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By : CHANDRA SIRAIT 20 C A 007210036 DEISY ARI D IYANI MELI MAU M ULANI 20 007210045 20 007210127
FACULT OF PAHR TY RMACY UNIVERSI ITY OF PAN NCASILA J JAKARTA 2009
This paper is the was made for Scientific Competition or LKTI (Scientific Essay Competition), organized by Bogor Agricultural Institute which will be held in March 2010. All praises to God Almighty who has given grace and his guidance so that the compiler can finish this paper. Authors thank all for those who have helped in making this paper. Authors realize this paper is still far from excellent, therefore, criticism and suggestions from readers are the authors expected. Finally, authors hope this paper can be useful for authors and readers, especially for Student from the Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Pancasila in increasing knowledge and motivation for the better future
Jakarta, March 20th 2010
How to Increase Quality of Food by Hygiene and Sanitation
CHANDRA SIRAIT(1), DEISY ARIYANI(2), AND MELI MAULANI(3)
Faculty Of Pharmacy University Of Pancasila Srengseh Sawah, jagakarsa, Jakarta 12640, email@example.com
ABSTRACT Human need for food from time to time has been increased. By these improvements, there have been more food industries that provide good food in the form of raw foods, processed foods, and fast foods. Food produced and distributed can be derived from large industries, secondary industries, small industries, and home industries. The negative side of food industries will eventually bring about the abundance of the risks, one of which is about food poisoning. Cases of food poisoning in Indonesia was ranked as the 2nd largest prior to case of infectious disease. The factor majorly causing food poisoning cases is the lackness of the application of food sanitation. The cause of food poisoning according to Mortimer and Wallace may come from biological, physical, and chemical contaminations. To prevent such contaminations there are some efforts which can be done the application of food sanitation as well as the application of HACCP( Hazard Analys Control Point) system with monitoring. In 1993, the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC) as known a food standard commission of FAPO / WHO as a reference / international standards for monitoring food safety. Then, the application of the HACCP standard in Indonesia is translated into Indonesian National Standard (SNI 01-4852-1998). Which also has been developed to be guide / application of industrial food in Indonesia, HACCP system has 3 important approaches in the supervision and quality control of food products, named : (1) food safety, (2) whole-someness, and (3) economic fraud. By means of this HACCP approach, the quality of food safety control and of the products, either managed by small, medium, or large industry, can be more assured. because the risks of and the angers of each stage in processing can be controlled. To applying HACCP the improvement of human resources quality is required, so that these system approaches can achieve the objective, where quality is the main capital to compete in local markets and to face global competition. One way to improve the quality of human resources is the knowledge of food industry, for example, education of domestic food industries which already regulated in Kep. Men. Kes. RI No. 02912/B/SK/IX/1986. Key word : HACCP, quality of food, food poisoning and food safety
CONTENTS FOREWORD…….…………………………………………………………...…...i ABSTRACT……………...…………………………..…………………………...ii CONTENTS ……...……………….……………………………..………………iii TABLE CONTENT………………………………………………...…………...iv CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1. 2. 3. 4. BACKGROUND………………………………………….1 FORMULATION OF PROBLEMS……………………..2 OBJECTIVES………………………………..…………....3 BENEFITS…………………………..………………….....4
CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) POISONING CASES………….………………………….5 FOOD POISONING………………………………………6 CONTAMINATION HAZARDS…………………………7 FOOD SANITATION……………………………….......11 WRITING METHODE…………………………………..17
CHAPTER III DISCUSSION……………………………………………………18 CONCLUSION……………………………………...…………….…..19
CHAPTER IV REFERENCE...………………………………………………..20
1. Table 1 shows, in a 5-year period (2001-2005) the number of outbreaks of food poisoning………………………………….…………………………………….5
1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Human need for food from time to time has increased. In line with these improvements, there have been more industries that provide good food in the form of raw foods, processed foods, and fast foods. Food produced and distributed can be derived from large industries, secondary industries, small industries, and home industries. Currently in Indonesia as a country developing stage to advanced country give effect to the rate of growth for small industrial and medium industry very rapidly. But many small and medium industries are more focused on a profit than focused on a quality, especially in quality of safety products. Most of the food industry manufacturers avoid liability in the consumer safety compliance within various reasons such as rising raw material prices, distribution costs, wages of employees, and taxes. Consequences of passiveness the manufacturers about the safety of consumers so that the danger deviations are come, such as food poisoning. Food poisoning cases put Indonesia on the 2nd position as the largest in Southeast Asia. Food poisoning cases are often caused by a variety of contamination. According to Mortimer and Wallace contamination hazard are divided into 3 groups, there are biological hazards, physical hazards and chemical hazards. These dangers can be derived from the food itself, either directly or cross-contamination. In addition there is also danger of contamination originating from the environment (soil, water, and air), and contamination of equipment. Most of poisoning cases in Indonesia is derived from biological hazards, generally caused by microorganisms, such as Escherichia coli that can cause bloody diarrhea, renal failure, and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Clostridium botulinum can cause Crohn's disease. And Salmonella sp. can cause typhoid disease. As a result of threaten food security is not only in Indonesia but also in the world, so the HACCP’s system was established. In 1993, Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC) as a food standard commission of FAPO / WHO has set a Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) as a reference / international standards for monitoring food safety (food safety). Therefore, many countries have abandoned the conventional control system, where the final product monitoring system through making and testing sample of a product has been abandoned and turned into the HACCP, whose system is a quality control system focusing on preventive actions. Then the application of the HACCP standard in Indonesia is translated into Indonesian National Standard (SNI 01-4852-1998). SNI was developed to be guide / application for business in Indonesia, making it possible to enter the phase of the sertification process. Besides referring to the SNI, it may also be referred to the guidelines of National Standardization agency 1400-1999. System of HACCP has 3 important approaches in the supervision and
2 quality control of food products, there are : (1) food safety, food safety is the aspects of the production process that can cause disease. (2) whole-someness, that is a characteristic of the product or the processing in connection with the contamination of the product or sanitation facilities and hygiene, and (3) economic fraud, the illegal acts or fraud that could harm the consumers. These actions include falsification of raw materials, the use of excessive additives, and the use of hazardous packaging. There are some danger that can be prevented or minimized through the application of the basic prerequisites for the HACCP’s system supporting such as GMP (Good Manufacturing Practices), SSOP (Sanitation Standard Operational Procedures), SOP (Standard Operational Procedure), and other support systems. In order to achieve the purpose of HACCP, increasing the quality of human resource is required, and also the quality is the main capital to increase the quality of human life.
Formulation of the problem: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. How is the development of food industries in Indonesia? Are there any impacts from these development? Are there any danger that can cause food poisoning? How to overcome the dangers of food poisoning? What rules have made by government to take action against for the manufacturers whom do deviation of food safety? Who is responsible for supervision of food safety?
Objectives and benefits: 1. To increase public awareness of the importance of food sanitation. 2. With the increasing public awareness of food sanitation, it will be expected to decrease the number of poisoning cases and increase quality of life in the community. 3. Can create the food products that have good quality and nutrition. 4. Increasing belief and interest the consumer about the products that generated by the food industry in Indonesia. 5. To open business opportunities for the community that can break down the numbers of unemployment. 6. There is increasing in surveillance of food industries in Indonesia so that can produce great quality local products and also can compete with foreign products.
3 CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW
The development of food industry in Indonesia is very fast, it provides food industry in the form of raw materials, processed and fast foods. Food produced and distributed can be derived from large industries, secondary industries, small industry, and domestic industriesa. In Indonesia a developing industry to give effect to the rate of growth for small and medium industry. But many small and medium industries are more focused on a profit than focused on a quality, especially in quality of safety products. Most of the food industry manufacturers avoid liability in the consumer safety compliance within various reasons such as rising raw material prices, distribution costs, wages of employees, and taxes. Consequences of passiveness the manufacturers about the safety of consumers so that the danger deviations are come, such as food poisoning. The main parameter that the most easy to see for indicating the level of food security in a country is the number of poisoning case which is caused by food. The data based on reporting received were including the number of the extraordinary incidents of food poisoning, the number of people who are sick, and the number of people who died. Table 1 shows, in a 5-year period (2001-2005) the number of outbreaks of food poisoning as well as people who are exposed, ill, died of poisoning tend to be increased; as well as with Case Fatality Rate (CFR) and the Incident Rate (IR). It is supposed many outbreaks of food poisoning that has not been reported in Indonesia. Table 1. Poisoning Cases in Years 2001 – 2005 Years 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
Outbreaks Exposure 26 1965 43 6543 34 8651 164 22297 184 23864
Sick 1183 3635 1843 7366 8949
Died 16 20 12 51 49
CFR *) 1.35 0.28 0.65 0.69 0.55
IR **) 0.54 1.67 0.84 3.37 4.11
*) Case Fatality Rate (CFR): the ratio between the number who died in the hospital multiplied by 100. **) Incident Rate (IR) is the number of incidents per 100,000 population.
4 Besides food poisoning case was also put Indonesia on the 2nd position as the largest in Southeast Asia in 2004. Food source for the causes of food poisoning in 2004 were: household food (53.7 percent), food processing (15.2 percent), food catering (15.2 percent), food snacks (12.2 percent), and not reported (3.7) whereas in 2005 the household food (42.4 percent), food processing (15.2 percent), food catering (21.2 percent), food snacks (17.9 percent), and other (3.3 percent). Viewed based on etiology, the causes outbreak of food poisoning were reported in 2005 is known for a confirmed 5.43 percent, 18.48 percent suspect’s known cause and 76.09 percent of suspect unknown cause. The causes of microbiology food poisoning include by Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus aureus, Salmonella sp., and Escherichia coli pathogens. And the causes of chemical food poisoning include nitrite, histamine, formaldehyde, cyanides, methanol, and tetradotoksin.
According to Mortimer and Wallace contamination hazards are divided into 3 groups, there are biological hazards, physical hazards and chemical hazards. Biological Hazard In general the numbers and kinds of microorganism that were found in the food reflect the quality and sanitation of the food. Microbes in food can have a positive and negative role. - Microbes have a positive role include: 1. Role in the process of making food and fermented beverages (eg, mold Penicillium roqueforti involved in making cheese) 2. Role in increasing the nutritional value of food 3. Role in the procurement of smell, color and taste - Microbes have an impact on food negaif such as: 1. Can decrease the nutritional value 2. Change the value of unwanted organic 3. And can produce toxins Biological hazards are living organisms that can cause food unsafe to consume. This danger is often associated with raw materials, and also probably will be
5 appeared during in processing. Biological hazards may include viruses, bacterias, and parasites. Viruses The virus is very small organisms much smaller than bacteria. The virus has a size approximately ranging from 10 nm - 260 nm x210. Virus-celled form of particles which can multiply within the cell. The virus can cause food poisoning so that will be appeared gastroenteritis. The viruses include echovirus, coxsackie virus, poliomyelitis, and hepatitis. Members of reovirus, adenovirus and others also play in a role. The main symptoms of food poisoning by virus is sudden diarrhea, that is often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, lethargic, abdominal pain or fever. Parasites Nemathelminthes in general are worms which living as parasite and injuring humans. They injure humans and animals, except planarians. Planarians can be used for fish meal. Nemathelminthes (gilig worms), such as Ascaris lumbricoides. It is often called the stomach worms or intestinal worms or roundworms. Intestinal parasites in humans, animals with a bilaterally symmetrical body with a good digestive tract but no circulatory system. For example gilik worms, askaris worms, akarm worms, hook worms, filaria worm. Nemathelminthes almost entirely have the plight as a result if they enter into other living thing. Such as Ascaris lumbricoides worms are stomach worms that suck nutrients from humans. Their lifes are related with the clean behaviors and conditions of environmental sanitation. Clinical symptoms caused by adult worms and larvas. If they are in the lungs, they will can cause coughing, fever, eosinofilia. And if they are in patients who malnutrition, they will occur intestine obstruction. Bacteria The bacteria that cause food poisoning is called bacterial pathogen is an organism that has the ability to cause or produce disease. For examples of bacterial pathogen are Salmonella sp., Escherichia coli, Clostridium botulinum, Vibrio cholera, Staphylococcus aureus, and many others. However, most cases of bacterial food poisoning caused by Clostridium botulinum, Salmonella sp., and Escherichia coli. Clostridium botulinum Botulism is a disease caused by food poisoning or drunk food by bacteria. This disease occurs because the feed contained botulinum toxin in preserved foods with less than perfect manner as those found in
6 home canned foods. Foods that are usually associated with botulism are undergoing treatment for the purpose of preservation such as canning, making pickles, or fogging, but not can kill the bacteria. Some examples are fruits and vegetables are canned at home industries, smoked fish, meats and fish flavored. Distribution scheme Clostridium botulinum. The symptoms of this disease usually starts around 12 to 48 hours after eating contaminated food. Symptoms include difficulty speaking, dilated pupil, double vision, dry mouth, nausea, vomiting and unable to swallow. Salmonella spp. Human who is infected by salmonella almost always caused by consuming food or drink contaminated. The food that usually contaminated include cookies that contain milk sauce, roast beef and eggs traded. Infections by salmonella bacteria attacks the gasstrointestine’s cannal that include stomach, small intestine and large intestine or colon. Salmonelosis outbreak is caused by food which is explosive or anything to relate with a wedding, banquet or other events that provide a meal for a group of people. The scheme spread Salmonella sp. Symptoms of salmonella poisoning effect of 8 - 48 hours after eating food contaminated with salmonella, stomach pain appears suddenly with watery diarrhea or watery, sometimes with lenders or blood, often accompanied by nausea or vomiting, fever with a temperature of 38o to 39oC general occurred. This bacteria comes from human and animal feces, infected into food because of holder behaviors that are not hygienic, washing equipment is not clean, the health of holder food processing and used washing water containing E. coli. The disease is caused by foods that contain a number of pathogenic bacteria, or toxins released by these bacteria. This disease can attack an individual, couple or family members or family groups who have a close relationship, lasted only a few hours, or if the weight took place in a few days, weeks or months and requires intensive treatment. In the vulnerable groups, such as children and the elderly, the disease would be very dangerous. Physical Hazards
7 Is a danger because of the physical contamination such as foreign objects that could harm humans if ingested, such as broken glass or glass, metals (wire, nails, needles, stapler, etc.), stones, leaves, twigs, wood, pests , jewelry, sand, plastic. Food which has risk of physical danger is dirty food, because it is contaminated by foreign objects such as pebbles, hair, nails, scales and so on. Food wrapped in plastic or leaves using a stapler can be separated into the food without being noticed. Chemical Hazards Is a danger of contamination of chemicals that can cause toxic poisoning or illness if eaten a human like: peptisida residues, hazardous metals (Pb, Hg, As), the danger of food packaging materials, and toxins naturally present in food. Causes of chemical hazards in food - Raw food such as vegetables and fruits may be contaminated with pesticides whose using in the farm with excessive doses or spraying of pesticides is performed while the vegetables or fruits to be harvested. - Vegetables can be contaminated with dangerous metals because it is always doused with water contaminated by hazardous metals from the waste or waste industry. - Tempe Bongkrek may be contaminated by Bongkrek poison as a result of wrong manufacturing and storage process. - Contamination of food from packaging materials Contact with the food packaging materials can cause chemical emigration monomers (vinyl chloride and styrene used in the manufacture of plastic) and the plasticizer. Different levels depending on the plastic hazard: a chemical constituent, which wrapped foods (acidic, fatty), length of exposure and temperature of the food when stored. • Vinyl chloride Has been identified as carcinogenic in the human liver, causing acute intoxication of the central nervous system depression and liver damage. Vinyl chloride is soluble in water and fatty
8 material. In the cooking oil has been shown for vinyl chloride containing 14.8 mg / kg, and miniral water in bottles containing a vinyl chloride polyvinyl chloride in 6 months: the concentration of 170 mg / L. • Plasticizer dissolved can cause liver and lung damage • Styrofoam It often used as a food packaging containers of instant or fast food. Made from foamed polystyrene with a polystyrene base material. And at high temperatures likely to move the chemical components in foods. Where the migration of styrene occurs at high temperatures > 300oC, styrene especially fat-soluble food. FDA requirements on the total residual styrene content of the maximum in packaging materials: 1% weight (10,000 ppm), and 0.5% (5000 ppm) for fat foods. Source of food hazards Source of food hazards can be derived from food, environments and contamination of equipment. • Food Pollution returned food products that have quality and safety is done by the physical contamination, chemical and biological contamination. That contaminations are called cross-contamination. Crosscontamination is harmful if it is calculated in terms of time and cost, the efforts to make food products become redundant and can not be marketed because of breakage. Which again is more detrimental if the contaminated food products had already cross-sell and cause poisoning to consumers. Cross-contamination can occur because of contamination by dirty water or air, and also because of contact between the food with the employee or dirty equipment. Examples of cross-contamination that often occurs in small food industry facilities. - Products processed food contaminated by raw materials back still dirty. This can occur because the food products that have been placed near the processed raw materials are still dirty. Items contaminated food can also be returned by contamination from employees who were working.
9 • Environment Source of contamination of the environment can be derived from water, air and soil. The disease occurs due to water from drinking contaminated water. Actually the source of infection was not water, but feces from humans or animals that have been polluting the water. Feces contain enteric pathogens if it is coming from the sick or infectious diseases, besides water contamination can also come from the laundry waste water, bathing water, residual waste, vegetable waste, plant waste. While the disease was transferred by air such as: colds, respiratory disease (melalaui coughing and sneezing). And other sources of contaminants from the soil, where microorganisms can exist in certain foodstuffs such as: celery, root vegetables, potatoes, carrots and tubers, it is because the presence of natural microorganisms in the soil (Clostridium botulinum.), And there is also Clostridium prefringens in the dust. • Contamination of equipment Food products may be contaminated by the contamination of machinery and equipment is still dirty. Food poisoning can occur during the production process, which includes processing, packaging, transportation, preparation, storage and serving, the food may be exposed to danger contamination, such as biological hazards, chemical hazards and physical hazards. Because of food poisoning cases is very common in society. This indicates that food security conditions in the community is concerned, the high risk of food poisoning cases caused by the practice of healthy living and the use of inadequate sanitation in the community environment. In addition to food safety factors that cause food poisoning cases, fraudulent practices in food trade also often occured. As a result of threaten food security is not only in Indonesia but also in the world, so the HACCP’s system was established. In 1993, Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC) as a food standard commission of FAPO / WHO has set a Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) as a reference / international standards for monitoring food safety (food safety). Then the application of the HACCP standard in Indonesia is translated into Indonesian National Standard (SNI 01-4852-1998). SNI was developed to be guide / application for business in Indonesia, making it possible to enter the phase of the sertification process. HACCP system has 3 important approaches in the supervision and quality control of food products, there are: (1) food safety, food safety is in the aspects of the production process that can cause disease. (2) wholesomeness, are characteristic of the product or process in connection with the
10 contamination of the product or sanitation facilities and hygiene, and (3) economic fraud, the illegal acts or fraud that could harm consumers. In other words to control the quality of food product, so that the food sanitation is needed. Sanitation in food led to efforts to create and improve a condition that can prevent food contamination that can cause food poisoning. Food sanitation aims to ensure the safety and purity food, Medium consumers from disease, and prevent the sale of harmful food consumers. Food sanitation include: (1) sanitation of food processing, (2) sanitation of equipmenst, buildings, and facilities, (3) sanitation of worker, (4) sanitation of water and environmental.
1. Food Sanitation Damage food can cause disease or result in the ruins that causes food poisoning. Damaged food may be caused by microorganisms in food, cooking temperatures are not suitable for some food and food storage that is not true. And attempt to prevent the damage food so that the controling microorganisms in food can be done, then the cooking temperature and settings for food processing and food storage settings can be correct. • Control of microorganisms in food Most food will soon be dismantled or destroyed by microorganisms, except when preserved. Modern methods of food preservation using primitive processes which have been already fixed, like salting, drying and smoking. methods of food ingredients can be summarized as follows: a. Sterilization b. Removal of microorganisms c. High temperature (pendididhan, vapor pressure and pasteurization) d. Low temperature (storage in the refrigerator, frozen storage) e. Dehydration f. Enhanced osmotic pressure (in a concentrated sugar, the salt solution) g. Chemicals (organic acids, smoking) h. Radiation (ultraviolet, gamma)
11 Sterilization The process of sterilization can be done with dry heat or oven at a temperature of 160-180oC (1-2 hours), whereas with wet heat or autoclave at temperature of 121oC for 15 minutes. Removal of microorganisms Fluid being forced through with a positive or negative pressure through a sieve "type of bacteria" are sterile can be used to clear the flow of matter and remove microorganisms. This is the method used for beer, soft foods, fruit juice, wine and water.
High Temperature Benefiting from high temperatures is one method of preserving food that the most safest and the most reliable. - Steam pressure As the "pressure cooker" to produce a temperature above 100oC in an atmosphere saturated with steam, this is a preservation method is most effective because it can kill all vegetative cells and heat utilizing spora. Preservation within heat requires knowledge of many factors, especially the resistance of microbes and spores to heat. - Pasteurization There are 2 methods of low temperature method (low temperature holding or LTH), and the method of high temperature short time (Hight temperature short-time or HTST). LTH heating methods of milk at a temperature of 62.8 o C for 30 minutes in a specially designed equipment. HTST methods while using equipment capable of heating the milk at a temperature of 71.7 oC for 15 seconds. Product that have completed in process should be stored at low temperature to prevent growth of microorganisms that can survive pasteurization process. - Low Temperature 0oC temperature or lower may inhibit the growth and metabolic activities of microorganisms for a long time.
12 - Dehydration Growth of all microorganisms can be prevented by reducing the environmental humidity to below the critical point. The critical point is determined by the characteristic organisms in question and the capacity to bind food materials so that water is not available as a free moisture can be eliminated by the process of dehydration. - Preserving a way of increasing osmotic pressure Water will be drawn out of the cells of microorganisms if the cells are inserted into a solution containing large amounts of dissolved substances such as sugar or salt. - Chemicals Preservative chemicals that are allowed to use in acidic foods such as benzoate, sorbet, acetate, lactate and propionate, all of which are organic acids. Sorbet and propionic acid is used to menhambat on bread mold growth. Nitrites and nitrates used for preserving meat (especially to preserve color), using sodium nitrite as a preservative it can cause carcinogenic effects. - Radiation UV rays have been used to reduce or menginaktifkan microorganisms, especially mold found in air storage space and packing space Perusaan bread, cakes and meat. • cooking temperature settings for food processing Setting the temperature in food processing is very important to keep the food sanitation. A good way of cooking can be done by: - Avoid half-baked concoction of at least 70 ° C - 76 ° C - Melt the frozen food before cooking - Serve hot foods-savings (65 ° C) and served and consumed immediately (within 30 minutes) - If not directly consumed: save the hot (65 ° C) or - Chill quickly within 1 ½ hours:
13 Roll out in shallow container, do not accumulate in the food in the container - After a cold store immediately in the refrigerator (5 ° C) - Time of food cooked keep refrigerated and thoroughly reheat the food when the whole section will be consumed. • Storage of foodstuffs are not mixed between the food ready to be eaten with raw materials. 2. Sanitation equipment, buildings and facilities Equipment, buildings and fasilisas also a source of contamination, therefore there is need for regulations for equipment, buildings and facilities in order to prevent contamination.
Sanitation buildings, facilities and equipment GMP Buildings and facilities • Location away from buildings: - Polluted area and industry activities which are a serious threat to contaminate the food. - Areas affected by flooding - Areas of pest infestations tend to occur - Areas where solid waste is either liquid or can not be effectively eliminated • Location of equipment - Abridging for maintenance and sufficient cleaning - Functions as the right using - Supports hygiene practices, including monitoring Internal structure and fittings
14 - The surface of walls, partitions and floors should be made in materials materials that can not be transparent and not toxic. - Walls and partitions should have a smooth surface at a height appropriate to the activities - Floors must be constructed so that it can be draining and cleaning. - The ceiling and upper frame must be constructed and coated to minimize accumulation of dirt and condensation, and the shaded particle contamination. - Tat location and design must minimize contamination, easy to clean, and minimize contamination of the air. - Facilities of employees such as the washing and drying hands, toilet, and lockers where the change the clothes, must be available and maintained sanitation in order to prevent contamination. Construction and design of equipment - All surfaces that direct contact with food must be in good condition, strong and easily cleaned, maintained, disinfected. - Made of smooth, non-absorbent, good standard grade: inert with food, detergents and disinfectants under normal operating conditions. - Easily removed and put back - There should be no parts made of wood - Not allowed to use: belt with open absorbent, made of sponge rubber - All metal surfaces in contact with food must be made of stainless steel - Other parts, metal should not rust, smooth or coated metal. - The surface is in contact with food should be smooth, without cracks or parts - No soldering or open connection in the kettle cookers, mixers, blenders, tanks, filling machines, etc. - All the edge should be rounded and grooved. For example in the corner of a room, so easy to clean from dirt.
15 Sanitation employees Employee hygiene is one very important thing to note in the food industry so that the resulting food product quality and safe for consumption. The thing that must be considered in maintaining sanitation employees are: Hygiene and Controling disease Personal hygiene: • • • • Shower every day before work Nails kept clean and cut Not wearing jewelry diperkenenkan area of production The disease must be reported communication
• Employees who suffer from open wounds or infected is not allowed working on food production.
Water and environmental sanitation Water Sanitation - Supply of clean water is good enough for processing or for washing and cleaning needs - Water utuk must meet the requirements of processing raw materials drinking water. And the water used should also be given treatment and purification washing first. Environment around the building site must be kept of sanitation, in order to minimize the danger of contamination from environmental hazards such as waste water or waste. In addition to the application of sanitation, there are some legal foundation established by the government on food safety. Shrimp RI Act No.7 of 1996, about the food Kep.Men.Kes RI No.23/Menkes/SKI/1978, How About Good Food Production (CPMB)
16 Per.Men.Kes. No.722/Menkes/Per/IX/1988, dan Per.Men.Kes. No. 1186 year in 1999, about Food Additives. Kep.Men.Kes.RI. No. 02912/B/SKI/IX/1986, about education for home industries. Per.Men.Kes.RI. No.712/Menkes/Per/X/1986, requirements of catering. about the health
17 WRITING METHOD A. Writing Method This scientific paper describes the dangers that can cause contamination of food becomes unsafe to consume, and how to suppress the danger of such contamination by food sanitation, which is include : (1) sanitation of food processing, (2) sanitation of equipment, building and facilities, (3) sanitation of worker, (4) sanitation of water and environment. Sources Data This paper is based on scientific studies and literature and various references, such as: 1. Primary Sources Text books (standard books). 2. Secondary Sources Medical and pharmacy journals 3. Tertiary Sources Internet, Health Blogs, Scientific articles. B. Writing Focus This paper is focused on the application of food sanitation in an effort to ensure food security.
18 CHAPTER III DISCUSSION
The main factors driving the food products industry in the application considered less CPMB is still low personal hygiene applications; lack of awareness in the processing environment to discharge such as garbage, plant facilities and inadequate sanitary facilities, yet the products free of animal insects, and equipment and lack of clean water supply adequate. There is some danger that can be prevented or minimized through the application of the basic prerequisites such as the HACCP system supporting GMP (Good Manufacturing Practices), SSOP (Sanitation Standard Operational Procedures), SOP (Standard Operational Procedure), and other support systems. In order for HACCP goals, improving the quality of human resources required, because the quality is the main capital to improve the quality of human life. In addition the government is also doing outreach to producers and consumers, strengthening the regulation, monitoring and enforcement, consumer protection in order to protect the public health status. And to suppress the occurrence of food borne illness do surveillance of food safety among others under the supervision of food products registered and inspection of food products in circulation. This is in line with the development of food security, as mandated in Law No.. 7 year 1996 about the food and the Government Regulation no. Year 2004 on safety, quality, and nutritional food. In food safety regulation is defined as the conditions and measures necessary to prevent possible contamination of food from biological, chemical and other objects that may interfere with, harm and endanger human health. In the aspect of legislation, some responsibilities related to food safety activities is the preparation of standards and provision of food safety restrictions such as types and ways of safe pesticide use, technology and ways of processing, storage and handling of food, type and limit the use of BTP (Additional Material food), test methods and limit microbial contamination, chemicals and other substances that affect food safety. It is expected a decline in cases of poisoning in Indonesia and the increasing degree of public health.
19 CHAPTER IV CONCLUSION
The development of food industry in Indonesia is very rapidly where it provides food industry in the form of raw materials, processed and ready to eat foods. Food produced and distributed can be derived from large industry, secondary industry, small industry, and domestic industry. Currently in Indonesia as a country developing stage to advanced country give effect to the rate of growth for small industrial and medium industry very rapidly. But many small and medium industries are more focused on a profit than focused on a quality, especially in quality of safety products. Most of the food industry manufacturers avoid liability in the consumer safety compliance within various reasons such as rising raw material prices, distribution costs, wages of employees, and taxes. Consequences of passiveness the manufacturers about the safety of consumers so that the danger deviations are come, such as food poisoning. The main parameter that the most easy to see for indicating the level of food security in a country is the number of poisoning case which is caused by food. The number of cases of food poisoning can be derived from biological hazards, physical hazards and chemical hazards. These dangers can be derived from the food itself, either directly or crosscontamination. In addition there is also danger of contamination originating from the environment (soil, water, and air), and contamination of equipment. Most cases of poisoning in Indonesia that is derived from biological hazards, generally caused by microorganisms, such as Escherichia coli that can cause bloody diarrhea, renal failure, and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Clostridium botulinum which can cause Crohn's disease. And Salmonella sp. which can cause typhoid disease. With the application of HACCP / sanitation of food is good food safety supervision is managed by small, medium, or large can be more assured of quality products, because the risks and dangers posed every stage of processing can be controlled. To implement HACCP, improving the quality of human resources is needed so that these systems approach can achieve the target, where quality is the main capital to compete in local markets and facing global competition.
Improving food safety by the application of food sanitation. Food sanitation aims to ensure the safety and purity of food, preventing consumers from disease, and prevent the sale of harmful food consumers. Food sanitation include: (1) sanitation of food processing, (2) sanitation equipment, buildings, and facilities, (3) sanitation worker, (4) water and environmental sanitation. And also improve food security through strengthening the regulation, monitoring and enforcement, consumer protection in order to protect the public health status.
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