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CHAPTER V

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

INTRODUCTION
Agriculture provides the important basic needs of people such as food, which
is supplied through cereals, vegetables and fruits. A large variety of fruits are grown in
India, of which mango, Banana, citrus, guava, grape, pineapple and apple are the
major ones. The countrys production of fruits is about 8 per cent in the world and
Banana and plantain constitute 32% of the total fruit production from 12% of the area
under fruits. Banana is one of the main fruit in international trade and the most
popular one in the world. In terms of volume they are the first exported fruit, while
they rank second after citrus fruit in terms of value. The major Banana producing
countries are India (16.8 MT), Brazil (6.7 MT) and China (6.4 MT). India leads the
world in Banana production with an annual output of about 16,820 thousand M.T.
from 6.9 lakh hectares. The major Banana producing states are Tamil Nadu (26.4%)
followed by Maharashtra (21.4%), Gujarat (13.6%), Andra Pradesh (9.7%). The major
Banana producing districts are Thoothukudi, Tiruchirapalli, Coimbatore, Thirunelvelli
and Vellore.
People in those days were healthy, consuming the foods that were grown
naturally. But, later the farmers had to use chemical fertilizers to cope with the
increasing load of population during green revolution period for self-sufficiency in
food grain production. But, now we are in a need to go back to organic farming in
order to sustain the profession of agriculture and its production. Now people have
started giving importance to quality of fruits in terms of nutrient content, less toxic
and pesticide residue etc., Banana grown under organic farming condition fetches
higher price in the local as well as in the export market when compared to Banana
grown under conventional farming condition by means of quality and price. So now
farmers are switching over to organic farming condition. At present in Tamil Nadu
Banana is being grown under both organic and inorganic farming conditions. In order
to make a valid comparison of the two production systems broad perspective
investigations has to be taken. Hence, the present study has been formulated to
compare the yield, quality, marketing and price aspect of Banana grown under organic
and inorganic farming conditions.

OBJECTIVES
1. To study the profile characteristics of the farmers growing Banana under
organic and inorganic farming conditions.
2. To compare the yield and quality attributes of Banana grown under organic
and inorganic farming conditions.
3. To identify the determinants of yield and quality of Banana grown under
organic and inorganic farming conditions.
4. To compare the marketing efforts and behaviour of the Banana growers
under organic and inorganic farming conditions.
5. To find out the problems and constraints encountered by Banana growers
under organic as well as inorganic farming conditions.
METHODOLOGY
The present study was conducted in Vellore district. Among eight taluks in
vellore district, Tiruppathur taluk was selected. Tiruppathur block was selected for
study of farmers growing Banana under inorganic farming condition and Alangyam
block was selected for study of farmers growing Banana under organic farming
condition. Bommikupam, A.K.Mottur and karumbur villages from Tiruppatur block
and Pudurnadu, Mozhalai and Arunbalpattu villages from Alangyan block were
selected for the study.
The selected variables were age, educational status, farm size, farming
experience, area under Banana, training undergone, material possession, livestock
possession, social participation, extension agency contact, mass media exposure,
perception on organic manures, perception on environmental degradation, scientific
orientation, decision making behaviour, net income, yield, perception on quality
attributes of Banana, perceived opinion of farmers on determinants of yield of
Banana, perceived opinion of farmers on determinants of quality of Banana,
marketing behaviour, the level of importance of price determinants in Banana.
The data were collected by using a well-structured interview schedule. Using
statistical tools percentage analysis, mean and Standard Deviation, independent t
test, correlation matrix and multiple regression, the data were analysed. The findings
were meaningfully interpreted and relevant conclusion was drawn.

5.1. SALIENT FINDINGS


5.1.1. Profile Characteristics
1. Age
Nearly half (40.00 %) of the organic Banana growers were found to be middle
aged, followed by old and young age category. With regard to inorganic Banana
growers, majority (37.77 %) were middle aged followed by old aged and young aged.
2. Educational status
Three-fourth (26.67 %) of organic Banana growers had primary education,
followed by equal per cent of secondary and middle education. With regards to
inorganic Banana growers, 35.57 per cent of inorganic Banana growers had education
upto primary level, followed by functionally literate.
3. Farm size
Nearly half (44.44 %) of the organic Banana growers were small farmers,
followed by medium (28.89 %) farmers. With regard to inorganic Banana growers,
42.22 per cent of the respondents were medium farmers, followed by small (28.89 %)
farmers.
4. Farming experience
More than half (51.11 %) of the organic Banana growers were found to be
with higher level of farming experience, followed by medium and low level of
farming experience. With regard to inorganic Banana growers, 40.00 per cent had
higher level of farming experience, followed by medium and low level of farming
experience.
5. Area under Banana
Nearly half (42.22 %) of the organic Banana growers had low level of area
under Banana cultivation, followed by medium and high level of area under Banana
cultivation. With regard to inorganic Banana growers, more than half (60.00 %) of
inorganic Banana growers had medium level of area under Banana cultivation,
followed by high and low level of area under Banana cultivation.

6. Training undergone
Nearly fifty per cent (48.89 %) of the organic Banana growers had attended
one training programme, 22.22 per cent attended two trainings, 17.78 per cent
attended three trainings, 6.67 per cent not attended any training programmes and 4.44
per cent attended four training programmes. With regard to inorganic Banana growers,
44.44 per cent had not attended any training programmes, 37.78 per cent attended one
training, 15.56 per cent attended two training and 2.22 per cent attended three training
programmes.
7. Material possession
More than half (51.11 %) of the organic Banana growers had medium level of
material possession, followed by low and high level of material possession. With
regard to inorganic Banana growers, more than half (57.78 %) of the Banana growers
had medium level of material possession, followed by low and high of material
possession.
8. Livestock possession
Nearly half (46.67 %) of organic Banana growers had low level of livestock
possession, followed by high and medium level of livestock possession. With regard
to inorganic Banana growers, 71.11 per cent of the Banana growers had low level of
livestock possession, followed by high and medium level of livestock possession.
9. Social participation
Around fifty per cent (42.22 %) of organic Banana growers had medium level
of social participation, followed by high and low of social participation. With regard
to inorganic Banana growers, 44.45 per cent of the Banana growers had medium level
of social participation, followed by high and low level of social participation.
10. Extension agency contacts
Nearly half (42.22 %) of the organic Banana growers had medium level of
extension agency contacts, followed by low and high level of extension agency
contact. With regard to inorganic Banana growers, 40.00 per cent had medium level of
extension agency contact, followed by high and low of extension agency contact.

11. Mass media exposure


Nearly half (46.67 %) of organic Banana growers had medium level of mass
media exposure, followed by high and low level of mass media exposure. With regard
to inorganic Banana growers, 40.00 per cent of the Banana growers had medium level
of mass media exposure, followed by high and low level of livestock possession.
12. Perception on organic manures
Majority (60.00 %) of organic Banana growers had medium level of
perception on organic manures, followed by high and low level of perception on
organic manures. With regard to inorganic Banana growers, 66.67 per cent had
medium level of perception on organic manures, followed by low and high level of
perception on organic manures.
13. Perception on environmental degradation
Nearly half (46.67 %) of organic Banana growers had medium level of
perception on environmental degradation, followed by high and low level of
perception on environmental degradation. With regard to inorganic Banana growers,
62.22 per cent had medium level of perception on environmental degradation,
followed by high and low level of perception on environmental degradation.
14. Scientific orientation
Majority (64.44 %) of organic Banana growers had medium level of scientific
orientation, followed by equal percent of Banana growers had high and low level of
scientific orientation. With regards to inorganic Banana growers, 75.55 per cent had
medium level of scientific orientation, followed by high and low level of scientific
orientation.
15. Decision making behaviour
More than half (51.11 %) of the organic Banana growers took independent
decision, followed by equal per cent of farmers under joint decision with members
and joint decision with other than members. With regard to inorganic Banana growers,
64.44 per cent took independent decision, followed by joint decision with members
and joint decision with other than members.

16. Market intelligence


Nearly half (44.45 %) of organic Banana growers had medium level of market
intelligence, followed by high and low level of market intelligence. With regard to
inorganic Banana growers, 46.67 per cent had high level of market intelligence,
followed by medium and low level of market intelligence.
17. Net income
Majority (66.67 %) of the organic Banana growers had medium level of net
income, followed by and high level of net income. With regard to inorganic Banana
growers, 71.11 per cent had medium level of net income, followed by high and low
level of net income.
5.2. Yield and perceived quality attributes of Banana grown under organic and
inorganic farming conditions.
5.2.1 Yield of Banana
Majority of the farmers had medium yield (66.67 %) followed by high and low
yield by Banana grown under organic farming condition. With regard to inorganic
farming condition, majority of the growers had medium yield (44.44 %) followed by
high yield level and low yield level. Decline in yield in organic farming are likely to
be among the short-term consequences of significantly reducing agricultural chemical
use.
5.2.2. Perceived quality attributes of Banana
Banana free from pesticide residue was considered as one of the important
quality attributes by organic Banana growers followed by taste, shelf life period.
With respect to inorganic Banana growers, taste was ranked as first followed
by appearance, colour. These quality attributes were considered as major influences
on quality.

5.3. Determinants of yield and quality of Banana grown under organic and
inorganic farming condition.
5.3.1. Perceived yield determinants of Banana grown under organic and
inorganic farming conditions
Variety selection was ranked first by organic Banana growers as an important
determinant of yield, followed by plant protection measures, soil fertility, manuring
and fertilization, irrigation interval and climatic condition.
With regard to inorganic Banana growers, variety selection was considered as
most important determinant of yield followed by soil fertility, plant protection
measures, manuring and fertilization, climatic condition and irrigation interval.
5.3.2. Perceived quality determinants of Banana grown under organic and
inorganic farming conditions
Manuring and fertilization was ranked as first by organic Banana growers as
an important perceived determinant of quality, followed by variety selection, climatic
condition, soil fertility and plant protection measures.
With regard to inorganic Banana growers, manuring and fertilization was
considered as most important determinant of quality followed by plant protection
measures, desuckering, variety selection, time of harvesting and climatic condition.
5.4 The marketing efforts and behaviour of the Banana growers under organic
and inorganic farming conditions.
5.4.1. Marketing behaviour of farmers growing Banana under organic and
inorganic farming conditions
Majority (64.44 %) of the organic Banana growers had medium degree of
marketing behaviour followed by low and high level of marketing behaviour. With
regard to inorganic Banana growers majority (51.11 %) of the respondents had
medium degree of marketing behaviour followed by high of high and low level of
marketing behaviour.
5.4.2 Perceived price determinants by farmers growing Banana under organic
and inorganic farming conditions.
Quality (3.6444), variety (3.3111), season (3.2888) and demand for Banana
(2.8222) were considered as important price determinant by organic Banana growers.

Mode of sale, transport cost, method of sale and storage cost were considered as least
important price determinants. With regard to inorganically grown Banana, Quality
(3.3111), season (3.2444), variety (3.1555) and demand for Banana (2.4) were
considered as important price determinants. The factors that having less influence in
price determinants are transport cost, mode of sale, method of sale and storage cost.
5.4.3.1 Relationship between yield, quality, marketing and price related variables
Relationship of net income of organic Banana growers was found to be
positive significant relationship at five percent level of probability with yield. Yield
determinants had significant relationship with yield at one percent level of probability.
With regard to quality attributes, marketing behaviour, quality determinants and price
determinants, they had positive significant relationship at five percent probability
level.Net income and quality attributes had positive significant relationship with
marketing behaviour at five per cent probability level
With regard to Banana grown under inorganic farming condition, the
relationship of net income of organic Banana growers was found to be positive
significant relationship at five percent level of probability with yield. Yield
determinants had significant relationship with yield at one percent probability level
5.4.3.2. Relationship between profile characteristic with marketing behaviour
Farming experience, decision making behaviour, market intelligence, net income,
perception on quality attributes of Banana and perception on price determinants in Banana
were the six variables significantly contributing for the marketing behaviour of organic
Banana growers.
With regard to inorganic Banana growers, farming experience, area under
Banana, decision making behaviour, yield and price determinants had positive were the
five variables significantly contributing for the marketing behaviour of inorganic
Banana growers.

5.5. The problems and constraints encountered by Banana growers under


organic as well as inorganic farming Conditions
Lack of irrigation facilities emerged as the foremost problem as stated by
majority (73.33 %) of the sampled farmers growers growing Banana under organic
farming conditions followed by lack of transport facilities(68.89 %), lack of market
facilities (60.00 %), Inadequate supply of inputs (53.33 %).
With regards to inorganic Banana growers, inadequate credit facilities
(46.67 %), Lack of technical guidance (40.00 %), Damage by pest and diseases (33.33
%), more distance of market from village (31.11 %) were the foremost problem
expressed by the sampled inorganic Banana growers.
5.5.1. Suggestions for the constraints encountered by Banana growers
Irrigation is the major constraint encountered by majority of organic Banana
growers. Water harvesting structures have to be created in this region which will
reduce the water scarcity problem and also creating awareness to farmers about the
moisture conservation measures such as mulching.
Regular visits by the extension agents are of significance to the application of
modern farm inputs by smallholder farmers. The visits translate into increased
chances of the farmers in learning new technologies from the agents.
Arrangement of adequate input supply facilities by the Horticultural
department and also by private dealers which reduce the problem of lack of input
facilities.
Lack of technical guidance such as plant protection measures, package of
practices etc., was a constraint to less than half of the sampled inorganic and organic
Banana growers. Intensive efforts can be made by the Horticultural department
personnel to support with more timely technical information to the Banana farmers.
Lack of credit facility is the foremost problem of inorganic Banana growers.
In order to tackle the problem banks should come forward to provide loan for farmers
to meet out their farming expenses.
Rural infrastructure such as road, electricity and telecommunication should be
established and properly maintained where ever available in the rural areas by the
government at all levels.

When comparing quality of Banana, Banana grown under organic farming


condition had high quality than Banana grown under inorganic farming condition
based on perceived opinion of the farmers. Hence, awareness creation to farmers
about the quality of produce and also an intensive training programme such as
demonstration, field visits, campaign have to be conducted and besides providing
technical guidance to help the farmers to improve the quality of Banana.
This study indicated that high market intelligence influences the Banana
growers to have high marketing behaviour. In order to improve the market
intelligence, posting of field level qualified extension functionaries exclusively to
promote marketing was found essential.

5.6. Implication of the study

Efforts are needed to strengthen information and communication capacities of


farmers through training courses and collaborative arrangements with local
and state level organizations.

Establishing Government / Cooperative procurement centre at major Banana


growing areas and Banana based processing industry may tackle the problem
of lack of market facilities.

There is a greater need to educate the farmers to adopt IPM and INM practices
with more emphasis on adopting biological control and biofertilizers so as to
reduce the cost and improve the quality of production.

Organise effective input supply services including credit.

Networking of different scientific organisations located in the state should be


improved so as to expand application of modern technology in the fields of
production and marketing.

Reduction in losses through the development of suitable infrastructure and


creation of awareness.

Establishment of market system having forward and backward linkages.

Policy interventions and partnerships between the public and private


stakeholders are needed to take advantage of opportunities and/or prop up
existing

technological/

institutional/organizational

weaknesses

in

the

marketing systems.
5.7. Suggestions for the future research
1. A study on consumer preference on organic and inorganic Banana in order
to find out their attitude towards organic and inorganically grown produce.
2. Case study may be conducted selecting successful and unsuccessful
organic Banana growers in order to understand the strengths and weakness
of organic farming practices.
3. Study on marketing channels which benefits both growers and receivers.
4. Similar studies could be taken up in other crops such as vegetables.