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Chapter 14 Answer Key, Introduction to Chemical Engineering: Tools for Today and Tomorrow

SA 2000 kg/hr
AAH 5000 L/hr
PA 1250 L/hr

Case Study #1 - Aspirin Production


ultrapure water
22,000 L/hr
cooling
25C
water
Reactor

ASA
product
Acid
waste

70C

Mixer

Pump

cooling
water

Heat
Filtration
Exchanger Sequence

Material Balances to Determine Flows


Reactor:
Species Balances:
n SA, feed = n SA,out + rcons,SA
SA:
n AAH, feed = n AAH,out + rcons,AAH
AAH:
n PA, feed = n PA,out
PA:
rform,ASA = n ASA,out
ASA:
rform,AA = n AA,out
AA:
Conversion: rcons,SA = 0.995 n SA, feed
Stoichiometry:
rcons,AAH 1
=
rcons,SA 1
rform,ASA 1
=
rcons,SA 1
rform,AA 1
=
rcons,SA 1

(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
(9)

From Equation 6

From Equation 7:
From Equation 8:
From Equation 9:
From Equation 1:

m SA, feed

2,000,000g /hr
gmol
= 14,400
MW SA
138.1g /gmol
hr
rcons,AAH = rcons,SA = 14,400 gmol/hr
rform,ASA = rcons,SA = 14,400 gmol/hr
rform,AA = rcons,SA = 14,400 gmol/hr

rcons,SA = 0.995 n SA, feed = 0.995

n SA,out = n SA, feed rcons,SA =

m SA, feed
MW SA

rcons,SA =

From Equation 2:

n AAH,out = n AAH, feed rcons,AAH =

= 0.995

2,000,000g /hr
gmol
gmol
14,400
= 72.4
138.1g /gmol
hr
hr
(=10.0 kg/hr)

AAH VAAH, feed


MW AAH

rcons,AAH

Chapter 14 Answer Key, Introduction to Chemical Engineering: Tools for Today and Tomorrow

g
cm 3

1.08 3 5,000,000

hr
cm

102.1g /gmol

From Equation 3:

n PA,out = n PA, feed =

PAVPA
=
MW PA

14,400

g
cm 3

1.68 3 1,250,000

hr
cm
998.0g /gmol

gmol
hr
gmol
= 14,400
hr

gmol
gmol
= 38,500
hr
hr
(= 3,930 kg/hr)

= 21,400

gmol
hr
(= 2,100 kg/hr)

From Equation 4:

n ASA,out = rform,ASA = 14,400

(= 2,600 kg/hr)

From Equation 5:

n AA,out = rform,AA

(= 865 kg/hr)

(Total mass flow rate out = 9,500 kg/hr)


Mixer

m reactor out + m water in = m mixer out

Total mass balance:

(10)

Species balance:
Water: n water,in = n water,out + rcons,water
AA: n AA,in + rform,AA = n AA,out

rcons,AAH = 100% n AAH,in

Conversion:
Stoichiometry:
rform,AA

rcons,AAH
rcons,water
rcons,AAH

(11)
(12)
(13)

2
1
1
=
1

(14)
(15)

From Equation 13: rcons,AAH = n AAH,in = 38,500gmol /hr


From Equation 14: rform,AA = 2rcons,AAH = 77,000gmol /hr

gmol
hr
(= 5,490 kg/hr)

From Equation 12: n AA,out = n AA,in + rform,AA = 14,400 + 77,000 = 91,400


From Equation 15: rcons,water = rcons,AAH = 38,500gmol /hr
From Equation 11: n water,out = n water,in rcons,water =

waterVwater,in
rcons,water
MW water

Chapter 14 Answer Key, Introduction to Chemical Engineering: Tools for Today and Tomorrow

g
cm 3

1 3 22,000,000
cm
hr
18g /gmol

38,500

gmol
gmol
= 1,184,000
hr
hr
(= 21,300 kg/hr)

From Equation 10:

m mixer out = m reactor out + m water in = 9,500 + 22,000 = 31,500

kg
hr

Filtration Sequence
Product Stream: This will consist of all of the ASA and SA that enter. These amounts are
ASA: 14,400 gmol/hr
SA:
72 gmol/hr
(the product stream will be 99.5 mole% ASA)
Acid Waste Stream: This will consist of all the AA, PA, and water that enter. These are:
AA:
91,400 gmol/hr
PA:
21,400 gmol/hr
Water: 1,184,000 gmol/hr
(the acid stream will be 7.0 mole% acetic acid, which is approximately 3.2 molar)
Equipment Sizing
Reactor
rcons,SA = rrxn,SAVreactor = krxn(cSAV)reactor
= krxn cSA,out Vreactor

= krxn
So,

Vreactor =

n SA,out
Vreactor
Vout

rcons,SAVout
r
m out
= cons,SA
k rxn n SA,out k rxn n SA,out out

gmol
g
14,400
9,500,000

hr
hr
=
= 880,000cm 3 = 880L

gmol
g
3600s
0.5s1 72
1.2

hr cm 3 hr
= 233 gal

Pump
The shaft work per mass of fluid is

Chapter 14 Answer Key, Introduction to Chemical Engineering: Tools for Today and Tomorrow

P1 P2

where the density of the streams is given as 1.2 g/cm3 (which converts to 74.9 lbm/ft3)
ws =

So,

ws =

22 + 260 psi
in 2
1hp
hp

= 0.986
144

3
2 550 ft lb /s
lbm /s
74.9lbm / ft
ft
f

Actual power (Equation 7.10) is

g
hp 1hr 2.205lbm
W = m w s = 31,500,000 0.986

= 19.0hp

hr
lbm /s 3600s 1,000g
But this is power delivered to the fluid. The total power required to operate the pump
(Equation 7.11) is

Power tooperate the pump =

Power delivered to the fluid 19.0hp


=
= 22.4hp
Efficiency
0.85

Energy Balances
Reactor

J
gmol
9 J
The heat of reaction is H rxn rcons,SA = 85,800
= 1.24 x10
14,400
gmol
hr
hr

Thus, the amount of cooling water needed is that which will provide that much sensible
cooling:
Q water = m water C p water (Tout Tin )
so,

m water =

Q water
1.24 x10 9 J /hr
g
=
= 13.4 x10 6
C p water (Tout Tin )
hr
J
4.184
( 40C 18C )
gC

= 13,400 L/hr
= 3,550 gal/hr

Mixer
As explained in Technical Information item #4, Q reactor outlet = Q ultrapure water

m reactor outlet C p reactor outlet Tfinal Treactor outlet = m ultrapure water C p water Tfinal Tultrapure water
solving:

Tfinal =

m reactor outlet C p reactor outlet Treactor outlet + m ultrapure water C p water Tultrapure water
m reactor outlet C p reactor outlet + m ultrapure water C p water

Chapter 14 Answer Key, Introduction to Chemical Engineering: Tools for Today and Tomorrow

g
J
g
J
9,500,000 1.67
( 70C ) + 22,000,000 4.184
(25C )

hr
gC
hr
gC
=
= 31.6C

g
J
g
J
9,500,000 1.67
+ 22,000,000 4.184

hr
gC
hr
gC

Heat Exchanger

The heat duty is Q duty = m mixer out C p mixer out Texchanger out Texchangerin

g
J
J
= 31,500,000 3.41
( 31.6 25C ) = 709,000,000

hr
gC
hr
= 672,000 Btu/hr

Cooling Water Requirement:


Water entering temperature: 18C
Water exiting temperature: 26.6C (to maintain T 5C)

m water

Q water
709x10 6 J /hr
g
=
=
= 19.7x10 6

C p water (Tout Tin )


hr
J
4.184
(26.6C 18C )
gC

= 5,200 gal/hr

Heat Exchanger Size:

Mixer outlet 31.6C


26.6C

Heat
Exchanger

25C
18C Cooling water

T1 = 5C = 9F
T2 = 7C = 12.6F
12.6F 9F
= 10.7F
ln12.6F 9F
Btu
From Table 10.4, U 50
hr ft 2 F
Tlog mean =

From Equation 10.30,

A=

Q duty
U Tlog mean

Btu
hr
=
= 1,260 ft 2

Btu
50
(10.7F )
2
hr ft F
672,000

Economics
Capital Investment

Chapter 14 Answer Key, Introduction to Chemical Engineering: Tools for Today and Tomorrow

Reactor Cost:

M &S
1469
.61
.61
47.0 (V gal ) =
47.0 ( 233gal ) = $2, 300
814
814

Cooler Cost:

M &S
398 A ft 2
814

Pump Cost:

M &S
gal
421 V
min
814

.65

1469
398 1260 ft 2
814

.65

= $74, 400

.46

cm 3
gal 1m 3 1hr
gal
264.17
= 139
Where V = 3.15x10 7

3
6
3

hr
m 10 cm 60min
min

1469
gal

421 139
Pump Cost =

814
min

So

Filtration Sequence Cost (given)

.46

= $7, 300
$2,900,000

Total Delivered Cost = 110%($2,300 + $74,400 + $7,300) + $2,900,000 = $2,992,000


Capital Investment = Lang Factor Delivered Cost = 5.69($2,992,000) = $17,030,000
Depreciation = 85% of Cap. Investment/10 years = .85($17,030,000)/10 = $1,447,000/yr
Operating Cost
Direct Operating Costs
Feed:

$1.33 2000kg 2.205lbm 24hr 365days

= $51,380,000 / yr
kg day year
lbm hr
$0.49 5000L 1.08kg 2.205lbm 24hr 365days
AAH:

= $51,110,000 / yr
kg day year
lbm hr L
$0.34 1250L 1.68kg 2.205lbm 24hr 365days
PA:

= $13,790,000 / yr
kg day year
lbm hr L
TOTAL = $116,280,000/yr

SA:

Ultrapure Water:
$0.03 22,000L 1.0kg 2.205lbm 24hr 365days

= $12,750,000 / yr
kg day year
lbm hr L

$0.03
gal 24hr 365days
Cooling Water:

3,550 + 5,200

= $2,300 / yr
hr day year
1000gal
$0.05
745.7W 1kW 24hr 365days
Electricity:

(22.4hp)

= $7,300 / yr
hp 1000W day year
kW hr

Chapter 14 Answer Key, Introduction to Chemical Engineering: Tools for Today and Tomorrow
Operating Cost = 1.55($116,280,000+$12,750,000+$2,300+$7,300) = $200,000,000/yr
Sales:
Aspirin:
Acid Waste:

$3.97 2,600kg 2.205lbm 24hr 365days

= $199,910,000 / yr
kg day year
lbm hr
$0.013 28,900kg 2.205lbm 24hr 365days

= $7,260,000 / yr
hr
kg day year
lbm

TOTAL SALES

= $207,170,000/yr

Gross Profit = s-c-d = $207,170,000 $200,000,000 $1,447,000 = $5,723,000/yr


NAPAT = $5,723,000/yr (1 - .35) = $3,720,000/yr

ROI =

NAPAT
$3, 720, 000 / yr
=
= 21.8%
CapitalInvestment
$17, 030, 000