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You are on page 1of 4

Let x1,...,xn be a sequence of items.

We want to find a sub-sequence

m

xk,...,xm which holds:P( x k ,..., x m ) > P( x i )

For example p(qu)>p(q)p(u).

Huffman and Arithmetic don't

look on the item's environment.

i=k

significantly

bigger

6. 2

Implementation of LZ77

Pointers should be distinguished from other

items.

char, offset, length, char, offset, length,...

pointer

pointer

A null pointer is (0,0).

If two pointers are adjacent, the first character

of the second string will be encoded separately.

Offset is accommodated in n bits so the

maximum offset is 2n

6. 4

LZ78

6. 1

LZ77

An outcry in Spain is an outcry in vain

aaaaaaaaaa

a(1,9)

6. 3

LZSS - A flag bit for distinguishing pointers

from the other items.

LZR - No limit on the pointer size.

Example:123410=100110100102

100101100011010010

3

11

coding.

6. 6

6. 5

LZW algorithm

LZW

w " first character of input

step: k " next character

if EOF then output(code(w)); exit

else

A version of LZ78.

If xdictionary then all prefix(x)dictionary

Finds the longest string in dictionary. If

x1,...,xn in dictionary but x1,...,xn+1 not in

dictionary, add x1,...,xn+1 to dictionary.

else

Output (code(w))

dictionary " wk

w"k

goto step

6. 8

6. 7

Dictionary considerations

Dictionary size is determined according to

pointer's length. Pointer's length can be changed

during processing.

When dictionary is full, one of these can be done:

Delete the whole dictionary.

Delete strings according to LRU.

Each string has a counter. A string whose counter is

the lowest will be deleted.

Stop to update the dictionary.

Double the dictionarys size.

6. 10

code

10

11

12

string

1b

2a

4c

3b

5b

8a

1a

10a

11a

its sub-strings will be in the dictionary too.

J, Je, Jer, Jeru, Jerus, Jerusa, Jerusal, Jerusale,

Jerusalem.

LZMW - concatenate last two strings instead of

string and a single item.

Strings like aa...a will have in LZMW, O(log(n))

entries in the dictionary instead of O(n) in LZW.

T=ababcbababaaaaaaa

w

ab

ba

ba

bab

aa

aa

aaa

wk

ab

ba

ab

abc

cb

ba

bab

ba

bab

baba

aa

aa

aaa

aa

aaa

aaaa

out

10

11

dict'

ab

ba

abc

cb

bab

baba

aa

aaa

aaaa

a

1

Dictionary:

code

10

11

12

string

ab

ba

abc

cb

bab

baba

aa

aaa

aaaa

LZW decoding

An example to LZW

6. 9

6. 12

code

10

11

decoded text

ab

ba

bab

aa

aaa

ab

ba

abc

cb

bab

baba

aa

aaa

aaaa

dictionary

isn't in the dictionary yet.

In such cases, the last code's string concatenated

with first item in the string, will be the new string.

6. 11

Optimal partition

Recompression

T = abcdef

Greedy method will yield abc-de-f.

A better partition would be ab-cdef.

If the words in D are encoded by 1, 2,

3, 4, 5, 6 and 6 bits respectively,

abc-d-ef is the optimal partition.

6. 14

Encoding

Compressed

Many of Lempel-Ziv

methods save some

running time by losing

some efficiency.

Data

Restored

Data

6. 13

Recompression

offline

dictionary a binary string.

f produces a code which is uniquely

decipherable.

A fixed length code can be good, if the

occurrences of the elements of D in S is

nearly uniform.

We look for the minimal f (Si j+1...Si j+1 )

belongs to an alphabet .

Let D be a dictionary contains words

from .

An increasing sequence of indices

i0=0, i1, i2,... Should be found s.t.:

S=S1S2...Sn=S1...Si Si +1...Si ... with

1 1

2

Sij+1...Sij+1D for j=0,1,...

6. 16

6. 15

Data

Compression

on the fly

Definitions

j0

Original

possible to reach vertex j directly from every

vertex in {k|(k,i)E}, without passing

through vertex i.

If so, we assume the triangle inequality which

holds for many practical schemes. Hence

edge (i,j) can be pruned.

If after having checked all the edges

emanating from vertex i, none of have been

adjoined to E, vertex i and all the incoming

edges on vertex i can be pruned.

n+1 corresponds to the end of the text.

An ordered pair (i,j) with i<j belongs to E if and only

if Si...Sj-1 D.

The label Lij is defined for edge (i,j)E as f (Si ...S j1)

Dijkstras worst case complexity for finding the

shortest path is the highest between O(|V|2) and

O(|E|+|V|log|V|).

In this case the graph contains no cycle, since all of

the edges are of the form (i,j) with i<j, so the

complexity is O(|E|).

6. 18

6. 17

Pruning

E; V{1,...,n,n+1}

for i 1 to n

Pred(i){k|(k,i)E}

Succ_Candidates(i){j|Si...Sj-1D}

add_edge FALSE

for all jSucc_Candidates(i)

all_connectedTRUE

for all kPred(i)

if (k,j)E then all_connectedFALSE

if not all_connected then

EE{(i,j)}

Added_edge TRUE

if not added_edge then

V V\{i}

E E\{(j,i)|jPred(i)}

6. 20

Pred(i)

6. 19

Example (cont.)

Example

6

10

1

10

a

b

11

11

b

9

6. 22

6. 21

Results of recompression

File

Time

Space

Prune

size

Optimal

Prune

bytes

No. of edges

Percents remain

English

0.75

0.39

36521

220357

28.9

French

1.55

1.12

53580

222270

47.9

Finnish

1.22

0.47

34615

203772

29.3

German

2.15

1.07

55121

282662

32.9

Hebrew

1.50

1.05

48193

235260

33.7

paper1

1.33

0.76

53161

287574

29.4

prog1

3.05

0.94

71646

1187012

10.7

trans

3.94

0.83

93695

2031230

7.2

bib

2.55

1.52

111261

626136

25.2

moricons

10.02

1.57

118864

5320050

16.8

12

Optimal

6. 24

12

SPL(1)0

for i2 to n+1

if iV then

SPL(i)

for all jPred(i)

tSPL(j)+Lji

if SPL(i)>t then

SPL(i)t

time complexity is O(|E|).

6. 23

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