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Chemistry 520 - Problem Set 3

Due Wednesday January 27, 1999 by 5 P.M.

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4.

Chang, Problem 4.13 (page 4.48)


Chang, Problem 4.16 (page 4.48)
Chang, Problem 4.65 (page 4.55)
Calculate the work (in joules) done on the system for each of the following examples.
Be sure to specify the sign of the work. To help in identi cation of the system, I have
written the system in italics.
(a) A box of groceries weighing 10 kg is carried up three ights of stairs (10 m
altogether).
(b) The volume of an ideal gas changes from 1 L to 3 L at an initial temperature of
25C and a constant external pressure of 1 atm.
(c) The volume of an ideal gas changes from 1 L to 3 L at an initial temperature of
25C and a constant external pressure of 10,6 atm.
(d) The volume of an ideal gas changes from 1 L to 3 L at a constant temperature
of 25C and the expansion is performed reversibly for an amount of gas that
corresponds to an initial pressure of 1 atm.

5. Calculate the heat (in joules) absorbed by the system for each of the following examples. Be sure to specify the sign of the heat.
(a) 100 g of liquid water is heated from 0C to 100C at 1 atm.
(b) 100 g of liquid water is frozen to ice at 0C and 1 atm.
(c) 100 g of liquid water is evaporated to steam at 100C and 1 atm.
6. In the following problem, you will need the following information, the heat of combustion of sucrose is -5644 kJ/mol and its molecular formula is C12 H22 O11 . A Table
containing a variety of physical constants for water is on the second page of this
assignment.
(a) A hiker, caught in a rainstorm might absorb 1 liter of water in her clothing. If it
is windy so that this amount of water is evaporated quickly at 20C, how much
heat would be required for this process?
(b) If all this heat were removed from th hiker (no signi cant heat was generated
by metabolism in this time), what drop in body temperature would the hiker
experience? The clothed hiker weighs 60 kg and you can approximate the heat
capacity of the hiker and clothes as equal to that of water. (The conclusion from
this calculation is to stay out of the wind if you get your clothes wet).
(c) How many grams of sucrose would the hiker have to metabolize (quickly) to
replace the heat of evaporating 1 liter of water, so that her temperature would
not change?
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7. Some of the thermodynamic equations or relations we have discussed are true in


general. Others are true only under restricted conditions, such as constant volume
or for an ideal gas. For each of the following equations, state what are the minimum
conditions sucient to make them true in the framework of chemical thermodynamics:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

U = q + w
q = H
H = U + (nRT )


P + nV22a (V , nb) = nRT
w = ,Pex V