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# Cambridge International A Level Physics

Chapter P2

## g Use lead absorbers / stand far away / stay

close for a short time
[1]

1 a
Dependent variable is frequency;
independent variable is volume
[1]
b Temperature (or air pressure)
[1]
c Loudspeaker connected to signal generator
or tuning forks of different frequencies
[1]
d Connect to a microphone and oscilloscope.
Measure T, the time for one wave on x-axis
and f = T1 
[1]
e Fill with water and tip water into measuring
cylinder[1]
[1]
g Not too loud or use ear plugs
[1]
2 a
Dependent variable is terminal velocity;
independent variable is bubble volume or
b Temperature / mass of air in bubble /
atmospheric pressure
[1]
c Place marks on side of glass tube in which
bubble rises and time bubble between the
marks[1]
d Squirt air from a small glass tube under water
and change the radius of the tube
[1]
3 a
Dependent variable is count rate;
independent variable is distance
[1]
b Amount of radioactive material /
atmospheric pressure / long half-life
[1]
c Wrap source in a few millimetres of
aluminium and subtract background count
[2]
d Diagram of source and GM tube, with GM
tube connected to counter
[1]
Record change in reading on counter and
divide count by time
[1]
e Record for as long as possible (but much less
than half-life)
[1]
f The source is quite large and it is difficult to
know which part to measure to / difficult to
put a ruler over the distance
[1]
Put a fiducial mark on the bench on the
outside of the source to mark its middle [1]

4 a
Dependent variable is volume / radius /
diameter; independent variable is
atmospheric pressure
[1]
b Temperature / type of balloon
[1]
c Bell jar or container to hold balloon
[1]
Means to change pressure e.g. vacuum
pump[1]
d Turn on vacuum pump
[1]
Pressure gauge shown or manometer
(pressure may be measured in cm of liquid)
[1]
e Wear goggles / stand behind safety screen (as
bell jar may implode)
[1]
5 a
6.00.7
b 1.50.2
c 9.01.2 or 91
d 1.00.3
e 5.01.6 or 52
f 1.730.06

[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]

## 6 Best-fit line an even balance of points about

the line along its whole length
[1]
Worst-fit line line with most different
gradient to best-fit line but that still passes
through as many error bars as possible
[1]
In questions 711 only brief descriptions are given.
7 a
dependent variable R[1]
independent variable d[1]
constant intensity of bulb
[1]
b circuit diagram
[1]
current and voltage measured
[1]
distance d between source and LDR changed
[1]
d measured and shown
[1]
method of measuring d[1]
c R = VI [1]
graph of lnR against lnd should be a straight
line (not through origin)
[1]

## d avoid touching hot lamp / do not stare at

bright light
[1]
e any [4] points from
calculation of currents and choice of sensible
meter ranges
[1]
lamp is a line filament
[1]
detail of how to measure distance to filament
inside bulb
[1]

repeat measurement and average
[1] 10
trial experiment to find sensible distances [1]
avoidance of outside light / reflections
[1]
8 a
dependent variable T[1]
independent variable l[1]
constant mass
[1]
b displace mass downwards and release
[1]
method of measuring l using rule
[1]
method to measure to centre of mass
[1]
time 10 oscillations and divide by 10
[1]
use stopwatch
[1]
c graph of lnT against lnl[1]
d avoid masses falling on foot / mass flying off /
avoid breaking ruler with large amplitudes[1]
e any [4] points from
use small amplitudes
[1]
trial experiment to find sensible value of mass
[1]
use of electronic timer
[1]
fiducial aid
[1]
measure time from centre of oscillation [1]
9 a
dependent variable B[1]
independent variable I[1]
constant coil turns and area
[1]
11

b diagram showing coil and Hall probe with
voltmeter[1]
coil connected to d.c. power supply
[1]
ammeter to measure I[1]
probe at right angles to direction of magnetic
field[1]
method to locate centre of coil
[1]
c graph of B against I or graph of lnB against
lnI[1]
straight line through origin or graph of lnB
against lnI has slope 1
[1]
d large current causes heating, so switch off
when not in use
[1]

## e any [4] points from:

method to create a large magnetic field
reasoned method to keep probe in same
orientation (e.g. set square, fix to rule)
calibrate Hall probe
repeat experiment with probe reversed
avoid external magnetic fields

[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]

a dependent variable E[1]
independent variable v[1]
constant current in coil
[1]
b labelled diagram with magnet falling
vertically through coil
[1]
voltmeter or c.r.o. connected to coil
[1]
method to change speed of magnet
[1]
measurements to find v, distance or time
measurements[1]
determining v, e.g. v = 2gh or v= 2h
t [1]
c plot graph of E against v or graph of lnE
against lnv[1]
valid ifstraight line through originor gradient
of log graph = +1
[1]
d keep away from falling magnet / use sand
tray to catch magnet
[1]
e any [4] points from:
detailed measurement of maximum E, use of
datalogger / storage oscilloscope
[1]
use video including playback frame by frame
[1]
use short magnet or thin coil so v is constant
[1]
cardboard tube for magnet to fall down [1]
how to support coil or tube vertically
[1]
repeat for each v and average
[1]

a dependent variable VS[1]
independent variable f[1]
constant number of turns / input current /
voltage to coil
[1]
b labelled diagram with a.c. generator
[1]
voltmeter connected to output
[1]
c.r.o. or frequency meter connected
[1]
measurement of time for one or more wave
on c.r.o. screen used to find f[1]
method of measuring VS; method of changing
frequency[1]
c plot graph of VS against f or graph of lnVS
against lnf[1]

## valid ifstraight line through originor gradient

of log graph = +1
[1]
d heating of coil, e.g. switch off when not in use
to avoid overheating coil / do not touch [1]
e any [4] points from:
choice of number of turns to give reasonable
output[1]
1 [1]
f = period
VS found using y-gain[1]
changing r.m.s. to peak from voltmeter
[1]
check that input voltage or current is
constant[1]
repeat and average
[1]
12

## c i all points plotted correctly 

[1]
all error bars correct
[1]
ii line of best fit
[1]
worst acceptable straight line
[1]
iii 3.70.2
[2]
iv Use of a point on the graph and y = mx+c
to find c about 12 
[1]
Use of point on worst line graph to find
value of c about 121 
[1]
v n = 3.70.2
[1]
k = 10intercept[1]
Use of worst value of intercept to give
worst value of k[1]

2

g [1]

b i

T/s

T /s

1.11

1.230.02

1.28

1.640.03

1.42

2.020.03

1.59

2.530.03

1.69

2.860.04

1.81

3.280.04

[2]

## ii all points plotted correctly 

[1]
all error bars correct
[1]
iii line of best fit
[1]
worst acceptable straight line
[1]
2
1
iv 4.1s m uncertainty between
0.1 and 0.3
[2]
2
v 9.6ms uncertainty between 0.2 and 0.6
[2]
vi using g = 9.60.2ms2 gives t = 19.20.2s
[2]
13

a gradient n; y-intercept lgk 
b lg(T / K)
lg(R / W)

[2]

2.436

2.7400.008

2.452

2.6810.009

2.467

2.6250.010

2.481

2.5680.012

2.496

2.5190.014 [2]
Cambridge International AS and A Level Physics Cambridge University Press 2014