rule Censors Free Speech of Americans

The Global Gag rule bars foreign organizations that receive U.S> aid from using their own money to speak freely about abortion law reform. Human rights leaders recognize that without free speech, it is impossible for U.S. based groups to open the World’s eyes to the horror of human rights abuses, …

The gag rule stigmatizes effective and necessary reproductive health services resulting in the spread of HIV/AIDS. Population Action International 03 (The Global Gag Rule and HIV/AIDS) The gag rule isolates and stigmatizes reproductive health services around the world, as some of the most experienced providers no longer receive U.S. family planning funds. This program would have reached 12,000 school aged children with comprehensive reproductive health information including HIV/AIDS prevention.

The U.S. response to AIDS in Africa is a model for the rest of the world. Morrison, 01

During the next administration, the epic AIDS tragedy now swiftly unfolding will reshape Africa and inexorably dominate U.S. foreign policy t0-ward the continent. How we engage on the soft global issues stemming from HIV/Aids in Africa will inevitably shape our future response in other parts of the world.

We have a moral imperative to stop repeating the same racist mistakes- Africa is being eradicated as we sit idly by. ZEITZ, Co director of GLOBAL AIDS ALLIANCE, 2001 The HOUSE Committee on INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS The reality of the AIDs crisis hit home when more of our Zambian friends started dying, and were never replaced, when the numbers of orphans around us. All this suffering is completely preventable.

AIDS outweighs war- size and scope Cunningham 03 (Ambassador James B., Deputy US Permanent Representative to the United Nations) Nearly four years ago, on January 10, 2000, we witnessed the very first meeting f the Security Council to discuss a health issue: HIV/AIDS. There can’t be any doubt that today, nearly four years after that first discussion in the Council and three years after the adoption of Resolution 1308, that HIV AIDS remains an urgent threat to peace and security.

Funding reproductive health is critical to solve HIV/AIDS German, President of International Women’s health Organization, Woods, Senior Advisor of International Women’s Health Organization, 2005 Sexual and reproductive rights are essential to address all three of these factors driving the Feminization of the epidemic. There needs to be a major shift in current prevention appreaches to stop new infections among women and girls

Pre and Anti- Natal care will reduce HIV transmission PRC: Shereen El Fekj: THE BIRTH OF REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH: A difficulty Delivery 2004 Tais is a pity because it means that HIV/AIDS programes are not making use of valuable infrastructure and expertise already on the ground in places where AIDS hits hardest. Moreover, pre- and ante-natal care provide an opportunity to stop mother to child transmission of HIV in its tracks.

HIV/AIDS transmission is dependent on mother to infant Tinker, Director of Saving Newborn Lives, 2002

To a considerable extent, the well being of a newborn depends on the health of the mother. A recent report revealed the extent of loss of healthy life from newborn deaths; for example it represents more than 8 percent of the total disease burden in SSA and nearly 14 percent in South Asia.

Denying women access to safe abortion results from patriarchal ideologies about the needs of a women that shape policymaking Braam and Hesssini, IPAS 2004 Patriarchal power lies at the core of understanding abortion as a contested and political issue. Abortion is simply neglected by policymakers because it affects women and because its significance and impact is not fully comprehended.

Focusing on women’s rights is imperative- gender allows us a lens to criticize a larger system of domination which is pervasive within the international system Hernandez-Truyol 96 Focusing on women’s rights as human rights is imperative. The concept of “women as wombs” is also a pervasive worldwide phenomenon and is central to the universal failure to recognize the plethora of issues attendant to women’s health, which include, but are not limited to, bearing children.

The Gag Rule treats women from SSA as powerless and in need of Western benevolence- The Gag Rule supports a basic denial of choices to women and represents the acceptance of an ideology which assumes these women are not capable of choice in the first place- this policy assures a constant re-inscription of patriarchy- and a dangerous iseology which projects the degradation of women onto the international sphere Gathii, professor of International Commericial Law, 2006 The New Right’s ideologies, as imposed by the global gag rule, implicate more than a domestic culture war. through the gag rule gender identities are being continually reconstituted through social processes that reinforce and compound patriarchy.

Health Care Key to women’s rights Saratoga Foundation for Women Worldwide, 2004 Health care embraces every aspect of our lives. Without adequate, health care, women cannot work, obtainan education or raise families. The Saratoga Foundation for Women Worldwide works to empower women to more effectively participate in the

formulation of policy to guide new technology, including applications in medicine, agriculture, pharmaceuticals, artificial reproduction, and genetic engineering.

And, the Us Gag rule undermines the intergrity and effectiveness of all of our HIV/AIDS Assistance- It is unconscionable to Dangle the assistance in front of those countries that need it the most- the gag rule is the barrier for us assistance getting to populations that are dying without it. Center for Reproductive Rights, 03 Many girls in Africa who are orphaned as a result of HIV/AIDS are forced to form sexual relationships with much older men in order to survive. Only to wrench the funding away because health care organizations are trying to provide their patients with care in an attempt to extend their health lives.

FINALLY, This isn’t a question about mortality of abortion- we must focus on the negative effects of the gag rule in the status quo; we have a moral obligation to offer assistance to promote freedom in family planning Aguilar 02 (St. May’s University School of Law, Candidate for J.D.) In any case, the issue should not be whether abortion is moral or immoral, but rather focus on the negative effects, the Mexico City policy has on the lives of women in developing nations. There is no escaping our obligations: our moral obligations as a leader of free nations- or economic obligations as the wealthiest people in a world.

GROVES BG---AFF

PLAN: The United States federal government, specifically the CDC, should provide all necessary support to Disease Research, Surveillance, Isolation, and Containment Centers, epidemiological early warning systems, and outbreak assistance in topically designated areas.

Bird Flu –

A. Current disease surveillance is limited and underfunded, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa – this risks a huge avian flu outbreak, a global threat Zinsstag 7 [Jakob et al, Department of Public Health and Epidemiology at the Swiss Tropical Institute, "Human benefits of animal interventions for zoonosis control," U.S. National Center for Infectious Diseases, April 1, Lexis]

The spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza... health information and behavior.

B. Due to insufficient disease surveillance, avian flu in SSA will mutate into a ravaging pandemic – your evidence about no mutations is biased by a lack of detection and reporting, not an absence of infection Salaam-Blyther 6 [Tiaji, Coordinator Congressional Research Service, U.S. and International Responses to the Global Spread of Avian Flu: Issues for Congress, 1/9, http://fpc.state.gov/documents/organization/59025.pdf ]

due to insufficient investment in disease surveillance... transmitted to and between humans. "

C. An avian flu pandemic is inevitable – human-to-human bird flu mutations could happen at any time and wipe out hundreds of millions of people, up to 20% of all humankind. Chandra 4 [Satish, Deputy National Security Advisor of India – Center for Strategic Decision Research, Global Security: A broader Concept for the 21st Century, 5/7, http://www.csdr.org/2004book/chandra.htm]

the possibility of a human-to-human ... the death toll could run into hundreds of millions .

D. Prefer our impacts - a flu pandemic has higher probability than any other threat - even a WMD attack doesn't compare Zakaria 5 [Fareed, Editor of Newsweek International, "A Threat Worse than Terror," p.46]

A flu pandemic is the most dangerous threat...unprepared for this threat.

E. Sub-Saharan Africa is uniquely crucial to monitor disease outbreaks like avian flu – the CDC's expertise is necessary in order to bolster the global disease eradication effort GAO 1 [United States General Accounting Office, "Challenges in Improving Infectious Disease Surveillance Systems," August]

Weaknesses in developing country systems reduce the ability... comparatively rare in the rest of the world.

F. Surveillance can halt the transformation of animal diseases to future human epidemics by catching the disease early and creating disease databases to better understand and diagnose future diseases Wolfe 7 [Nathan D. et al, Department of Epidemiology at UCLA, "Origins of major human infectious diseases," Nature 447, 279-283, May 17, http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v447/n7142/full/nature05775.html#a1 ]

Most major human infectious diseases have animal origins...a source of relevant reagents.

G. Effective surveillance is key to detect and prevent new super-diseases – the CDC is the only agency that can coordinate surveillance Jacobson 95 [Louis, associate editor at National Journal, "Disease Detectives," National Journal, Government Executive, Section: Health, May, Lexis]

The U.S. governments disease-fighting forces... But weaknesses abound.

H. Future diseases, without prior detection, are unstoppable and cause extinction Daswani 96 [Kavita , South China Morning Post, 1/4, Lexis]

There is a much more pressing medical crisis at hand... imperil the survival of the human race.

Bioterror –

A. Sub-Saharan Africa is a hotspot for biological terrorism – these diseases are endemic and can be easily harvested as WMDs – this is a global threat and needs a disease surveillance system to prevent it Njuguna 5 [James Thuo, completing his PhD in medical parasitology at the University of Bonn, International Livestock Research Institute in Nairobi, African Security Review Vol 14 No 1, http://www.iss.co.za/index.php?link_id=3&slink_id=1967&link_type=12&slink_type=12&tmpl_id=3 ]

Acts of biological terrorism could therefore have political... schooled to monitor biological weapons as well.

B. A biological terror attack on the continent is highly likely – it is perceived as strategic and is cheaper Bornie and Loye 5 [John, UN Institute for Disarmament Affairs in Geneva, and Dominique, Deputy Head of the MinesArms Unit of the International Committee of the Red Cross in Geneva, "Why Preventing Hostile Use of the Life Sciences is Relevant to Africa," African Security Review, Vol 14, No 1]

It is worth bearing in mind that African countries could be considered... becoming cheaper and easier to develop.

C. Bioweapons cause human extinction – the risk is greater than nuclear war or any other WMD Ochs 2 [Richard, Freelance Journalist, "Biological Weapons must be Abolished Immediately," June 9, http://www.freefromterror.net/other_articles/abolish.html]

Of all the weapons of mass destruction, the genetically engineered biological weapons...EXTINCTION IS NOW POSSIBLE.

D. Disease surveillance is essential to the prevention and containment of bioterror outbreaks—local health workers alone lack necessary skills Njuguna 5 [James Thuo, completing his PhD in medical parasitology at the University of Bonn, International Livestock Research Institute in Nairobi, African Security Review Vol 14 No 1, http://www.iss.co.za/index.php?link_id=3&slink_id=1967&link_type=12&slink_type=12&tmpl_id=3 ]

Early detection of a biological agent attack or a natural outbreak depends on epidemiological warning networks... resources in many -developing countries.

Malaria –

A. Current surveillance systems are inadequate but are crucial to monitor climate change data which is crucial to prevent malaria outbreaks Corvalán 3 (et al, C.F. -- World Health Organization – Climate Change and Human Health – Chapter 13 – "Conclusions and recommendations for action" http://www.who.int/globalchange/publications/climatechangechap13.pdf)

Climate change is likely to cause incremental changes...climatic changes and disease incidence.

B. Malaria kills 3000 African children a day and is wildly transmittable, but is easily preventable – we must take action to stop this devastating crisis. Judd 7 [April 24, Ashley, Special to CNN, board member of Population Services International, and a global ambassador for its Five & Alive initiative http://www.cnn.com/2007/WORLD/africa/04/23/judd.commentary/index.html]

In the time it takes you to read this article, four African children... We could end this devastation today.

C. Disease surveillance will stop the spread of malaria by incorporating all factors of transmission, thereby reinvigorating economic development and preventing global spread Rogers 2 [David J., University of Oxford, "Satellite imagery in the study and forecast of malaria," Nature, Volume 415(6872), February, OVID]

Satellite sensor data promise the development of early-warning systems for diseases... incorporate both intrinsic and extrinsic factors .

Solvency –

A. Only CDC expertise, disease surveillance tools, laboratory capacity, and communications channels can improve the ability to recognize and contain emerging threats Blount 7 [Stephen B., MD, MPH, Director – Office for Global Health, 5/2, http://www.hhs.gov/asl/testify/2007/05/t20070502a.html]

Currently, the US and the rest of the world are facing... communication channels so we can respond effectively .

B. CDC surveillance is best – only they are able to provide vital real-time data, and the only body prepared to monitor zoonotic diseases globally – no other country or international organization can solve, even WHO Butler 6 (Declan, senior reporter at Nature; Nature magazine; http://www.nature.com.proxy2.cl.msu.edu:2047/nature/journal/v440/n7080/full/440006a.html )

The 122-city programme run by the US C enters for Disease Control... do not have the funds for disease surveillance .

C. DRSICC's would solve in Africa and are the best way to check a deadly pathogen in the US.

Fox 98 (C. WILLIAM, M.D., Commander of Bayne-Jones Army Hospital, Command Surgeon of the Joint

Readiness Training Center -- Parameters, Winter 1997-98, pp. 121-36. -http://carlislewww.army.mil/usawc/parameters/97winter/fox.htm)

Disease Research, Surveillance, Isolation, and Containment Centers... will be deployed into the next African humanitarian disaster.

HEBRON WW 1AC

Contention 1: Inherency

US medical assistance in Africa is under funded

Lt. Col. Fox M.D. 1997 (C. William, Phantom Warriors: Disease as a Threat to US National Security,” Winter, Parameter, http://www.carlisle.army.mil/USAWC/PARAMETERS/97winter/fox.htm)

While few would contend… short of their potential.

Thus, we offer the following plan:

The United States Federal Government, through the Department of Defense, should provide all necessary support for MEDFLAG exercises to the area geopolitically known as Sub-Saharan Africa. Necessary budgetary support should be provided. We reserve the right to clarify our intent.

Advantage 1: Overstretch

The US military is not overstretched now despite deployments in Iraq and Afghanistan

Brookes 07, Heritage Foundation, 3.26.07 (Peter, “The Next Threats: Military Able but Stretched,” http://www.heritage.org/Press/Commentary/edu032607

The U.S. military now made… thanks to the Navy and Air Forces.

That won’t last however, because continued, frequent US military humanitarian intervention in “Sub Saharan Africa” is inevitable

Schafer 07, Heritage Foundation, 2.7.07 (Brett, “Creating an Africa Command,” http://www.heritage.org/Research/Africa/wm1349.cfm )

Africa is no longer a distant… region in coming years.

MEDFLAGs avert US humanitarian intervention in “Sub Saharan Africa”, which allows the US to maintain sufficient military reserves to respond to major regional crises when necessary. The alternative is tying up US troops during global emergencies

Fox 97 (C. William, Phantom Warriors: Disease as a Threat to US National Security,” Winter, Parameter, http://www.carlisle.army.mil/USAWC/PARAMETERS/97winter/fox.htm) Were such an overarching… little now or a lot later.

Overstretched US forces weaken deterrence and result in foreign aggression and war. Furthermore, maintaining reserve military forces is key to US heg

DoD 95, Annual Defense Report (“Roles of US military Power in Defense Strategy,” http://www.dod.gov/execsec/adr95/roles.html

US military strategy calls… adversary that is foreseen today.

The collapse of hegemony risks human extinction – there is no realistic alternative system of international relations

Ferguson 04, history professor, NYU, (Nial, Foreign Policy, July/August)

So what is left?... not-so-new world disorder.

Advantage 2: Leadership

Expanded MEDFLAG missions to Africa offer a uniquely effective mechanism for increasing US leadership – the plan spills over to US foreign policy effectiveness

Carroll 01, US Army, (Terry, “Engagement or Marriage: The Case for an expanded Military Medical Role in Africa,” http://stinet.dtic.nil/egi-bin/getTRDOC?AD=A390489&Location=U2&doc=GeTRDoc.pdf

If we are to lead the world,... but the entire globe.

Moreover, “Sub-Saharan Africa” is a vitally important regional theatre of operations – engagement there spills over to global US credibility and influence

Alquier, 98, US Army (Phillipe, “Sub Saharan Africa: An Assessment of U.S. Policy,” http://stinct.dtic.mil/oai/oai?&verb=getRecord&metadataPrefix=html&identifer=ADA44192 )

Given the limited nature… as a global superpower.

US leadership is essential to prevent global nuclear exchange.

Khalilzad, 1995 RAND, The Washington Quarterly, Zalmay Khalilzad

Under the third option,… multipolar balance of power system.

And, the US dominant military power is the only thing keeping evil from drowning the world. A collapse of heg would lead to multiple scenarios for nuclear war and extinction.

Prager 04 (Prager, Dennis. Ph.D. law, Pepperdine University, Fellow, School of International Affairs, Columbia University, “This Year’s Ingrate of the Year Award Goes To..” Jewish World Review, August 31, 2004. http://www.jewishworldreview.com/0804/prager1.asp

Yet its awfulness is… do not understand this.

Advantage 3: Terrorism

Empirically MEDFLAGs prevents the rise of terrorism

Keaten 03- Associated Press Writer- 2003 (Jamey, “U.S. Medical Mission Treats Moroccans”)

ZAOUIA AOUFOUS, Morocco (AP)… operation began on Sept. 6.

Terrorism leads to multiple scenarios for nuclear war and extinction

Corsi 05 (Jerome “Horrific scenario: NYC hit by terrorist nuke”) http://www.worldnetdaily.com/news/ar...TICLE_ID=43817

In the span of less than one hour,… capable of exacting revenge.

Contention 2: Framework

And, Rejecting realism is not only impossible but counterproductive

Stefano Guzzini, 1998 Senior Research Fellow at the Institute for International, Associate Professor of Government at Uppsala University, 1998 (Realism in International Relations and International Political Economy, P.235)-20

Third, this last chapter… and uncritically reproduce it.

HENRY SIBLEY-- AFF
Contention one: inherency The Bush Administration has manipulated the patent system to make sure that PEPFAR only uses expensive brand name drugs. They claim that they allow for generics but it is a sham process that favors big pharma. By allowing generics approved by the WHO prequalification process, the number of people assisted could be dramatically increased.

Lobe, 04 (http://www.fpif.org/fpiftxt/1130 Bush's AIDS Relief Plan Will Delay Drugs, Reward Big Pharma, Jim Lobe | May 26, 2004 Foreign Policy In Focus, Political Analyst for FPIF).

Hence the plan:

The United States federal government should require that funds allocated to the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief use the most cost-effective drugs available that meet the World Health Organization’s prequalification standards for AIDS treatment in Sub Saharan Africa.

Contention two: african stability AIDS is rapidly spiking in Africa---this will cause a cascading collapse in institutional and social stability Princeton N. Lyman et al, director of Africa Policy Studies at CFR, 2006 (http://www.cfr.org/content/publications/attachments/Africa_Task_Force_Web.pdf)

This widely destabilizes Africa and undermines conflict termination---ensures that guerilla conflicts escalate Mark Schneider and Michael Moodie, international security analysts at CSIS, 2002 (http://www.csis.org/africa/0205_DestImp.pdf.)

State failure leads to massive destabilizing migrations, contagious disease spread and proliferation to terrorists and rogue nations culminating in nuclear war The African Studies Centre et al 2K3 (The Transnational Institute, The Center of Social Studies, Coimbra University, and The Peace Research Center – CIP-FUHEM, “Failed and Collapsed States in the International System,” December, found at: http://www.globalpolicy.org/nations/sovereign/failed/2003/12failedcollapsedstates.pdf)

adopting WHO prequalification standards would allow PEPFAR to increase the number of people receiving life saving ARVs by ten fold while avoiding risks from brand-name drugs and bureaucratic obstacles created by the FDA. Ismail, 12/13/2006 (Asif, “PEPFAR Policy Hinders Treatment in Generic Terms,” Center for Public Integrity, http://www.publicintegrity.org/aids/report.aspx?aid=836, Production Editor for Center for Public Integrity)

ARV access ends the AIDS pandemic William Angelos, Daily News Central, AIDS could be History in Half a Century, 9/5/06 [http://health.dailynew scentral.com/content/view/0002368/42/]

Africa already has the infrastructure in place to distribute ARVs and regulate compliance with drug regimes—their standards are the same as those in the West, and have been empirically proven to save lives and prevent the spread of disease. Chien 03 (University of California at Berkely School of Law, “Cheap Drugs at What Price to Innovation: Does the Compulsory Licensing of Pharmaceuticals Hurt Innovation?” Berkeley Technology Law Journal, Summer 2003) Lexis.

Contention two: Drug cartels The cabal of big pharmaceutical companies exerts a stranglehold on political and biomedical power. Only governmental action can break their grip. Julian Oram, senior research analyst at the New Economics Foundation, 2002 [“Addicted to Profit,” Corporate Breakdown, Edition 2 – September 2002, available online at http://www.climatespace.org.uk/gen/uploads/gx2dcv45szxpsn55yohg3rjh01082003160233.pdf, accessed July 15, 2007]

Big Pharma’s reign constitutes an ongoing third world war that kills hundreds of millions and threatens every human life. Sub-Saharan ARVs are the crucial battleground in this struggle Dr. Matthias Rath, former head of Cardiovascular Research at the Linus Pauling Institute, 2005 [ available online at http://www4.dr-rath-foundation.org/open_letters/img-nyt0506/speech_drrath.htm, accessed July 15, 2007]

Generics create irresistible political pressure to dismantle the Pharma cartels, they spur political movements that break down the tyrannical monopolies. John H. Barton, the George E. Osborne Professor Emeritus at Stanford Law School in California, 2003 [“TRIPS And The Global Pharmaceutical Market,” Health Affairs, November, available online at http://content.healthaffairs.org/cgi/content/full/23/3/146, accessed July 16, 2007]

Contention three: hegemony The U.S.’s hard line stance on foreign affairs, and disease control is putting our soft power at an all time low, it is making it hard to maintain our hegemony in the world. The Lancet – 05 (Editorial, "America at home and abroad," Jan 1-Jan 7, 2005, vol. 365, no. 945, Proquest)

Instability in Africa kills hegemony failed states proliferate terrorists who see expansion in Africa is the ultimate recruiting ground. Docking, PhD in Political Science at Boston University and Program Officer in the Research and Studies Program being a Specialist on African affairs, 2K2 (Timothy, “Responding to War and State Collapse in West Africa,” United States Institute of Peace, February 1, Special Report No. 81, http://www.usip.org/pubs/specialreports/sr81.html)

Increased foreign assistance through programs like PEPFAR is vital to increasing US soft power—now is a key time, hard power is no longer seen as legitimate. Brainard and Schwartz, 6/12/2007 (Lael, Vice President and Director of Global Economy and Development at Brookings and Bernard, Chair in International Economies, “Foreign Assistance Reform: Successes, Failures, and Next Steps” Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, http://www.brookings.edu/views/testimony/20070612brainard.htm)

And, US leadership is key to a sustained international AIDS commitment. Kazatchkine, 06 (Michel, Ambassador from France for HIV/AIDS and transmittable diseases, “Sustaining U.S. Global Leadership on HIV/AIDS”, CSIS Conference of the CSIS Task Force on HIV/AIDS, 7/16, http://www.kaisernetwork.org/health_cast/uploaded_files/0171306_csis_future_transcript.pdf)

The impact is Nuclear war Khalilzad, Policy Analyst at the Rand Corporation, 95 (Zalmay, “Losing the Moment?: The United States and the World after the Cold War,” The Washington Quarterly, Spring)

HIGHLAND PARK MN---AFF Contention One is Inherency We have political warfare capabilities – for example, air force MEDFLAG operations to give public health assistance Chau 07 (Donovan, MO State Department of Defense and Strategic Studies, Expert in threats emerging from Africa for AMTI (an ex-special ops security group), “Political Warfare in Sub-Saharan Africa” March) The U.S. Air Force ….within its support units. However, the third phase of the MEDFLAG, known as MEDCAP, needs expansion Terry Carroll 2001 (Col. US Army; US Army War College Strategy Research Project, Engagement of Marraige: The Case for an Expanded Military Medical Role In Africa; March 27; http://www.stormingmedia.us/98/9840/A984093.html) The first phase of the … exceptional potential for expansion. Thus the plan: The USFG, specifically the Joint Chiefs, will expand the Medical Civil Action Projects phase of the Medical Conflagration exercises in to include a permanent partnership element and the provision of all necessary specialists, equipment, and supplies as required in Ethiopia, Kenya, Nigeria, and South Africa. We’ll clarify. Contention Two is Hegemony China is winning the political war – they are currently succeeding in Ethiopia, Kenya, Nigeria, and South Africa, which are the key strategic states in Africa Chau 07 (Donovan, MOState Department of Defense and Strategic Studies, Expert in threats emerging from Africa for AMTI (an ex-special ops security group), “Political Warfare in Sub-Saharan Africa” March) Ethiopia, Kenya, Nigeria, and … in technical and scientific fields. China is turned towards Africa as the key to it’s major foreign policy objective – the acquisition of global leadership and hegemony Chau 07 (Donovan, MO State Department of Defense and Strategic Studies, Expert in threats emerging from Africa for AMTI (an ex-special ops security group), “Political Warfare in Sub-Saharan Africa” March) Chairman Mao Tse-tung delivered …to achieve great power status. Chinese Hege collapses our ability to preserve oil supplies Zweig and Jianhai 05 (David, director of the center on China’s Transnational Relations at the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, and Bi, postdoctoral fellow at the same location, Foreign Affairs, “China’s Global Hunt for Energy”, September/October, http://fullaccess.foreignaffairs.org/20050901faessay84503/david-zweig-bi-jianhai/china-sglobal-hunt-for-energy.html) The United States has … against a Chinese military attack. Shortages would deck the economy – no more stable labor markets The Economist, 04 (April 23) China is already on the verge … so much frayed as in tatters. Economic collapse causes global nuclear war and extinction Bearden 00 T.E., LTC U.S. Army (Retired), [“The Unnecessary Energy Crisis: How to Solve It Quickly,” http://www.freerepublic.com/forum/a3aaf97f22e23.htm, June 24] History bears out that … at least for many decades. And, U.S. credibility is at an all time low – a commitment to public health is necessary to repair America’s image Fortin – 2007 (Fred, worked in health care delivery for over 35 years and his experience ranges from mental health crisis intervention, child abuse prevention, studying AIDS in Africa, to university teaching and corporate health care strategic policy development, World Health Care Blog, “Soft Power and U.S. Health Care Revisited,” 6-12-2007, www.worldhealthcareblog.org/2007/06/12/soft-power-and-us-health-care-revisited/) I’ve argued previously that … our job to make it work. Expanding MEDFLAG operations in Africa sends a crucial signal of U.S. international engagement—it’s a test case for soft power and leadership – It overcomes all your arguments about the State of US engagement and reverses the SQ decline in Soft Power Carroll, 01 (Colonel Terry, “Engagement or Marriage: The Case for an Expanded Military Medical Role in Africa”, Army War College Strategy Report, http://www.stormingmedia.us/98/9840/A984093.html) We live in an era … but the entire globe.

Soft power is key to hard power and the war on terrorism – its decline will cause domestic isolationism Nye – Dean of Government at Harvard – 2004 (Joseph, dean of the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard, Political Science Quarterly, Summer, ebsco) THE COSTS OF IGNORING … to explain our common interests. The collapse of U.S. soft power will shatter global cooperation – making nuclear proliferation, environmental destruction, failed states and diseases inevitable Reiffel – Visiting Fellow at the Global Economy and Development Center of the Brookings Institution – 2005 (Lex, The Brookings Institution, Reaching Out: Americans Serving Overseas, 12-27-2005, www.brookings.edu/views/papers/20051207rieffel.pdf ) I. Introduction: Overseas Service as a Soft Instrument of Power The United States is struggling …. rely more on "soft" instruments. Finally, the collapse of U.S. leadership will unleash conflicts – resulting great power wars Thayer 2006 [Bradley A., Assistant Professor of Political Science at the University of Minnesota, Duluth, The National Interest, November -December, “In Defense of Primacy”, lexis] A remarkable fact about … solving the world's ills. Contention Three is Nigeria Nigeria is at risk of Terrorist attacks Morrison 2004 (Director CSIS Africa Program, Testimony before the Subcommittee on International Economic Policy, Export and Trade Promotion Committee on Foreign Relations United States Senate, July 15; http://www.senate.gov/~foreign/testimony/2004/MorrisonTestimony040715.pdf) There are strong suspicions … Delta in the south. The Gulf of Guinea would be at risk from such an attack Goldwyn 2004 (Chairman of the Goldwyn Group, Testimony before the subcommittee on international economic policy, export, and trade promotion, July 15, http://www.senate.gov/~foreign/testimony/2004/GoldwynTestimony040715.pdf) The threat of terrorism also …terrorist group willing to attack. The US could not handle a supply disruption in the Gulf of Guinea Goldwyn 2004 (Chairman of the Goldwyn Group, Testimony before the subcommittee on international economic policy, export, and trade promotion, July 15, http://www.senate.gov/~foreign/testimony/2004/GoldwynTestimony040715.pdf) While the region’s geological … but trouble is on the horizon. And the end result would be total economic melt-down Morris, 2006 (Assistant to the President of the National Committee on American Foreign Policy, American Foreign Policy Interests, Volume 28 pages 225-238, July 1, 2006) A coordinated strike on … Deputy Commander of EUCOM." This violence would destabilize the energy market, killing the global economy Xin Li, The Washington Times, “Oil unrest grips Nigeria; Turbulent delta raises fears of global energy shock,”February 9, 2006, WORLD ; BRIEFING: AFRICA; Pg. A17, lexis Whenever blood is shed … Forum in Davos last month. Nigeria is a “haven factor” that risks a nuclear attack in Africa CNSNews.com 7-6-07 (http://www.cnsnews.com/ViewForeignBureaus.asp?Page=/ForeignBureaus/archive/200707/INT20070706a.html) With the "globalization" of … or local strategic facilities. And generally terrorism risks extinction Alexander ’03 (Yonah, Prof, Dir – Inter-University for Terrorism Studies, Washington Times, 8-28, Lexis) Unlike their historical counterparts… there is no survival." And, Escalation of Conflict in Africa is the Most Likely Scenario for a Nuclear War Deutsch ’02 [Dr. Jeffrey, Contributing Editor for Russian Politics, November 18, accessed 7/25/04, http://www.rabidtigers.com/rtn/newsletterv2n9.html] The Rabid Tiger Project … love to go fishing.

A dedicated US military is vital to make anti-terrorism efforts in Africa successful while preventing limiting and ensuring success for future interventions Carfano and Gardener 2003 (James Jay, PhD and Senior Research Fellow – Institute for International Studies, and Nile, PhD, Fellow – Heritage Foundation, Heritage Backgrounder #1697, http://www.heritage.org/Research/Africa/bg1697.cfm) The United States is facing …operating in neighbouring Somalia.

And, empirically Medflag prevents the rise of terrorism Keaten 03- Associated Press Writer- 2003 (Jamey, “U.S. Medical Mission Treats Moroccans”) ZAOUIA AOUFOUS, Morocco (AP) - Hundreds of rural Moroccans … operation began on Sept. 6. And Engagement with Africa increases international support for Anti-Terrorism initiatives in international fora Terry Carroll 2001 (Col. US Army; US Army War College Strategy Research Project, Engagement of Marraige: The Case for an Expanded Military Medical Role In Africa; March 27; http://www.stormingmedia.us/98/9840/A984093.html) Why would the U.S. … terrorism and environmental degradation. U.S Military is CRITICAL – Only the Military is capable of planning, tech-ready enough, and equipped correctly to deal with public health in Africa Pruden 2006 (Should Medical Humanitarian and Civic Assistance Activities Focus on Building Public Health Capacity in Africa to Better Influence Theater Security Cooperation Objectives?; Lieutenant Commander, Medical Service Corps, United States Navy; A paper submitted to the Faculty of the Naval War College; Should Medical Humanitarian and Civic Assistance Activities Focus on Building Public Health Capacity in Africa to Better Influence Theater Security Cooperation Objectives?) Some may argue that … revolve around public health.

HIGHLAND PARK MN GO---AFF Plan: The United States federal government should, through the executive branch, increase the amount of generic antiretroviral drugs sent to sub-Saharan Africa through the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief by purchasing the most cost effective drugs available that meet the World Health Organization's prequalification standards. Contention 1: AIDS Status quo pharma programs subordinate human lives to profits—resulting in millions of deaths. Foreman 2003- Director of the AIDS Programme of the Panos Institute in London- 2003 (Martin, Perspectives in Health Magazine: The Magazine of the Pan American Health Organization, Volume 8, Number 1, “Don’t let TRIPS trip up access to essential drugs,” http://www.paho.org/english/dd/pin/Number16_last.htm ) The pharmaceutical industry ….is that millions of people who need antiretroviral and other patented drugs still do not have access to them. And, adopting WHO prequalification standards would allow PEPFAR to increase the number of people receiving life saving ARV’s by ten fold while avoiding risks from brand-name drugs and bureaucratic obstacles created by the FDA Ismail 2006 (Asif, “PEPFAR Policy Hinders Treatment in Generic Terms,” Center for Public Integrity, http://www.publicintegrity.org/aids/report.aspx?aid=836, Production Editor for Center for Public Integrity, 12/13) some PEPFAR critics think the initiative's…. creates another set of bureaucratic hurdles. The impact of ignoring any facet of HIV/AIDS in Africa is akin to being complicit with mass-murder – HIV/AIDS will kill more people in Africa then all wars combined and devastate the entire continent. Brown 2006 (Lester, Former International Agricultural Analyst for U.S. Department of Agriculture and President of Worldwatch Institute, Earth Policy Institute, Plan B 2.0 – Rescuing A Planet Under Stress And A Civilization In Trouble, Chapter Six, http://www.earth-policy.org/Books/PB2/PB2ch6_ss3.htm) there is no precedent for the number… together, or we will succeed against neither.” Africa already has the infrastructure in place to distribute ARVs and regulate compliance with drug regimes—their standards are the same as those in the West, and have been empirically proven to save lives and prevent the spread of disease Chien 2003 (University of California at Berkely School of Law, “Cheap Drugs at What Price to Innovation: Does the Compulsory Licensing of Pharmaceuticals Hurt Innovation?” Berkeley Technology Law Journal, Summer 2003) Lexis. While high drug prices comprise only one aspect… All of these factors have made access to AIDS drugs a more pressing and realistic objective. Poverty, infrastructure or resistance alternate causalities and arguments about protecting pharma R&D are just industry lies designed to protect profits. ARVs have been effective even in the poorest areas. Crook 2005 (Jamie, Boalt Hall School of Law, J.D. Candidate 2006. 23 Berkeley J. Int’l L. 524 p.L/N) Surely poverty and under-resourced public health infrastructure… protections presently suppress the production of effective generic anti-retrovirals, to the detriment of the world's poorest HIV/AIDS patients. Failure of the US to adopt WHO qualifications undermines the credibility of all other AIDS assistance programs, creating a ripple effect of resource inefficiency and mistrust towards all international efforts. The plan is key to international harmonization that will save lives. Lynch 2005 (Sharonann, HIV/AIDS Treatment Literacy Coordinator for MSF’s Lesotho mission , Medicine Procurement of ARVs and Other Essential Medicines in the U.S. Global AIDs Program, PEPFARWatch November http://www.healthgap.org/press_releases/05/1105_PWATCH_HGAP_BP_PROC.pdf A unilateral system risks undermining the WHO multilateral pre-qualification program… move to discredit and circumvent the WHO process, resulting in some countries barring the import or use of drugs approved only by the FDA. And, ARVs are key to prevention—people get tested and begin engaging in safer practices when they have hope that they will be able to access life-saving drugs Crook 2005 (Jamie, Boalt Hall School of Law, J.D. Candidate 2006. 23 Berkeley J. Int’l L. 524 p.L/N)

anti-retroviral medication has transformed HIV/AIDS… status," which in turn assists prevention measures. Contention 2: Free Trade US led trade agreements massively restrict the distribution of ARVs. Westerhaus and Castro 2006 (Michael, MD, medical resident at Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Arachu, PhD, MPH, Assistant Professor of Social Medicine at Harvard Medical School, and Project Manager for Mexico and Guatemala at Partners in Health, “How do Intellectual Property Law and International Trade Agreements Affect Access to Antiretroviral Therapy?” PLoS Med 3(8) http://medicine.plosjournals.org/perlserv/?request=getdocument&doi=10.1371%2Fjournal.pmed.0030332&ct=1) recent US trade policy threatens to undermine these advances… authorities to block registration of generic medications The US uses its trade leverage, such as the threat of sanctions, to coerce nations into refusing to accept generic ARVs Crook 2005 (Boalt Hall School of Law, J.D. candidate 2005 [Jamie, “Balancing Intellectual Property Protection with the Human Right to Health,” Berkeley Journal of International Law, 23 Berkeley J. Int'l L. 524 lexis] U.S. HIV/AIDS policy tends to prioritize the protection of intellectual property rights… market, even where no patent law had existed before. And, globalization is inevitable—the only question is how it is carried out—policies that consider the needs of the poor are vital Schneider 2k (Mark, Former Director of Peace Corps, Globalization, information technology and the Peace Corps in the 21st Century, June 7, http://peacecorpsonline.org/messages/messages/2629/4150.html) as we enter the 21st century, there is an even broader challenge… equity gap will widen even further. US policies for patent protection block other multilateral organizations from distributing ARVs as well—this patent law must be eliminated to allow ARV access and free trade. Outterson 2005 (Associate Professor of Law, West Virginia University College of Law 2005 [Kevin, “Pharmaceutical Arbitrage,” Winter, 2005. 5 Yale J. Health Pol'y L. & Ethics 193). With South Africa stymied, generic ARVs… the last decade for access to cheap ARV therapy in Africa. Free trade prevents war through economic growth, increased communication, and the promotion of cosmopolitan ethics McDonald 2004 Department of Government, University of Texas at Austin (Patrick J., “Peace through Trade or Free Trade?” Journal of Conflict Resolution, 48; 547, http://jcr.sagepub.com/cgi/reprint/48/4/547.pdf) Free trade, and not just trade, promotes peace by removing an important foundation of domestic privilege… compromise short of war during a crisis. Free trade solves terrorism by alleviating poverty and spurring democratic reforms O’Driscoll & Fitzgerald 2003 (Gerald & Sara, Senior Fellow at CATO & trade Policy Analyst at The Heritage Foundation, 2/24, http://www.cato.org/pub_display.php?pub_id=3006) free trade and open markets can be as important to securing the peace… permanent war against radical Islam. Terrorist attack would cause World War III and extinction Sid-Ahmed 2004 (Mohamed, Al-Ahram Weekly Online, August 26-September 1, 2004, p. http://weekly.ahram.org.eg/2004/705/op5.htm) A nuclear attack by terrorists will be much more critical than Hiroshima and Nagazaki… whole planet, we will all be losers. Failure to resolve trade issues with the WTO will exacerbate growing tensions between the US and China. MacInnis 2007 [Laura, Reuters, “Modest WTO free trade deal seen better than nothing”, 6/27, http://www.bnet.com/240713071_23-92218.html] Still, he said it was important for countries to salvage something from the WTO… would seek them out in bilateral trade alliances. Trade tensions between the US and China will quickly manifest into armed conflict due to economic depression and domestic politics

Liu 2005 [Henry C K, chairman of a New York-based private investment group. Aug 20, 2005 “The Coming Trade War, Part 6: Trade wars can lead to shooting wars” The Asia Times http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Global_Economy/GH20Dj01.html] US geopolitical hostility toward China will manifest… compared with a war with China. And a US-China war is the most likely scenario for conflict—it will easily escalate into a nuclear holocaust Johnson 2001 [Chalmers, author of Blowback: The Costs and Consequences of American Empire, 5/14/2001, The Nation, p. 20] China is another matter. No sane figure in the Pentagon wants a war with China, and all serious… China’s borders have virtually no deterrent effect. Contention 3: Soft Power International approval ratings of the U.S. are at an all time low—building upon the PEPFAR will help the U.S. rekindle international partnerships and create a sustainable foundation for benevolent hegemony The Lancet 2005 (Editorial, "America at home and abroad," Jan 1-Jan 7, 2005, vol. 365, no. 945, Proquest) In international affairs, Bush's biggest task is to repair… empathie, and secure superpower. Prioritizing public heath over ARV patents advanced US hegemony and trade liberalization because it increases the willingness of other nations to cooperate with US strategic interests Fidler 2004 (The Harvard Environmental Law Review, Spring, 2004, 17 Harv. Hum. Rts. J. 99, U.S. FOREIGN POLICY AND HUMAN RIGHTS: ARTICLE: Fighting the Axis of Illness: HIV/AIDS, Human Rights, and U.S. Foreign Policy, NAME: David P. Fidler, Professor of Law and Ira C. Batman Faculty Fellow, Indiana University School of Law--Bloomington.). The hegemony dilemma does not mean that getting the United… war on terrorism and trade liberalization Increased foreign assistance through programs like PEPFAR is vital to increasing US soft power—now is a key time, hard power is no longer seen as legitimate Brainard and Schwartz 2007 (Lael, Vice President and Director of Global Economy and Development at Brookings and Bernard, Chair in International Economies, 6/12 “Foreign Assistance Reform: Successes, Failures, and Next Steps” Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, http://www.brookings.edu/views/testimony/20070612brainard.htm) In a world transformed by globalization and challenged by terrorism… PEPFAR) and the Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC). A commitment to improving public health abroad is essential to reverse negative perceptions of the U.S. and sustain soft power leadership Benatar & Fox 2005 (Solomon R. Benatar – Professor of Medicine and Bioethics at the University of Capetown, and Renée C. Fox – Professor of Sociology and Bioethics at the University of Pennsylvania, Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, “Meeting Threats to Global Health: A call for American leadership,” 48.3 (2005) 344-361, Project Muse, JMP) America's best interests to go beyond merely expressing concern about global health… goodwill inherited from the past. Soft power is key to hard power and the war on terrorism – its decline will cause domestic isolationism Nye 2004 -Dean of Government at Harvard (Joseph, dean of the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard, Political Science Quarterly, Summer, ebsco) It is true that the United States has recovered from unpopular… explain our common interests American primacy is vital to accessing every major impact—the only threat to world peace is if we allow it to collapse Thayer 2006 [Bradley A., Assistant Professor of Political Science at the University of Minnesota, Duluth, The National Interest, November -December, "In Defense of Primacy", lexis] A remarkable fact about international politics today… benefits. None even comes close. Collapse of hegemony results in an apolar power vacuum rife with economic collapse, mass institutionalized terrorism, and global nuclear wars Ferguson 2004 (Niall, senior fellow at the Hoover Institution and a professor of international history at Harvard University, "A World without Power," Foreign Policy, July/August, p. http://www.hooverdigest.org/044/ferguson.html) Critics of U.S. global dominance should pause and consider the alternative… such a not-so-new world disorder.

HIGHLAND PARK JL---AFF

Contention One is Inherency We have political warfare capabilities – for example, air force MEDFLAG operations to give public health assistance Chau 07 (Donovan, MO State Department of Defense and Strategic Studies, Expert in threats emerging from Africa for AMTI (an ex-special ops security group), "Political Warfare in Sub-Saharan Africa" March) The U.S. Air Force ….within its support units. However, the third phase of the MEDFLAG, known as MEDCAP, needs expansion Terry Carroll 2001 (Col. US Army; US Army War College Strategy Research Project, Engagement of Marraige: The Case for an Expanded Military Medical Role In Africa; March 27; http://www.stormingmedia.us/98/9840/A984093.html) The first phase of the … exceptional potential for expansion. Thus the plan: The USFG, specifically the Joint Chiefs, will expand the Medical Civil Action Projects phase of the Medical Conflagration exercises in to include a permanent partnership element and the provision of all necessary specialists, equipment, and supplies as required in Ethiopia, Kenya, Nigeria, and South Africa. We'll clarify. Contention Two is Hegemony China is winning the political war – they are currently succeeding in Ethiopia, Kenya, Nigeria, and South Africa, which are the key strategic states in Africa Chau 07 (Donovan, MOState Department of Defense and Strategic Studies, Expert in threats emerging from Africa for AMTI (an ex-special ops security group), "Political Warfare in Sub-Saharan Africa" March) Ethiopia, Kenya, Nigeria, and … in technical and scientific fields. China is turned towards Africa as the key to its major foreign policy objective – the acquisition of global leadership and hegemony Chau 07 (Donovan, MO State Department of Defense and Strategic Studies, Expert in threats emerging from Africa for AMTI (an ex-special ops security group), "Political Warfare in Sub-Saharan Africa" March) Chairman Mao Tse-tung delivered …to achieve great power status. Chinese hege collapses our ability to preserve oil supplies Zweig and Jianhai 05 (David, director of the center on China's Transnational Relations at the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, and Bi, postdoctoral fellow at the same location, Foreign Affairs, "China's Global Hunt for Energy", September/October, http://fullaccess.foreignaffairs.org/20050901faessay84503/david-zweig-bi-jianhai/china-sglobal-hunt-for-energy.html ) The United States has … against a Chinese military attack. Shortages would deck the economy – no more stable labor markets The Economist, 04 (April 23) China is already on the verge … so much frayed as in tatters. Economic collapse causes global nuclear war and extinction Bearden 00 T.E., LTC U.S. Army (Retired), ["The Unnecessary Energy Crisis: How to Solve It Quickly," http://www.freerepublic.com/forum/a3aaf97f22e23.htm, June 24] History bears out that … at least for many decades. And, U.S. credibility is at an all time low – a commitment to public health is necessary to repair America's image

Fortin – 2007 (Fred, worked in health care delivery for over 35 years and his experience ranges from mental health crisis intervention, child abuse prevention, studying AIDS in Africa, to university teaching and corporate health care strategic policy development, World Health Care Blog, "Soft Power and U.S. Health Care Revisited," 6-12-2007, www.worldhealthcareblog.org/2007/06/12/soft-power-and-us-health-care-revisited/) I've argued previously that … our job to make it work. Expanding MEDFLAG operations in Africa sends a crucial signal of U.S. international engagement—it's a test case for soft power and leadership – It overcomes all your arguments about the State of US engagement and reverses the SQ decline in Soft Power Carroll, 01 (Colonel Terry, "Engagement or Marriage: The Case for an Expanded Military Medical Role in Africa", Army War College Strategy Report, http://www.stormingmedia.us/98/9840/A984093.html ) We live in an era … but the entire globe. Soft power is key to hard power and the war on terrorism – its decline will cause domestic isolationism Nye – Dean of Government at Harvard – 2004 (Joseph, dean of the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard, Political Science Quarterly, Summer, ebsco) THE COSTS OF IGNORING … to explain our common interests. The collapse of U.S. soft power will shatter global cooperation – making nuclear proliferation, environmental destruction, failed states and diseases inevitable Reiffel – Visiting Fellow at the Global Economy and Development Center of the Brookings Institution – 2005 (Lex, The Brookings Institution, Reaching Out: Americans Serving Overseas, 12-27-2005, www.brookings.edu/views/papers/20051207rieffel.pdf ) I. Introduction: Overseas Service as a Soft Instrument of Power The United States is struggling …. rely more on "soft" instruments. Finally, the collapse of U.S. leadership will unleash conflicts – resulting great power wars Thayer 2006 [Bradley A., Assistant Professor of Political Science at the University of Minnesota, Duluth, The National Interest, November -December, "In Defense of Primacy", lexis] A remarkable fact about … solving the world's ills. Contention Three is Nigeria Nigeria is at risk of Terrorist attacks Morrison 2004 (Director CSIS Africa Program, Testimony before the Subcommittee on International Economic Policy, Export and Trade Promotion Committee on Foreign Relations United States Senate, July 15; http://www.senate.gov/~foreign/testimony/2004/MorrisonTestimony040715.pdf) There are strong suspicions … Delta in the south. The Gulf of Guinea would be at risk from such an attack Goldwyn 2004 (Chairman of the Goldwyn Group, Testimony before the subcommittee on international economic policy, export, and trade promotion, July 15, http://www.senate.gov/~foreign/testimony/2004/GoldwynTestimony040715.pdf) The threat of terrorism also …terrorist group willing to attack. The US could not handle a supply disruption in the Gulf of Guinea Goldwyn 2004 (Chairman of the Goldwyn Group, Testimony before the subcommittee on international economic policy, export, and trade promotion, July 15, http://www.senate.gov/~foreign/testimony/2004/GoldwynTestimony040715.pdf) While the region's geological … but trouble is on the horizon. And the end result would be total economic melt-down Morris, 2006 (Assistant to the President of the National Committee on American Foreign Policy, American Foreign Policy Interests, Volume 28 pages 225-238, July 1, 2006) A coordinated strike on … Deputy Commander of EUCOM."

This violence would destabilize the energy market, killing the global economy Xin Li, The Washington Times, "Oil unrest grips Nigeria; Turbulent delta raises fears of global energy shock," February 9, 2006, WORLD ; BRIEFING: AFRICA; Pg. A17, lexis Whenever blood is shed … Forum in Davos last month. Nigeria is a "haven factor" that risks a nuclear attack in Africa CNSNews.com 7-6-07 ( http://www.cnsnews.com/ViewForeignBureaus.asp?Page=/ForeignBureaus/archive/200707/INT20070706a.html) With the "globalization" of … or local strategic facilities. And generally terrorism risks extinction Alexander '03 (Yonah, Prof, Dir – Inter-University for Terrorism Studies, Washington Times, 8-28, Lexis) Unlike their historical counterparts… there is no survival." And, Escalation of Conflict in Africa is the Most Likely Scenario for a Nuclear War Deutsch '02 [Dr. Jeffrey, Contributing Editor for Russian Politics, November 18, accessed 7/25/04, http://www.rabidtigers.com/rtn/newsletterv2n9.html ] The Rabid Tiger Project … love to go fishing. A dedicated US military is vital to make anti-terrorism efforts in Africa successful while preventing limiting and ensuring success for future interventions Carfano and Gardener 2003 (James Jay, PhD and Senior Research Fellow – Institute for International Studies, and Nile, PhD, Fellow – Heritage Foundation, Heritage Backgrounder #1697, http://www.heritage.org/Research/Africa/bg1697.cfm) The United States is facing …operating in neighbouring Somalia. And, empirically Medflag prevents the rise of terrorism Keaten 03- Associated Press Writer- 2003 (Jamey, "U.S. Medical Mission Treats Moroccans") ZAOUIA AOUFOUS, Morocco (AP) - Hundreds of rural Moroccans … operation began on Sept. 6. And Engagement with Africa increases international support for Anti-Terrorism initiatives in international fora Terry Carroll 2001 (Col. US Army; US Army War College Strategy Research Project, Engagement of Marraige: The Case for an Expanded Military Medical Role In Africa; March 27; http://www.stormingmedia.us/98/9840/A984093.html) Why would the U.S. … terrorism and environmental degradation. U.S Military is CRITICAL – Only the Military is capable of planning, tech-ready enough, and equipped correctly to deal with public health in Africa Pruden 2006 (Should Medical Humanitarian and Civic Assistance Activities Focus on Building Public Health Capacity in Africa to Better Influence Theater Security Cooperation Objectives?; Lieutenant Commander, Medical Service Corps, United States Navy; A paper submitted to the Faculty of the Naval War College; Should Medical Humanitarian and Civic Assistance Activities Focus on Building Public Health Capacity in Africa to Better Influence Theater Security Cooperation Objectives?) Some may argue that … revolve around public health.

--Michael Lando "Just keep telling the officers, 'No hablo Inglais.' Unless they're Mexican. In that case, run." -The Onion

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HIGHLAND PARK TX – AFF

Obs 1 – Inherency

The Global Gag Rule currently bars proper public health nuances, revealing itself to be imperialist and oppressive towards Africa as a whole.

Cochrane 07

“NGOs receiving any help at all … worlds most vulnerable people”

And America should be a leader in family planning, not gagging it – the gag rule cuts African health assistance in half – plan is key to overall health services in Sub-Saharan Africa

Plan: The United States federal government should substantially increase funding directed towards abortion related family planning services to the African countries south of the 18° N. Parallel. Any legislation precluding the funding of services will be revoked. We will clarify

O2 – Adv Scn 1 – AIDS

The gag rule prevents family planning which is inescapeable from AIDS treatment. Jones 04 [Healthing the Wounds of Slavery] “Family planning clinics in Sub Saharan Africa….in the policy and law making agenda”.

The current world order is best described as a global arpartied. An international system of minority rule structured by race and place.

Booker & Minter July 9 2001 [http://www.thenation.com]

“The global pattern of AIDS … and promotes global minority rule.”

Scn 2 – Feminism

By preventing womyn’s access to medical information, the gag rule deprives them of the societal participation and political freedom as it creates a “self renewing cycle” that marginalizes womyn’s roles and rights.

Cook & Dickens 03

“Citizens’ power to participate as … were seeking abortions at a later stage in their pregnancy.”

This is not mere rhetoric – empiraclly peer-reviewed studies indicate an overwhelming causal relationship between gender oppression and international violence.

Caprioli 05 [International Studies Quarterly]

“structural violence is a process … a subset of intrastate conflicts.”

Patriarchy racializes sex and gender to use them as tools of oppression and deny rights to African womyn..

Eisenstein 04 [Against Empire:Feminism, Racisim, and the West]

“”Patriarchy reproduces … world othered and outside.”

Africa suffers a disproportionate amount of pregnancy related deaths as a result of unsafe abortions. This disproportionate figure is grounded in the repression of feminine forms of sexuality and empowerment. We must break the silence with action.

Hord and Wolf 04 [African Journal of Reproductive Health, Vol 8]

“important contributor to pregnancy related … women in other developing regions confront.”

Scn 3 – Imperialism

The global gag rule smacks of imperialism.

Reece Evans 03 [Thinking locally, Acting Globally: The Implications of the Global Gag rule]

“The GGR does … vindicated as a valid and necessary practice.”

Under the lens of imperialism, the created other expands in definition to include the third world populations. This logic results in the death of that population and the approaching ultimate perversion of the western illusion”, destroying humanity under the illusion of save it.

Santos 03 [Collective Suicide or Globalization from bellow]

“the West has repeatedly … into a machine of horror and destruction.”

Current African abortion policies are a reflection of the colonial ties.

Braam and Hessini 04 [African Journal of Rreproductive Health, Vol 8]

“The colonial are introduced … by this new African governments.”

Obs 3 Solv

We must frame the debate in a way that buikds an understanding of the issue at hand and attack the core of those attempting to block access to safe abortion services in order to rebuild Africa.

Braam and Hessini 04 [African Journal of Rreproductive Health, Vol 8]

“Ensuring women’s access to safe abortion … can determine their own destinies.”

Indpepndent analysts agree – only USAID can successfully promote policy development in family planning.

Guttmacher 00 [http://www.gulttmacher.org/pubs]

“Historically the United States has been … effective family planning services program”

Anti abortion polices in the US lead to a chilling effect – same effect as global modeling.

Ernst Katzive and Smock 04 [University of Pennsylvania Journal of Constitutional Law, April 6]

“international counter current has been … significant chillin effect in other countries.”

The US is in a uniquely powerful position as the world’s largest provider of public health assistance. Unfortuantely with this leader ship the US chooses the global gag rule which perpetuates poor access to health care.

Skuster 04 [Mich J or Gender and Law]

“Free speech and free association … jeopardized by the United States government.”

Without control over reproduction all womens rights are at stake.

Greenberg 98 [Without the ability to control … to a society based on patriarchy.”

HOMEWOOD-FLOSSMOR---AFF

Water is Life 1AC (1)

We begin with Contention 1: Inherency

The US currently leads a movement to privatize water resources, violating a basic human right to access water and leading to a drastic decline in fresh water supplies

Barlowe and Clarke 2002

(Maude and Tony, The Nation, Sept. 2, http://www.thenation.com/docprint.mhtml?i=20020902&s=barlow)

Moreover, aid for improving water access and sanitation is scant and the Water for the Poor Act remains unfunded as money is diverted to Iraq and Afghanistan

U.S. News & World Report 07

(June 4, 2007- Lexis)

This lack of funding specifically neglects sub-Saharan Africa - the region in the most dire need of assistance

Blumenauer May 16, 07 - US Representative [Earl, “Hearing of the Subcommittee on Africa and global health of the house committee on foreign affairs” Federal News Service]

PLAN : The United States federal government should substantially increase its public health assistance by providing all necessary funding for the implementation of the resolutional areas of the Paul Simon Water for the Poor Act of 2005 in sub-Saharan Africa. We'll clarify.

We continue with Contention 2: The Water Crisis

Subpoint A: The Right to Water

Justice requires the distribution of primary social goods. Primary social goods are the type of good one requires regardless of additional wants. Primary social goods are something that everyone, in any position in life, would want.

Sterba, 1990 (Excerpts from James Sterba's chapter on "Toulmin to Rawls" in Ethics in the History of Western Philosophy Ed. Cavalier, Gouinlock and Sterba (MacMillan/St. Martin's Press, 1990). http://caae.phil.cmu.edu/Cavalier/80130/part1/sect5/texts/Sterba.html)

Furthermore, water is a primary social good. Access to clean water is a prerequisite to the enjoyment of other fundamental rights. Therefore, an inequitable distribution of water is unjust.

UNDP, United Nations Development Programme, Human Development Report, 2006

http://hdr.undp.org/hdr2006/report.cfm

Commercialization and privatization of water in the S.Q. violates a fundamental right to water

Africa News March 23, 2007

The protection of justice should be the primary concern of social institutions. Society cannot rightly function without the protection of justice. Justice is not subject to calculus of social interest and must be upheld on face.

Rawls, 1971

Finally, moral claims to basic human rights must be evaluated first. Not acting to preserve fundamental rights risks sacrificing human dignity in the name of “survival.”

Callahan, Institute of Society, ethics, and the Life Scienves, 1973. (Daniel, The Tyranny of Survival, pg. 93)

Subpoint B: Scarcity and Disease

The water situation in sub-Saharan Africa is particularly bleak -more than 50% of the population lacks access to clean water and sanitation

McMurry 2007

(Claudia, Assistant Secretary for Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs, Testimony Before the Foreign Affair's Subcommittee on Africa and Global Health House of Representatives Washington, DC, http://www.state.gov/g/oes/rls/rm/2007/85333.htm)

Waterborne diseases could kill up to 50 million by 2020

CSIS 05 (9-30, Center for Strategic & Internat'l Studies, Global Water Futures, http://www.sandia.gov/water/docs/CSISSNL_

OGWF_9-28-05.PDF)

Sub-Saharan Africa is most affected by a lack of water and sanitation with devastating implications for the people of the region

Lochery '07 (Peter, Water Team Director. Beyond the Status Quo: Bringing Down Barriers to Water and Sanitation Provision in

Africa through Implementation of the Senator Paul Simon Water for the Poor Act Testimony. May 16,

http://www.care.org/newsroom/articles/2007/05/lochery_water_testimony.pdf)

More people die of water related diseases than any other cause. The systemic harms of these illnesses far outweigh those of terrorism and war.

Berman 05 [Jessica Berman, Science and Medicine Correspondent, VOA News, 17 March 2005,, pg. http://www.voanews.com/english/archive/2005-03/2005-03-17-

voa34.cfm?CFID=93767752&CFTOKEN=55192494]

Unmitigated spread of these diseases risks extinction

Powell 00 [“Twenty Ways the World Could End” by Corey Powell in Discover Magazine, October 2000, http://discovermagazine.com/2000/oct/featworld]

Ultimately, the global water crisis is one of the greatest threats to the survival of the planet - 60 children will die in the course of this speech from drinking contaminated water.

Barlowe and Clarke 2002

(Maude and Tony, Maude Barlow, national chair of the Council of Canadians, and Tony Clarke, director of the Polaris Institute

The Nation, Sept. 2, http://www.thenation.com/docprint.mhtml?i=20020902&s=barlow)

Subpoint C: Water Wars

Tensions in parts of Africa are rising and conflicts over water could quickly escalate if nothing is done

Irin 04 - Integrated Regional Information Networks - Humanitarian News Organization

[“Africa: Diminishing Water Resources Could Fuel Conflict - Experts.” 11-5-04. http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/natres/water/2004/1105diminishing.htm]

If tensions over water in Africa reach a flashpoint world nuclear conflict is likely

Weiner, 1990

Prof at Princeton Department of Molecular Biology

[Johnathan, The Next 100 Years: Shaping the Fate of Our Living Earth, p. 214]

In fact, conflict over water in Africa is the most likely scenario for nuclear war

NASCA 06 National Association for Scientific & Cultural Appreciation

[ “Water Shortages - Only A Matter Of Time.” http://www.nasca.org.uk/Strange_relics_/water/water.html)

We conclude with Contention 3: Solvency

Solvency for the crisis is possible, but the US must take the lead in challenging the privatization of water, declaring a right to water, providing access to clean water, and aiding the public sectors of countries in need of assistance

Barlowe and Clarke 2002

(Maude and Tony, The Nation, Sept. 2, http://www.thenation.com/docprint.mhtml?i=20020902&s=barlow)

Recognizing a right to clean water is critical to challenging the corporate control of water resources and ensuring the survival of the planet

Barlowe and Clarke 2002

(Maude and Tony, The Nation, Sept. 2, http://www.thenation.com/docprint.mhtml?i=20020902&s=barlow)

Fully funding the “Water for the Poor Act” and prioritizing those countries most in need would spur global action to solve the water crisis

Simon 8/15/07(Patti, http://www.southernillinoisan.com/articles/2007/07/24/opinions/guest_columns/20939633.txt)

The U.S. is a leader in water related technology - it's involvement is a prerequisite to any successful approach the water crisis

Simon 5 (Paul, Senator, http://www.state.gov/g/oes/rls/rpts/67447.htm)

Time is of the essence- billions will suffer from water shortages and water wars will rage absent immediate and substantial assistance

Business & Finance Magazine June 15, 2007

Additionally, the consensus of the experts is that U.S. action is particularly necessary to prevent conflicts over water in Africa - the most likely source of future wars

BIERWIRTH 02 Colonel, US Army War College

[Roy C., “U.S. International Fresh Water Policy - Need, Analysis, and Recommendation,” USAWC Strategy Research Project]

Finally, the plan would lay the foundation for a new ethic of conservation and common rights to resources - spreading globally

Dr. D Roy Laifungbam 2003

(Jubilee South, Dec., http://www.jubileesouth.org/news/EpZyVVlyFygMevRBey.shtml)

HUTCHINSON AC---AFF The project of modernity is characterized by the sovereign decision over life – this conflation of politics and the biological life of a population is what Foucault referred to as “biopower” – Foucault asserts that biopower coalesces around two distinct directives – first are political techniques that the state assumes to integrate the biological life of individuals into its center – second are the technologies of the self – these are processes that bind an individual to a particular identity and at the same time to an external power – this is the particularly important regarding sexuality and sexual politics – the identity of the “prostitute” has been constructed by particular social actors and defined by governmental policy – the proliferation of discourses has caused sex workers to be seen as “vile harlots” whose bodies are a “stinking s ewer” – The construction of these identities necessitated interventions designed at the limitation of health assistance and the controlling of the sale of sex – this identification of sex workers as a problem and the attempts to do something about it are exercises of biopolitical over the life and death of these sex workers as well as their identitiy such characterizations and exercises of power must be challenged through rigorous critique Augustin in 2005 [Laura, Doctor of Sociology and Cultural Studies and Master of International Education, rhizomes.10, Spring, 2005, Helping Women Who Sell Sex: The Construction of Benevolent Identities] [1] This article addresses the governmental … worked upon and controlled. The United States “Anti-Prostitution Pledge” is exemplary of biopolitics today – it unfairly conflates sex trafficking with sex work and is a primary weapon of the united states in its interventions designed to control the life and death of sex workers through refusing to give health assistance to sex workers unless they remove themselves from the sex industry Cohen, Director of Government Affairs at the Guttmacher Institute, March 2005 [Susan A., “Ominous Convergence: Sex Trafficking, Prostitution and International Family Planning,” The Guttmacher Report on Public Policy 8 (1), http://www.guttmacher.org/pubs/tgr/08/1/gr080112.html] Sex trafficking is one component … the “test case” is on the immediate horizon. And, the linkage with colonialism is not tenuous – historically the third world has been the demonized object against which western identity has been defined. Nowhere is this more true than in representations of non-western women and sexual propriety. The current crusade against prostitution mirrors the Victorian campaigns for the establishment of a normative, well-defined, proper feminine sexuality. This both elevates westerners as agents of moral rectitude and degrades nonwestern women as either passive objects of violence or immoral sexual deviants, justifying neo-colonial interventions Scoular, Senior Lecturer at Strathclyde University Law School, 2004 [Jane, “The ‘Subject’ of Prostitution: Interpreting the discursive, symbolic and material position of sex/work in feminist theory,” Feminist Theory 5(3), Sagepublications, 350352] In contract, Judith Walkowitz’s work … and ‘resisting’ subject to challenge hierarchial relations. There has never been a greater need for critical interrogations of our attitudes towards sex than now – sex panics are not simply isolated instances of violence, but are the ideological channel through which social violence is expressed and justified- in a militarist world with nuclear weapons, panics over sexuality can create unthinkable destruction Rubin, Assistant Professor of Anthropology at the University of Michigan, 1993, [Gayle S. “Thinking Sex: Notes for a Radical Theory of the Politics of Sexuality,” The Lesbian and Gay Studies reader, Eds. Abelove, Barale, & Halperin, p. 3-9] Asked his advice, Dr. J. Guerin affirmed … and genuinely liberatory body of thought about sexuality. Thus we demand: That the United States Federal Government Should Increase Public Health Assistance to Sub-Saharan Africa by Rescinding the Anti-Prostitution Pledge. Finally, our challenge to global violence is not abstract – the equation of monstrosity with sexual deviance produces precisely the ideological maelstrom that fuels the us/them politics of global violence. The recent efforts to stabilize compulsory, monogamous, conjugal, heterosexuality speaks to the link between sexual propriety and nationalism, a link which must be challenged if we are ever to escape the terrifying logical of “either you are for us or against us.” The consequences of inaction include complicity in the face of militaristic imperialism, domination, and mass slaughter

Puar & Rai, 2002, Assistant Professor of Women’s Studies and Geography at Rutgers & Cultural and Literary Studies at the New School University [Jasbir K. & Amit S., “Monster, Terrorist, Fag: The War on Terrorism and the production of docile patriots,” Social Text 20.3 (2002), Project Muse] How are gender and sexuality central … modernity, patriotism, and nationalism?

JACK C. HAYS DS---AFF Contention one: Inherency Health worker shortages in Africa are undermining the core of all health systems and increasing the spread of preventable disease. Health Global Access Project, Advocacy group of health experts dedicated to achieving equitable access to treatment for all AIDS patients, 8-05, http://www.healthgap.org/hgap/accomplish.html “Health workers – nurses……..of the crisis.” Contention two: Harms Advantage one: Health Health workers are crucial for preventing disease spread. American Jewish World Service, News Periodical 2007, “Take action to fight preventable disease in sub-Saharan Africa” http://action.ajws.org/campaign/HealthCareWorkers “Every day, tens…….Please act now!” Preventable disease will cause the extinction of Africa. Rotimi Sankore, Medical Activist and freelance Writer, December 10, 2006, “Right to Health Most Important Right of All” “The horrendous figures…….country could die.” The health of Africa is approaching a fork in the road – all foreign aid will fail without increasing the health workforce. Laurie Garrett, Foreign Affairs Jan/Feb 07 vol 86 #1 p 14 “This danger exists…….prevention and treatment.” Advantage 2: Right to Health The health worker shortage is a significant human rights issue – we must reconceptualize the debate to include discussion of the right to health. Judith Bueno de Mesquita, Senior Research Officer, Human Rights Centre, University of Essex, and Matt Gordon, Independent Policy Analyst, for Medact, 2-‘5 (“The International Migration of Health Workers: A Human Rights Analysis” http://medcat.org/content/Skills%20drain/Bueno%20de%20Mesquita%20and%20Gordon.pdf “The conception of…….human rights approach.” This rights violation is rooted in our unwillingness to accept responsibility for the racialised power relations between Africa and the west – we must begin by examining our role in this process of domination. Dr. Paulette Goudge, Freelance writer, trainer and lecturer, ’03 (The Whiteness of Power; Racism in Third World Development and Aid) 206-7 “I now turn…….best for ‘others’.” Global power relations are preventing African peoples from the right to control their own lives – naming health worker shortage as a symptom of this domination forces an explicit reexamination of the United States governments responsibility for the denial of Africa’s right to health. Alicia Ely Yamin, J.D. from Harvard Law School, board member of Physicians for Human Rights, and human rights activist in Latin America, ’96, (Human Rights Quarterly 18.2, “Defining Questions: Situating Issues of Power in the Formulation of a Right to Health under International Law) “Martha Minow suggestively……..health human beings.” Plan: The United States federal government should provide incentives sufficient to end the health worker shortage in sub-Saharan Africa by the year 2010. Contention 3: Solvency Use your ballot as a tool for imbuing Africa’s health worker shortage with the discursive force of human rights – your affirmation ensures political change that literally shapes the health status of millions.

Alicia Ely Yamin, J.D. from Harvard Law School, board member of Physicians for Human Rights, and human rights activist in Latin America, ’96, (Human Rights Quarterly 18.2, “Defining Questions: Situating Issues of Power in the Formulation of a Right to Health under International Law) “Furthermore, to label………of health status.” United States assistance will increase the health workforce. Physicians for Human Rights, January 1, 2005, “Cost Estimates: Doubling the Health Workforce Doubling the Health Workforce in Sub-Saharan Africa by 2010” http://physiciansforhumanrights.org/library/costestimates.html “Urgent action is…….global health goals.” Incentive will help retain and increase local health workers. Hetherwick Ntaba is the health minister of Malawi 7/8/05 [“Africa’s doctors, AIDS”, International Herald Tribune, page 11, LN] “We are not …………that are crumbling.” Human rights are crucial or the collective struggle against oppression. They create a political and moral energy for the hope of change to come against the suffering inflicted by the present order. Costas Douzinas Law @ Birbeck University of London, ‘2K p. 340-342 The End of Human Rights “In the social………yet to come.” Voting affirmative endorses Africa’s right to health in the face of the current health worker shortage – your rhetorical act acknowledges that we as debaters have a responsibility to denounce current power relations. Alicia Ely Yamin, J.D. from Harvard Law School, board member of Physicians for Human Rights, and human rights activist in Latin America, ’96, (Human Rights Quarterly 18.2, “Defining Questions: Situating Issues of Power in the Formulation of a Right to Health under International Law) “The value of…..they effect health.” Haiti proves incentives can end the health worker shortage. Physicians for Human Rights ’06 “Bold solutions to Africa’s Health Worker Shortage” http://physiciansforhumanrights.org/library/documents/reports/report-boldsolutions-2006.pdf “Partners In Health……at work here.”

JENKS---AFF Observation One: Status Quo First, Our current AIDS relief efforts are focused only on countries who will agree to Bush’s conditions which excludes the vast majority of the poor from medication. Gandy, prof @ University College London, ‘05 [Matthew, “Deadly Alliances: Death, Disease, and the Global Politics of Public Health,” PLoS Med 2(1): e4, http://medicine.plosjournals.org/perlserv/?request=get-document&doi=10.1371/journal.pmed.0020004&ct=1, accessed 8/11/07] And, This failure to provide access to ARVs will be the cause of 28 million avoidable deaths in Africa. Pan-African HIV/AIDS Treatment Access Movement, continent-wide activist movement to increase access to ARVs, ‘04 [August 22-24, “Declaration of Action,” Accessed 8/14/07, http://64.233.169.104/search?q=cache:0Ea2bnVGHCoJ:www.tac.org.za/DeclarationOfAction.doc+africa+activism+essenti al+medicines&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=4&gl=us&client=safari] Therefore my partner and I present the following plan: Congress shall pass and the president shall sign a bill funding the unconditional open access of AIDS medication to all people who require treatment in sub-Saharan Africa through PEPFAR We’ll clarify. Observation Two: Solvency PEPFAR is key. It ensures high quality medication and has empirically solved. Von Eschenbach and Dybul in ‘07 [Andrew C. and Mark, August 31, “World AIDS Milestone,” The Washington Times, http://washingtontimes.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20070831/COMMENTARY/108310018/1012/commentary] And, Increased funds for generics empirically solves. Haakonsson and Richey ‘07 [Stine Jessen and Lisa Ann, “Trips and Public Health: The Doha Declaration and Africa,” Development Policy Review, 25 (1): 71-90] And, ARVs are key to prevention- they help rebuild communities, decrease stigma and give people and incentive to get tested Human Rights News ‘02 [Human Rights News, The FTAA, Access to HIV/AIDS Treatment, and Human Rights - A Human Rights Watch Briefing, October 29, 2002, accessed 6/28/07, http://www.hrw.org/press/2002/10/ftaa1029-bck.htm] And, Although we recognize that our politics aren’t free of power-relations and that our discourse is imperfect, our advocacy is strategically important to moving Africa out of its state of domination. Elbe, Reader in the Department of International Relations at the University of Sussex, ‘04 [Stefan, The Futility of Protest? – Biopower and Biopolitics in the Securitization of HIV/AIDS, Paper presented to the 45th Annual ISA Convention, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, March 17, 2004, on the panel ‘Activism and Practices of Dissent in Global Politics: Interdisciplinary and Critical Perspectives’, pg 27-29] Observation Three: Framework Our framework is that we must fulfill our infinite, pre-ontological responsibility to the Other before any other considerations can be weighed. Simmons, Bethany College, Department of History and Political Science, ‘99

[William Paul. “The Third: Levinas’ Theoretical Move From An-archical Ethics to the Realm of Justice and Politics.” Philosophy and Social Criticism. Vol 25 no 6. p. 85-86.] And, to do otherwise subordinates ethics to politics and ontology, which constructs a world of constant war between egos with no responsibility to each other. Simmons, Bethany College, Department of History and Political Science, ‘99 [William Paul. “The Third: Levinas’ Theoretical Move From An-archical Ethics to the Realm of Justice and Politics.” Philosophy and Social Criticism. Vol 25 no 6. p. 90-92.] And, This means we must constantly question the limits of community in order to push beyond the already said. Shapiro in '91 [Shapiro, Michael J. Violent Cartographies: Mapping the Cultures of War. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota P, 1997.]

JESUIT---AFF The United States federal government should provide necessary assistance to substantially expand medical civil action programs operating in so-called Sub-Saharan Africa under the Combined Joint Task Force for the Horn of Africa. Requisite funding will be provided. Advantage One: Public Health Even where money has been allocated to address disease in Sub-Saharan Africa, the capacity to deploy the resources is lacking. Lack of critical health care infrastructure increases the risk of drug resistant diseases spreading throughout Africa. Cohen, President of BD Medical, 1-5-07 (Gary http://www.bd.com/press/newsroom/pdfs/3_HC_Infrastructure.pdf ) A primary thrust of these interventions… …public and private sectors toward this goal. Drug resistant pathogens cause extinction South China Morning Post quoting Dr. Ben-Abraham, called "one of the 100 greatest minds in history" by Mensa, 1-41996 (Avi, “Leading the way to a cure for AIDS,” P. Lexis) “Despite the importance of the discovery… …survival of the human race,” he said. Expanded medical civic action projects in Africa key to building public health infrastructure. Only minimal increase in resources required to address infrastructure problems in Africa. William Fox, Command Surgeon of the Joint Readiness Training Center, 97 (MILITARY MEDICAL OPERATIONS IN SUBSAHARAN AFRICA: THE DoD "POINT OF THE SPEAR" FOR A NEW CENTURY, http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pdffiles/pub202.pdf) As a matter of “homeland defense,” the United States… …those who fails to rise to the challenges of their generation. Advantage Two: Africom Credibility The United States’ new military command Africom is being touted by the US as a change in US military thinking that recognizes the importance of non-military issues. Skepticism abounds as to whether the US will truly alter its security paradigm or will simply continue to view US security through a military lens. Greg Mills, Terence McNamee, Mauro De Lorenzo, and Matthew Uttle, 2007 [Brenthurst Foundation, April, AFRICOM and African Security, http://www.africafocus.org/docs07/afc0708a.php ACESSED 7/28/2007] RG In October 2008, the United States Africa Command… … focused not on the addressing the U.S.’s insecurities, but Africa’s. Africans and the rest of the world are watching the establishment and structuring of Africom closely seeking signs that this is just another US trick or a true change in the US view of security Morrison, Executive Director, HIV/AIDS Task Force and Director, Africa Program, Center for Strategic and International Studies 2007 (Testimony by J. Stephen before the Senate Foreign Relations Subcommittee on Africa “Exploring the U.S. Africa Command and a New Strategic Relationship with Africa” August 1, 2007, http://allafrica.com/stories/200708031107.html ACESSED 9/5/07] RG Across Africa, and in Europe as well, critics… ….policy leadership and the interagency process. We isolate two scenarios that emerge from the SQ security paradigm: Scenario one: Terrorism Focus on military provided security shifts resources in counterterrorism towards failed policies that only serve to increase recruitment of extremists Josh Meyer, LA Times Staff Writer, 3-18-7 (In Terrorism Fight, Diplomacy Gets Shortchanged, http://www.thepeacealliance.org/content/view/307/1/) President Bush, members of Congress… …by publicizing U. S. military actions. This focus on military solutions to terrorism misses the point—terrorism doesn’t exist because the US military isn’t strong enough. Failure to acknowledge and address the multiple factors that provide incentives for terrorism risks expansion of the terrorist networks in Africa. Raymond A. Zilinskas, directs the Chemical and Biological Weapons Nonproliferation Program and Tamara R. Chapman, Monterey Institute for International Studies, 1-24-7 (Security and Public Health: How and Why do Public Health Emergencies Affect the Security of a Country?, http://www.nti.org/e_research/e3_84.html ) In working to create a new framework… …for nation-building becomes very difficult. Failure to adequately address African terror networks will result in nuclear weapons use against the US

Dempsey – Director of African Studies @ U.S. Army War College – 2006 (Thomas, Served as a strategic intelligence analyst for Africa at the John F. Kennedy Special Warfare Center and as Chief of Africa Branch for the Defense Intelligence Agency, Counterterrorism in African Failed States: Challenges and Potential Solutions, April, http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pdffiles/pub649.pdf) The threat that terrorist hubs based in… …or destroy them will be a complex and difficult task. FAILURE TO PREVENT NUCLEAR TERRORISM RISKS EXTINCTION AND WORLD WAR THREE. Sid-Ahmed, Political Analyst, 2K4 (Mohamed, “Extinction!” Al-Ahram Weekly On-Line, August 26 – September 1, http://weekly.ahram.org.eg /2004/705/op5.htm) We have reached a point in human history… …When nuclear pollution infects the whole planet, we will all be losers. Scenario Two: Counterbalancing Military operations in Djibouti serve as a template for other commands—PACOM would model Lange Schermerhornm, served as the political advisor to CJTF-HOA, 2005 (Battling Terrorism in the Horn of Africa, Rotberg (ed.); “Djibouti: A Special Role in the War on Terrorism,” Copyright: The World Peace Foundation and Brookings Institution, p. 48-49) Djibouti has achieved prominence… …for the adjacent U.S. European and Pacific Commands.2 And changing Chinese perceptions of US Pacific Forces crucial to diffuse misperceptions—china perceives us forces as a threat Ivan Eland 2006 (senior fellow and director on peace and liberty at the Independent Institute and former Cato director of defense policy studies, http://www.independent.org/pdf/policy_reports/2006-01-20-china.pdf) From a Chinese perspective, the global… …China realizes that reality more than does the United States. CHINESE LASHOUT AGAINST THE US BY INVADING TAIWARN RISKS A US-CHINA WAR THAT ESCALATES INTO GLOBAL NUCLEAR WAR The Straits Times (Singapore) June 25, 2000 THE DOOMSDAY SCENARIO THE high-intensity… …recent interview given to the Chinese press. Fortunately we solve both scenarios by changing the international perception of the US security paradigm. The Joint Task Force and its Medcap programs serve as a model for effective implementation of Africom and a concomitant change in US security paradigm across Africa and the world Prof. Thomas P.M. Barnett, Senior Strategic Researcher at the U.S. Naval War College and Senior Managing Director of Enterra Solutions, 6-27-07 (Esquire, “The Americans Have Landed,” http://www.esquire.com/features/africacommand0707 America is going to have an Africa Command… …replicated across the entire continent. Joint Task Force model for Africom for interagency cooperation will alter the security paradigm Thomas P.M. Barnett, distinguished strategist at the Oak Ridge Center for Advanced Studies, Senior Strategic Researcher at the U.S. Naval War College, and Senior Managing Director of Enterra Solutions; 6-24-07 (“Africa command: How America organizes to win war and peace,” Knox News, http://www.knoxnews.com/news/2007/jun/24/barnett-africacommand-how-america-organizes-win-w/ For years now, I’ve argued for splitting… …strategic backwater, forging the obvious solution. Taskforce changes infrastructure and helps show the US in a different light reducing future extremism Baldwin, September 3rd, 2007 [Derek, Staff Writer, Express News, http://www.xpress4me.com/news/uae/dubai/20002958.html ACESSED September 5th, 2007] RG The American military says it is on a… …Afghanistan by giving back,” he said. The successful model provided by Medcap and Africom will help build infrastructure and will decrease the need for interventions Menning, 2006 [Anton, Times Contributing Writer, CJTF HOA: Long-Term Solutions to Combating Terrorism, http://www.kasc.ku.edu/programs/seminars/2006/Seminar%20on%20Security%20Issues/Articles/Anton's%20articles/CJT FHOALeav-Times.pdf, ACESSED 9/5/07] RG Nairobi, Kenya – Fighting terrorism in its own way, the… …Task Force spokesperson Major David Westover said. AFRICOM crucial to solve African public health—creates public health stability, increased coordination, and assistance projection

The Honorable Christopher Ryan Henry, Principal Deputy Undersecretary of Defense for Policy, May 23rd, 2007 [ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON VOLUNTARY FOREIGN AID, http://209.85.165.104/search?q=cache:_UovDnjFYloJ:www.usaid.gov/about_usaid/acvfa/052307_fullreport.pdf+%22AFRI COM+%22public+health%22&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=15&gl=us ACESSED 9/5/07] RG Changing security paradigm by the US key to challenging the notions that military solutions will be used by the US New Straits Times, 8-4-01 (R.S. McCoy, “Dangerous and flawed systems,” Saturday forum; Pg. 14, Lexis])

KINKAID ALL---AFF
Kincaid 1AC Sites Observation 1: The forgotten epidemic The Greatest challenge to public health in sub-Saharan Africa is landmines. Landmines directly harm tens of thousands and the devastate African societies. Sarah Taylor of the land mine action information center states in 2002 [Journal of Mine Action Dec. 2002] 1/3 [Just three percent of all arable land in Angola is currently under cultivation… This is nearly impossible] And, Africa is the most mined continent in the world. They lack resources to address The Hidden Plague. Oyugi 04 (Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Kenya) [Africa remains the most mine-affected continent. In Sub-Saharan Africa, 22 countries are mineaffected…Some of the mine-affected States in the continent are among the world’s weakest economies] And, US apathy is not accidental, rather, US has failed to assist in demining because those suffering, do not meet our narrow lens of national security. And another tag… Unfortunately, the United States has not recognized the extend of the epidemic. Its framework for doaling out assistance is contingent on US national security. Kidd 04 (Acting Deputy Assitant Secretary for Politica-Military Affairs) [Thank you Colonel Jordan. I will now describe the overall US Humanitarian Mine Action Strategic Plan. It is designed to…and host nation’s own genuine commitment to helping to rid itself of its landmines.] Contention 2 – Harms Scenario 1 – Mined Mayhem Landmines cause mass suffering in Africa. They kill more than all weapons of mass destruction resulting in millions losing their lives, disease spread, and famine. Oppong and Kalipeni 03 (professor in department of geography at UNT and the later associate professor of geography and African studies at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign) [Most of these victims are civilians killed or injured after hostilities have ended. Of the sixty-five countries reporting new landmine causalities...The increased frequency of blood transfusions facilitates the spread of syphilis, hepatitis, malaria, and HIV.] Famine is an unnecessary massacre – we must take every step to challenge the conditions that cause hunger. Abadale 07 (Ramine, “Famine is an absurd Massace”, I’humanitie, May 5) [Jean Ziegler, main protagonist of Erwin Wagenhofer’s documentary ‘We feed the world,’ is also the Un Sepcial Rappoteur on the Right to Food and the…This is an absurd and useless massacre perpetrated by the world order of globalised financial capital.] And, mines kill millions in Africa. The ! is staggering and outweigs all other weapons of mass destruction. It affects everyone in Sub-Saharan Africa. Day 98 (Sr. Lecturer, Public Health, University of Zimbabwe [An individual woman peasant farmer seeks to prepare her field for planting and loses a leg… have killed more people than all the cold war weapons of mass destruction combined.] Scenario 2 – The camp The scourge of landmines forces millions to flee fertile lands generating refugees, incubating disease, and causing wholesale displacement of populations.

Oppong and Kalipeni 5 “The geography of landmines and implications for health and disease in africa: a political ecology approach” [As an environmental problem, landmines have profound medical and economic consequences… more than nine thousand cattle have been reported killed in minefields since 1980 in Zimbabwe, representing a loss of income of some Z$15 million] Refugee camps become prisons of death. 3000 Refugees die a day while genocidal leaders profit form their suffering. Stevens 2006 “Jacob, New Left Review 42, November-December 2006 PRISONS OF THE STATELESS” [The new framework for dealing with large refugee crisis…For those who have followed the intensifying conflicts in Afghanistan, her optimism will not prove too infectious.] These refugees are denaturalized and exposed to the barest of life outside of the nation state. This attempt to deny the value of life to refugees is the root of Nazi genocide and racist eugenics. We must infuse our humanitarian ethic with politics in order to eliminate the state of exception inherent in the refuge camps. Giorgio Agamben 98 “professor of philosophy, university of Verona, Homo Sacer: Sovereign Power and Bare Life” [If refugees (whose number has continued to grow in our century…either in the state order of in the figure of human rights.] THE PLAN: THE UNITED STATES FEDERAL GOVERNMENT SHOULD SUBSTANTIALLY INCREASE ITS DEMINING PUBLIC HEALTH ASSISTANCE TO SUB-SAHARN AFRICA BY PROVIDING NECESSARY FINANCIAL AND LOGISTICAL SUPPORT. Contention 3 – Solvency The united states is the best and only agent for demining in Africa. The US empirically succeeds at demining, but the US needs to fully commit to the entire region. Kindig, 02 “Sarah E., James Madison University Fellow office of humanitarian demining programs, US department of state” 3 pg. card [The united state’s government’s Humanitarian Demining Program seeks to relieve human suffering…to sustain economies and provide holistic health care to thousands of landmine survivors. Their fear has been replaced by hope.] 2nd The US holds exclusive rights to the only successful demining technology – quadruple resonance is key. Turner and Williams 06 (Dr. Peter and Caroleen L, Senior Engineer and Director, Government Relations, GE Security Magnetics Center of Excellence, Quantum Magnetics, Inc. Journal of Mine Action, “QR Hits a Homerun: Landmine-Detection Systems based on quadruple resonance technology show progress” issue 9.2 Feb.) [This study explains how quadruple resonance technology…real landmines from clutter would be welcome to deminers, soldiers and citizens alike.] 3rd US deminers train indigenous populations which establishes bonds of trust and empathy necessary to stop violence. Huntington 2000 (NCAFD project director on US National Security and Landmines, December, Patricia S.) [Humanitarian mine clearance is the first step in the development of war-torn…establish important bonds of trust with those who have come to their homeland to assist them.] 4th US Assistance is the only comprehensive program that is effective with different languages, cultures, and countries. Repass 2000 (Deborah, Star Mountain demining support company, “Demining Support System: Field Support for Humanitarian Demining Missions Overseas” – DISAM Journal, winter)

[Star mountain first developed the demining support system as a “proof of concept” for the US Navy Office of Special Technology…and create customized maps with the system’s GIS functionality.] 5th US leadership is key – other nations will only stop using landmines if the US sends a message against mines. Social Justice News, 2004 (March, “US Plans Continued Use of Landmines”) [Though there are some positive aspects of this policy…should stop using them] OUR AFFIRMATIVE SERVES AS A CONDUIT TO EMPATHIZE WITH THE VICTIMS OF LANDMINES AND UNEXPLOEDED ORDINANCES—ONLY BY RECOGNIZING THE US COMPLICITY WITH LANDMINES CRISIS CAN WE BEGIN TO IDENTIFY WITH THE OTHER AND DEHUMYNIZATION Robert Jensen March 02 “It is my experience that people can feel…will choose to know, to feel, and to act”

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Contention One: Inherency Despite Bush’s statements, the US is cutting global AIDS assistance and eliminating treatment programs. This is destroying our leadership in the fight against AIDS Global AIDS Alliance 5/30, 2007, http://www.globalaidsalliance.org/pressreleases/press053007.cfm As the President prepares to attend the G8 Summit June 6-8 in Germany,…Leadership in Congress should authorize— and fully finance—a much bolder US response than what the President proposed, in part because it would also serve the interests of the United States. Contention Two: Harms It’s a statistical fact that most of those that are infected world-wide 25of the 38 million – live in SSA. It’s also a fact that it has the highest infection rate in the world. USAID 6 (U.S. Agency for International Development, ACTION TODAY, A FOUNDATION FOR TOMORROW: SECOND ANNUAL REPORT TO CONGRESS ON PEPFAR, p. http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/60950.pdf) Preying upon our most innate of drives — reproduction… indicates that in the near future, the focus will shift eastward toward the population behemoths of China and India, and northward into Eastern Europe and Russia. World-wide, 120 million more HIV/AIDS infections by 2030 MANLY DAILY, March 31, 2007, http://www.manlydaily.com.au/article/2007/03/31/3675_news_feature.html WHEN global mortality projections were last calculated a decade ago, researchers were under the assumption that the number of …one or more serious illnesses that doctors call AIDS." Failure to control the spread of aids will result in mutations that will kill everyone on the planet Paul Ehrlich and Anne Ehrlich, Professors of Population studies at Stanford University, THE POPULATION EXPLOSION, 1990, p. 147-8 Whether or not AIDS can be contained will depend primarily on how rapidly the spread of HIV can be … any time in history when the survival of the human race was so hopelessly in jeopardy. Contention Three: Racism The US’s failure to provide affordable treatment to is the result of a racist mentatility – people in Africa are sacrificed because it’s not the key to winning elections. Bradol 3 (President of Doctors Without Borders – France – 2003 (Jean-Hervé, MD, “Invisible: Do sick people with no money need to become rich before we see that we can keep them alive?,” http://www.doctorswithoutborders.org/publications/ar/i2003/invisible.cfm) Outside of armed conflict, …we must have effective drugs at affordable prices. All instances of racism must be rejected. Regardless of our ability to solve, it’s a struggle that we must fight. Memmi 2K /Albert, Professor Emeritus of Sociology @ U of Paris, Naiteire, Racism, Translated by Steve Martinot, p. 163-165/ The struggle … are irresistible. Contention Four: Soft power U.S. credibility is at an all time low – a commitment to public health is necessary to repair America’s image

Fortin, 7 (Fred, worked in health care delivery for over 35 years and his experience ranges from mental health crisis intervention, child abuse prevention, studying AIDS in Africa, to university teaching …our job to make it work. FAILURE TO PROVIDE ADEQUATE HIV/AIDS ASSISTANCE EVISCERATES ANY HOPE OF SUSTAINED U.S. LEADERSHIP. IT WILL BE SEEN AS THE ULTIMATE ABDICATION OF A PREVIOUSLY-MADE COMMITMENT, DISTINGUISHING IT FROM EVERY ALTERNATIVE CAUSALITY ARGUMENT THEY WILL READ David Fidler, professor, Indiana School of Law, GERMS, NORMS, AND POWER: GLOBAL HEALTH’S POLITICAL REVOLUTION, 2003, http://content.healthaffairs.org/cgi/reprint/21/6/131.pdf In sum, global health’s political revolution involves the germ threat influencing how the world’s hegemon ….in a manner that requires, practically and philosophically, the serious engagement of US power. The collapse of U.S. soft power will shatter global cooperation – making nuclear proliferation, environmental destruction, failed states and diseases inevitable Reiffel, 5 (Lex, Visiting Fellow at the Global Economy and Development Center of the Brookings Institution, The Brookings Institution, Reaching Out: Americans Serving Overseas, 12-27-2005, www.brookings.edu/views/papers/20051207rieffel.pdf) The United States is struggling to define a new … appointment of Karen Hughes as Under Secretary of State for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs suggests that the Bush Administration is gearing up to rely more on “soft” instruments. Finally, the collapse of U.S. leadership will unleash conflicts – resulting great power wars Thayer, 6 (Bradley A., Assistant Professor of Political Science at the University of Minnesota, Duluth, The National Interest, November -December, “In Defense of Primacy”, lexis) A remarkable fact about international politics … Kashmir becoming a new theater for Jihad and a fertile breeding ground for terrorists. Plan: The United States Federal Government should provide adequate financial and technical support through US federal government agencies for the treatment & prevention of human immune deficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency syndrome, including appropriate infrastructure assistance, in Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Cape Verde, Chad, Congo, Djibouti, Eritrea, Eritrea, Gabon, Ghanda, Guinea-Bissau, Lesotho, Madagascar, Mali, Namibia, Nigeria, Saome Tome 1 and Principe, Sierra Leone, Swaziland, Togo, Zaire, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Comoros, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopi, Gambia, Guinea, Malawi, Mozambique, Niger, Rwanda, Senegal, Seychelles, South Africa, Zambia Contention Five: Solvency Only the US can cause other nations to help fight HIV/AIDS. It sets a financial leadership model necessary for global solvency. Morrison 5/5 Stephen Morrison, executive director of the CSIS Task Force on HIV/AIDS , Allen Moore is a senior associate with the CSIS Task Force on HIV/AIDS and a senior fellow with the Global Health Council. ADVANCING U.S. LEADERSHIP ON GLOBAL HIV/AIDS, May 5, 2007, http://www.csis.org/media/csis/pubs/070504_pepfar.pdf The White House and Congress should give priority to advancing a compelling, informed, and expanded vision for the next … they can continue to build capacity according to multiyear plans based on reliable future funding flows. U.S. financial support is critical to mobilizing efforts to fight the epidemic globally Greg Behrman, THE INVISIBLE PEOPLE: HOW THE U.S. HAS SLEPT THROUGH THE GLOBAL AIDS PANDEMIC, THE GREATEST HUMANITARIAN CATASTROPHE OF OUR TIME, 2004, p. xiii-xiv More than any other wealthy nation, it bore the visceral scars of its very own AIDS epidemic. The experience placed it in a position to lead. .. The breadth and influence of American culture and values, its “….. and its moral obligation, failing at almost every turn to lead to a global response to the epidemic.

Adequate funding and technical support are necessary to make ARV treatments effective, other studies don’t take this into account Irwin 3 Alexander Irwin et al, faculty, Institute for Health and Social Justice at Harvard University GLOBAL AIDS: MYTHS AND FACTS: TOOLS FOR FIGHTING THE AIDS PANDEMIC, p. 87-8 With proper levels of international … infrastructure, improving both individual patient outcomes and the health system as a whole. Prevention is effective if sustainable. The plan is necessary to provide conditions that allow continued success. Serwada 6/27 David Serwada, Global HIV/AIDS Prevention Working Group, WASHINGTON POST, June 27, 2007, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/06/26/AR2007062601861.html The June 20 front-page article "Spread of AIDS in Africa Is Outpacing Treatment" rightly pointed out that HIV continues to spread rapidly throughout much of Africa. But it would be a mistake to conclude that prevention … efforts could avert half of the 60 million infections projected to occur globally by 2015. Even if they win a structural flaw in the way treatment’s given, simply increasing resources is empirically proven to save millions Kates 6 Jennifer, Vice President and Director, HIV Policy, Kaiser Family Foundation, Eric Lief, Senior Associate, Center for Strategic and International Studies; Consultant to UNAIDS, INTERNATIONAL ASSISTANCE FOR HIV/AIDS IN THE DEVELOPING WORLD, http://www.kff.org/hivaids/upload/7344-02.pdf As the Group of Eight (G8) …mortality reduced. UGANDA PROVES THAT AIDS PREVENTION PROGRAMS WILL REDUCE THE EPIDEMIC DETROIT NEWS, February 2, 2006, p. 3 The administration has … late last year, they work. KENYA PROVES AIDS/HIV SPREAD CAN BE REDUCED U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), ACTION TODAY, A FOUNDATION FOR TOMORROW: SECOND ANNUAL REPORT TO CONGRESS ON PEPFAR, 2006, p. http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/60950.pdf New evidence … in sexual risk behavior. An HIV/AIDS vaccine won’t solve – there are too many scientific problems with creating one even if it sounds good. Hoping for a vaccine makes HIV/AIDS spread faster, people take more risky behavior. Irwin 3 With proper levels of international …health system as a whole. Alexander et al, faculty, Institute for Health and Social Justice at Harvard University GLOBAL AIDS: MYTHS AND FACTS: TOOLS FOR FIGHTING THE AIDS PANDEMIC,, p. 107-8 The enormous difficulties confronting vaccine research have led some scientists to doubt our capacity to create, at least in the near term, a vaccine able to fully prevent HIV infection. The first AIDS vaccines … behavioral interventions.

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Personal Narrative Aff---no plan or cards Sing songs: Trey parker: “America Fuck Yeah” Personal Narrative Howa’s Narrative “save the children” savethechildren.com 2005 Dead Prez “I am African” Dead PreZ “We need a revolution”

LEXINGTON LS--AFF
Contention 1 is Inherency: The U.S. is bio-prospecting in Africa now. Kuruk, 2007 (Paul, Stanford Law School; Professor of Law, Cumberland School of Law of Samford University; past Vice Chair, Commission on Environmental Law of the World Conservation Union, 34 Pepp. L. Rev. 629, “Goading a Reluctant Dinosaur: Mutual Recognition Agreements as a Policy Response to the Misappropriation of Foreign Traditional Knowledge in the United States”, lexis) Misappropriation of traditional knowledge refers to the unauthorized exploitation of traditional knowledge without the consent of its indigenous owners. Patents are spurring biotech growth – it’s at an all time high. Shand 2002 (Hope J. “Intellectual Property Rights Enhances Corporate Monopoly, Bioserfdrom”, Knight Rider / Tribune Business News) Intellectual property has been a major factor in the growth and consolidation of the U.S. biotech industry. Contention 2 is Disease: Sub-Saharan Africa is the worst disease-affected region in the world. In order to prevent the spread of diseases, traditional medicine is critical in health promotion, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. WHO, 2005 (African Traditional Medicine Day 2005, 31 August http://www.who.int/medicines_technologies/trm_day/en/) Traditional health practitioners have a strong advisory role in Africa, and could contribute significantly to HIV prevention efforts on the continent. Traditional healers are key to solve for diseases that are rampant. Daniels 07 (Ugo Daniels, Nigerian Masters Student, “Traditional Medicine in Africa,” http://www.africanloft.com/traditionalmedicine-in-africa-a-viewpoint/ June 23, 2007) The term “traditional medicine” (TAM) refers to practices and knowledge that existed before the arrival of modern conventional medicine which were used to promote, maintain and restore health and well-being. HIV destabilizes social and economic structures in Africa – creating a cycle of poverty and disease. Poku, 01 Research Director for the Commission on HIV/AIDS in Africa, UNECA, 01 (Nana K., “Africa’s Aids crisis in context: ‘how the poor are dying’,” Third World Quarterly, 2001, Vol. 22 No. 2, p 203, http://docserver.ingentaconnect.com/deliver/connect/routl edg/01436597/v22n2/s5.pdf ? expires=1183235676&id=38361093&titleid=15&accname=University+of+Michigan&checksum=90CAE0F49233EA 8EC848C3203EC6C6F2) Already the HIV epidemic is posing an unprecedented challenge to communities and societies across the continent: a challenge to human survival, human rights and human development The threat of biopiracy has left traditional healers without any methods – they are driven underground by fear. Conforto 04 (David, “Traditional Bioipiracy: Redefining the Debate” University of Oregon Journal of Environmental Law, lexis) Specifically, with respect to traditional biopiracy, granting patents … makes the discovery.

Contention 3 is Western Medicine: Unchallenged western medicine eradicates indigenous healing, culture, and identity. The plan challenges subjugation. Dei ’94 [George J. Sefa, Professor of Sociology, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, Anthropology and Education Quarterly 1994]

Metaphorically speaking, indigenous Africa is black. Patents undermine traditional healers by undercutting local knowledge. Chigora et al 07 (Masocha, and Mutenheri) Percyslage, Robert, Feddious, “The Role of Indigenous Medicinal Knowledge (IMK) in the Treatment of Ailments in Rural Zimbabwe: The Case of Mutirikwi Communal Lands.” Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa (Volume 9, No.2) In addition, it should also be noted that threats to IMK or indigenous knowledge in general has been a problem not only in Zimbabwe or Africa but also in most developing countries. The violence against indigenous cultures makes terrorism and war inevitable, only the aff can stop this conflict by ensuring the protection of indigenous cultures. Shiva ‘02 [Vandana, Alternative Nobel Laureate, Terrorism as Cannibalism, ZNET commentary, January 23, http://www.zmag.org/sustainers/content/2002-01/23shiva.cfm] Humans are experiencing their religious spaces enclosed when militaries occupy sacred lands as in the Mid East. Humans are experiencing enclosure through occupation as in Palestine. Patenting life forms disenfranchises traditional communities. Khalil 96 (M.H., BiofAfrica Policy Digest, “Indigenous disenfranchisement and Long-Term De-Conservation: The impact of Property Rights, Bioprospecting Agreements, and Global Institutions on Genetic Resources and Indigenous Cultures) Patenting life forms and commercializing traditional knowledge is perhaps the most blatant institutionalization of largescale robbery that a number of cultures are now shamelessly embracing as a new conservation ideal. Only by changing our assumptions about traditional medicines can we engage culture and hope for solvency. Our acceptance of culture key to achieve public health goals. Airhihenbuwa ‘07 [Collins O. Airhihenbuwa, professor of biobehavioral health at Pennsylvania State University- Healing our Differences The Crisis of Global Health and the Politics of Identity. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. UK. 2007. 195] The discourse on identity and global health is incomplete without the proper anchor on culture. Western ideologies should be rejected – we must look at African’s philosophy to avoid a colonialist mindset Center for Indigenous People’s Rights 2004 <http://www.iphrc.ca/documents/ethics_review_iphrc.pdf> In this article, Colorado argues that western science - the empirical positivist paradigm - cannot meet human nor ecological needs in light of environment destruction and personal alienation.

Contention 4 is Bio-Piracy: Biopiracy is a globalized neocolonial project – corporations use IP laws to reenact Columbus' discovery by stealing the plant resources of indigenous peoples. Warner ‘06 [Jonathan B, JD @ Indiana University School of Law, Using Global Themes to Reframe the Bioprospecting Debate, Summer, 2006, 13 Ind. J. Global Leg. Stud. 645, lexis] Neocolonialism is intricately linked to bioprospecting. Bioprospecting is killing biodiversity in Africa – the plan is key to stop the effects. Merck Science in Africa 2002 < http://www.scienceinafrica.co.za/2002/september/biopiracy.htm > Africa stands to lose huge benefits from its biodiversity for lack of legal protection against biopiracy, concluded the Second South-South Biopiracy Summit held last week in Johannesburg during the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD).

Commodification of life by patents exacerbates our environmental problems. Beresford 2003 , Eric. Patenting Life a Dangerous Step". Anglican Journal, February Harvard also argued that we own animals anyway; patenting is just a form of ownership Preserving biodiversity is key to prevent extinction. World Prout Assembly 2005 <http://www.worldproutassembly.org/archives/2005/04/biodiversity_un.html> Biodiversity is crucial to human survival, and far greater efforts must get underway to preserve biodiversity TEXT: The United States federal government, specifically Congress, should require absolute novelty for patents covering products of nature used by indigenous healers in the topic-designated area in order to substantially increase its public health assistance to indigenous healers in the topic-designated areas. Contention 5 is Solvency: Empirically traditional healers are key to cure deadly diseases. Abraham, 2007 [Curtis, freelance journalist based in Kampala, currently writing a book about the Ika] “AFRICA INSIGHT IT'S TIME THE WEST ACCEPTED AFRICA'S TRADITIONAL HEALERS” The Financial Times Limited. June 8. Lexis. ASL] Uganda was among the first (if not the first) countries in sub-Saharan Africa to develop pilot programs for treating HIV patients with ARVs. Biotech corporations plunder indigenous knowledge, making billions off of cultural heritage. Only changing patent law solves. DeGeer 03 [Marcia Ellen, "The Appropriation of Indigenous Peoples' Cultural Knowledge", New England Journal of International and Comparative Law, lexis] The biotechnological corporations have been able to extract, "improve", and patent genes from these plants and thus claim the plants for themselves. Intellectual property laws make human interaction exclusionary, coerced, and hierarchal. Whitt 98 [Laurie Anne, Associate Professor of Philosophy, Michigan Technological University Oklahoma City University Law Review Spring Summer, 1998] The decision to treat life forms, and knowledge or information, as if they were "transactions and products" has far-reaching consequences. U.S. only country which allows life form patents Wilson 1999 (Kimberly, October http://www.projecteensored.org/publications/2001/18.html) The United States remains one of the only countries in the world that recognizes patents on life forms.

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Kenya 1AC Contention One – Health Initially note, the gag rule has resulted in drastic cuts in public health assistance in Kenya. There is a lack of contraceptives available and has been an increase in unsafe and illegal abortions Margie Peterson, The Morning Call (Allentown, Pennsylvania), May 3, 2007 [“Gag rule keeps birth control from women in need,” Lexis] When you have seen the mangled Specifically, the gag rule has devastated HIV/AIDS prevention in Kenya. Few clinics are open and little contraception and ARVs are available Global Gag Rule Impact Project, a collaborative research effort led by Population Action International in partnership with Ipas and Planned Parenthood Federation of America, 2006 [“Access Denied: The Impact of the Global Gag Rule in Kenya,” http://www.globalgagrule.org/pdfs/case_studies/GGRcase_kenya_2006.pdf] By crippling the country’s primary Future AIDS epidemics in Kenya will have devastating effects on the agriculture sector, harming food security and destroying the farming cycle, which is critical to the Kenyan economy Robert K. Nyaga, Social Sector Division of the Kenya Institute for Public Policy Research and Analysis, 2004 [“HIV/AIDS in Kenya: A Review of Research and Policy Issues,” KIPPRA Discussion Paper No. 38, June, http://www.kippra.org/Download/DPNO38.pdf] Agriculture employs a large segment (80%) Kenya economic growth is key to the region’s economy, solves terrorism, and proliferation USAID, 2000 [“USAID/Kenya: Integrated Strategic Plan, 2001-2005,” http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PDABU260.pdf] Kenya is the most important country This crushes the global economy Donald Payne, congressman D-NJ, 2003 ["Congress and Africa: Perspectives of Congressman Payne and CBC," 4-30, Lexis] From the war on terrorism to the supply Bearden Contention Two – Population The lack of contraception resulting from the gag rule is causing a massive population explosion in Kenya

Jim Motavalli, Editor of E: The Environmental Magazine, 2006 [“Shaking the Baby Tree: If There's a "Depopulation Bomb, It Has a Very Long Fuse" The Environmental Magazine, Nov/Dec, Vol 17, Issue 6, pgs 26-32, Proquest] Clearly, high birth rates contribute The only thing that can prevent further population explosion is lowering the fertility rate John Blacker, Centre for Population Studies, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, 2007 [“Letter: Questions need to be raised about Kenya's population growth rate; Letters to the Editor,” The Independent (London), January 23, Lexis] Sir: In your articles on the current drought Conflicts over resources and land results in civil war and genocide Bill Berkeley, Freelance writer in New York City who has been reporting in African on his Patterson fellowship, 1995 [“Kenya: Barely Escaping Rwanda,” The Alicia Patterson Foundation Reporter, Vol 17, Num 1, http://www.aliciapatterson.org/APF1701/Berkeley/Berkeley.html] But this is none of those exhausted battlegrounds Kenya stability is key to the stability of the region Leonard H. Robinson Jr., President and CEO of the National Summit on Africa, based in Washington, D.C. He also is a former two-time deputy assistant secretary of state for African affairs, 1999 [“America's chance in Africa,” Baltimore Sun, October 24, Lexis] If Albright is not successful, Kenya's Deutsch Contention Three – French Relations France is heavily invested in improving Kenyan health Government of France, 2006 [http://www.diplomatie.gouv.fr/en/country-files_156/kenya_209/france-andkenya_5393/framework-partnership-document-france-kenya-2006-2010_9099.html] Health is another major axis of the However, Africa is a major theater for US-France competition Marchal, Senior research fellow at CERI, [International Affairs – Vol 74. No 2] 4/1998 Behind these headline crises, the US—French And – France hates US involvement in Africa and sees it as a threat to their power – the plan crushes relations Marchal, Senior research fellow at CERI, [International Affairs – Vol 74. No 2] 4/1998

Anglophobia is very much a part of However, it’s not all of Africa that matters. In particular France sees their relations with Kenya as extremely important Government of France, 2006 [http://www.diplomatie.gouv.fr/en/country-files_156/kenya_209/france-andkenya_5393/framework-partnership-document-france-kenya-2006-2010_9099.html] France and Kenya have a dynamic Moreover, France believes Kenya has political and economic importance Government of France, 2006 [http://www.diplomatie.gouv.fr/en/country-files_156/kenya_209/france-andkenya_5393/framework-partnership-document-france-kenya-2006-2010_9099.html] Endowed with a number of assets, US-French and US-Germany relations are zero-sum 50 years proves – and our evidence is reverse causal Helga Haftendorn et al, former Director of the Center and Professor Emeritus of Political Science and International Relations at the Free University of Berlin, Georges-Henri Soutou, full professor at the University of Paris–IV. He is the Director of the Centre for European Studies and International Relations (CHERI) and member of the University Scientific Council of Paris, Stephen F. Szabo, Professor of European Studies at Johns Hopkins University, and Samuel F. Wells, Jr., associate director and director of West European Studies of the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, [The Strategic Triangle: France, Germany, and the United States in the Shaping of the New Europe] 2007 p. 3 The triangle is not even-sided. For US-German relations are critical to solve proliferation, terrorism, and the economy National Strategy Forum Review [Jackson Janes, Director of the AmericanInstitute for Contemporary German Study at Johns Hopkins University, and Eberhard Sandschneider the OttoWolff Director of the German Council on Foreign Relations in Berlin] Summer 2005 There are three reasons the US-German Proliferation causes extinction Utgoff [Survival v. 44 no 2, summer] 2002 p. 90 Widespread proliferation is likely to New breed of terrorism will cause human extinction Sheldon Pacotti, Salon.com, March 31 2003 [http://www.salon.com/tech/feature/2003/03/31/knowledge/index.html] A similar trend has appeared in proposed Contention Four – Solvency

US family planning assistance is the anchor of the global population control regime – no other donor even comes close to US expertise and technical capacity Wendy Turnbull, policy analyst at PAI, January 1996 [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0KDK/is_1996_Jan_1/ai_n18607203/pg_1] Currently, about three-quarters of the roughly Plan: *The United States federal government should substantially increase its support of nongovernmental organizations located in the Republic of Kenya which do not comply with the Mexico City Policy. We will clarify. International Fiat Bad A. 193 countries Matt Rosenberg, professional geographer and the author of two books about geography, 5/9/2007 http://geography.about.com/cs/countries/a/numbercountries.htm A very frequent geographical question is "How many countries are in the world?" Different numbers pop up when one inquires or reads about the number of countries in the world. Each source you use often yields a different answer. Ultimately, the best answer is that there are 194 countries in the world. B. 55, 282 types of intergovernmental and nongovernmental organizations Union of International Associations, 2001 [http://www.uia.org/statistics/organizations/11.1.1a.pdf Even when the most predictable countries promise health aid to Africa they never actually give it The Nation (Kenya) – AAGM 7/1/2007 Gordon Brown finally succeeded Tony Blair

MAINE EAST KK/AH---AFF
Contention 1 is Inherency: The U.S. is bio-prospecting in Africa now. Kuruk, 2007 (Paul, Stanford Law School; Professor of Law, Cumberland School of Law of Samford University; past Vice Chair, Commission on Environmental Law of the World Conservation Union, 34 Pepp. L. Rev. 629, “Goading a Reluctant Dinosaur: Mutual Recognition Agreements as a Policy Response to the Misappropriation of Foreign Traditional Knowledge in the United States”, lexis) Contention 2 is Disease: Sub-Saharan Africa is the worst disease-affected region in the world. In order to prevent the spread of diseases, traditional medicine is critical in health promotion, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. WHO, 2005 (African Traditional Medicine Day 2005, 31 August http://www.who.int/medicines_technologies/trm_day/en/) Traditional healers are key to solve for diseases that are rampant. Daniels 07 (Ugo Daniels, Nigerian Masters Student, “Traditional Medicine in Africa,” http://www.africanloft.com/traditionalmedicine-in-africa-a-viewpoint/ June 23, 2007) HIV destabilizes social and economic structures in Africa – creating a cycle of poverty and disease. Poku, 01 Research Director for the Commission on HIV/AIDS and Governance in Africa, UNECA, 01 (Nana K., “Africa’s Aids crisis in context: ‘how the poor are dying’,” Third World Quarterly, 2001, Vol. 22 No. 2, p 203, http://docserver.ingentaconnect.com/deliver/connect/routledg/01436597/v22n2/s5.pdf?expires=1183235676&id=38361093 &titleid=15&accname=Univer sity+of+Michigan&checksum=90CAE0F49233EA8EC848C3203EC6C6F2) The threat of biopiracy has left traditional and modern healers at an impasse – traditional healers are driven underground and resist efforts to cooperate for fear of their methods being stolen. Conforto 04 (David, “Traditional and Modern-Day Biopiracy: Redefining the Biopiracy Debate,” University of Oregon Journal of Environmental Law and Litigation, lexis) Contention 3 is Western Medicine: Unchallenged western medicine eradicates indigenous healing, culture, and identity. The plan challenges subjugation. Dei ’94 [George J. Sefa, Professor of Sociology, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, Anthropology and Education Quarterly 1994] Patents undermine traditional healers by undercutting local knowledge. Chigora et al 07 (Masocha, and Mutenheri) Percyslage, Robert, Feddious, “The Role of Indigenous Medicinal Knowledge (IMK) in the Treatment of Ailments in Rural Zimbabwe: The Case of Mutirikwi Communal Lands.” Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa (Volume 9, No.2) Biopiracy has lead to a loss of indigenous culture, language, populations, biodiversity. Stephen B. Brush, Department of Applied Behavioral Sciences University of California, “Indigenous Knowledge of Biological Resources and Intellectual Property Rights: The Role of Anthropology”, American Anthropologist p 663 Vol. 95, No. 3. (Sep., 1993),

The status quo violence against indigenous communities’ cultures, traditions and resources makes terrorism and war inevitable, only the aff can stop this conflict by ensuring the protection of indigenous cultures. The “global war on terror” is just another front in the West’s globalized war on the earth. Shiva ‘02 [Vandana, Alternative Nobel Laureate, Terrorism as Cannibalism, ZNET commentary, January 23, http://www.zmag.org/sustainers/content/2002-01/23shiva.cfm] Only by changing our assumptions about traditional medicines can we engage culture and hope for solvency. Our acceptance of culture key to achieve public health goals.

Airhihenbuwa ‘07 [Collins O. Airhihenbuwa, professor of biobehavioral health at Pennsylvania State University- Healing our Differences The Crisis of Global Health and the Politics of Identity. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. UK. 2007. 195] Western ideologies should be rejected – we must look at African’s philosophy to avoid a colonialist mindset Makinde, ‘88 Dr. M. Akin Head of the Department of Philosophy at the University of Ife, Nigeria, and the holder of the Pd.D. in Philosophy of Science from University of Toronto, (African Philosophy, Culture, and Traditional Medicine, p. 1617) Contention 4 is Bio-Piracy: Biopiracy is a globalized neocolonial project – corporations use Eurocentric IP laws to reenact Columbus' discovery by stealing the plant resources of indigenous peoples. Warner ‘06 [Jonathan B, JD @ Indiana University School of Law, Using Global Themes to Reframe the Bioprospecting Debate, Summer, 2006, 13 Ind. J. Global Leg. Stud. 645, lexis] Only by preserving traditional knowledge and medicine can biodiversity be conserved, when pharmaceutical corporations steal knowledge without compensation or attribution, healers refuse to share or record their knowledge – dooming cultural preservation. Gupta 2001 (Anil, Chair in Entrepreneurship @ Indian Institute of Management, Rewarding Traditional Knowledge and Contemporary Grassroots Creativity: :The Role of Intellectual Property Protection, http://www.cid.harvard.edu/cidbiotech/events/anil_gupta_paper.htm) Loss of ecosystems and species risks planetary extinction – each one could be the last DINER 94 Judge Advocate’s General’s Corps of US Army [David N., Military Law Review, Winter, 143 Mil. L. Rev. 161, LN] Biodiversity is critical to prevent extinction – It ensures cycling and protection of ecosystems and acts as a buffer against catastrophic events Margoluis 1996, (Richard, PhD in Epidemiology from Tulane University, Why Should We Care About Biodiversity, http://www.worldwildlife.org/bsp/bcn/why/biodvr2.htm) TEXT: The United States federal government, specifically Congress, should require absolute novelty for patents covering products of nature used by indigenous healers in the topic-designated area in order to substantially increase its public health assistance to indigenous healers in the topic-designated areas. Contention 5 is Solvency: Empirically traditional healers are key to cure deadly diseases. Abraham, 2007 [Curtis, freelance journalist based in Kampala, currently writing a book about the Ika] “AFRICA INSIGHT IT'S TIME THE WEST ACCEPTED AFRICA'S TRADITIONAL HEALERS” The Financial Times Limited. June 8. Lexis. ASL] Biotech corporations plunder indigenous knowledge, making billions off of cultural heritage. Only changing patent law solves. DeGeer 03 [Marcia Ellen, "The Appropriation of Indigenous Peoples' Cultural Knowledge", New England Journal of International and Comparative Law, lexis]

MEADOWS BS/SK
Plan Text: The United States federal government should establish Disease Research, Surveillance, Isolation and Containment Centers in East Africa, West Africa, Central Africa and Southern Africa that develop surveillance networks, respond to outbreaks, train personnel, and conduct research

Contention 1 is Bird Flu

Current efforts in Asia have been successful, but have not been replicated in Sub-Saharan Africa – Inadequate surveillance increases the risk of a global pandemic Davis ’07 (Mike Davis is professor of history at the University of California, Irvine, and the author of The Monster at Our Door: The Global Threat of Avian Flu -- The Guardian (London) February 7th – lexis)

Just when most of us thought it was safe to go … or any genuine effort to develop a "world vaccine".

Africa is a unique hotspot – Bird Migration and People live in close proximity with birds

Addis Ababa, 2006 (Commissioner of Rural Economy and Agriculture of the African Union, “Avian Flue: Possible Outbreak, Economic Importance and Emergency Preparedness Iniative in Africa”)

Africa been one of the continents at risk; ... deaths further complicates the situation.

History proves that an Avian Flu pandemic is inevitable – Our evidence cites Michael Osterholm, a leading expert

Chicago Daily Herald, 8/21/06, HYPERLINK "http://www.sci-techtoday.com/story.xhtml?story_id=111002CIZMJO" www.sci-techtoday.com/story.xhtml?story_id=111002CIZMJO

Sometime in the very near future, the … keep telling ourselves that.”

A global pandemic would kill a Billion people in a few months due to lack of preparedness and high mortality rates

Satish Chandra, Deputy National Security Advisor of India – Center for Strategic Decision Research, 2004 [Global Security: A broader Concept for the 21st Century, 5/7, http://www.csdr.org/2004book/chandra.htm]

This scenario, as frightening as it is, pales in …ss, with mortality rates of 60 to 70 percent

Probability and magnitude means the Bird Flu outweighs terrorism or nuclear war.

Edmonds & Palmore ’06 (Mark Edmonds is the Director of the Centre for Defence and International Security Studies @ the University of Lancaster; Julian Palmore - Department of Mathematics, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. Both are the Editors-in-Chief of Defense and Security Analysis -- Defense and Security Analysis – June 1st – via Taylor & Francis and obtainable through google scholar)

Four times a year we, as Editors of Defense … There is no time to waste.

Surveillance, Labs, and US expertise are key to contain an outbreak before it goes global

Blount ’07 (Stephen B. Blount, MD, MPH, Director Office for Global Health US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention before the Appropriations Subcommittee on Labor, HHS, Education, and Related Agencies -- United States Senate -- May 02, 2007 -http://www.hhs.gov/asl/testify/2007/05/t20070502a.html)

Currently, the US and the rest of the world … so we can respond effectively.

Contention Two is Bioweapons

They pose the greatest risk of extinction – Nuclear weapons are easier to control

Ochs ’02 (Richard Ochs, ANALYST FOR THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS WORKING GROUP, July 9 2002 -- “BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS MUST BE ABOLISHED IMMEDIATELY” -http://www.freefromterror.net/other_articles/abolish.html)

Of all the weapons of mass destruction, … Human extinction is now possible.

Subpoint A is Attack on the US

Qualified experts prove the risk is high – Terrorists want and have the capability to acquire bioweapons and current defenses are inadequate

Deutch ’05 (John Deutch, qualified inside this piece of evidence, is now at The Massachusetts Institute of Technology – Meeting the Bioterrorism Challenge: Testimony before U.S. Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor, & Pensions Subcommittee on Bioterrorism and Public Health Preparedness -- May 11, 2005 -http://web.mit.edu/chemistry/deutch/policy/72MeetingBioterroism2005.pdf)

I base my views on my experience … and more difficult to detect and to treat.

The US is currently facing a shortage of public health officials who have had first hand experience with many pathogens that are likely to used as Bioweapons – this prevents rapid diagnosis and treatment

Katz – doctoral candidate at the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs and the Office of Population Research at Princeton University – 2002 (Rebecca, The Washington Quarterly, “Public Health Preparedness: The Best Defense against Biological Weapons,” Summer, vol. 25, no. 3, p.69, Lexis-Nexis Universe)

TRAINING When Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome …, and set up collaborative efforts.

Training through real-world experience is crucial to creating a strong public health infrastructure that is capable of minimizing the casualties from a bioterrorist attack – Global surveillance programs provide an opportunity for this training

Smolinski et al. 03 – Director of the Global Health and Security Initiative at Nuclear Threat Initiative [Marks. Smolinski (Former Senior Program Officer at the Institute of Medicine of the National Academics of Science and Epidemic Intelligence Officer for the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), Margaret A. Hamburg (Vice President for Biological Programs at Nuclear Threat Initiative), & Joshua Lederberg (Directs the Laboratory of Molecular Genetics and Informatics at The Rockefeller University) Editors, Board on Global Health at the institute of the National Academics, Microbial threats to Health: Emergence, Detection, and Response, 3-182003, http://www.nap.edu/catalog/10636.html]

As described earlier, … ,,, epidemiologic expertise and laboratory capability.

<<<Continues with text deleted --- The above portion is on pages 158-160. The below portion is on page 181>>>

The real-world information and … in mid- and upper-level management positions.

CDC international surveillance programs help train “disease detectives” that can respond to future treats

Gerberding, 4/26/2004 (Julie, MPH Director, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Administrator, Agency for Toxis Substances and Disease Registry, “CDC's Terrorism and Global Disease Detection Efforts,” Testimony before Subcommittee on Labor, Health, and Human Services, Education, and Related Agencies, Committee on Appropriations, http://usinfo.state.gov/xarchives/display.html?p=washfileenglish&y=2004&m=April&x=20040428171224CMretroP0.1728632)

Ultimately, even the best disease … and rapidly deployed when needed.

And International Disease Surveillance creates a climate of trust and promotes information sharing – Other countries seek American assistance above all others

CISET 1996 (Interagency Government working group on emerging infectious diseases founded under the auspices of the Committee on International Science, Engineering, and Technology , “Global Microbial Threats in the 1990s,” http://clinton1.nara.gov/White_House/EOP/OSTP/CISET/html/exsum.html)

Although international efforts must be …. to combat infectious diseases.

Focusing on Africa is key – Infectious disease with potential in biological warfare are endemic to it

Njuguna ’05 (James Thuo Njuguna holds a master of science degree in biotechnology and is currently completing his PhD in medical parasitology at the University of Bonn. He previously worked for the International Livestock Research Institute in Nairobi on control of trypanosomosis and malaria. African Security Review Vol 14 No 1, 2005 -http://www.iss.co.za/index.php?link_id=3&slink_id=1967&link_type=12&slink_type=12&tmpl_id= 3)

Major infectious diseases known … warfare are endemic to the eastern Africa region.

Minimizing the death toll is crucial – large casualties ensures a US response that escalates to nuclear war.

Conley ’03 (Lt Col Harry W. is chief of the Systems Analysis Branch, Directorate of Requirements, Headquarters Air Combat Command (ACC), Langley AFB, Virginia. Air & Space Power Journal - Spring 2003 -http://www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil/airchronicles/apj/apj03/spr03/conley.html)

The number of American casualties …, whatever promises had been made.”48

Contention Three is Solvency

Establishing Disease Research, Surveillance, Isolation and Containment Centers in each of the four regions of Sub-Saharan Africa allows for the integration of global efforts to combat disease and bioterrorism

Fox 98 (C. WILLIAM FOX, JR. -- C. WILLIAM FOX, JR., M.D., is en route to assignment as the Commander of Bayne-Jones Army Hospital, Ft. Polk, LA, where he concurrently will serve as Command Surgeon of the Joint Readiness Training Center -- Parameters, Winter 1997-98, pp. 12136. -- http://carlisle-www.army.mil/usawc/parameters/97winter/fox.htm

Disease Research, Surveillance, Isolation, … weapons by a future adversary.

***Note – Prophylaxis means the prevention of a specific disease, as by studying the biological behavior, transmission, etc., of its causative agent and applying a series of measures against it.

Establishing Surveillance Centers modeled after the military’s overseas laboratories in SubSaharan Africa allows for effective responses to Bird Flu and Bioterrorism Jean-Paul Chretien, Assistant Coordinator of DOD’s Overseas Research Laboratories, 2006 “Global Networks Could Avert Pandemics”, Nature

Since late 2003, an avian influenza epidemic has …, to a global professional network.

The US is uniquely capable of surveillance – they have the best research and scientists and other countries will follow US leadership

Population Council, 1996 [“The National Science and Technology Council on Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases,” Population and Development Review, Vol. 22, No. 1, Match, JSTOR]

Thus, the effort to build a global surveillance …WHO Collaborating Centers in this endeavor.

The Canadian government conducted a comparative international study. The results prove no one is better at surveillance and outbreak assistance than the US.

National Advisory Committee on SARS and Public Health 03 (Learning from SARS: Renewal of Public Health in Canada – October -- http://www.phacaspc.gc.ca/publicat/sars-sras/pdf/sars-e.pdf The members of the National Advisory Committee on SARS and Public Health were: Dr. David Naylor, Dean of Medicine at the University of Toronto (Chair); Dr. Sheela Basrur, Medical Officer of Health, City of Toronto; Dr. Michel G. Bergeron, Chairman of the Division of Microbiology and of the Infectious Diseases Research Centre of Laval University, Quebec City; Dr. Robert C. Brunham, Medical Director of the British Columbia Centre for Disease Control, Vancouver; Dr. David ButlerJones, Medical Health Officer for Sun Country, and Consulting Medical Health Officer for Saskatoon Health Regions, Regina; Gerald Dafoe, Chief Executive Officer of the Canadian Public Health Association, Ottawa; Dr. Mary Ferguson-Paré, Vice-President, Professional Affairs and Chief Nurse Executive at University Health Network, Toronto; Frank Lussing, Past President and CEO of York Central Hospital, Richmond Hill; Dr. Allison McGeer, Director of Infection Control, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto; Kaaren R. Neufeld, Executive Director and Chief Nursing Officer at St. Boniface Hospital, Winnipeg; Dr. Frank Plummer, Scientific Director of the Health Canada National Microbiology Laboratory, Winnipeg) The CDC exerts considerable influence at state … earmarked state-level funding and partnerships. The alternative creates an all-consuming Colonialistic West and an Angelic South that reentrenches ethnocentrism and create impossible expectations for the South to meet Pascal Bruckner, 1986 (Counts among the best-known French "nouveaux philosophes”, Académie Française Prix 2000 and Medici Prize 1995, The Tears of The White Man: Compassion as Contempt)

An ethnologist praying for the extermination ... helping imperialism is to give in to a loathsome from of blackmail.

Disease Securitization mobilizes political action to solve disease and bioterrorism

Enemark 05 (Dr. Christian Enemark is a Visiting Fellow of the John Curtin School of Medical Research at ANU where he serves as Deputy Director of the National Centre for Biosecurity.'INFECTIOUS DISEASES AND INTERNATIONAL SECURITY', The Nonproliferation Review, 12:1, 107 – 125. March 1st – via Taylor & Francis, which is usually obtainable through google scholar)

In pursuing international cooperation, a …would far exceed that of SARS.

We do not link to the disease-biopower kritik and are the antithesis of securitizing state interventions

Fearnley ’05 (LYLE FEARNLEY of ARC -- Anthropology of the Contemporary Research Collaboratory is an experimental project in collaborative research in the human sciences.. Fearnley also received a Bachelor’s degree in Anthropology from Columbia University in 2005. Currently, his work focuses on the development of syndromic surveillance, a technology designed to detect emerging epidemics without relying on diagnostic reports, which has emerged as a site where security and health practices are under re-formation. “Pathogens and the Strategy of Preparedness: Disease Surveillance in Civil Defense Planning” – November 29th -http://www.anthropos-lab.net/publications/doc/Fearn_pathogens.pdf.)

The extension and standardization of…, not ensure maximum vitality.

NORMAN BR--AFF
Contention 1 is Inherency: The U.S. is bio-prospecting in Africa now. Kuruk, 2007 (Paul, Stanford Law School; Professor of Law, Cumberland School of Law of Samford University; past Vice Chair, Commission on Environmental Law of the World Conservation Union, 34 Pepp. L. Rev. 629, “Goading a Reluctant Dinosaur: Mutual Recognition Agreements as a Policy Response to the Misappropriation of Foreign Traditional Knowledge in the United States”, lexis)

Misappropriation of traditional knowledge refers to the unauthorized exploitation of traditional knowledge without the consent of its indigenous owners.

Patents are spurring biotech growth – it’s at an all time high. Shand 2002 (Hope J. “Intellectual Property Rights Enhances Corporate Monopoly, Bioserfdrom”, Knight Rider / Tribune Business News)

Intellectual property has been a major factor in the growth and consolidation of the U.S. biotech industry.

Contention 2 is Disease:

Sub-Saharan Africa is the worst disease-affected region in the world. In order to prevent the spread of diseases, traditional medicine is critical in health promotion, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. WHO, 2005 (African Traditional Medicine Day 2005, 31 August http://www.who.int/medicines_technologies/trm_day/en/)

Traditional health practitioners have a strong advisory role in Africa, and could contribute significantly to HIV prevention efforts on the continent.

Traditional healers are key to solve for diseases that are rampant. Daniels 07 (Ugo Daniels, Nigerian Masters Student, “Traditional Medicine in Africa,” http://www.africanloft.com/traditional-medicine-in-africa-a-viewpoint/ June 23, 2007)

The term “traditional medicine” (TAM) refers to practices and knowledge that existed before the arrival of modern conventional medicine which were used to promote, maintain and restore health and well-being.

HIV destabilizes social and economic structures in Africa – creating a cycle of poverty and disease. Poku, 01 Research Director for the Commission on HIV/AIDS in Africa, UNECA, 01 (Nana K., “Africa’s Aids crisis in context: ‘how the poor are dying’,” Third World Quarterly, 2001, Vol. 22 No. 2, p 203, http://docserver.ingentaconnect.com/deliver/connect/routl edg/01436597/v22n2/s5.pdf ? expires=1183235676&id=38361093&titleid=15&accname=University+of+Michigan&checksum =90CAE0F49233EA 8EC848C3203EC6C6F2)

Already the HIV epidemic is posing an unprecedented challenge to communities and societies across the continent: a challenge to human survival, human rights and human development

The threat of biopiracy has left traditional healers without any methods – they are driven underground by fear.

Conforto 04 (David, “Traditional Bioipiracy: Redefining the Debate” University of Oregon Journal of Environmental Law, lexis)

Specifically, with respect to traditional biopiracy, granting patents … makes the discovery.

Contention 3 is Western Medicine:

Unchallenged western medicine eradicates indigenous healing, culture, and identity. The plan challenges subjugation. Dei ’94 [George J. Sefa, Professor of Sociology, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, Anthropology and Education Quarterly 1994]

Metaphorically speaking, indigenous Africa is black.

Patents undermine traditional healers by undercutting local knowledge. Chigora et al 07 (Masocha, and Mutenheri) Percyslage, Robert, Feddious, “The Role of Indigenous Medicinal Knowledge (IMK) in the Treatment of Ailments in Rural Zimbabwe: The Case of Mutirikwi Communal Lands.” Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa (Volume 9, No.2)

In addition, it should also be noted that threats to IMK or indigenous knowledge in general has been a problem not only in Zimbabwe or Africa but also in most developing countries.

The violence against indigenous cultures makes terrorism and war inevitable, only the aff can stop this conflict by ensuring the protection of indigenous cultures. Shiva ‘02 [Vandana, Alternative Nobel Laureate, Terrorism as Cannibalism, ZNET commentary, January 23, http://www.zmag.org/sustainers/content/2002-01/23shiva.cfm]

Humans are experiencing their religious spaces enclosed when militaries occupy sacred lands as in the Mid East. Humans are experiencing enclosure through occupation as in Palestine.

Patenting life forms disenfranchises traditional communities. Khalil 96 (M.H., BiofAfrica Policy Digest, “Indigenous disenfranchisement and Long-Term DeConservation: The impact of Property Rights, Bioprospecting Agreements, and Global Institutions on Genetic Resources and Indigenous Cultures)

Patenting life forms and commercializing traditional knowledge is perhaps the most blatant institutionalization of large-scale robbery that a number of cultures are now shamelessly embracing as a new conservation ideal.

Only by changing our assumptions about traditional medicines can we engage culture and hope for solvency. Our acceptance of culture key to achieve public health goals. Airhihenbuwa ‘07 [Collins O. Airhihenbuwa, professor of biobehavioral health at Pennsylvania State University- Healing our Differences The Crisis of Global Health and the Politics of Identity. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. UK. 2007. 195]

The discourse on identity and global health is incomplete without the proper anchor on culture.

Western ideologies should be rejected – we must look at African’s philosophy to avoid a colonialist mindset Center for Indigenous People’s Rights 2004 <http://www.iphrc.ca/documents/ethics_review_iphrc.pdf>

In this article, Colorado argues that western science - the empirical positivist paradigm - cannot meet human nor ecological needs in light of environment destruction and personal alienation.

Contention 4 is Bio-Piracy:

Biopiracy is a globalized neocolonial project – corporations use IP laws to reenact Columbus' discovery by stealing the plant resources of indigenous peoples. Warner ‘06 [Jonathan B, JD @ Indiana University School of Law, Using Global Themes to Reframe the Bioprospecting Debate, Summer, 2006, 13 Ind. J. Global Leg. Stud. 645, lexis]

Neocolonialism is intricately linked to bioprospecting.

Bioprospecting is killing biodiversity in Africa – the plan is key to stop the effects. Merck Science in Africa 2002 < http://www.scienceinafrica.co.za/2002/september/biopiracy.htm >

Africa stands to lose huge benefits from its biodiversity for lack of legal protection against biopiracy, concluded the Second South-South Biopiracy Summit held last week in Johannesburg during the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD).

Commodification of life by patents exacerbates our environmental problems. Beresford 2003 , Eric. Patenting Life a Dangerous Step". Anglican Journal, February

Harvard also argued that we own animals anyway; patenting is just a form of ownership Preserving biodiversity is key to prevent extinction. World Prout Assembly 2005 <http://www.worldproutassembly.org/archives/2005/04/biodiversity_un.html>

Biodiversity is crucial to human survival, and far greater efforts must get underway to preserve biodiversity

TEXT:

The United States federal government, specifically Congress, should require absolute novelty for patents covering products of nature used by indigenous healers in the topic-designated area in order to substantially increase its public health assistance to indigenous healers in the topicdesignated areas.

Contention 5 is Solvency:

Empirically traditional healers are key to cure deadly diseases. Abraham, 2007 [Curtis, freelance journalist based in Kampala, currently writing a book about the Ika] “AFRICA INSIGHT - IT'S TIME THE WEST ACCEPTED AFRICA'S TRADITIONAL HEALERS” The Financial Times Limited. June 8. Lexis. ASL] Uganda was among the first (if not the first) countries in sub-Saharan Africa to develop pilot programs for treating HIV patients with ARVs.

Biotech corporations plunder indigenous knowledge, making billions off of cultural heritage. Only changing patent law solves. DeGeer 03 [Marcia Ellen, "The Appropriation of Indigenous Peoples' Cultural Knowledge", New England Journal of International and Comparative Law, lexis]

The biotechnological corporations have been able to extract, "improve", and patent genes from these plants and thus claim the plants for themselves.

Intellectual property laws make human interaction exclusionary, coerced, and hierarchal. Whitt 98 [Laurie Anne, Associate Professor of Philosophy, Michigan Technological University Oklahoma City University Law Review Spring Summer, 1998] The decision to treat life forms, and knowledge or information, as if they were "transactions and products" has far-reaching consequences.

U.S. only country which allows life form patents Wilson 1999 (Kimberly, October http://www.projecteensored.org/publications/2001/18.html)

The United States remains one of the only countries in the world that recognizes patents on life forms.

NOTRE DAME DA
Observation One is inherency 1.) The water for the poor act was enacted in 05, its been ignored an plans to decrease water assistance to ssa in the SQO Blumenauer 07 (Earl, leading water expert, “Hearing of the subcommittee on Africa and global health of the house committee on foreign affairs” foreign news service) Our legislation was supposed…I find it incomphrehensible 2.) The Water crisis has worsened in Ethiopia Hall 03 (James, Global Information Network, Sep 2. Pg 1, NS) No quals given Ethiopia has water security…such shocks and stresses Therefore, Emily and I are resolved that the USFG should substantially increase its public health assistance to the topic region by giving assistance as outlined by water for the poor act specifically towards Ethiopia. Advantage 1: Water wars 1.)Conflict in the nile basin will soon erupt over water. Ethiopia and Egypt will soon be at the center of this conflict. Thompson 05 (“ex UN chief warns of water wars” BBC feb 2, 2005” United Nations Secretary…cost and scarcity of water 2.) Unchecked conflict in the nile sparks conflict in the middle east Mbote 07 (patricia kameri-mbote, chair of the department of private law @ University of Nairobi and Africa policy scholar. “water conflict and cooperation: lessons from the Nile basin. January 2007 Ten countries share the…build trust and prevent conflict 3.) Middle eastern Conflict guarantees a nuclear exchange (vasillopulos 07, Christopher vasillupolos, professor of internation relations. “nuclear stability in the middle east: the doctrine of mutually assured destruction” Let us consider the…regional stability is a world priority. Advantage 2: Biodiversity Water scarcity kills ecosystems Brundtland and Mello 03 ( director- general WHO and UN high commission for human rights. “ The Right to water” Human livelihoods are intimately…the surrounding environment Biodiversity in the horn of Africa vital to prevent total ecoystem collapse- it’s a hotspot Conservation Central 07 (Us based non-profit ngo) The horn of Africa…found nowhere else Africa is uniquely at risk- water scarcity is resulting in death of species and ecosystems

Findley and Volk 2k (Phd director, water initiatives international, “Towards a water secure future: USAIDS obligation in water resources management for FY 2000”) Water withdrawal and storage…cities situated near receiving waters Each species extinction risks ecosystem collapse Diner 94 (judge advocate generals corps of US army, David, military law reviewm 143 MIL L. Rev 161( IN past mass extinction…edging closer to the abyss The doctrine of biodiversity breaks down the dominant structures that cause suffering. We uniquely solve for the evils of patriarchy, violence, colonialism, militarism, and globilization. We must reject utilitarian impact and recognize the biological imperative. Hawthorn 01 (gale group, “wild politics: feminism, globilization, and biodiviserty” There are the many millions…and how we act Solvency: 1. Water for the Poor builds sustainable infrastructure Hauter 05 [Wenonah, Executive Director, Food & Water Watch, “Water for the Poor Act of 2005”, http://www.foodandwaterwatch.org/water/right/poor-act] U.S. policy is currently focused…in funding water infrastructure. 2. Strong focus on water sustainability will stop potential conflicts Postel and Wolf 01 [ Sandra L. Post, director of the Global Water Project and senior fellow with Worldwatch Institute. Aaron T. Wolf, associate professor geography at Oregon State University and director of the Transboundry Freshwater Project. “Dehydrating Conlict.,” foreign policy magazine, 9-18-01., http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/natres/water/2001/1001fpol.htm) Third, governments and international organizations… human suffering engulf more regions of the globe. 3. The United States is vital to find a global solution to water shortages – a commitment would help to coordinate key agencies that take advantage of unique U.S. knowledge—and any other actor won’t be able to coordinate other governments, US agencies, and NGO’s to piggy-back off of each other and insure sustainable success. C.S.I.S. 05 [Center for Strategic International Studies – Sandia National Laboratory, “Global Water Futures: Addressing Our Global Water Future,” 9/30/2005, White Paper, http://www.sandia.gov/water/docs/CSIS-SNL_OGWF_9-28-05.PDF] As the United States faces its own… peace and prosperity at home and abroad. 4. Integrated Water Resource Management [IWRM] solutions are key to sustainability- involving the community in bottomup informed solutions is vital C.S.I.S. 05 [Center for Strategic International Studies – Sandia National Laboratory, “Global Water Futures: Addressing Our Global Water Future,” 9/30/2005, White Paper, http://www.sandia.gov/water/docs/CSIS-SNL_OGWF_9-28-05.PDF] Participatory Management and Governance. The Foundation for… whether lasting progress is made.

PACE CS---AFF Text: The United States federal government should adopt a public health approach toward genocide prevention in the nations in so-called “Sub Saharan Africa.” This approach should entail the State Department providing assistance to expand public health surveillance, health data collection, and post traumatic treatment for genocide survivors.

Observation 1 Inherency Violence viewed as public health and no public health approach now Eric Larson director of Group Health Cooperative's Center for Health Studies 2004 “To Prevent, React, and Rebuild: Health Research and the Prevention of Genocide”, Health Services Research, Volume 39 Issue 6p2 Page 2027-2051, December, http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m4149/is_6_39/ai_n8577395/pg_1

Observation 2 Harms Peter Ronayne, fellow at the Center for Professional Military Ethics at the U.S. Naval Academy, 2001 (Peter, Never Again pg. 208-209)

We isolate two areas of genocide Rwanda The New Times 2007 Rwanda; Genocide Ideology Can Still be Rooted Out of Rusizi District, April 7 2007, Lexis Nexis

Sudan Africa News 2007 Sudan; Africa Action Releases New Report on International Failure to Protect Darfur March 9 2007 Lexis Nexis Lack of Progress Deploying Peacekeeping Force Leaves Millions in Jeopardy;New U.S. & UN Reports

Outweighs war, moral imperative Barbara Harf-Gurr, Professor at Northwestern University, 81 (Humanitarian Intervention as a Remedy for Genocide p 37)

Genocide risks extinction Campbell 2001 (Kenneth J.; Assistant Professor of Political Science and International Relations – University of Delaware) Genocide and the Global Village p. 15-6

Observation 3 Solvency Solves in there ways – the first is early warning

Lester Breslow, prof at UCLA School of Public Health 2002 Encyclopedia of Public Health http://health.enotes.com/public-health-encyclopedia/genocide“Genocide” 2006)

Second is data collection and primary prevention

Eric Larson director of Group Health Cooperative's Center for Health Studies 2004 “To Prevent, React, and Rebuild: Health Research and the Prevention of Genocide”, Health Services Research, Volume 39 Issue 6p2 Page 2027-2051, December, http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m4149/is_6_39/ai_n8577395/pg_1

Third is recovery Graeme Macqueen professor of religious studies, Centre for Peace Studies 2000 http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/321/7256/293, “Education and Debate: Conflict and Health”, British Medical Journal July 29, 2000

US is best actor Samantha Power, Professor of Public Policy Carr Center for Human Rights Policy, 2003 “ ‘A Problem From Hell’:America and the Age of Genocide” , Center for American Progress, http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/2003/05/b228409.html, May1, 2003

US monitoring key Samuel Totten, Professor of Curriculum at the University of Arkansas, 2004 http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/title~content=t713431069 “The intervention and prevention of genocide: Sisyphean or doable?” June 1, The Journal of Genocide Research

US action critical, global signal Bacon, President of Refugees International, 2007 (Kenneth, March 20, “Legislation to Stop Genocide” statement to the U.S. Committee on Financial

Services and the Subcommittee on Domestic and Internal Monetary Policy,” http://www.refugeesinternational.org/content/article/detail/9951/)

Forces superpowers to see that genocide is occurring

Senator Dallaire, Hearing of the Senate Judiciary Committee’s Subcommittee on Human Rights and the Law, February 5, 2007 (l/n)

Our advocacy is superior to kritikal alternatives, because we are tied to action Herbert Hirsch, Prof. Political Science at Virginia Commonwealth University, 2002 (Herbert, Anti-Genocide, pp.32-33 and 34-36

PINE CREST US-- AFF

Observation 1 is the Slaughterhouse— There is a severe lack of blood screening in sub-Saharan Africa—millions seeking to improve their health through transfusion are instead granted death via HIV or hepatitis infected blood The Lancet 8/10/07 (“Improving blood safety worldwide,” pg. 361, vol. 370, Lexis)

Where blood is available, it is often unsafe… contaminated blood or blood products.

High sickle cell anemia prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa makes transfusion inevitable for most Nosotro ’07 (Rit, 8/27, “Diseases in sub-Saharan Africa,” http://www.hyperhistory.net/apwh/essays/comp/cw23diseaseafrica.htm)

Sickle cell anemia is characterized…sub-Saharan African population.

And, blood collection services in sub-Saharan Africa are inadequate—dooming 697 million to potential death The Lancet 8/10/07 (“Improving blood safety worldwide,” pg. 361, vol. 370, Lexis)

In many cases, blood is not available because…blood are collected each year.

Unsafe transfusions are the critical internal link to disease spread in sub-Saharan Africa—studies prove other alternate causalities wrong. Our advocacy deconstructs dehumanizing representations of Africa as sexually rampant and diseased by instead focusing on the true medical causes of the disease. Ssemakula ’02 (John –MB.ChB at Makerere University, Kampala, studied at the University of Ibadan Medical School in Nigeria, holds a Masters of Public Health from Dundee Medical School, working with the Africa America Institute (AAI) in New York on the AAI "HIV/AIDS Initiative,” October 22, “The Missing Link? The Spread of HIV/AIDS in Africa through Unsafe Medical Care,” http://medilinkz.org/Features/Articles/oct2002/MissingLinkHIVAfrica.asp)

The article entitled “The Spread of HIV/AIDS in…being sexually rampant without care.

Over 500 million are currently infected with hepatitis—this number will double absent intervention. It produces no symptoms, allowing it go on infecting and killing under the wire. Impact Wire ‘06 (May 19, “Hepatitis: The Silent Pandemic,” http://www.impactwire.com/article.asp?id=2772)

The threat of avian flu may dominate… not injecting drugs, and practicing safer sex.

Highly infectious drug-resistant strains of hepatitis are emerging—prevention efforts are key to check a pandemic Shobokshi et al. ’07 (Ossama Shobokshi – H.E. Minister of Health—Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, Frank Serebour – FIBS, Leila Skakni - Central Laboratory, Riyadh Medical Complex—Riyadh, Saudi Arabia – “HEPATITIS B SURFACE GENE MUTANTS AND THEIR EMERGING ROLE IN THE EFFICACY OF HBV VACCINATION PROGRAMS,” http://www.kfshrc.edu.sa/annals/192/98-228ED.html)

There is evidence that HBV mutants can… and cause fulminant hepatic failure.

This is the greatest threat to human survival Zimmerman and Zimmerman ‘96 (Barry and David, both have M.S. degrees from Long Island University, Killer Germs p 132)

Then came AIDS…and Ebola and Lassa fever and Marburg and dengue… virus” (A Dancing Matrix, by Robin Marantz Hening).

AIDS is mutating—it’s only a matter of time before it goes airborne Singer ‘02 (Peter, John M. Olin Post-doctoral Fellow, Foreign Policy Studies at the Brookings Institution, Survival, Spring. This is not the bioethicist/activist Peter Singer.)

Such mixing may potentially be the most… some ignored conflict elsewhere.

AIDS will spread globally and cause extinction Muchiri ‘00 (Michael Kibaara Staff Member at Ministry of Education in Nairobi, “Will Annan finally put out Africa’s fires?” Jakarta Post, March 6, LN)

The executive director of UNAIDS, Peter…maybe the human race.

These mutations are more deadly than nuclear weapons and risk extinction Steinbruner ’98 (John – Professor of Public Policy at the School of Public Affairs at the University of Maryland, Winter, “Biological Weapons: A Plague Upon All Houses,” Foreign Policy, no. 109, http://foreignpolicy.com/Ning/archive/archive/109/bioweaapons.pdf?PHPSESSID=69349c202f36a15067fc6fd6ef26df77)

Pathogens are alive, weapons are not… there is no way to measure it reliably.

The impact of ignoring any facet of AIDS in Africa is akin to being complicit with mass-murder—AIDS will kill more people in Africa then all wars combined and devastate the entire continent. Brown ‘06 (Lester, Former International Agricultural Analyst for U.S. Department of Agriculture and President of Worldwatch Institute, Earth Policy Institute, Plan B 2.0 – Rescuing A Planet Under Stress And A Civilization In Trouble, Chapter Six, http://www.earth-policy.org/Books/PB2/PB2ch6_ss3.htm)

Infection rates are climbing… we will succeed against neither.”

Observation 2 is Maternal Essentialism—

Severe bleeding during childbirth has caused maternal infection and mortality rates in sub-Saharan Africa to skyrocket, constructing a norm of maternal disposability—safe transfusion services solve. WHO ‘07 (June, “Blood Safety and Donation,” http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs279/en/index.html)

Globally, more than half a million… fallen by more than 50%.

The viral mother serves as the antithesis of maternal purity; her milk is perceived as toxic, deeming her unfit to carry out the idealized maternal act of breastfeeding. These essentialist views serve to medicalize the act of breastfeeding, rendering milk a medicine that must be kept pure at all costs. The result is a violent maternal essentialism which takes aim at the maternal liberties of the sick in an effort at maintaining the purity of the population. Hausman ’06 (Bernice – Professor of English at Virginia Tech, Director of Women's Studies at Virginia Tech – Winter, Hypatia vol. 21 no. 1, Contamination and Contagion: Environmental Toxins, HIV/AIDS, and the Problem of the Maternal Body, MUSE)

The viral mother is cast against… embodied purity of good mothers.

The viral mother’s body is rendered a mechanism of toxic transfer, unfit to raise a child. This constructs the notion that pure maternity relies merely upon what is inside the body. Hausman ’06 (Bernice – Professor of English at Virginia Tech, Director of Women's Studies at Virginia Tech – Winter, Hypatia vol. 21 no. 1, Contamination and Contagion: Environmental Toxins, HIV/AIDS, and the Problem of the Maternal Body, MUSE)

As medicalized perspectives on… world’s infants and children.

These notions of pure versus viral breast milk are socially constructed—impure milk actually harbors antibodies and antiviral properties key to fighting infectious diseases. Hausman ’06 (Bernice – Professor of English at Virginia Tech, Director of Women's Studies at Virginia Tech – Winter, Hypatia vol. 21 no. 1, Contamination and Contagion: Environmental Toxins, HIV/AIDS, and the Problem of the Maternal Body, MUSE)

Yet breast milk is effective… against its own sexual meanings.

The lack of guarantee of survival renders African woman as reproductive tools Horn ’06 (Jessica, Feminist Africa, “Re-sighting the Sexual Body,” http://www.feministafrica.org/Feminist%20Africa%206.indd.pdf)

What is problematic about this… culturally and sexually”

This has triggered male domination in African society, females are conceived of as disposable reproductive tools that may be raped if necessary—death and infection during childbirth are accepted and ignored Braam and Hessini ‘04 (Sonke Development Agency and Senior Policy Advisor to Ipas, a women’s health NGO (Tamara and Leila, “The Power Dynamics Perpetuating Unsafe Abortion in Africa: A Feminist Perspective,” African Journal of Reproductive Health, v8 n1, pp. 43-51, Database: Bioline International)

Political leadership is male-dominated… seeking an unsafe abortion.

Tolerating this sexual assault makes global violence inevitable. New York Times ‘83 (December 29, p. C7, Sonia Johnson is quoted)

She argues, for example, that… between the sexes.”

Representations of the viral mother spill over globally. Hausman ’06 (Bernice – Professor of English at Virginia Tech, Director of Women's Studies at Virginia Tech – Winter, Hypatia vol. 21 no. 1, Contamination and Contagion: Environmental Toxins, HIV/AIDS, and the Problem of the Maternal Body, MUSE)

The cultural construction… other preventive measures.

Maternal essentialism in Africa spills over into the international arena. These patriarchal conditions shape international law and relations. Action in sub-Saharan Africa is critical to the global feminist movement. Eliminating the root cause of female objectivity there will break down gender oppression globally. Oloka-Onyango and Tamale ’95 (Joe – Associate Professor and director of the Makerere University Human Rights and Peace Centre, and Sylvia – professor of African studies @ University of Minnesota, “The Personal is Political,” Human Rights Quarterly 17.4)

Recalling the basic themes… at the international level.

These essentialist assumptions are spilling over into the U.S. and being used to subordinate single women. The state feels women are unfit to raise a child absent male assistance. The stage is set for eugenics. Current case law provides the legal context and the prevalent public attitude provides the social environment necessary to trigger forced sterilization of the unfit. Horsburgh ’96 (Beverly - Associate Professor of Law, St. Thomas University School of Law. B.A., Smith College; J.D., University of Miami School of Law – “schrodinger's cat, eugenics, and the compulsory sterilization of welfare mothers: deconstructing an old/new rhetoric and constructing the reproductive right to natality for low-income women of color,” January, 17 Cardozo L. Rev. 531)

Poor single women with children… evolve in other areas of the law.

The state’s belief in the necessity of a father creates a cycle of victimization for welfare mothers. Absent a political forum which respects the intersectional nature of their identity they are powerless to contest encroachments on their freedom and genocidal efforts at eliminating them from motherhood. A culture which respects difference is crucial to low-income women of color for repudiating their material subordination and claiming public and political recognition as human beings. Horsburgh ’96 (Beverly - Associate Professor of Law, St. Thomas University School of Law. B.A., Smith College; J.D., University of Miami School of Law – “schrodinger's cat, eugenics, and the compulsory sterilization of welfare mothers: deconstructing an old/new rhetoric and constructing the reproductive right to natality for low-income women of color,” January, 17 Cardozo L. Rev. 531)

Single Black mothers on… who never bothers to look.

The ultimate impact is extinction—essentialist attitudes guarantee continued violence, war, and environmental destruction. Only moving away from this system can create opportunities for survival. Warren and Cady ‘94 (Karen and Duane, Professors of Philosophy at Malacaster College and Hamline University, Hypatia, Spring)

The notion of patriarchy… regional, national, and global contexts.

Thus the plan:

The United States federal government should substantially increase its blood transfusion assistance through the United States Agency for International Development in Africa south of the Sahara Desert. Any questions, we’ll clarify.

Observation 3 is Solvency—

U.S. blood services are 100% effective and can solve in sub-Saharan Africa Fattah ’06 (Chaka - experienced lawmaker serving in his seventh term in the U.S. House of Representatives – June 27, HEARING AND BRIEFING BEFORE THE SUBCOMMITTEE ON AFRICA, GLOBAL HUMAN RIGHTS AND INTERNATIONAL OPERATIONS OF THE COMMITTEE ON INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, ONE HUNDRED NINTH CONGRESS, http://commdocs.house.gov/committees/intlrel/hfa28424.000/hfa28424_0.HTM)

Mr. Chairman, I suggest to you a… infection through blood transfusion.

USAID ensures blood safety through effective education, collection, and distribution systems Ferris ’06 (Robert – D.O. Medical Officer for the Office of HIV/AIDS, U.S. Agency for International Development – Congressional testimony, Subcommittee on Africa, Global Human Rights and International Operations Committee on International Relations U.S. House of Representatives, June 27, http://www.usaid.gov/press/speeches/2006/ty060627.html)

USAID helps ensure proper… waste management practices.

USAID provides oxytocin which effectively reduces post-natal bleeding, the biggest cause of maternal death Ferris ’06 (Robert – D.O. Medical Officer for the Office of HIV/AIDS, U.S. Agency for International Development – Congressional testimony, Subcommittee on Africa, Global Human Rights and International Operations Committee on International Relations U.S. House of Representatives, June 27, http://www.usaid.gov/press/speeches/2006/ty060627.html)

Also, USAID funded… need for blood transfusion.

USAID is effective in managing female hemorrhaging

Ferris ’06 (Robert – D.O. Medical Officer for the Office of HIV/AIDS, U.S. Agency for International Development – Congressional testimony, Subcommittee on Africa, Global Human Rights and International Operations Committee on International Relations U.S. House of Representatives, June 27, http://www.usaid.gov/press/speeches/2006/ty060627.html)

USAID promotes safe… appropriately when it occurs.

PUTNAM CITY CF---AFF

Inherency: Current U.S patent law allows the exploitation and plunder of indigenous African culture. Under section 102, pharmaceutical companies patent indigenous knowledge, creating a globalized system of biopiracy threatening human survival. Shiva ’99 <www.zmag.org/sustainers/content/1999-09/6shiva.htm> Harms: Even though traditional healers are held in high esteem by populations throughout Africa, post-colonial laws keep them out of the nat’l health systems. Gbodossou, Floyd, and Katy ’03 <www.prometra.org/Documents/AIDSinAfricaScenarioforthefuture.pdf> 2. Current biomedicine commodifies knowledge and deploys it as power to shape reality and erase traditional medicine and culture and history. Lumpkin ’01 <”Preceptual Diversity: Is Polyphasic Consciousness Necessary for Global Survival?” Anthropology of Consciousness, Vol 12, no 1, pp. 37-70.> “She adds that reductionism has led to loss of biocomplexity….” Plan: The USFG should est. a policy substantially increasing public health assistance to SSA by: amending section 102 of U.S. Patent law to include indigenous knowledge as prior art and require absolute novelty for all patents. Funding and enforcement guaranteed Ask and we’ll clarify Observation 2 Solvency: Absolute novelty requires complete newness for requested patents, effectively excluding practices in other countries. Furthermore, defining indigenous knowledge as prior art can halt U.S. abuses. DiMario ’02 <http://www.wipo.int/patent/agenda/en/rfc/rfc1/00222.html> 2. Only absolute novelty can protect unwritten indigenous knowledge IPR commission ’02 <http://209.85.165.104/search?q=cache:2ifsNirkihwJ:www.iprcommission.org/papers/word/final_r eport/chapter4wordfinal.doc+%22absolute+novelty%22+US+biopiracy&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=10 &gl=us&client=safari> Scenario 1: Malaria Traditional Medicine is key to solving disease like malaria where western medicine fails. Pro-cultura, Inc. 2004 <www.procultura.org/AFRICA.html> 2. Malaria kills 1 million people a year 90% of them are African Molavi ’03 <http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2003/06/0612_malaria.html> Scenario 2: Biodiversity Biodiversity is rapidly decreasing as companies consume and exploit indigenous knowledge. The result s resource depletion and destruction. Warner ’06 <http://muse/jhu.edu.journals/indiana_journal_of_global_legal_studies/v013/13.2warner.html> 2. This biopiracy fosters a totalitarian monoculture; the result is the inherent right to destroy and consume indigenous culture for Eurocentric benefits, until human extinction is inevitable. Lander ’02 <http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/nepantla/v003/3.2lander.html> Scenario 3: Capitalism: SQ Biopiracy allows pharmaceutical companies to steal indigenous knowledge, plants, and medicine dooming any hope for traditional health infrastructure. Chigora, Maschoa, and Mutenheri ’07 <all we have on this source>

2. Colonization of traditional knowledge perpetuates exploitative and dehumanizing practices of pharmaceutical companies on indigenous pop. Their lives are commodified to be bought and sold by pharmaceutical companies. Harry ’01 <all we have on this source> 3. The U.S. has consistently prioritized profit over people, and Intellectual property and patents is the worst manifestation of capitalist rationality. Only the plans protection of indigenous peoples can provide an alternate world view. Martin and Vermeylan ’05 <all we have on this source> 4. The plan signals a shift away from politics of self interest inherent to the status quo of health. This is key to jar the privileged world out of complacency, establishing a new f/w regarding our relationships with other countries and creating a new level playing field in the area of health access. Benetar ’05 <”meeting Threats to global health: a call for American leadership,” Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, 48.3, pp. 344-361> “Current and widening disparities in health around the world—even within many countries, including the United States—and the particular plight….”

SHAWNEE MISSION EAST KL---AFF

OBSERVATION ONE: THE AIDS CRISIS United States IPR harmonization efforts facilitate the rapid spread of AIDS-related death in sub-Saharan Africa. Without access to generics, these death spirals will proliferate globally. Relaxing patent protection solves and more effectively combats the crisis than unlikely R&D innovations. Crook, 2K5 Jamie, Boalt Hall School of Law, J.D. Candidate 2006. 23 Berkeley J. Int’l L. 524 p.L/N In 2003, the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)… vulnerable HIV/AIDS victims. Left untreated, the spread of AIDS will subject entire continents to dehumanizing deaths, culminating in extinction. The Jakarta Post, March 6, 2000, pg. – l/n But his vision, unless backed up by.. maybe the human race. And, current regulations will collapse sub-Saharan African economies and usher-in political instability and violence that will escalate globally Crook, 2K5 Jamie, Boalt Hall School of Law, J.D. Candidate 2006. 23 Berkeley J. Int’l L. 524 p.L/N Additionally, while…affordable anti-retroviral drugs This escalation is the most likely scenario for a global Nuclear War Deutsch ’02 [Dr. Jeffrey, Contributing Editor for Russian Politics, November 18, accessed 7/25/04, http://www.rabidtigers.com/rtn/newsletterv2n9.html] Finally, increased access to counterfeit drugs stops the spread of AIDS – treatment reduces transmission and encourages testing. Any prevention strategy will fail without widespread access to affordable treatment. Crook, 2K5 Jamie, Boalt Hall School of Law, J.D. Candidate 2006. 23 Berkeley J. Int’l L. 524 p.L/N A daily cocktail of… affordable anti-retroviral drugs. OBSERVATION TWO: DISEASE IPR harmonization prevents access to affordable medicines that curb the spread of disease Seeratan, 2K1. Nadia Natasha, J.D., St. Mary’s University School of Law, Honors. The Scholar: St. Mary’s Law Review on Minority Issues. 3 Scholar 339. Spring p.L/N In its 1999 World Health Report …must choose to make a difference This risks multiple scenarios for extinction South China Morning Post 96 ((Hong Kong) January 4, 1996 SECTION: Pg. 15 HEADLINE: Leading the way to a cure for AIDS BYLINE: Kavita Daswani meets a scientist working on a super vaccine to fight AIDS and more deadly viruses yet to come, l/n) Despite the importance of the discovery of the "facilitating" cell… the survival of the human race," he said. And, relaxing patents on ARVs is key to the emergence of a system of international health governance that can effectively contain the outbreak of diseases with unknown and global dimensions Crook, 2K5 Jamie, Boalt Hall School of Law, J.D. Candidate 2006. 23 Berkeley J. Int’l L. 524 p.L/N OBSERVATION THREE: IPR HARMONIZATION International IPR harmonization destroys free trade and democracy, undermines global economic growth and guarantees trade tensions that will escalate. Liu, 2K5

Henry c., chairman of a New York-based private investment group. “Intellectual property rights: Bad TRIPS.” The Coming Trade War, Part 5. Asian Times. http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Global_Economy/GH05Dj01.html These protectionist trade wars that will erupt into a global nuclear war Spicer, 1996. Michael, Olin Foundation and former Troy Member Parliament, The Challenges from the East and the Rebirth of the West) And, free trade solves all wars at their origin. Trade politicization prevents global interaction and guarantees conflict. DiLorenzo, 2K. Thomas, Professor of Economics @ Loyola College in Maryland. “Trade and the Rise of Freedom. The Mises Institute. 31 January. http://www.mises.org/story/376) THUS THE PLAN: THE UNITED STATES FEDERAL GOVERNMENT SHOULD GRANT THE RIGHT TO MANUFACTURE ALL ANTIRETROVIRAL MEDICINES EXPORTED TO SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA. OBSERVATION FOUR: SOLVENCY Compulsory licensing is the best tool for public health assistance –it guarantees low prices Healthgap.org, 2K3 “FTAA: Protectionism for US Drug Industry” Affordable AIDS Medicinen denied in Latin America. Briefing document. November. www.healthgap.org Compulsory licensing solves the barrier to access – countries would declare intent to use generics if the U.S. agreed to make them available. Galloway, 2K7. Gloria, staff writer. The globe and Mail. April 18, 2007. P.L/N And, this domestic weakening of patent exclusivity would remove the ability for the United States to enforce intellectual property standards abroad, eliminating the barrier to compulsory licensing in Africa and undermining IPR harmonization efforts. Kogan, 2k6. Lawrence A., an International business, trade, and regulatory attorney. He is CEO of the Institute for Trade, Standards and sustainable Development, Inc. 38 U. Miami Inter-Am. L. Rev. 1 p.L/N The plan strikes at heart of patent exclusivity – domestic licenses would force brand-name antiretroviral producers to lower prices. This simultaneously encourages pharmaceutical industry growth. Sands, 2K6 Katharine W., J.D. candidate 2007, University of Houston Law Center. 29 Hous. J. Int’l L 191 p.L/N

SHAWNEE MISSION EAST MP – AFF

SHAWNEE MISSION EAST MAPES/PERBECK – UGANDA TSETSE FLY

Observation One: The Status Quo is Unacceptable

Conventional methods to control Ugandan Sleeping Sickness are failing and the Epidemic continues to spread killing 40,000 people a year in Uganda alone. DID 07 [Department for International Development “Fighting sleeping sickness in Uganda” 02 April 2007 http://www.research4development.info/caseStudies.asp?ArticleID=50095] Sleeping sickness .. in the first place.

This failure is causing sleeping sickness to become one of the most deadly diseases in Africa – killing hundreds of thousands every year and is poised to only get worse IAEA 02 [IAEA, International Atomic Energy Agency, Press Release 2002/02 “Campaign Launched to Eliminate Tsetse Fly,” http://www.iaea.org/NewsCenter/PressReleases/2002/prn0202.shtml] African sleeping..the homeless in African cities

Sleeping sickness spurs instability in Uganda CDC 06 [Center for Disease Control and preventions May 5 2006 Lea Berrang-Ford Olaf Berke, Lubowa Abdelrahman, David Waltner-Toews, and John McDermott “Spatial Analysis of Sleeping Sickness, Southeastern Uganda, 1970–2003” http://pages.videotron.com/lberrang/eid_lbf.pdf] T. b. rhodesiense…during the previous epidemic

And, there is a strong correlation with political instability Ali-Dinar 2k (Ali, U of Penn – African Studies Center, May 5, http://www.africa.upenn.edu/Urgent_Action/apic-050500b.html, dbm) The relationship…scarce state resources. ...

Uganda is the only country that contains both forms of sleeping sickness they will combine and become an epidemic on the continent.

Shannan 05 [Mike Shannan, staff writer for SciDev Nov. 28 2005“Double parasite threat of sleeping sickness in Uganda” http://www.scidev.net/content/news/eng/double-parasite-threat-ofsleeping-sickness-in-uganda.cfm] Scientists have ..two forms overlapping.

African instability causes great power wars that result in global nuclear war. Deutsch 02 (Jeffrey, Founder of Rabid Tiger Project (Political Risk Consulting and Research Firm focusing on Russia and Eastern Europe, “SETTING THE STAGE FOR WORLD WAR III,” Rabid Tiger Newsletter, Nov 18, http://www.rabidtigers.com/rtn/newsletterv2n9.html) The Rabid Tiger .. people love to go fishing

Contention Two is Terrorism

Ugandan instability breeds international terrorism and instability on the entire content—Uganda is the key vanguard in the U.S. fight to eliminate international terrorism Mukwaya 06 [Aaron K.K. Mukwaya Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa, 2006 “The Politics of International Terrorism in the Security Complexes in the Greater Horn of Africa: An Overview from Uganda under the Movementocracy” http://www.codesria.org/Links/Publications/ajia1_04/mukwaya.pdf] The article is concerned …and the Great Horn of Africa.

African instability gives terrorist resources and nuclear weapons form the Soviet era that threatens the globe. Dempsey 06 [Thomas Dempsey Director of African Studies in the Department of National Security and Strategy at the U.S. Army War College. “counterterrorism in African failed states: challenges and potential solutions” April 2006 http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pdffiles/pub649.pdf ] MP The threat that … complex and difficult task

Nuclear terrorism is possible, and would result in a full-scale nuclear war Spice 06 [Patrick F. Speice, Jr., J.D. Candidate 2006, Marshall-Wythe School of Law, College of William and Mary, February 2006, “NEGLIGENCE AND NUCLEAR NONPROLIFERATION: ELIMINATING THE CURRENT LIABILITY BARRIER TO BILATERAL U.S.-RUSSIAN NONPROLIFERATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS”, Wiliam & Mary Law Review]

Terrorist groups … use of nuclear weapons

Contention Three is Pesticides

Current Ugandan methods to control the tsetse fly use harmful insecticides that destroy the environment and species loss. De Vos 03 [Antoon de Vos-wildlife biologist with wide experience in Africa. “Must Africa suffer the environmental consequences of tsetse-fly control?” 8-21-03 http://www.fao.org/docrep/l2680e/l2680e03.htm] The environmental impact .. to the sea.

Species loss causes planetary extinction. Diner 94 [Major David Diner, Instructor at the Judge Advocate General School, Winter 1994, MILITARY LAW REVIEW, p. lexis] By causing … closer to the abyss.

SIT would decrease the use of pesticides. Feldmann & Hendrichs 02 (U., J., Insect & Pest Control Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture International Atomic Energy Agency, 4/15, http://www.fao.org/docrep/004/Y2022E/y2022e02.htm, dbm) Furthermore, unless … meat, milk and dung)

Thus the Plan: The United States federal government should provide necessary support for the establishment of an Area-wide Sterile Insect Technique campaign in The Republic of Uganda to eradicate sleeping sickness. We can clarify

Contention Four is Solvency

Empirically Proven the SIT technique can effectively eliminate the Tsetse Fly and Sleeping sickness.

IAEA 02 [IAEA, International Atomic Energy Agency, Press Release 2002/02 “Campaign Launched to Eliminate Tsetse Fly” http://www.iaea.org/NewsCenter/PressReleases/2002/prn0202.shtml ] In 1997 the Tanzanian .. turn to use it against the tsetse

Plan can permanently eliminate sleeping sickness Ministry of Communications 06, Science and Technology 2006 “NUCLEAR TECHNOLOGY IN BOTSWANA” http://www.mcst.gov.bw/ In agriculture, nuclear…of Vision 2016 pillars.

The plan solves in 5 months—SIT is the key missing component to solve sleeping sickness Feldmann & Hendrichs 02 (U., J., Insect & Pest Control Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture International Atomic Energy Agency, 4/15, http://www.fao.org/docrep/004/Y2022E/y2022e02.htm, dbm) Situations in which …Maina and Mdoe (1999).

U.S. key—it is the only nation with SIT technology and experience in area wide approach to eliminate the Tsetse fly and sleeping sickness Kinley 98 [David H. Kinley, III, author, editor and media relations expert with the Division of Public Information of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna, Austria. “Aerial assault on the tsetse fly: researchers have found a way to eradicate the disease-carrying tsetse fly from Zanzibar” Sept, 1998 http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1076/is_n7_v40/ai_21058622/pg_4 ] Tsetse fly eradication … a problem.

Uganda is the starting point---it is unique in having both forms of sleeping sickness and is at the center of the epidemic and future spread in Africa. Oddit, Maiso, Toews, & McDermott 06 [“Sleeping sickness in Uganda: revisiting current and historical distributions” Lea Berrang-Ford,1 Martin Odiit,2 Faustin Maiso,3 David Waltner-Toews,1 and John McDermott1 Department of Population Medicine, University of Guelph, Canada 2Ministry of Health, Kampala, Uganda 3World Health Organization, Kampala, Uganda 4International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), Nairobi, Kenya “Sleeping sickness in Uganda: revisiting current and historical distributions” 12-6-06 http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1832067] The continued spread … prevention and control.

SPASH LM- AFF Observation One is inherency 1.) The water for the poor act was enacted in 05, its been ignored an plans to decrease water assistance to ssa in the SQO Blumenauer 07 (Earl, leading water expert, “Hearing of the subcommittee on Africa and global health of the house committee on foreign affairs” foreign news service) Our legislation was supposed…I find it incomphrehensible 2.) The Water crisis has worsened in Ethiopia Hall 03 (James, Global Information Network, Sep 2. Pg 1, NS) No quals given Ethiopia has water security…such shocks and stresses Therefore, Emily and I are resolved that the USFG should substantially increase its public health assistance to the topic region by giving assistance as outlined by water for the poor act specifically towards Ethiopia. Advantage 1: Water wars 1.)Conflict in the nile basin will soon erupt over water. Ethiopia and Egypt will soon be at the center of this conflict. Thompson 05 (“ex UN chief warns of water wars” BBC feb 2, 2005” United Nations Secretary…cost and scarcity of water 2.) Unchecked conflict in the nile sparks conflict in the middle east Mbote 07 (patricia kameri-mbote, chair of the department of private law @ University of Nairobi and Africa policy scholar. “water conflict and cooperation: lessons from the Nile basin. January 2007 Ten countries share the…build trust and prevent conflict 3.) Middle eastern Conflict guarantees a nuclear exchange (vasillopulos 07, Christopher vasillupolos, professor of internation relations. “nuclear stability in the middle east: the doctrine of mutually assured destruction” Let us consider the…regional stability is a world priority. Advantage 2: Biodiversity Water scarcity kills ecosystems Brundtland and Mello 03 ( director- general WHO and UN high commission for human rights. “ The Right to water” Human livelihoods are intimately…the surrounding environment Biodiversity in the horn of Africa vital to prevent total ecoystem collapse- it’s a hotspot Conservation Central 07 (Us based non-profit ngo) The horn of Africa…found nowhere else Africa is uniquely at risk- water scarcity is resulting in death of species and ecosystems Findley and Volk 2k

(Phd director, water initiatives international, “Towards a water secure future: USAIDS obligation in water resources management for FY 2000”) Water withdrawal and storage…cities situated near receiving waters Each species extinction risks ecosystem collapse Diner 94 (judge advocate generals corps of US army, David, military law reviewm 143 MIL L. Rev 161( IN past mass extinction…edging closer to the abyss The doctrine of biodiversity breaks down the dominant structures that cause suffering. We uniquely solve for the evils of patriarchy, violence, colonialism, militarism, and globilization. We must reject utilitarian impact and recognize the biological imperative. Hawthorn 01 (gale group, “wild politics: feminism, globilization, and biodiviserty” There are the many millions…and how we act Solvency: 1. Water for the Poor builds sustainable infrastructure Hauter 05 [Wenonah, Executive Director, Food & Water Watch, “Water for the Poor Act of 2005”, http://www.foodandwaterwatch.org/water/right/poor-act] U.S. policy is currently focused…in funding water infrastructure. 2. Strong focus on water sustainability will stop potential conflicts Postel and Wolf 01 [ Sandra L. Post, director of the Global Water Project and senior fellow with Worldwatch Institute. Aaron T. Wolf, associate professor geography at Oregon State University and director of the Transboundry Freshwater Project. “Dehydrating Conlict.,” foreign policy magazine, 9-18-01., http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/natres/water/2001/1001fpol.htm) Third, governments and international organizations… human suffering engulf more regions of the globe. 3. The United States is vital to find a global solution to water shortages – a commitment would help to coordinate key agencies that take advantage of unique U.S. knowledge—and any other actor won’t be able to coordinate other governments, US agencies, and NGO’s to piggy-back off of each other and insure sustainable success. C.S.I.S. 05 [Center for Strategic International Studies – Sandia National Laboratory, “Global Water Futures: Addressing Our Global Water Future,” 9/30/2005, White Paper, http://www.sandia.gov/water/docs/CSIS-SNL_OGWF_9-28-05.PDF] As the United States faces its own… peace and prosperity at home and abroad. 4. Integrated Water Resource Management [IWRM] solutions are key to sustainability- involving the community in bottomup informed solutions is vital C.S.I.S. 05 [Center for Strategic International Studies – Sandia National Laboratory, “Global Water Futures: Addressing Our Global Water Future,” 9/30/2005, White Paper, http://www.sandia.gov/water/docs/CSIS-SNL_OGWF_9-28-05.PDF] Participatory Management and Governance. The Foundation for… whether lasting progress is made.

ST. MARKS ALL CASES---AFF Plan: The United States federal government should substantially expand Africa based public health infrastructure programs of the United States Combined Joint Task Force based in Djibouti. Contention 1—Health— Lack of health infrastructure in Africa spurs drug resistant strains – there’s no diagnostic testing. Cohen ‘7 (Gary, President of BD Medical, 1-5-07, http://www.bd.com/press/newsroom/pdfs/3_HC_Infrastructure.pdf) A primary thrust of these interventions … the public and private sectors toward this goal. Unchecked drug resistant pathogens cause extinction South China Morning Post quoting Dr. Ben-Abraham, called "one of the 100 greatest minds in history" by Mensa, 1-41996 (Avi, “Leading the way to a cure for AIDS,” P. Lexis) Despite the importance of the discovery of the "facilitating" cell, … imperil the survival of the human race," he said. And, the task force builds up public health infrastructure throughout the region to improve stability. CENTCOM, 12-06 (Fact Sheet, U.S. Central Command: Combined Joint Task Force-Horn Of Africa Mission; http://www.hoa.centcom.mil/resources/english/facts.asp#) The Combined Joint Task Force–Horn of Africa is a unit of United States … a four-story building in Kenya in 2006 and the capsizing of a passenger ferry in Djibouti in 2006. And strengthening infrastructure assists public health. Pekka Puska (“WHO Director—General election: public health infrastructures” 10/27/06 Pg. 1401 Vol. 368 No. 9545 ISSN: 0140-6736 p. Lexis) Without a concerted effort by WHO and others …and other functions-is vital to success, in both chronic and infectious diseases. Contention 2—Leadership— Military outreach operations are a unique issue that develops soft power and trains troops for state building. CSM, 6-22-07 (Ginny Hill, “Military focuses on development in Africa: In Djibouti, US forces combat terrorism with civil affairs work. Will this be a model for a future US military command in Africa?” http://www.csmonitor.com/2007/0622/p07s02-woaf.html) Stephen Morrison, director of the Africa program at the Center for Strategic and … can be very useful as part of a broader strategy." And, integration of civilian and military operations changes the American security paradigm, increasing American soft power Howard ‘7 (Peter, Professor at American University, School of International Service, PhD SIS, May 31, http://duckofminerva.blogspot.com/2007/05/how-soft-can-power-be.html) Second is the change in US bureaucratic politics:… the world, develops policy, and goes about its business as a national security state. This new security paradigm is necessary to successfully combat terror and sustain hegemony Richardson, ‘7 (Bill, Governor of New Mexico, Former US Congressman, Former US Secretary of Energy, Former US representative to the UN, “A New Realism,” Summer, Harvard International Review, Cambridge, Vol. 29, Iss. 2; p. 26, Proquest) An Unchanging Approach to a Changing Paradigm… US allies and for shared democratic values in order to coordinate international efforts for global problems. Additionally, the HOA task force is the template that will spread throughout the military Thomas P.M. Barnett, distinguished strategist at the Oak Ridge Center for Advanced Studies, Senior Strategic Researcher at the U.S. Naval War College, and Senior Managing Director of Enterra Solutions; 6-24-07 (“Africa command: How

America organizes to win war and peace,” Knox News, http://www.knoxnews.com/news/2007/jun/24/barnett-africacommand-how-america-organizes-win-w) For years now, I’ve argued for … this strategic backwater, forging the obvious solution. Overcoming fear of militaristic US action through developmental assistance is critical to the long term success of AFRICOM Morrison 8/1 (J. Stephen, Executive Director, HIV/AIDS Task Force and Director, Africa Program, Center for Strategic and International Studies, 2007, “Africa: Testimony of Stephen Morrison - U.S. Senate Africom Hearing”) Most significant will be overcoming …in significant gains over existing U.S. security programs in Africa. And, military medicine presents an alternative international strategy that is essential to maintain US leadership Carroll ‘1 (Terry, Army Colonel, “Engagement or Marriage: The Case for an Expanded Military Medical Role in Africa,” March, stinet.dtic.mil) We continue to grapple with the opposing forces … positive results from medical deployments enhance our value as an ally and partner. Finally, the collapse of U.S. leadership will unleash conflicts – resulting great power wars Thayer ‘6 [Bradley A., Assistant Professor of Political Science at the University of Minnesota, Duluth, The National Interest, November -December, “In Defense of Primacy”, lexis] A remarkable fact about international politics today…? They may have the desire, but they do not have the capabilities. Let's face it: for the time being, American primacy remains humanity's only practical hope of solving the world's ills. Contention 3—Terrorism— The current focus on hard line counter-terrorism fails. More resources are needed to address the root causes of terrorism. Josh Meyer, LA Times Staff Writer, 3-18-7 (In Terrorism Fight, Diplomacy Gets Shortchanged, http://www.thepeacealliance.org/content/view/307/1/) President Bush, members of Congress … publicizing U. S. military actions. And, current military policy makes terrorism inevitable—the Task Force must place greater reliance on development aid Prof. Thomas P.M. Barnett, Senior Strategic Researcher at the U.S. Naval War College and Senior Managing Director of Enterra Solutions, 6-27-07 (Esquire, “The Americans Have Landed,” http://www.esquire.com/features/africacommand0707) "We could have solved all of East Africa in less … or this road show will close faster than you can say "Black Hawk down." And, African terror networks will gain access to nuclear weapons to use on the US. Dempsey – Director of African Studies @ U.S. Army War College – 2006 (Thomas, Served as a strategic intelligence analyst for Africa at the John F. Kennedy Special Warfare Center and as Chief of Africa Branch for the Defense Intelligence Agency, Counterterrorism in African Failed States: Challenges and Potential Solutions, April, http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pdffiles/pub649.pdf) The threat that terrorist hubs based in … state in which they are located to apprehend or destroy them will be a complex and difficult task. Failure to prevent nuclear terrorism risks extinction and world war three. Sid-Ahmed, Political Analyst, 2K4 (Mohamed, “Extinction!” Al-Ahram Weekly On-Line, August 26 – September 1, http://weekly.ahram.org.eg /2004/705/op5.htm) We have reached a point in human history where … war will be without winners and losers. When nuclear pollution infects the whole planet, we will all be losers. The status quo counter-terror strategy will inevitably fail because it does not address the environment that produces terrorists

Princeton N. Lyman, Adjunct Senior Fellow for Africa Policy Studies at CFR, and J. Stephen Morrison, Director of CSIS Africa Program; Jan/Feb 04 (The Terrorist Threat in Africa., Foreign Affairs, 00157120, Vol. 83, Issue 1, Business Source Complete) ON AUGUST 7, 1998, two massive bombs exploded … forever if U.S. security interests are to be advanced. The plan does this by having the military build public health infrastructure. Other measures are impossible unless the military acts first Robert I. Rotberg, president of the World Peace Foundation and director of the Program on Intrastate Conflict and Conflict Resolution in the Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, 2005 (Battling Terrorism in the Horn of Africa, Rotberg (ed.), More quals: professor of political science and history at MIT; academic vice president at Tufts University; president of Lafayette College; Copyright: The World Peace Foundation and Brookings Institution, p. 6-8) The eradication both of existing terrorist cells and potential … to the region and each of its countries. The Task Force must be expanded to ensure the development of public health infrastructure Robert I. Rotberg, president of the World Peace Foundation and director of the Program on Intrastate Conflict and Conflict Resolution in the Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, 2005 (Battling Terrorism in the Horn of Africa, Rotberg (ed.), More quals: professor of political science and history at MIT; academic vice president at Tufts University; president of Lafayette College; Copyright: The World Peace Foundation and Brookings Institution, p. 21-22) The countries of the greater Horn of Africa … of this crucial and endangered region. Placing a priority on humanitarianism overcomes the current flaws with the Task Force and is critical to win hearts and minds Lischer ‘7 (Sarah, Wake PoliSci Prof, “Winning Hearts and Minds in the Horn of Africa,” Harvard International Review, http://hir.harvard.edu/articles/print.php?article=1481) An examination of the goals and actions …the lessons of the “do no harm” ethic may prove valuable to the Combined Joint Task Force – Horn of Africa. Finally, the issue of public health is empirically uniquely important in winning hearts and minds. Raymond A. Zilinskas, directs the Chemical and Biological Weapons Nonproliferation Program and Tamara R. Chapman, Monterey Institute for International Studies, 1-24-7 (Security and Public Health: How and Why do Public Health Emergencies Affect the Security of a Country?, http://www.nti.org/e_research/e3_84.html) In working to create a new framework of government in a … for nation-building becomes very difficult.

ST. STEVENS PV---AFF Contention I: The Real of Reality The problem with debate today is its unwillingness to confront its own desires. Debaters have been willing to explore the limits of antagonism, but have never thougt to consider the possibioity that there is no neutral space or reality from which antagonism can be derived. Indeed, our perceptions of the world are distorted by what we will call ‘the real’ and excess or lack which eludes both our symbolic representations of the world as well as our imaginary fantasies of how the world should be. Lurking beneath every debate fantasy aboutachieving peace and stability lies the threat of disorder and chaos. Debate misperceives the status of this element of the Real, interpreting it as if it was a hisotorically specific situation that coud be overcome by plans, counterplans, etc. These attempts to understand the Real miss the point: there is a lack inherent in the social edifice itself, there will always be the lurking threat of catastrophe, such is the nature of our being. DALY AND ZIZEK 2k4 (Conversations w/ Zizek; pg. 76-9) “On the question of antagonism…inherent, self-blockade.” Ideology then takes the Real even further, using its symbolic authority to structure the world in a way that furthers the big Other’s ideological control ov erthe population. Popular culture’s best represenation of the functioning of ideology is Alex Proya’s film, Dark City. In the film, symbolic authority is represented as an alien race that is controlling a human city. Though it is not our contention that aliens secretly run our society from the shadows, it is our contention that we are in a state of ideological slumber so long as we refuse to traverse the fantasy of symbolic authority’s very real control of us. McGowan 04 [Todd, Professor of English at U Vermont, Lacan and Contemporary Film “Fighting our Fantasies” 150-153] “But ideology penetrates…exposition of the way ideology functions” PLAN: The United States federal government should increase its public health assistance to topically designated regions to seven tenths of one percent of its Gross National Income. Committing .7% of its GNP to development would greatly increase the credibility of US democracy promotion James Traub, New York Times, 2005 [New York Times 2/13/05] “Why does foreign aid…these basic goods” The crusade for democracy promotion results in extinction Dimitri K. Simes, President of The Nixon Center, 2007 [National Interest Jan/Feb] “And just as the Crusaders…end the crusade. Now.” The performance of our plan and the idea of advocating the impossible may seem sily at first, but this ultimately serves as recognition of the nature of the real; functioning as a direct confrontation with the horrors of catastrophe. This confrontation with catastrophe is the necessary political act because it refuses to accept the ideological coordinate of symbolic authority. Today ideological control is sustained because the threat of catastrophe is endlessly postponed, ensuring the need for symbolic authority to keep us safe from “it.” Instead of succumbing to the ruse of ideology, our plan functions to break free from a life lived under permanent threat by acknowledging our relationship to catastrophe is constituted by desires that are mediated by symbolic authority Zizek 91 [Looking Awry p. 34-36] “Is not the… name of Chernobyl” The affirmative resolves the crisis of ideological control by taking advantage of the political opening that is provided by the lack in symbolic authority, psychoanalytic critique serves political action by exposing that symbolic authority lacks because it desires resistance. Without Psycholanalysis we are caught in a hopeless engagement with politics where we are unable to confront our own investment in symbolic authority, our own desires to be controlled. The perfect example of which is the policy debater’s own desire to be controlled. The perfect example of which is the policy debater constantly resolving the crises and catastrophe round after round without ever considering how ideology produces identity. In other words, vote AFF to “wake up.” McGowan 2004 (Todd, Prof. of English at U. of Vermont, Lacan and Contermporary Film, “Fighting our fantasies”) “for all its ability… symbolic authority’s lack”

To "wake up" in psychoanalytic terms is to traverse the fantasy; the fantasy of stability that keeps subjects in line and ensures no one does anything to really change things. Psychoanalysis allows the subject who has "traversed the fantasy" to realize that fantasy does conceal the real world, but rather that it convinces us that such a place exists. Without psychoanalysis there can't be political change and there can't be freedom from ideological control because traversing the fantasy is the precursor to any break from the subject's investment in symbolic authority. Indeed, there is no authentic political act without a prior traversing of the fantasy. McGowan, 2004 ( Todd, Prof. of English at U. of Vermont, Lacan and Contemporary Film, "Fighting our Fantasies", pg.160-69 ) “when a subject… authors a radical break” This break works because symbolic authority is incomplete McGowan 2k4 [above]

STEPHEN F . AUSTIN---AFF (The first card we read does not have a tag, we just read the full text of the card) Felix Guattari 1996 ["In Order To End the Massacre of the Body", Soft Subversions, pg. 31. ed. Sylvere Lotringer, Semiotext(e).] We can no longer sit idly....expense of our living bodies. The president's backward 19th century approach to family planning undermines the HIV/AIDS struggle as well as terroritorializes our desires through abstinance-only education and the fictional image of a world without sex. Tavrow, 2005 [Paula, director, bixby program in population and reproductive health at ucla, "undermining the aids fight," baltimore sun op-ed, october 18, http://www.actupny.org/ reports/bush_undermining_ed.html] AIDS has hit Africa hard...public health allies in Africa. The ideology of The New Right enforces boundaries which continually subordinate bodies of the oppressed to legal and epistomological regulations which amount to cultural imperialism. Gathii 2006 [gov. George e. Pataki Professor of International Commercial Law at Albany law, faa. James, "exporting culture wars," u.c. davis journal of international law & policy, 13, u.c. davis j. int'l 1. & pol'y 67, 1/n] Fourth, reassertion of the traditional....to equal opportunities with men. The Gag Rule is a manifestation of a political ideology that deprives us of our sexual pleasure and agency. It enables the vicious control and exploitation of all of our orifices. Felix Guattari 1996. ["In Order To End the Massacre of the Body", Soft Subversions, pgs. 29-30. ed. Sylvere Lotringer, Semiotext(e).] No matter how much it proclaims....submissive drudge of a human being Our affirmative seeks to break down normal social identities which produce Judeo-Christian subjectivity and sexual stereotypes. Felix Guattari 1996. ["In Order To End the Massacre of the Body", Soft Subversions, pgs. 32-33. ed. Sylvere Lotringer, Semiotext(e).] This desire for a fundamental liberation....prisons, high schools, buses, etc. WE DEMAND THAT THE UNITED STATES FEDERAL GOVERNMENT INCREASE MONETARY ASSISTANCE TO FAMILY PLANNING CLINICS THAT PROVIDE ABORTIONS AND CONTRACEPTIVES TO THE GENERAL PUBLIC AND REPEAL THE MEXICO CITY POLICY AS WELL AS ANY OTHER POLICIES THAT IMPEDE THIS PROCESS. WE RESERVE THE RIGHT TO CLARIFY. Through challenging this instance of domination of the body, we are challenging the Judeo-Christian fundamentalism that exploits and represses the desires of those they find immoral. We are the first step in challenging the system of subordination. Felix Guattari 1996. ["In Order To End the Massacre of the Body", Soft Subversions, pgs. 35-36. ed. Sylvere Lotringer, Semiotext(e).] Obviously we are aware of the....reduce us all to the level of dogs. We have to make strategic concessions in order to find a space to be creative in and to find new ways of existing, rather than trying to demolish the old world. The alternative to this is basically a suicidal collapse due to the fact that we would reject everything. Deleuze and Guattari 1980 [A Thousand Plateaus, 160-161] You have to keep enough of the....plugged into other collective machines

Our demand disrupts the closed circle of domination by showing that the dominators do not posess power and that collaboration is possible. Only through challenging the sexually suffocating policies set forth by this fundamentalist regime, and thus the specific picture of power painted by groups of domination can we, groups functionally subordinated, stop the pleasure from being taken out of our sex and the joy from our masturbation. White, B.A. Radcliffe College and J.D. Harvard Law School, 1992 [Lucie E., "The Faces of Otherness", Cornell Law Review, September] The second reason that Foucault's....the microdynamics of everyday life.

STONEMAN DOUGLAS WF-- AFF Plan: The United States Federal Government should substantially increase its public health assistance to SSA by increasing its funding to abortion services by re-framing current legislation concerning the Mexico City Policy (AKA the Global Gag Rule) in such to show no vested interest in the future. Observation 1: the child fucks us up America is totally beholden to the image of a child. Berlant 97 (Prof, of English the Queen of America goes to Washington) The conditions of American citizenship are always changing. Emphasizing the claim to the pure protection of the identity form that American national membership is supposed to provide. The image of the child works to restricts politics to the terms of Reproductive Futurism. Edelman 04 (Lee No future: Queen theorey) Commited to the well-being of those least able to care for themselves, and specifically as the “defender of children, on issues like education and drugs”…queerness attains its ethical value preciously insofar as it accedes to that place, accepting its figural status as resistance to the viability of the social while insisting on the inextricability of such resistance from every social structure. The Global Gag Rule is an example of their compromise politics. It forces the American image of a child unto SSA by homologizing motherhood- forcing a woman to die for the child. Hanigsberg, Associate in Law at Columbia of law, 1995 (Julia, Michigan Journal of gender and law, November) The legal and political tendency to homologize pregnancy and motherhood that I have described is problematic because it produces legal consequences that hold women to a certain standard of motherhood before they have even give birth. Homologizing pregnancy with motherhood defined as an absolute moral and social duty is thus clearly detrimental to women.

Observation 2: Fuck Dem children Reproductive Futurism keeps us beholder to the Child this ideology obligates us to identify and root cut all those individuals who are perceived to threaten the endless repetition of the social order. Edelman ’04 (lee, no future Queen) The Child, in the historical epoch of our current epistemological regime, is the figure for this compulsory investment in the misrecognition of figure. It takes its place on the social stage like every adorable Annie gathering her limitless funds of pluck to stick out her chin/ and grin..those who support the legal availability of abortion. The isn’t an empty threat of violence. Reproductive furturism forces us to indentify the queer and this constant search results in real violence against those who are a threat to the child. Edelmon ’04 (lee, no future: queer theory) On October 12, 1998-the evening of the death of Matthew Shepard, a twenty-one-year old gay man then enrolled at the University of Wyoming who was lured from a bar by two straight men and taken in the dark to a deserted spot where he was savagely beaten, pistol-whipped, and then tied to a wooden…the burden of the radically negative force that sin homosexuality names. Observation 3: Hug a Queer We need to emsuare the refusal to intergrate into the social order. Over negativity in demands against the future effectively destroys the replication of the social order Edelman ‘04/ same cite Rather rejecting, with liberal discourse, this ascription of negativity to the queer…the rest of this book attempts to explain the implications of this assertion, but first, let me sketch some connections between politics of the sign by establishing the psychoanalytic context within which my argument takes shape. We should embrace the stigmazation of the queers. We only advocate abortion which allows us to expose the violence in the symbolic Order and end the hold of the Child Edelman ‘04 Bernard Law, the former cardinal of Boston, mistaking for maybe understanding too well) the degree of authority bestowed on him by the significance of his patronymic…And so what is queerest about us, queerest within us, and queerest despite us is this willingness to insist intransitibely to insist that the future stop here.

We should become sinthomosexuals, which will make us ourselves and allow us to embrace the stigmization. By soing this, we ensure that we don’t act in a futurist mindset and keep tomorrow a day away Edelman ‘04 Cathy, eppie, Tiny Tim, the constantly multiplying children of Eve, with the hopes that get put in their outstretched hands and the dreams that get read in their always wide eyes…and another corpse will be left like a mangled scarecrow to frighten the birds who are gathering now, who are beating their wings, and who, like the drive, keep on coming.

WAYZATA BS---AFF Contention one Disease surveillance if failing – lack of resources creates an ineffective system Zinsstaag et al 07 The peak of highly pathenogenic avian influenza… and communication programs Africa is where the next outbreak will occur – complex ecological and social factors contribute to the spread Shears 00 center for medical microbiology The realization during the 1990’s yet…. Recent detailed studies ADV 1: emerging diseases New disease strands are emerging because of animals carrying pathogens- current surveillance not adequate until after outbreak National institute of allergy and infectious diseases 4/16/06 Despite remarkable advances in medical research… transition from animal to human hosts. And emerging and infectious diseases have killed more people than famine, war, accidents or crime Halldor steffansson, “infectious diseases and bioweapons” 2003 Microorganisms parasites, bacteria, and viruses… famine, war, accidents or crime. Disease monitoring in ssa is key to stemming disease spread worldwide Us dept of state 07- “Africa: old and new emerging diseases” In the days before high speed travel… and help ourselves here. Independently, surveillance in ssa is insufficient to contain bird flu—ssa is a key region to prevent spread and mutation Salaam blyther- 06 Global disease surveillance… transmitted to and between humans Additionally recent mutations found in avian flu virus make human-to-human transmission highly possible—nature news 06 “alarms rising over bird flu mutations” Scientists studying virus samples…human-to-human transmission on their own A bird flu pandemic would be accompany mass death – bigger threat than aids-- abs news 05 It would kill a billion people worldwide…. Affecting human beings And cdc is key to stimulating growth of disease surveillance networds and creating new methods to predict disease outbreaks dhhs 02 Stimulated in part by the aids pandemic…under immunization in a given area. Creating more gdd centers key to disease surveillance its has been successful china Thailand Nicaragua Us dept of state 07 When aids arose in western Africa… from country to country ADV 2 Bioterror—

Access to bioweapons is easier and makes terrorist attacks more likely. Conventional attacks take more time. bw attacks are easier. Njuguna 05 Terrorist groups exist to promote… remain a possible biological weapon Claims that terrorists don't have weapons are false—they can get he tech form multiple sources – even a small scale attack will lead to impacts Tucker 01 Although it is unlikely… undermining trust in the government Bio weapons –risk extinction- most likely scenario Ochs 02 Of all of the weapons of mass destruction .. Highest of all crimes Disease surveillance programs are critical to curtailing the impacts of a bioterror attack Njuguna 05Infectious diseases can undermine the security… monitor bioweapons as well. Disease surveillance will improve health infrastructure and deter bioterroroism—even if the plan isn’t effective, we still save 100’s of millions—jones 10/1/06 But, in the face of danger as grave as this… no more urgent challenge The cc possesses unique capabililtes for surveillance and preventing bioattacks—its speed and tech are unmatched globally—Naylor 03 For comparative purposes….infectious outbreak is unmatched globally. ADV 3: soft power Commitment to improving public health abroad key to reverse neg perceptions of the us and sustain soft power leadership Benatar and fox- 5 Just as America has sought… potential for global health Surveillance is critical --to us softpower—empirical surveillance efforts have promoted positive relationships--- smolinski hamburg and lederburg 03 Amelioration of major health risks and problems… international security interests Pub diplomacy key to hard power—melissen 05 Third, public diplomacy is often portrayed…prevention or military intervention The collapse of us hard power will unleash conflicts- resulting in great power wars—Thayer 06 A remarkable fact about international… none even comes close Collapse in heg results in a apolar power vacuum ride with econ collapse mass terror and nuc war—ferguson 04 Critics of us global dominance… not-so-new world disorder Us must leas efforts to assist surveillance in developing nations to create global participation—national academies news 3/18/03 The nation should take decisive steps… the same landscape

Us imperialism is inevitable.. its only a question of whether we use it to hurt other countries ot help them our.. as a privileged society, we have the responsibility to prevent global health problems. Only the plan can expose our position of privileged and create change--- benatar and fox 05 Current and widening disparities…they expect of others

THE UNDERVIEW The 1ac is in a policy framework—criticisms are irrelevant and have no impact – they don’t function as a reason to reject the plan Litowitz 97 Now there is nothing wrong…more subtle and indirect way Realism is inevitable – we must learn to work within its structure Mearsheimer 01 The optimists claim that security… each region at peace Plan text: The united states federal government should substantially increase finding for the centers for disease control global disease detection program to enable expansion of global disease detection centers in topically designated areas.

WDM VALLEY EV/HR---AFF Contention 1: Inherency Recent TRIPS-plus measures and trade agreements have strengthened the power of Big Pharma and will prevent access to generic ARVs Westerhaus and Castro-06 (Michael and Arachu, Plos Medicine-“How Do Intellectual Property Law and International Trade Agreements Affect Access to Antiretroviral Therapy”, Aug 6, http://medicine.plosjournals.org/perlserv/?request=getdocument&doi=10.1371%2Fjournal.pmed.0030332&ct=1) Inexpensive drugs are out of reach of developing countries because of a fear of devastating sanctions Benvenisti and Downs-05 (Eyal and George W., Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law, “Distributive Politics and International Institutions: The Case of Drugs”) The current neoliberal system protects the profits of the West over lives in developing countries Boone and Batsell-01 (Catherine and Jake, Africa Today-“Politics and AIDS in Africa: Research Agendas in Political Science and International Relations”, Volume 48, No. 2, pp.3-33, summer, Project Muse) Thus the plan: The United States federal government should authorize the use of the subject matter of patents regarding treatment for and prevention of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome without the authorization of the right holder for use in sub-Saharan Africa. Contention 2: The HIV/AIDS Pandemic Intellectual property rights have prevented full coverage and have resulted in high ARV prices Africa Action-07 (Stephanie Parker, Big Pharma and Big Profits: Denying Access to Aids Medication, August, http://www.africaaction.org/resources/docs/BigPharmaBigProfits0807.pdf) Sub-Saharan Africa is most affected by the HIV/AIDS crisis-2 million have been killed in the past year Avert, International Aids Charity,-07 (“HIV and AIDS in Africa” July 31, http://www.avert.org/aafrica.htm) Increased ARV usage is effective at reducing mortality and stigma from HIV/AIDS Health Link Worldwide-06 (“HIV and AIDS-Background Reading” http://www.healthlink.org.uk/projects/hiv/article02.html) ARV prices decrease with the removal of patent protection-empirically proven Wise-06 (Jacqui, “Access to AIDS medicines stumbles on trade rules” Bulletin of the World Health Organization, v. 84, n.5 ) High ARV prices make donations the only viable solution in the status quo, but this is unsustainable- strengthening developing countries capacity to manufacture generic drugs is the key Guilloux and Moon-01 (Alain and Suerie, Medecins Sans Frontieres, Hidden Price Tags: Disease-Specific Drug Donations: Costs and Alternatives, February, http://www.accessmedmsf.org/upload/ReportsandPublications/2092002185426/4-3.pdf) Contention 3: Neoliberalism US patent protection have created a political environment of neoliberalism where the profits of pharmaceutical companies are valued over the suffering of patients in developing countries Useche and Cabezas, 2005 (Bernardo, Prof. at the University of Texas's school of public health, Amalia, Prof. at the University of California's school of women's rights. "The Vicious Cycle of AIDS, Poverty, and Neoliberalism" http://americas.irc-online.org/pdf/reports/0512vicious.pdf ) TRIPS is the root cause of neoliberalism within intellectual property rights Coombe-03 (Rosemary, Canada Research Scholar in Law, Communication and Cultural Studies York University, Companion Guide to Law and Society- “Commodity Culture, Private Censorship, Branded Environments, and Global Trade Politics: Intellectual Property as a Topic of Law and Society Research, http://www.yorku.ca/rcoombe/publications/Austinpaper.PDF) Neoliberalism is the root cause of HIV/AIDS-it maintains poverty in developing countries Useche and Cabezas, 2005 (Bernardo, Prof. at the University of Texas's school of public health, Amalia, Prof. at the University of California's school of women's rights. "The Vicious Cycle of AIDS, Poverty, and Neoliberalism" http://americas.irc-online.org/pdf/reports/0512vicious.pdf )

Neoliberalism is the struggle to preserve the status quo-we destroy the other to maintain our own power. This increases the chance of our own collective suicide. Santos-03 (Boaventura de Sousa, Prof. at the University of Columbia, “Collective Suicide?”, Bad Subjects. Issue #63) US deviance from IPR would allow other countries violate patent laws Resnik and Deville-02 (David B. and Kenneth A. Professors at East Carolina University, “Bioterrorism and Patent Rights: “Compulsory Licensure” and the Case of Cipro”, Project Muse) The shift to neoliberalism has been masked but can be combated through the action of state and social institutions Bourdieu-98 (Pierre, Le Monde Diplomatique-‘ Utopia of Endless Exploitation-Essence of Neoliberalism’ http://mondediplo.com/1998/12/08bourdieu) Political reform has empirically been successful at challenging entrenched systems like neoliberalism McChesney-99 (Robert W., Professor of Communications at the University of Illinois, Global Policy Forum, Monthly Review-“Noam Chomsky and the Struggle against Neoliberalism”, http://www.globalpolicy.org/globaliz/econ/chmsky99.htm) State action is key-it is best positioned to challenge neoliberalism for many reasons Graf-95 (William, Professor of Geography at the University of South Carolina, Socialist Register “THE STATE IN THE THIRD WORLD”, http://socialistregister.com/socialistregister.com/files/SR_1995_Graf.pdf) Defenses of neoliberalism are empirically denied-neoliberalism has failed many times in developing countries and has caused an apocalyptic situation in sub-Saharan Africa Caffentzis-02 (George, Alternatives-Turkish Journal of International Relations- “Neoliberalism in Africa, Apocalyptic Failures and Business as Usual Practices”) Defenses of neoliberalism are false-they offer only circular logic and an infallible religious faith in the free market McChesney-99 (Robert W., Professor of Communications at the University of Illinois, Global Policy Forum, Monthly Review-“Noam Chomsky and the Struggle against Neoliberalism”, http://www.globalpolicy.org/globaliz/econ/chmsky99.htm)

WESTMINSTER AJ AND AS---AFF

Contention One: Relations A US military presence in Africa is inevitable. The US Africa Command will be operational by October Rear Admiral Richard Moeller. Executive Director of US Africa Command Transition Team. 7/10/07. “US Africa Command” http://www.eucom.mil/africom/ On February 6th, 2007,…... AFRICOM is scheduled to have an initial operating capability by October 2007, and be fully operational by October 2008.

However, this command won’t help U.S.-African relations because its humanitarian focus is too transparent and not supported enough by African governments Africa News. 8/1/07. “Africa: Questioning Africom” No Author Lexis.

In October 2008, the United States Africa Command (AFRICOM) will be 'stood up' as a…. For a full archive and other resources, see http://www.africafocus.org

And, Current humanitarian military operations are too short term to effectively address public health problems Pruden 6 (Lieutenant Commander, Medical Service Corps, United States Navy; Should Medical Humanitarian and Civic Assistance Activities Focus on Building Public Health Capacity in Africa to Better Influence Theater Security Cooperation Objectives?; A paper submitted to the Faculty of the Naval War College; stinet)

DSCA was able to provide some data for EUCOM covering fiscal years 2000 through 2004. These reports specified that …… and regional stability, individual MEDCAP teams have minimal impact.”11

U.S. African relations prevent extinction – 3 scenarios: A. Terrorism Terrorism is increasing throughout Africa and Africa is a key source of funding for global networks

Lyman et al. 04. (Princeton N., former U.S. Ambassador to South Africa and Nigeria; Ralph Bunche, Senior Fellow and Dir. of Africa Policy Studies @ Council for Foreign Relations; J. Stephen Morrison, Dir. of Africa Program @ CSIS, “The Terrorist Threat in Africa”, Foreign Affairs, January-February, pg. 75, lexis) At the same time, however, the United States has failed to recognize the existence of other, less …. Africa cannot be kept at the back of the queue forever if U.S. security interests are to be advanced.

Effective counterterrorism cooperation requires maintaining stable partnerships with African governments Johnson 06 - formerly Commander in Chief Allied Forces, Southern Europe (CINCSOUTH) and Commander, U.S. Naval Forces, Europe (COMUSNAVEUR). (Gregory, “The “Long War” Demands Proactive Engagement in Africa”, October 2, http://forums.csis.org/africa/?p=8)

The long war can be won. But to facilitate its success and keep the U.S. focused for an extended period of time – decades – will require a more coordinated effort that effectively brings together the many disparate programs currently underway amongst …We have been presented an uncommon chance to proactively gain a step in the long war effort to enhance America’s twenty-first century security – let’s not miss it.

These organizations will gain access to nuclear weapons to be used against the US Dempsey, 6 (Thomas, Director of African Studies @ U.S. Army War College and served as a strategic intelligence analyst for Africa at the John F. Kennedy Special Warfare Center and as Chief of Africa Branch for the Defense Intelligence Agency, Counterterrorism in African Failed States: Challenges and Potential Solutions, April, http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pdffiles/pub649.pdf)

Raising the Stakes:The Nuclear Dimension of the Terrorist Threat. … the failed state in which they are located to apprehend or destroy them will be a complex and difficult task.

A nuclear attack against the US would result in a lash-out killing millions Easterbrook, 1 (Greg, Fellow at the Brookings Institute, CNN, “America's New War: Nuclear Threats,” 11-1-2001, http://transcripts.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0111/01/gal.00.html)

EASTERBROOK: Well, what held through the Cold War, when the United States and Russia had thousands of nuclear weapons pointed at each other, what held each side back was the fact that…And that -- it is very much in the interest the Muslim peoples of the world that atomic weapons be kept out of the hands of Islamic terrorists, in addition to being in our interests.

Nuclear terrorism causes extinction Sid-Ahmed, 4 (Mohamed, Managing Editor for Al-Ahali, “Extinction!” August 26-September 1, Issue no. 705, http://weekly.ahram.org.eg/2004/705/op5.htm)

A nuclear attack by terrorists will be much more critical than Hiroshima and Nagazaki, even if -- and this is far from certain -- the weapons used are … This could lead to a third world war, from which no one will emerge victorious. Unlike a conventional war which ends when one side triumphs over another, this war will be without winners and losers. When nuclear pollution infects the whole planet, we will all be losers.

B. Civil military relations U.S. military relations with Africa are vital to preventing state collapse, and solving proliferation, terrorism, conflict, disease, and environmental threats Steven Metz, Research Professor of National Security Affairs in the Strategic Studies Institute, 2k (REFINING AMERICAN STRATEGY IN AFRICA, http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pdffiles/pub199.pdf) The tendency is thus to relegate Africa to the periphery of American strategy, to accord it our second-best efforts, or to ignore it entirely. 4 But to do so risks letting substantial opportunities fade away. …. The Clinton administration has laid the foundation for success. To seize the region’s opportunities, this must now be refined. The U. S. military— particularly the Army—can play a vital part.

Civil military relations is vital to preventing global coups and democratic backsliding Perry, 1996 (William, former secretary of defense, Federal News Service, 5/13, lexis)

Democracy is learned behavior. Many nations today have democracies that exist on paper, but in fact are extremely fragile. …, every military in the world looks to the U.S. armed forces as the model to be emulated. That is a valuable bit of leverage, and we can put it to use creatively in our preventive defense strategy.

Coups risk global nuclear wars Cimbala, 1998 (Stephen, professor of political science at Penn State, The Past and Future of Nuclear Deterrence, p. 21)

In particular, the quality of political regimes and the extent to which they successfully hold their military establishments accountable … abetted by weapons of mass destruction.

Global democratic consolidation is essential to prevent many scenarios for war and extinction. Diamond, 95 (Larry Diamond, senior fellow at the Hoover Institution, December 1995, Promoting Democracy in the 1990s, http://wwics.si.edu/subsites/ccpdc/pubs/di/1.htm) OTHER THREATS This hardly exhausts the lists of threats to our security and well-being in the coming years and decades. In the former Yugoslavia nationalist aggression tears at the stability of Europe and could easily spread…. They are better bets to honor international treaties since they value legal obligations and because their openness makes it much more difficult to breach agreements in secret. Precisely because, within their own borders, they respect competition, civil liberties, property rights, and the rule of law, democracies are the only reliable foundation on which a new world order of international security and prosperity can be built.

Professionalization of African militaries is vital to preventing state collapse Terry Carroll 2001 (Col. US Army; US Army War College Strategy Research Project, Engagement of Marraige: The Case for an Expanded Military Medical Role In Africa; March 27; http://www.stormingmedia.us/98/9840/A984093.html)

34 Militarily, the continent's conflict prevention, management and resolution depend on apolitical, professional and accountable forces. … both humanitarian and economic, by creating stability and conditions for national growth and development.

State failure leads to massive destabilizing migrations, contagious disease spread and proliferation to terrorists and rogue nations culminating in nuclear war The African Studies Centre et al 2K3 (The Transnational Institute, The Center of Social Studies, Coimbra University, and The Peace Research Center – CIP-FUHEM, “Failed and Collapsed States in the International System,” December, found at: http://www.globalpolicy.org/nations/sovereign/failed/2003/12failedcollapsedstates.pdf) In the malign scenario of global developments the number of collapsed states would grow significantly. This would mean that several more countries in the world could not be held to account for respecting international agreements in various fields, …Third World, i.e. the European states - could be faced with direct attacks on their national security. C. Hegemony Stable military relationships with Africa are vital to preventing the collapse of failed states and sustaining U.S. hegemony globally Hall, Colonel in the USAF and US Joint forces command, 03 (Brian, "Air Expeditionary Access The African Connection", http://www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil/airchronicles/apj/apj03/fal03/hall.html#hall) The NSS notes that, "together with our European allies, we must help strengthen Africa's fragile states, help build indigenous capability to … greatest concern for the projection of military power to Africa is establishing select sites that form the greatest foothold once the boots hit the ground.11

US leadership solves all other impacts – collapse of primacy results in great power wars Thayer, 6 (Bradley A., Assistant Professor of Political Science at the University of Minnesota, Duluth, The National Interest, November -December, “In Defense of Primacy”, lexis)

A remarkable fact about international politics today--in a world where American primacy is clearly and unambiguously on display--is that … They may have the desire, but they do not have the capabilities. Let's face it: for the time being, American primacy remains humanity's only practical hope of solving the world's ills.

This could result in global nuclear conflicts in every region of the world Kagan, 07 - senior fellow at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (Robert, “End of Dreams, Return of History”, 7/19, http://www.realclearpolitics.com/articles/2007/07/end_of_dreams_return_of_histor.html)

This is a good thing, and it should continue to be a primary goal of American foreign policy to perpetuate this relatively benign international configuration of power.. … predominance into the future, no one should imagine that a reduction of American power or a retraction of American influence and global involvement will provide an easier path.

Plan: The Department of Defense should substantially expand Medical Conflagration exercises by setting up four regional hubs in Central, West, East and Southern Africa for conducting one Medical Conflagration exercise per year in each hub.

Contention 2: Solvency Expanding Medflag to one exercise per year in each of Africa’s subregions creates sustainable military humanitarianism Henk 98 (Dan, member of USAF Institute for National Security Studies and professor of African Affairs at USMA/Army War College, March, “Uncharted Paths, Uncertain Vision: US Military Involvements in sub-Saharan Africa in the Wake of the Cold War, http://www.usafa.af.mil/df/ inss/OCP/ocp18.pdf, March 1998)

Within the U.S. Government, security assistance programs for African countries should not be subject to the undue influence of country advocates with particular clout. …6 attenuate local suffering and could provide appropriate care and warning in the early stages of epidemics.77

Increasing the frequency and duration of MEDFlags creates sustainable, long term results – sustained presence is necessary to understand specific public health problems Pruden 6 (Paul W., Lieutenant Commander, Medical Service Corps, United States Navy, “Should Medical Humanitarian and Civic Assistance Activities Focus on Building Public Health Capacity in Africa to Better Influence Theater Security Cooperation Objectives?”, A paper submitted to the Faculty of the Naval War College in partial satisfaction of the requirements of the Department of Joint Military Operations., 2/13/06, http://stinet.dtic.mil/oai/oai?&verb=getRecord&metadataPrefix=html&identifier=ADA463935)

Another approach might be to establish habitual relationships between U.S. military medical units and African communities in order to provide desired continuity. … with an appropriate supporting network, could provide sustained positive impact. EUCOM should investigate exporting such a training package to select communities.

Expanding Medflag is key - military to military exercises will only have a positive impact if they are focused on humanitarianism, which uniquely resonates with African governments and will spill over to other aspects of foreign policy. Henk 98 (Dan, member of USAF Institute for National Security Studies and professor of African Affairs at USMA/Army War College, March, “Uncharted Paths, Uncertain Vision: US Military Involvements in sub-Saharan Africa in the Wake of the Cold War, http://www.usafa.af.mil/df/inss/OCP/ocp18.pdf, March 1998)

MEDFLAGs. In 1987, the Joint Chiefs of Staff directed that the EUCOM initiate a series of medical exercises with African countries. … It builds precisely the kind of relationships that the United States would want in all its regional involvements.

Medflag already has the trust of African governments and has achieved a level of sophistication unmatched by any other exercise. Military cooperation on addressing diseases that effect the community is key to increasing understanding between the US and African governments Fox ’98 (C. William, M.D., Command Surgeon – Joint Readiness Training Center, “Phantom Warriors”, Parameters, Winter, http://www.carlisle.army.mil/USAWC/PARAMETERS/97winter/fox.htm) Addressing the root causes of regional health problems in Africa should become a higher priority for our national security posture and the corresponding national military strategy… This particular outcome markedly improved the ability of the United States and host-nation military medical staffs to plan for cooperative future efforts. MEDFLAGs demonstrated on a national scale what might be achieved by similar cooperative efforts involving entire subregions.

Joint military MEDFLAG exercises can provide experience for African militaries in responding to public health crisis – this reduces the need for future U.S. intervention and can prevent regional crises Fox 1998 (C. William, M.D., Command Surgeon – Joint Readiness Training Center, “Phantom Warriors”, Parameters, Winter, http://www.carlisle.army.mil/USAWC/PARAMETERS/97winter/fox.htm) Increasing US disease surveillance efforts should be tied to an increase in exercises of the scope and capability of the 1994 and 1995 MEDFLAG series. … find a way to defend against a threat that could eradicate mankind. It is clearly in the national interest to do so. History is scathingly unkind to those who fail to rise to such challenges.

The public health capacity created by Medflag creates long term regional stability Pruden 2006 (Should Medical Humanitarian and Civic Assistance Activities Focus on Building Public Health Capacity in Africa to Better Influence Theater Security Cooperation Objectives?; Lieutenant Commander, Medical Service Corps, United States Navy; A paper submitted to the Faculty of the Naval War College; Should Medical Humanitarian and Civic Assistance Activities Focus on Building Public Health Capacity in Africa to Better Influence Theater Security Cooperation Objectives?)

Section 401 of Title 10 U.S.C., DOD Directive 2205.2 and DOD Instruction 2205.3 authorize U.S. military forces to conduct such Humanitarian and Civic Assistance …EUCOM encourage the development of joint doctrine to guide future design, planning, and execution of HCA activities aimed at improving public health.

Medical civic action programs bolster cooperative civil military relations globally and generate goodwill toward the US Johnson, U.S. Army Dental Corps Colonel, 1999 (William C., “Medical Civic Action Programs, U.S. Foreign Policy Tool” U.S. Army War College, 1999, http://stinet.dtic.mil/oai/oai?&verb=getRecord&metadataPrefix=html&identifier=ADA363851, pg 13, accessed on July 2, 2007)

The U.S. military can serve as a role model for other countries. Many nations do not share the same relationship our U.S. military has with the U.S. … to improve relations with other nations.

Expanding MEDFLAG operations in Africa sends a crucial signal of U.S. international engagement by demonstrating humanitarian goodwill. This is key to all other US strategic interests Carroll, 1 (Colonel Terry, “Engagement or Marriage: The Case for an Expanded Military Medical Role in Africa”, Army War College Strategy Report, http://www.stormingmedia.us/98/9840/A984093.html)

We live in an era of change. In this unprecedented age, everyone thinks themselves correct in their estimates, plans and prognostications. After all, nothing exists to prove … Engage medically, particularly in Africa, where the threats of disease and epidemic are greatest - not only to the U.S., but the entire globe.

WESTWOOD DB---AFF Plan: THE UNITED STATES FEDERAL GOVERNMENT SHOULD SUBSTANTIALLY INCREASE ITS PUBLIC HEALTH ASSISTANCE BY GUARANTEEING FUNDING AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE ‘WATER FOR THE POOR ACT OF 2005’ FOR SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA. Contention 1 is Inherency The Water for the Poor Act has currently received $200 million. However, only $10 million reached its intended destination of Sub-Saharan Africa Michael Campana, Director of Water and Watersheds at Arizona State Univesity, 5/19/2007, http://aquadoc.typepad.com/waterwired/2007/05/water_as_a_fore.html. [This post will … not a Water for the War act.] The world is at a tipping point – water scarcity is exacerbated by a number of global trends – it makes all problems more likely C.S.I.S., 5 Center for Strategic Int’l Studies – Sandia National Laboratory [“Global Water Futures: Addressing Our Global Water Future,” 9/30/05, White Paper, http://www.sandia.gov/water/docs/CSIS-SNL_OGWF_9-28-05.PDF] [THEME ONE: Already at crisis … affecting global water supply and demand.] Contention 2 is Disease Africa south of the Sahara is being devastated by waterborne diseases – it is responsible for 80% of all diseases Lenntech, 7- Waterweb – online water database, March 9, Waterweb, (http://www.lenntech.com/Waterbornediseases/waterborne-diseases.htm, P1) Dimension of the problem … in Africa south of the Sahara (*). Water borne diseases are the world’s number 1 killer – 4000 kids every day, 3.4 million people a year Berman, 5 Science and Medicine Correspondent [Jessica, 17 March, WHO: Waterborne Disease is World's Leading Killer, Washington, http://www.voanews.com/english/archive/2005-03/2005-03-17voa34.cfm?CFID=93767752&CFTOKEN=55192494] The World Health … sick individuals. Epidemics will cause human extinction – they are fast and historically likely Discover, 2k [“Twenty Ways the World Could End” by Corey Powell in Discover Magazine, October 2000, http://discovermagazine.com/2000/oct/featworld] If Earth doesn't do … New World. Empirically, USAID water and sanitation projects have rendered success—Iraq proves IRC, 5 (specialists of fields of importance to the water and sanitation sector, including information science, information and communication technology, engineering, sociology, anthropology, economics, and journalism, “Iraq: USAID says 11.8 million will benefit from water projects,” http://www.irc.nl/page/16588) USAID says that …Baghdad's population. Clean water is better than any vaccine for Africa Watkins, 6 lead author of the UN Human Development Report Kevin, Africa Focus, Africa: Water, Health, and Development, Nov 24, http://www.africa.upenn.edu/afrfocus/afrfocus112406.html Women, Water and Development … glass of clean water. Clean water solves for infected persons too – means it prevents and improves those lives that are otherwise lost in the current water quagmire Okong'o, 6 - Mshale Senior Correspondent [Edwin, 12/01/2006[, ‘Magic’ in a Packet Brings Safe Drinking Water to Kenyans, http://www.mshale.com/article.cfm?articleID=1328] Clean drinking …embark on the program. Contention 3 is Poverty Poverty in Africa south of the Sahara is inevitable absent water reform – water scarcity and inequitable water systems are the root cause of impoverished conditions Barker , 2k (Randolph economist at the International Water Management Institute, with Barbara van Koppen, Department of Irrigation and Soil and Water Conservation at Wageningen Agricultural University, and Tushaar Shah, Principal

Researcher at the International Water Management Institute, “A global perspective on water scarcity and poverty: Achievements and challenges for water resources management”, IWMI, 2k, http://www.iwmi.cgiar.org/pubs/WWVisn/WSandPov.htm) Poverty eradication … production is about 5 percent. Poverty is structural violence at its worst, killing 18 million people a year, compared to around 100,000 a year in armed conflict. Moreover, structural violence is inextricably related to the causes of war and is the root of all conflict Gilligan, 1996 (James, Professor of Psychiatry at the Harvard Medical School and Director of the Center for the Study of Violence, p. 195-96) The deadliest form … inextricably related to each other, as cause to effect. Absent a transition away from this lens of political calculation, where large-scale war is our foremost concern make extinction inevitable. We must acknowledge our non-human enemies, such as poverty and water pollution to target violence at its root. Shallow suppression of social conflicts is rendered insufficient and only perpetuates conflict on a greater scale Sandy and Perkins, 2 (Leo R. veteran of the U.S. Navy and an active member of Veterans for Peace, Inc., co founder of Peace Studies at Plymouth State College and at Rivier College, Ray; teaches philosophy at Plymouth State College, The Nature of Peace and Its Implications for Peace Education”, Online journal of peace and conflict resolution, Issue 4.2, Spring 02, http://www.trinstitute.org/ojpcr/4_2natp.htm Any attempt to articulate … underlying causes of conflict that produce violence" (Woolman, 1985, p.8). Water access is the lynchpin to eliminating poverty globally. Without it, all other efforts are doomed to fail. C.S.I.S., 5 Center for Strategic Int’l Studies – Sandia National Laboratory [“Global Water Futures: Addressing Our Global Water Future,” 9/30/05, White Paper, http://www.sandia.gov/water/docs/CSIS-SNL_OGWF_9-28-05.PDF] Water as a U.S. … compelling in the future. Contention 4 is Gender Lack of clean water access subjugates womyn to the role of fetchers – they spend their lives gathering water and nothing else – only by taking steps to solve for water scarcity can we open space for gender equality IRIN, 7 integrated Regional Information networks [Running Dry: the humanitarian impact of the global water crisis, http://www.irinnews.org/InDepthMain.aspx?InDepthId=13&ReportId=61125] “The world’s water resources …guaranteed the right to actively participate in shaping water-management policy. This burden of lack of clean water access condemns womyn to a life of disease, lack of opportunities and virtual slavery— empowerment of African womyn is uniquely key to liberate Africa from other problems Unicef, 5 [“Women, Water and Hygiene are key to change in Africa”, Sep. 14 http://www.unicef.org/media/media_28260.html] The consequences … child mortality and low productivity." The subjugation of womyn must be rejected or we risk extinction of humanity—feminist nature of thought can transform militaristic institutions. Womyn empowerment is vital to solve any conflict Steans, 98 Senior Lecturer, International Relations Theory, University of Birmingham [Jill, Gender and International Relations: An Introduction, p. 102-103] In this view, not only … feminist 'revisions' are the subject of chapter 5. Negative Peace is not enough—advancing rights protections for gender are vital to transforming social norms that make war inevitable Bunch, 3 Executive Director of the Center for Women's Global Leadership at Douglass College, Rutgers, (Charlotte, Canadian Woman Studies 22 n.2, Fall/Winter 2002-2003, firstsearch) First, what do we mean by … deep changes in the war system. (10-11)

Water solutions offer womyn an opportunity to overcome gender disparities—water management is necessary for womyn to challenge social and cultural norms C.S.I.S. , 5 Center for Strategic Int’l Studies – Sandia National Laboratory [“Global Water Futures: Addressing Our Global Water Future,” 9/30/05, White Paper, http://www.sandia.gov/water/docs/CSIS-SNL_OGWF_9-28-05.PDF] Gender Equality Involving … undoubtedly lead to sustainable solutions (Faure 2003). Contention 5 is Solvency The Water for the Poor Act would enact a thought-out strategy that specifically addresses water security, effective sanitation programs, development efforts. Additionally, the plan would involve an alignment and enhancement of existing water and sanitation initiatives. Wilson Center. Event Summary. 2/14/06. “Next Steps for The Senator Paul Simon Water for the Poor Act (VIDEO)” http://www.wilsoncenter.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=events.event_summary&event_id=168642 "Water is crucial for life, but … extend the story, [and] look creatively” in future endeavors. Finally, the United States is vital to find a global solution to water shortages – a commitment would help to coordinate key agencies that take advantage of unique U.S. knowledge – and any other actor won’t be able to coordinate other governments, US agencies, and NGO’s to insure sustainable success. C.S.I.S. 05 Center for Strategic Int’l Studies – Sandia National Laboratory [“Global Water Futures: Addressing Our Global Water Future,” 9/30/05, White Paper, http://www.sandia.gov/water/docs/CSIS-SNL_OGWF_9-28-05.PDF] As the United States faces …maintain peace and prosperity at home and abroad

WICHITA EAST AL--AFF Contention One: Inherency The Global Gag Rule prevents foreign family planning organizations that provide abortions from getting US funding, crippling reproductive health services Access Denied 07: US Restrictions on International Family Planning, http://www.globalgagrule.org/ Last updated August 15, 2007 The Global Gag Rule was reinstated … avoid unwanted pregnancy from the start. PLAN: The United States federal government should substantially increase its public health assistance to family planning organizations that would receive funding absent the Mexico City Policy in the region designated by the resolution. Funding and encorcement is through normal means. We’ll clarify. ADVANTAGE ONE: REPRODUCTIVE IMPERIALISM The global gag rule is nothing but the worst form of us imperialism – it is political hypocrisy that hold s impoverished women as hostages, deying them autonomy and choice Dana Neacsu, attorney, 02 [Dana, reference librarian at the Arthur W. Diamond Law Library of the Columbia University Law School and a New York attorney, Law Review of Michigan State University - Detroit College of Law, "Imposing Sexual Restraint Abroad," Winter 2002, lexis] The reinstatement of the Mexico …guessed until it is too late. 68 And, reproductive rights are key for women to be politically empowered and integrated into society Chad Gerson, lawyer, 06 (Chad M., Dorsey and Whitney LLP, U. of Chicago Law School, J.D., 2005, “TOWARD AN INTERNATIONAL STANDARD OF ABORTION RIGHTS: EMPIRICAL DATA FROM AFRICA”, Pace International Law Review, Fall 2006) Bush's compromise, however, did … international rights nor the right to abortion." 55 And, tools of reproductive imperialism, such as the gag rule, allow the state to be the controller of our rights and bodies – it makes entire populations disposable Berta HERNANDEZ-TRUYOL, law professor at University of Florida, 06 [Berta, professor of law @ University of Florida, “On Disposable People and Human Well-Being”, UC DAVIS JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL LAW AND POLICY, Fall, lexis] Moreover, although a treatment may be … human well-being in the health paradigm. ADVANTAGE TWO: HUMAN RIGHTS Stringent regulations in the gag rule violate international law agreements, undermining human rights and shattering us credibility. Yvette Aguilar, St. Mary’s School of Law, 02 (St. Mary's University School of Law, Candidate for J.D., May 2003; Texas A&M University-Kingsville, B.A. Political Science, May 2000) “THE MEXICO CITY POLICY AND ITS EFFECT ON WOMEN IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES” The Scholar: St. Mary's Law Review on Minority Issues, Lexis Fall 2002 In addition to conflicting with …undermining its credibility in the international community. And, family planning strategies void of human rights justify eugenics and genocide Elizabeth SPAHN, professor of law @ New England School of Law, 97, ENVIRONMENTAL LAW, 12/22/97, http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Feeling+grounded:+a+gendered+view+of+population+control.(Symposium+on...a020526962] As those of us who have … the much needed son is produced.(41)

And, the plan is necessary to the entirety of the human rights movement – the gag rule chills alliances between ngos which is necessary to the promotion of human rights Aryah Neier, President of Open Society, 01 [Aryah Neier, President of the Open Society Institute and founder of Human Rights Watch, Testimony before the Committee on Foreign Relations, July 19, http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgibin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=107_senate_hearings&docid=f:75604.wais] My testimony addresses the central advocacy …be afforded the highest protection. And, United States human rights promotion provides credibility necessary to fight the war on terror. Tom Malinowski, Washington Advocacy Director, 04 U.S. House of Representatives Committee on International Relations, 2004 http://hrw.org/english/docs/2004/07/07/usint9009_txt.htm) Third, promoting human rights and … its credibility and influence are diminished. And, a terrorist attack on the US will result in extinction—the US will retaliate and nuclear pollution will affect the entire planet. Mohamed Sid-Ahmed, Political analyst, 2004 (pol. analyst for Al-Ahram Newspaper for more than 20 years and author of several books on the Middle East issues, http://weekly.ahram.org.eg/2004/705/op5.htm) A nuclear attack by terrorists … whole planet, we will all be losers. ADVANTAGE THREE: CIVIL SOCIETY The gag rule precludes open dialogue, destroying free speech and shattering any hope for civil society Center For Reproductive Rights 03 (“Breaking the Silence: The Global Gag Rule’s Impact on Unsafe Abortion,” http://www.reproductiverights.org/pdf/bo_ggr.pdf) Organized and peaceful expression is … pervaded advocacy circles and curbed free speech. And, NGOs are a key vehicle for the fostering of a civil society and political advocacy Rachel SEEVERS, JD, 06 [Rachel, JD, “The Politics of Gagging”, BROOKLYN JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL LAW, http://www.brooklaw.edu/students/journals/bjil/bjil31iii_seevers.pdf] Through this analysis, it is clear …political advocacy of these gagged NGOs.144 And, fostering civil society is a key check on the spread of genocide Ervin Staub, Department of Psychology at Amherst, 01 U. of Massachusetts, Amherst SOCIAL IDENTITY, INTERGROUP CONFLICT AND CONFLICT REDUCTION, Ed. by Richard D. Ashmore, p. 177-8 Another group-level issue is culture…ideologies and practices will increase. CONTENTION TWO: SOLVENCY America should be a leader in family planning, and the plan is key to overall health services in Africa Marty Meehan, US Rep, and Gloria Feldt, President of PPFA, 04 (Marty is US Representative, Fifth Congressional District of Massachusetts. Gloria is president of the Planned Parenthood Federation of America, “Lift the Family Planning Gag Rule,” The Boston Globe, August 12, 2004, http://www.commondreams.org/views04/0812-13.htm International family planning programs work…global efforts to improve women's health. And, a larger commitment to family planning AND a reversal of this hypocrisy is CRITICAL Melissa UPRETI, legal adviser for CFRR, 03

[Melissa, “The Impact of the ‘Global Gag Rule’ on Women’s Reproductive Health Worldwide”, WOMEN’S RIGHTS LAW REPORTER, Summer/Fall, page lexis] During the 1990's, there were … Global Gag Rule thrives on fear. And, The AFRICAN people want this policy lifted Trevor GRUNDY, journalist who lived in Zimbabwe, 03 [Trevor Grundy, UK-Based journalist and author who lived in Zimbabwe for 20 years, “Bush Killing Women With Pro-life Aid”, 06-28, lexis] THOUSANDS of African women … the spread of Aids and HIV. And, This isn’t about the morality of abortion--we have a moral obligation to offer assistance to promote freedom in family planning Yvette Aguilar, St. Mary’s School of Law, 02 (St. Mary's University School of Law, Candidate for J.D., May 2003; Texas A&M University-Kingsville, B.A. Political Science, May 2000) “THE MEXICO CITY POLICY AND ITS EFFECT ON WOMEN IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES” The Scholar: St. Mary's Law Review on Minority Issues, Lexis Fall 2002 In any case, the issue should … adversaries of freedom.

WOODWARD MP---AFF

Plan: The United States federal government should substantially increase funding for the Center for Disease Control Global Disease Detection Program to enable expansion of Global Disease Detection Centers and Syndromic Surveillance in topically designated areas. ADVANTAGE ONE: EMERGING DISEASES A NEW DISEASE IS INEVITABLE—EMERGING DISEASES ARE SPREADING AT RAPID PACE AND WILL KILL BILLIONS IF THEY ARE NOT CONTAINED. WITHOUT CRUCIAL DISEASE SURVEILLANCE AND IT’S INFORMATION SHARING CAPABILITIES, FAILURE IS GUARANTEED. Reuters, August 23, 2007 (“UN: Diseases Spreading Faster Than Ever”, http://www.cnn.com/2007/HEALTH/conditions/08/23/health.un.reut/index.html?eref=rss_topstories) infectious disease are emerging…to mitigate such risks AFRICA IS THE MOST LIKELY SPOT FOR EMERGING DISEASES—ECOLOGICAL CLIMATE AND A UNIQUE MIXTURE OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS EXACERBATES THE THREAT—EXPERT STUDIES PROVE. Africa News, April 27, 2006 (“Animal and Plant Diseases a Growing Threat”, lexis) a uk government programme… to the 18-month study AND, THESE DISEASES ARE THE GREATEST CAUSE OF DEATH—THEY KILL MORE THAN WAR, FAMINE, AND CRIME. Stefansson, Head of Science and Society at the European Molecular Biology Laboratory, 2003 (Halldor, EMBO REPORTS, “Infectious Disease and Bioweapons”, November 8-9, http://www.nature.com/embor/journal/v4/n6s/full/embor843.html) microorganisms—paracites, bacteria and viruses… war, accidents and crime Disease monitoring in SSA is key to steming disease spread worldwide—rift valley fever proves. U.S. Department of State, May 25, 2007 ( “Africa: Old and New Emerging Diseases Threaten Nations Worldwide”, http://allafrica.com/stories/200705250242.html ) in the days before high speed… and also help ourselves here SPECIFICALLY, SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA IS THE MOST LIKELY SPOT FOR AN AVIAN FLU OUTBREAK—PREEXISTING FAMINE AND WEAK IMMUNE SYSTEMS CAUSE AVIAN FLU TO SYNERGIZE WITH EXISTING DISEASES. SURVEILLANCE KEY TO STYMIE THESE OUTBREAKS. Davis, Professor of History at U of California and author on the Avian Flu, February 7, 2007 (Mike, THE GUARDIAN, “The plague of bird flu will erupt out of Java, not Suffolk”, http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/story/0,,2007340,00.html) in most of sub Saharan Africa… develop and “world vaccine” Mutations found in avian flu virus make human to human transmission easier Butler, Ph.D. and Senior Reporter at Nature News, 2006 (Declan, NATURE NEWS, “Alarms Ring Over Bird Flu Mutations”, January 19, http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v439/n7074/full/439248a.html) scientists studying virus samples… transmission on their own.

CLAIMS THAT THE DISEASE HAS DIED OUT ARE LIES—IT WILL COME BACK WITH A HIGHER GEOGRAPHICAL AND SPECIES RANGE—NOW IS THE BEST TIME. Davis, Professor of History at U of California and author on the Avian Flu, February 7, 2007 (Mike, THE GUARDIAN, “The plague of bird flu will erupt out of Java, not Suffolk”, http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/story/0,,2007340,00.html) just when most of us though it was… source of the infection A pandemic will spread across the globe in 3 months- killing 2 million in the US alone- The probability is guaranteed and the timeframe is now. Immediate preparedness is the only way to solve the invisible threshold O’Toole, Chief Executive Office and Director of the Center for Biosecurity at U of Pittsburgh, 2006. (Tara, FDCH Congressional Testimony, Feb 8, lexis) The current situation in Asia… consequences of this threat. Flu pandemics collapse the resiliency of the global economy. Osterholm, Professor of Public Health and Director of the Center for Infectious Disease Policy at U of Minnesota, 2005 (Michael T., FOREIGN AFFAIRS, “Preparing for the Next Pandemic”, July/August, http://www.foreignaffairs.org/20050701faessay84402/michael-t-osterholm/preparing-for-the-next-pandemic.html) the pandemic related collapse…woul be avoided, maybe even banned ECONOMIC COLLAPSE CAUSES EXTINCTION. Bearden, Director of the Association of Distinguished American Scientists, 2000 (T. E., Fellow Emeritus of the Alpha Foundation's Institute for Advanced Study "The Unnecessary Energy Crisis: How to Solve It Quickly," June 12) history bears out that…at least for many decades THE CDC’S RESPONSE SPEED AND ASSISTANCE CAPABILITIES ARE UNMATCHED GLOBALLY—A STUDY DONE BY THE WORLD’S LEADING SCIENTISTS PROVE. Naylor et al, Dean of Medicine at the U of Toronto, 2003 (Dr. Sheela Basrur, Medical Officer of Health, City of Toronto; Dr. Michel G. Bergeron, Chairman of the Division of Microbiology and of the Infectious Diseases Research Centre of Laval University, Quebec City; Dr. Robert C. Brunham, Medical Director of the British Columbia Centre for Disease Control, Vancouver; Dr. David Butler-Jones, Medical Health Officer for Sun Country, and Consulting Medical Health Officer for Saskatoon Health Regions, Regina; Gerald Dafoe, Chief Executive Officer of the Canadian Public Health Association, Ottawa; Dr. Mary Ferguson-Paré, Vice-President, Professional Affairs and Chief Nurse Executive at University Health Network, Toronto; Frank Lussing, Past President and CEO of York Central Hospital, Richmond Hill; Dr. Allison McGeer, Director of Infection Control, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto; Kaaren R. Neufeld, Executive Director and Chief Nursing Officer at St. Boniface Hospital, Winnipeg; Dr. Frank Plummer, Scientific Director of the Health Canada National Microbiology Laboratory, Winnipeg, NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON SARS AND PUBLIC HEALTH, “Learning From SARS: Renewal of Public Health in Canada”, October 23, http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/publicat/sars-sras/naylor/3_e.html#s3a) for comparative purposes, the committee… outbreak is unmatched globally. ADVANTAGE TWO: BIOTERRORISM Access to biological weapons is easier and makes terrorsm more likely. Conventional attacks take too long to plan out while a biological attacks are far simpler. Njuguna, Masters in Biotechnology and prominent contributor on bioweapons to Bonn International Center, 2005 (James Thuo, AFRICAN SECURITY REVIEW, Vol. 14, No. 1, “Evaluating the threat of biological weapons in Eastern Africa”, http://www.iss.co.za/index.php?link_id=3&slink_id=1967&link_type=12&slink_type=12&tmpl_id=3

terrorist groups exist to…possible biological weapon BIOTERRORISM CAUSES EXTINCTION Ochs- “biological weapons..” 02 Of all of the weapons of mass destruction… the highest of all crimes EVEN IF BIOTERRORISM DOESN’T CAUSE EXTINCTION—U.S. RETALIATION SPARKS MULTIPLE SCENARIOS FOR NUCLEAR WAR. Corsi, Best Selling Author on Terrorism, 2005 (Jerome, THE NEW YORK TIMES, 4/20, http://www.worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=43817) the combination of horror and outrage…russians and the Chinese Disease Surveillance programs are critical to curtailing the impacts of a bioterror attack Njuguna, Masters in Biotechnology and prominent contributor on bioweapons to Bonn International Center2005 (James Thuo, AFRICAN SECURITY REVIEW, Vol. 14, No. 1, “Evaluating the threat of biological weapons in Eastern Africa”, http://www.iss.co.za/index.php?link_id=3&slink_id=1967&link_type=12&slink_type=12&tmpl_id=3) infectious diseases can undermine…biological weapons as well.

Disease surveillance it is a prerequisite to all other forms of disease care – it can get at the problem quickly and provide information for treatment and containment Otten, Medical Epidemiologist, African Regional Office of the WHO and Perry, Educational Design Specialist at the CDC’s Division of International Health (CDC), 2001 (Mac W., and Helen, “Technical Guidelines for Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response in the African Region,”6/01, http://www.cdc.gov/idsr/focus/surv_sys_strengthening/tech_guidelines-integrated-diseaseENG.pdf) communicable diseases are the most common…. Where they are most needed.

AT NON US CP US IS CURRENTLY FAIG A SHORTAGE OF PUBIC HEALTH OFFICIALS WHO HAVE FIRST HAND EXPERIENCE WITH MANY PATHOGENS THAT ARE LIKELY TO BE USED AS BIOWEAPONS PREVENTS RAPID DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT. KATZ 02 In almost all emerging infections… up all collaborative efforts. TRAINING THROUGH REAL WORLD EXPERIENCE IS CRUCIAL TO CREATING A STRONG PUBILC HEALTH STRUCTURE THAT IS CAPABLE OF MINIMIZING THE CASUALTIES FROM A BIOTERRORIST ATTACK – GLOBAL SURVEILLANCE PROGRAMS PROVIDE AND OPPORTUNITY FOR THIS TRAINING --- SMOLINSKI ET AL 03 And described earlier… upper level management positons. CDC INTERNATIONAL SURVEILLANCE PROGRAMS HELP TRAIN DISEASE DETECTIVES THAT CAN RESPOND TO FUTURE THREATS.—GERBERDING 04 Ultimately even the best disease…rapidly deployed when needed.

THE US IS KEY TO THE SUCCESS OF GLOBAL HEALTH SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL SUPERIORITY— BLOOM AND FINEBURG 97 America’s world leading position… without its active engagement. THE US MUST LEAD EFFORTS TO ASSIST SURVEILLANCE IN DEVELOPING NATIONS TO CREATE GLOBAL PARTICIPATION—THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES NEWS 03 The nation should take decisive steps… we all share the same landscape THE CDC POSSESSED UNIQUE CAPABILITIES FOR DISEASE SURVEILLANCE AND PREVENTING BIOATTACKS— SPEED AND INFRASTRUCTURE PROVE. – NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE 03 The CDC exerts considerable… funding and partnerships. SYNDROMIC SURVEILLANCE IS KEY TO PREVENT OUTBREAKS AND DEVELOP EARLY WARNING SYSTEMS— ENHANCING COLLABORATION AMONG OTHER PUBLIC HEALTH AGENCIES. HENNING 04 Innovating electronic surveillance…enhancing system development.