You are on page 1of 5

The effect of changing the concentration of sodium thiosulphate on the rate of reaction

between hydrochloric acid and sodium thiosulphate.


Aim: To determine the effect of various concentrations of sodium thiosulphate (attained by serial
dilution) upon the rate of reaction in the reaction between hydrochloric acid and sodium
thiosulphate.
When sodium thiosulphate reacts with hydrochloric acid, sulphur is produced. The sulphur
precipitate forms in very small pale yellow particles which cause cloudiness and eventually obscure
the solution. This causes the cross on a ceramic tile underneath the reaction vessel to fade and
eventually disappear.
Sodium
+
Thiosulphate

Hydrochloric Sulphur + Sodium + Sulphur + water


acid
Chloride
Dioxide

Na2S2O3(aq) + 2HCl(aq) S(s) + 2NaCl(aq)+ SO2(aq) + H2O(l)


To investigate the effect of various concentrations of sodium thiosulphate (attained by serial
dilution) upon the rate of reaction in the reaction between hydrochloric acid and sodium
thiosulphate the time was measured for a cross X upon a ceramic tile to be completely obscured.
Criterion: Data Collection and Processing:
Aspect 1:
Recording raw data:
Qualitative Data:
Table showing Qualitative Data for the reaction of 1.00 moldm-3 HCl(aq) with 25.00 cm3 samples of
Na2S2O3(aq )of various concentrations:
Reagents used

Concentration
/ mol.dm-3.

Na2S2O3(aq)

colourless solution

0.200

25.0 5.0

HCl(aq)
Distilled water
Products
precipitate

colourless solution
colourless solution

1.00
pH = 7

5.0
5.0 25.0

Reactants
Conical flask

Volume
/ cm3

Colour

yellow, of distinct pungent smell

Quantitative Data:
1

Table 1 showing the conical flask contents in the reaction of 1.00 moldm-3 HCl(aq) with 25.00
cm3 samples of Na2S2O3(aq )of various concentrations:
Distilled
water
0.10 cm3

Volume of
Na2S2O3(aq)
solution
(0.200 mol
dm-3)
0.10 cm3
25.00
20.00
15.00

4
5
6

10.00
5.0
0.0

1
2

Volume of
HCl(aq)
solution
0.10 cm3

Run 1:
Time / s
0.01

Run 2:
Time / s
0.01

Average
Time / s
0.01

0.0
5.0
10.0

Concentratio
n of
Na2S2O3(aq)
solution after
dilution in
mol dm-3
0.2
0.16
0.12

5.0
5.0
5.0

4.30
7.60
14.24

5.00
8.50
14.34

4.65
8.05
14.29

15.0
20.0
25.0

0.08
0.04
0.0

5.0
5.0
5.0

19.57
36.90
-

20.59
31.45
-

20.08
34.18
-

Aspect 2:
Processing raw data:
Calculating the concentrations of sodium thiosulphate solution:
Volume of
Na2S2O3(aq)
solution
(0.200 mol
dm-3)
0.1 cm3

Number of
Number of
moles = c x V moles = c x V
of Na2S2O3(aq) of Na2S2O3(aq)
solution in
solution in
3
25.00 cm
25.0 cm3
of diluted
of diluted
solution
solution

Distilled
water
0.10
cm3

Concentration of
Na2S2O3(aq)
solution after
dilution in mol
dm-3
Number of moles
=
c x V x 40

Concentration
of Na2S2O3(aq)
solution after
dilution in mol
dm-3

25.0

25.0 x 0.200
x 10-3
0.0500
0.0
0.0500 x 40
0.200
20.0
20.0 x 0.200
x 10-3
0.00400
5.0
0.00400 x 40
0.160
15.0
10.0 x 0.200x
10-3
0.00200
10.0
0.00200 x 40
0.0800
10.0
15.0 x 0.200x
10-3
0.00300
15.0
0.00300 x 40
0.120
5.0
20.0 x 0.200x
10-3
0.00400
20.0
0.00400 x 40
0.160
0.0
0.000
0.00
25.0
0.00
0.00
Table 2 showing the calculation of the various concentrations of 25.00 cm3 samples of diluted
Na2S2O3(aq ):
The uncertainty of the calculated concentration is due to uncertainty in the volume measurement of
the of Na2S2O3(aq) solution and the measurement of water:
(Measurement / Absolute Uncertainty) x 100
2

Table 3 showing the Uncertainties:


(Measurement /
Absolute
Uncertainty) x 100

(pipette uncertainty
0.10 cm3)

% Relative
Uncertainty of the
Volume
measurements

% Relative
Uncertainty of the
Conc/ns =
Volume Un/ty x 0.200
x 10-3 x 40

Concentrations
Solution after Dilution
/ mol dm-3

0.4
0.5
0.7
1
2
-

0.0032
0.0080
0.0016
0.0080
0.0160
-

0.200 0.003
0.160 0.008
0.120 0.002
0.080 0.008
0.040 0.016
-

(0.10 / 25.00)x100 =
(0.10/ 20.00)x100 =
(0.10 / 15.00)x100 =
(0.10 / 10.00)x100 =
(0.10 / 5.00x)100 =
Aspect 3:
Presenting processed data:

Graph showing the relationship between


various concentrations/mol.dm-3 of sodium thiosulphate solution
against time/s takenfor a sulphur precipitate to obscure a cross X.

0.25

0.2

0.15

0.1

0.05

Concentrations / mol per litre

0
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

Time / s

Criterion: Conclusion and evaluation:


3

Aspect 1
Concluding:
As can be seen from the above graph as the concentration of the reactant Na 2S2O3(aq )solution
decreases time of the reaction increases. The gradient of the graph at various points enables us to
calculate the rate of the reaction. The plot of the concentration against time is a curve. As known
from mathematics, exponential curves do not have constant gradients. If we interpret this
mathematical fact using chemical concepts we derive to the conclusion that the rate in a chemical
reaction is not constant. Looking at the curve above when the concentration of the Na2S2O3(aq ) is at
its highest monitored (0.2 M) the curve is most steep which indicates a high gradient hence a high
rate.. This suggests that the reaction is faster at the beginning when the concentration is high. This
experimental inference is clearly interpreted by the Collision Theory which regards chemical
reactions as collisions amongst particles. Higher concentrations involve more particles present per
unit volume hence the probability for fruitful collisions is higher.
Moreover, as can be seen in Table 3 as concentration decreased there was more uncertainty in the
collected data.
Aspect 2 / Aspect 3:
Improving the investigation / Evaluating procedure:
This experiment measures essentially the rate of reaction therefore all other factors affecting the rate
have to be controlled.

The four solutions are more accurate when prepared in volumetric flasks.

The judgment when exactly the cross X gets obscure is subjective. Measuring the light
absorbance is more objective. The light being absorbed by the solution is:

Light absorbed = 100% - %reflected - %transmitted


http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/com

Light passing through an object is called transmitted light.


There are a variety of wavelengths that pass through humans x-rays and radio waves come to
mind. Not all of the x-ray waves pass through the body; however, so we can use this to "see" bones
teeth, and organs.
4

Make sure the top of the LED is pointed at the source of light when you place the object between
the light and the LED.

http://mvh.sr.unh.edu/mvhinvestigations/led_transmission.htm
The effect of concentration can also be followed more accurately by measuring the change in
conductivity of the solution as in the reactants there are three moles of ions and no ions at all in the
products. The change in the conductivity can be measured by using a conductivity meter.

Improvements
Factor
Temperature

Method of control
The ceramic tile with the cross can be placed on
the bottom of a water-bath (glass tank filled with
water maintained at constant
temperature/thermometer)
Use the same stock bottle

Stock Solution
Concentration
Absorbance
LED and data logger
Conductivity
An electrical conductivity meter
An electrical conductivity meter.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrical_conductivity_meter