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ANSYS Release 14.

0
Rotordynamics

Steve Varnam
ANSYS UK
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2011 ANSYS, Inc.

February 22, 2012

Dynamics capabilities - review


There is a wide range of Dynamics capabilities available within the
ANSYS Structural Mechanics product portfolio:
ANSYS Dynamics

Nonlinear Transient
Dynamics

Rigid Body Dynamics

Modal

Flexible Dynamics

Modal Superposition

Linear Transient
Dynamic

Spectrum

Response Spectrum
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2011 ANSYS, Inc.

Harmonic Response

February 22, 2012

Harmonic Response

Random Vibration

Recent Analysis Type Migration to WB


Mechanical
Modal and Harmonic many releases ago
Full Transient 11.0
Random Vibration 11.0

Response Spectrum 12.0


Harmonic mode-sup linked to modal 13.0
Perturbation Method 13.0

Mode-sup Transient 14.0


Rotordynamics 14.0

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

February 22, 2012

Dynamics in WB Mechanical
11.0
Full transient
11.0

13.0

14.0

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

February 22, 2012

12.0

Dynamics capabilities Licence levels


Different licence levels support different capabilities
ANSYS Dynamics
Nonlinear Transient
Dynamics
(ST+)

Modal
(DS+)

Rigid Body Dynamics

Flexible Dynamics

(Standalone)

(ST+)

Linear Transient
Dynamic (PR+)

Modal Superposition

Spectrum

Response Spectrum
(PR+)
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2011 ANSYS, Inc.

February 22, 2012

Harmonic Response
(ST+)

Harmonic Response
(PR+)

Random Vibration
(ST+)

Rotor Dynamics Licence Level

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

Rotordynamics analysis requires a licence level of


Structural or above.

February 22, 2012

Rotordynamics - Motivation

ANSYS Mechanical users


need to be able to quickly
create shaft geometries
as well as analyze
dynamic characteristics
of rotating systems
Industrial fan (Venti Oelde)

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

February 22, 2012

Background
The general equation of motion in matrix form is:

M u C u K u F t

Different analysis types solve different forms of this


equation:
Modal analysis: F(t) is set to zero, and [C] is usually ignored.
Harmonic Response analysis: F(t) and u(t) are both assumed to be harmonic
in nature, i.e, X sin(wt), where X is the amplitude and w is the frequency in
radians/sec.
Flexible Dynamic analysis: The complete, general form of the equation is
solved.
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2011 ANSYS, Inc.

February 22, 2012

Background
For Rotor Dynamics, this equation becomes:

M u G C u B K u F t
Where the additional terms are:
G : The gyroscopic matrix, which depends on the rotational velocity (or
velocities) of the analysis model.
B : The rotating damping matrix, also depends upon the rotational
velocities. It modifies the apparant stiffness of the model and can produce
unstable motion.

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

February 22, 2012

Background
Typical applications include:
High speed machinery such as turbine engine
rotors, computer disk drives, etc.
Seals - very small rotor-stator clearances
Flexible bearing supports
Rotor Instability
Rotordynamics analysis aims at:
Finding Critical Speeds (Campbell diagrams)
Calculating unbalance response
Calculating response to base excitation
Predicting Rotor Whirl and system stability
Simulating transient start-up and shutdown
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2011 ANSYS, Inc.

February 22, 2012

Structural Elements for Rotordynamics


Element Type
Structural Mass

3D Beam

PIPE288
PIPE289

Structural Shell

3D Structural Solid

General Axisymmetric Solid

Elements supporting Coriolis


2011 ANSYS, Inc.

MASS21

BEAM188
BEAM189

3D Pipe

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Detail

February 22, 2012

SHELL181
SHELL281
SOLID185
SOLID186
SOLID187

SOLID272
SOLID273

Bearing Modeling
Bearing element choice depends on:
Shape (1D, 2D, 3D)
Cross terms
Nonlinearities

Specific Bearing Element

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2011 ANSYS, Inc.

February 22, 2012

Modal Analysis
Specify the rotational
velocity and activate
the Coriolis effect

Complex Frequency
Printout

Deformed Shape
Animation
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2011 ANSYS, Inc.

February 22, 2012

Orbit Plot

Modal Analysis Campbell


Frequencies - Whirls - Stability

Critical Speeds

Set up a Multiple Load


Step Modal Analysis
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2011 ANSYS, Inc.

February 22, 2012

Logarithmic Decrement

Harmonic Analysis Unbalance Response

Specify the Unbalance


Force on Inner Spool

Unbalance Response
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2011 ANSYS, Inc.

February 22, 2012

Orbit Plot

Transient Analysis 1
Start-up and Stop
Simulation

Specify the Rotational


Velocity/Time History

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2011 ANSYS, Inc.

February 22, 2012

Transient Response

Transient Analysis 2
Stability
Verification

Specify a Short
Duration Force

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2011 ANSYS, Inc.

February 22, 2012

Transient Orbits

Documentation - Verification Manual

VM247

Verification Tests
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2011 ANSYS, Inc.

February 22, 2012

Rotordynamics Analysis Guide

Analysis Guide specific to


Rotordynamics
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2011 ANSYS, Inc.

February 22, 2012

Technology Demonstration Guide

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2011 ANSYS, Inc.

February 22, 2012

Workbench Implementation new at v14

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Geometry creation in Design Modeler

Analyze dynamic characteristics of rotating systems with the effects of


damping, Coriolis and different rotational velocities

Identify Critical Speeds with Campbell Plots

Supported for solid and line bodies

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

February 22, 2012

Geometry Creation

Geometries can be
imported from a CAD
system or imported
from a simple text
file definition as used
in preliminary design

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2011 ANSYS, Inc.

February 22, 2012

Modal Analysis Enhancement


Undamped

Damped

No damping

Added solvers

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2011 ANSYS, Inc.

February 22, 2012

Turn on damping

Damping
Controls

Damped Modal Analysis (cont)


Note the output table is in engineering terms(damped frequency, stability,
etc.), not mathematical ones(real/imaginary eigenvalue)

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2011 ANSYS, Inc.

February 22, 2012

Animation with Decay


Toggle to turn on/off time
decay during animation for
damped modal analysis

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2011 ANSYS, Inc.

February 22, 2012

Control the number of


cycles to visualize the
effects of decay

Rotational velocity with Coriolis effect

Rotational velocity enabled in Modal analysis

Option to turn on Coriolis Effect

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2011 ANSYS, Inc.

February 22, 2012

Campbell Diagram

Specify rotational velocity


for the number of points

Basic setup for Campbell Diagram


- Tabular Rotational velocity
- Damped solve
- Turn on Coriolis Effect
- Turn on Campbell Diagram
- Minimum 2 solve points
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2011 ANSYS, Inc.

February 22, 2012

Campbell Diagram (cont)

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2011 ANSYS, Inc.

February 22, 2012

Campbell Diagram (cont)

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2011 ANSYS, Inc.

February 22, 2012

Fast Critical Speed Map


The new APDL Math feature extends the APDL scripting environment of
Mechanical APDL:

extraction of data from ANSYS files (FULL, EMAT, MODE, and SUB)
powerful matrix/vectors manipulation routines
direct access to solvers
Speed up dependant upon number of rotational velocity steps required to identify
critical speeds.

In a Rotordynamics analysis, APDL Math can be used to obtain the


critical speed map directly

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2011 ANSYS, Inc.

February 22, 2012

Fast Critical Speed Map

loop on bearing stiffness

Solve

[ K w 2 M ] 0

with

M M jG0

*SMAT, K, D, IMPORT, FULL, file.full, STIFF


*SMAT, M, D, IMPORT, FULL, file.full, MASS
*SMAT, G0, D, IMPORT, FULL, file.full, DAMP
*SMAT, zMG0, Z, COPY, M
*AXPY,, alpha, G0, 1,, zMG0
*SMAT, zK, Z, COPY, K
/SOLU
ANTYPE, MODAL
MODOPT, UNSYM, 6
*EIGEN, zK, zMG0,, EiV, EiM
FINI

APDL Math script see CRITICALSPEEDMM.MAC

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2011 ANSYS, Inc.

February 22, 2012

Import/Export of Bearing Characteristics

ANSYS provides an
interface that allows to
import bearing
characteristics from an
external file see
IMPORTBEARING.MAC

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2011 ANSYS, Inc.

February 22, 2012

ANSYS Rotordynamics

Industrial Applications

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2011 ANSYS, Inc.

February 22, 2012

Industrial Application #1:


Centrifugal Compressor
Eight Stage Centrifugal Compressor
used for natural gas re-injection at an
offshore drilling site

Two Tilting Pad Bearings with dynamic


coefficients
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2011 ANSYS, Inc.

February 22, 2012

Industrial Application #1:


Centrifugal Compressor
Tilting Pad Bearing: 5 identical pads
Analyzed with THPAD (ROMAC)
ET, 1, COMBI214
R, 1, %KYY%, %KZZ%, %KYZ%, %KZY%, %CYY%, %CZZ%
RMORE, %CYZ%, %CZY%

Macro
ImportBearing.mac

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2011 ANSYS, Inc.

February 22, 2012

Industrial Application #1:


Centrifugal Compressor
Campbell Diagram: Bearings with
Variable Characteristics
(undamped)

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2011 ANSYS, Inc.

February 22, 2012

Industrial Application #1:


Centrifugal Compressor
Unbalance Response Bearings with
Variable Characteristics (damped)

unbalance
3.4 oz.in @ 0 deg

unbalance
3.4 oz.in @ 0 deg

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2011 ANSYS, Inc.

unbalance
3.4 oz.in @ 180 deg

February 22, 2012

Configuration 1

Configuration 2

Industrial Application #2:


Chiller
Free-Free Testing Apparatus used for initial model
calibration

Centrifugal Compressor Shaft for a


Chiller

Courtesy of Trane, a business of


American Standard, Inc.
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2011 ANSYS, Inc.

February 22, 2012

Industrial Application #2:


Chiller
Solid Model of Compressor Shaft
plus Chiller Assembly in ANSYS
Workbench

Courtesy of Trane, a business of American Standard, Inc.


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2011 ANSYS, Inc.

February 22, 2012

Industrial Application #2:


Chiller
CMS Superelement
Representation
Finite element model of
rotor and impellers

Housing and entire


chiller assembly
represented by a CMS
superelement
Courtesy of Trane, a business of American Standard, Inc.
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2011 ANSYS, Inc.

February 22, 2012

Industrial Application #2:


Chiller
Chiller Assembly Details

Bearing
locations

Outline of CMS
superelement
Impeller
Courtesy of Trane, a business of American Standard, Inc.
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2011 ANSYS, Inc.

February 22, 2012

Industrial Application #2:


Chiller
Chiller Shaft Assembly Modes

Deformed Shape
Shaft + CMS Supporting Structure
Courtesy of Trane, a business of American Standard, Inc.
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2011 ANSYS, Inc.

February 22, 2012

Industrial Application #3:


Hard Disk Drive
3 disks HDD
sketch

ANSYS 4 disk model


Disk thickness = 0.8mm
Total mass = 87.5g
Spin = 755 rd/s
7855 elements

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2011 ANSYS, Inc.

February 22, 2012

Industrial Application #3:


Hard Disk Drive

Campbell Diagram for 1 disk


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2011 ANSYS, Inc.

February 22, 2012

Summary
The previous slides have described the elements of complete
rotordynamics analysis, with ANSYS
Key enabling features:
CAD import and automatic meshing
Library of elements
All analysis types (including prestress)
Dedicated post-processing
Multi-spool dynamics simulation
Direct connection to bearing codes
Account for the flexibility of the
supporting structure and/or the disks
Connect directly to other ANSYS tools via
Workbench (Design Explorer)

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2011 ANSYS, Inc.

February 22, 2012

Questions?

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2011 ANSYS, Inc.

February 22, 2012