You are on page 1of 13

TURBINE

DEFINITION Any
DEFINITION:
A off various
i
machines
hi
in
i which
hi h the
th
energy of a moving fluid is
converted to mechanical power by the
impulse or reaction of the fluid with a
series of buckets,
buckets paddles
paddles, or blades
arrayed about the circumference of a
wheel or cylinder.
y

converts energy of fluid to mechanical


energy

Two types of water turbine:


Impulse turbine and Reaction turbine

Impulse turbine : a turbine that is driven by jets


directed
d
ected aga
against
st tthe
eb
blades
ades

Reaction turbine : a turbine with blades arranged


to develop torque from gradual
decrease of pressure from inlet
to exhaust

Can be classified by low head, medium head and


high head

Types of impulse turbine :


high head : Pelton
Pelton, Turgo
medium head : Crossflow, Turgo, Multi-jet Pelton
low head : Crossflow
Types of reaction turbine :
medium head : Francis
l
low
h
head
d:P
Propeller,
ll K
Kaplan
l

P lt
Pelton

P
Propeller
ll

THEORY OF OPERATION
R
Reaction
ti tturbine
bi

acted on by water, which changes pressure


and velocity and gives up its energy

fixed blades guide the fluid to moving


blades

fixed blades shaped and mounted to provide


nozzle-shaped spaces between the blades

Reaction turbine is moved by 2 main forces


1. the reactive force produced on the moving
blades when the fluid changes direction
2. the p
push or impulse
p
of the fluid impinging
p g g upon
p
the blades

I
Impulse
l turbine
t bi

changes velocity of the water jet

jet impinges
p ges o
on tthe
e tu
turbine
b e which
c reverses
e e ses tthe
e
flow resulting in change in momentum.

water pressure is converted to kinetic


energy by a nozzle.

Power
Th power available
The
il bl iin a stream
t
off water
t is;
i

Where:
P = power (J/s or watts)
= turbine efficiency
= density of water (kg/m3)
g = acceleration of gravity (9.81 m/s2)
h = head ((m).
) For still water,, this is the difference in
height between the inlet and outlet water surface.
Moving water has an additional component added to
account for the kinetic energy of the flow
flow. The total
head equals the pressure head plus velocity head.

= flow rate ((m3/s))

Reaction turbine
Francis turbine
Theory of Operation

Case e is
Casement
s needed
eeded to
o co
contain
a the
e water
a e flow
o .
The turbine is located between the high
pressure water source and the low pressure
water exit
Guide vanes direct the water tangentially to the
runner causing the runner to spin
As the water moves through the runner its
spinning radius decreases

High flow

low flow

Francis turbine with generator

Impulse turbine
Pelton

consists of a wheel with a series


of split buckets set around its rim
a high velocity jet of water is directed
tangentially at the wheel
The jet hits each bucket and is
split
p in half,, so that each half is
turned and deflected back almost
through 180
Nearly all the energy of the water
goes into propelling the bucket
and the deflected water falls into
a discharge channel below.

Turgo
the jet is designed to strike
the p
plane of the runner at an
angle (typically 20) so that
the water enters the runner on
one side and exits on the other.
other
Therefore the flow rate is not
limited by the discharged fluid
i t f i with
interfering
ith th
the iincoming
i jjett
(as is the case with Pelton
tu b es)
turbines).
As a consequence, a Turgo
turbine can have a smaller
diameter rrunner
nner than a Pelton
for an equivalent power.

Crossflow

a drum-like rotor with a solid


disk at each end and guttershaped slats
slats joining the
two disks
A jjet of water enters the top
p
of the rotor through the
curved blades, emerging on
the far side of the rotor by
passing through the blades a
2nd time
shape of the blades is such
that on each passage
through the periphery of the
rotor the water transfers
some of its momentum,
before falling away

Future Development

focus on economical performance,


environmental efficiency, reliability,
easy-to-service
t
i d
designs,
i
and
d llong service
i lif
life

turbine blade is designed to optimize the energy


capture

use power electronics to allow for variable rotor


speed operation to improve efficiency, control
structural loads and improve power quality