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Thiết Kế Bánh Răng Theo Tham Số Trên CATIA

Thiết Kế Bánh Răng Theo Tham Số Trên CATIA

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You are on page 1of 40

Page 1

Designing parametric

spur gears with Catia V5

version 5 has no

built-in tool for designing gears.

When you are making

a realistic design, you may need a

template spur gear.

we can design a generic gear controlled by the following

parameters:

The modulus m.

The number of teeth Z.

This tutorial shows how to make a basic gear that you can freely re -use in

your assemblies.

10/25/2008

Thin Cnh

Page 2

10/25/2008

1.1 Table of useful parameters and formulas

Here is a table containing the parameters and formulas used later in this t utorial:

ParameterType or unit

1 a

angular

degree

Formula

20deg

#

The table is given first so that you can use it for further

copy/paste operations.

All the units are defined in the metric system.

This figure shows the a, ra, rb, rf, rp parameters defined in the table:

Description

Name in French

Pressure angle:

technologic constant

(10deg a 20deg)

Angle de pression.

Thin Cnh

Page 3

10/25/2008

2 m

millimeter

Modulus.

3 Z

integer

Number of teeth (5 Z

Nombre de dents.

200).

Module.

millimeter m *

Pitch of the teeth

une

on a straight generative

crmaillre gnratrice

rack.

rectiligne.

5 e

millimeter p / 2

Circular tooth

thickness,

measured on the pitch

circle.

6 ha

millimeter m

Addendum = height of

a tooth

Saillie d'une dent.

above the pitch circle.

7 hf

if

m

> 1.25

hf = m

millimeter

* 1.25

else hf = m

* 1.4

Dedendum = depth of a

tooth below

the pitch circle.

Proportionnally greater

for a small modulus (

1.25 mm).

grand

en proportion pour un

petit module ( 1.25

mm).

8 rp

millimeter m * Z / 2

circle.

Rayon du cercle

primitif.

9 ra

millimeter rp + ha

circle.

Rayon du cercle de

tte.

10 rf

millimeter rp - hf

circle.

Rayon du cercle de

fond.

11 rb

millimeter rp * cos( a )

circle.

Rayon du cercle de

base.

12 rc

millimeter m * 0.38

concave corner.

(m * 0.38) is a

normative formula.

Cong de

raccordement la

racine

d'une dent. (m * 0.38)

vient de la norme.

13 t

floating

point

number

Sweep parameter

of the involute curve.

Paramtre de balayage

de la courbe en

dveloppante.

4 p

0t1

mesure sur le cercle

primitif.

Y coordinate

rb * ( sin(t *

of the involute tooth

) millimeter

profile,

cos(t * ) * t

generated by the t

*)

parameter.

14 yd

Thin Cnh

Coordonne Y du

profil de dent

en dveloppante de

cercle,

gnr par le

Page 4

10/25/2008

paramtre t.

rb * ( cos(t

Z coordinate

* ) +

millimeter

of the involute tooth

sin(t * ) * t

profile.

*)

15 zd

16 ro

17 c

18 phi

Radius of the

osculating circle of

the involute curve, on

the pitch circle.

Coordonne Z du

profil de dent

en dveloppante de

cercle.

Rayon du cercle

osculateur la courbe

en dveloppante, sur le

cercle primitif.

millimeter

rb * a * /

180deg

angular

degree

sqrt( 1 / cos(

the involute

2

a) -1)/

that intersects the pitch

PI * 180deg

circle.

Angle du point de la

dveloppante

l'intersection avec le

cercle primitif

angular

degree

atan( yd(c)

making a

/ zd(c) ) +

gear symetric to the ZX

90deg / Z

plane

obtenir un

roue symtrique par

rapport au plan ZX

Formule N11: explication de l'quation

rb = rp * cos( a ) :

Au point de contact, a dfinit l'angle de pression de la ligne d'action.

La ligne d'action est tangente au cerce de base.

On a donc un triangle rectangle rsoudre.

Formule N12:

prvoir un petit cong de raccordement pour attnuer l'usure en fatigue.

= rb * cos( t ) + rb * t * sin( t )

face dans Catia.

Le premier terme rb * cos( t ) correspond une rotation suivant le

cercle de base.

la dveloppante.

Cette expression rappelle que le rayon de coubure de la dveloppante vaut

* t.

rb

Formule N16:

Thin Cnh

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10/25/2008

ventuellement remplacer la dveloppante de cercle par un arc

de cercle.

The osculating circle of a curve at a point

shares with the curve at that point:

st

(continuity of the 1 derivative).

nd

A common radius of curvature (continuity of the 2 derivative).

en un point donn est le cercle osculateur.

Le cercle osculateur une courbe en un point

partage avec la courbe en ce point:

er

(continuit au 1 degr).

Un mme rayon de courbure

nd

(continuit au 2 degr).

o L'angle de la dvelopante est gal l'angle de pression a.

o Le rayon du cercle osculateur est donc: ro = rb * a * / 180 .

Formule N17:

Pour exprimer ce dphasage, on calcule le paramtre angulair e c au point

o la dveloppante coupe le cercle primitif.

On a alors:

o

o

o

o

zd(c) + yd(c) = rp

2

2

2

rb * ( 1 + c ) = rp

2

2

cos(a) * ( 1 + c ) = 1

c2 = 1/cos(a) 2 - 1

Thin Cnh

Page 6

10/25/2008

shape design workshop

The part design workshop is not sufficient for designing parametric curves.

So, we switch to the generative shape design workshop:

Thin Cnh

Page 7

10/25/2008

3.1 Define the primary generation parameters

button:

f(x)

Thin Cnh

1. Select the unit (integer, real, length, angle, ).

2. Press the create parameter button.

3. Enter the parameter's name.

4. Set the initial value, used only if the parameter has a fixed value.

Page 8

10/25/2008

Thin Cnh

You don't need to assign them a value, because Catia can co mpute them

for you.

So, instead of filling the initial value, you can press the add formula button.

Page 9

Then you can edit the formula:

10/25/2008

Thin Cnh

Page 10

10/25/2008

Set the following option in order to display the values and formulas of

each parameter:

Now your tree should display the following parameters and their formulas:

Thin Cnh

Page 11

10/25/2008

Up to now, we have defined formulas for computi ng parameters.

Now we need to define the formulas defining the {Y,Z} cartesian position of the points

on the involute curve of a tooth.

We could as well define a set of parameters Y0, Z0, Y1, Z1, for the coordinates of the

involute's points.

However, Catia provides a more convenient tool for doing that: the parametric

laws. In order to create a parametric law:

Enter the formulas #14 and #15 of the 2 laws used for the

coordinates of the involute curve:

o

o

Thin Cnh

yd =

* PI

zd =

* PI

and Z

)

rb * ( cos( t * PI * 1rad ) + sin( t * PI * 1rad ) * t

)

Page 12

10/25/2008

mbers, so we must use angular constants like 1rad or

1deg.

PI stands for the number.

inserting geometric elements

In Catia, the PartBody is intended for mechanical surfaces.

For geometric constructions, you need to work in a geometric body:

Thin Cnh

Page 13

10/25/2008

Then, you can use the buttons on the right toolbar for inserting

different geometric elements.

Catia assigns a default name to each geometric element, but you can

rename it with a contextual dialog

/ Open Body

top menu:

Thin Cnh

Page 14

opened with the right

10/25/2008

button / properties

The following steps explain how to design a single tooth.

The whole gear is a circular repetition of that first tooth.

5.1 Define the parameters, constants and formulas

Already done in the section related to parameters and formulas .

a spline

The position of each point is defined by the

Thin Cnh

yd(t)

Page 15

10/25/2008

each point

and enter the values of the parameter from t = 0 to t = 0.4

(most gears do not use the involute spiral beyond 0.4)

Thin Cnh

Page 16

10/25/2008

Thin Cnh

0.2:

Page 17

t =

10/25/2008

Why do we need an extra polation ?

* 0.94 .

rb = rp * cos(20) rp

Thin Cnh

Page 18

10/25/2008

When Z < 42, the root circle is smaller than the base circle. For

example, when Z = 25:

rf = rp - hf = rp - 1.25 * m = rp * (1 - 2.5 / Z) = rp * 0.9 .

So the involute curve must be extrapolated for joining the root circle.

st

The length to extrapolate is empirically defined by the formula

f(x) = 2 * m :

Thin Cnh

Page 19

10/25/2008

5.5 Rotate the involute curve for the symmetry relative to the

plane

Why do we need a rotation ?

On the extrapolated involute curve designed in the

RED

system

Y, Z

ZX

coordinate

It is more convenient to draw a tooth that is symmetric on the ZX plane,

because it makes it easier to control the angular position of a gear in a mechanism :

LIME

the two contact points of the tooth

CYAN

ZX

90deg / Z

plane.

Thin Cnh

Page 20

For computing the rotation angle, we need first to compute the

involute parameter or the pitch circle (formula #17):

10/25/2008

Thin Cnh

Page 21

10/25/2008

Is it true ? In order to check it, you can build two temporary elements:

Insert another point and apply the involute formula with the

parameter:

Then, insert a half -circle having the radius of the pich circle

rp.

Thin Cnh

Page 22

10/25/2008

Check that the involute point with the c parameter is actually located on

the intersection of the pitch circle and the extrapolated spline curve:

temporary circle can be deleted.

Now, we can rotate the extrapolated curve, so that the first gear tooth is symetric

relative to the ZX plane:

Thin Cnh

Page 23

10/25/2008

We use the formula #18 for computing th e phi rotation angle in 2 steps:

1. The curve is rotated by atan( yd(c) / zd(c) ) so that

the intersection between the involute

and the pitch circle (the red point on the figure ) is moved to the ZX

plane.

2. Then, curve is rotated by of the gear period: 90deg / Z (the

left lime point on the figure ),

so that the ZX plane corresponds to the median plane of the first tooth.

A rotation operation is applied to the extrapolated spline, using the phi

rotation angle:

ra

Thin Cnh

Page 24

10/25/2008

The corner between the extrapolated involute curve and the root circle has

a radius defined by the rc parameter.

Thin Cnh

Page 25

10/25/2008

Catia asks you to select an arc ( in red) out of 4 possible geometric solutions

(in blue):

Why are we going up to the next tooth ?

Thin Cnh

Page 26

10/25/2008

Initially, I designed a symmetric profile for the first tooth and I duplicated it

Z times:

But then, the generated profile was interrupted between each tooth by a

fake edge:

Thin Cnh

Page 27

10/25/2008

For preventing that, I build now the whole profile between consecutive

teeth on the root circle:

o A vertical line tracing the ZX plane.

o An oblique line tracing the median plane between consecutive teeth.

o This plane corresponds to the ZX plane rotated by 180deg / Z around

theX axis.

Thin Cnh

Page 28

10/25/2008

Now, this plane is used for defining a symmetric rounded c orner on the

root circle:

Thin Cnh

Page 29

10/25/2008

st

Now, we have to cut, fill and join the different elements of the 1 tooth:

Thin Cnh

Page 30

10/25/2008

Cut the segment of the extrapolated spline between the outer circle and

the rounded corner.

Thin Cnh

Page 31

10/25/2008

st

1 tooth:

but instead we define two arcs having a radius equal to rf and ra,

ZX

Thin Cnh

Page 32

10/25/2008

Page 33

10/25/2008

respectively:

Thin Cnh

st

The last operation consists in joining all the elements of the 1 tooth:

The gear profile is just a circular repetition of the tooth:

axis.

Thin Cnh

Page 34

The number of instances is controlled by the

10/25/2008

Z

Thin Cnh

Page 35

10/25/2008

The first tooth and the duplicated teeth are joined for making the whole

gear profile:

Thin Cnh

Page 36

10/25/2008

Now, we can switch back to the part design workshop (see the green arrow)

and extrude the gear profile:

The gear wheel is cut after the extrusion, because each application requires a specific

wheel thickness:

Thin Cnh

Page 37

10/25/2008

In a real factory, the teeth of the gear would be machined after the gear

wheel is cut on a lathe.

In a CAD design, it is simpler to make the gear wheel with a groove, after

the extrusion of the teeth.

That wheel design is semi -parametric: the external diameter and the

20deg chamfer are dependent of ra,

but the bore diameter and the thickness are adjusted manually on the sketch:

Now, you can add pocket(s) for transmitting the torque between the gear

wheel and a key or a spline d shaft.

Thin Cnh

Page 38

Now you can play with the

If Z is equal to 13:

10/25/2008

Thin Cnh

Page 39

If Z is equal to 15:

End of File

10/25/2008

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