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Meiosis &

Sexual Reproduction
(Ch. 13)

Aaaargh!
Im
seeing
double!

___________________________
___________________________

same amount of DNA

clones

_________________

identical daughter cells

produce cells with same information

Cell division / Asexual


reproduction
Mitosis

What are the


disadvantages of
asexual
reproduction?
What are the
advantages?

Simple multicellular
eukaryotes

Hydra

Paramecium
Amoeba

yeast (fungi)
Protists

Single-celled eukaryotes

budding

Asexual reproduction

budding

egg

46

sperm

46

zygote

92

Do we make egg & sperm by mitosis?

joining of egg + sperm

What if a complex multicellular


organism (like us) wants to reproduce?

What if we did,
then.

How about the rest of us?

46
chromosomes
23 pairs

Human female _______________

46
chromosomes
23 pairs

Human male ________________

diploid
2n
2n = 4

single
stranded
homologous
chromosomes

double stranded
homologous
chromosomes

control same inherited characters


homologous = _________________

Paired chromosomes
both chromosomes of a pair carry matching
genes

Homologous chromosomes

46

46

23
sperm
___________

meiosis

egg

23

46
fertilization

23

23

__________

Must reduce 46 chromosomes 23


must reduce the number of chromosomes by
__________

How do we make sperm & eggs?

haploid diploid
n2n

___________
restores chromosome
number

makes ____________

humans: 46 23

_________________
______

Meiosis
chromosome number
must be reduced

________

________

Meiosis: production of gametes

gametes

1 copy
haploid
1n
In the next
generation
Were mixing
things up
here!
A good thing?

____________

1 copy
haploid
1n

gametes

__________

2
copies
diploid
2n

Sexual reproduction lifecycle

Warning: meiosis evolved from mitosis, so


stages & machinery are similar but the
processes are radically different. Do not
confuse the two!

sperm, eggs

_________________

two half

___________________
special cell division
for sexual
reproduction
reduce 2n 1n
diploid haploid

Meiosis

telophase
1

n=2

interphase
1

prophase
2

anaphase
2

telophase
2 n=2

n=2

anaphase
1

I.P.M.A.T.P.M.A.T

metaphase
1

metaphase
2

prophase
1

2n = 4

Overview of meiosis

2nd division of
meiosis separates
___________________

1st division of
meiosis separates
___________________

DNA replication

Double division
of meiosis

Meiosis 2

Meiosis 1

M1 prophase

meiosis evolved after mitosis


convenient to use
machinery of mitosis
DNA replicated in
S phase of ____________
of ______________
(just like in mitosis)

Duplication of DNA
Why bother?

1st step of meiosis

Preparing for meiosis

2n = 6
double
stranded

2n = 6
single
stranded

tetrad
1n = ___
double
stranded

telophase 1

metaphase 1

prophase 1

_____________ of meiosis
separates _______________

synapsis

Meiosis 1

reduction

2n = ___
double
stranded

2n = ___
double
stranded

2n = ___
single
stranded

1n = ___
single
stranded

1n = ___
double
stranded

telophase 2

metaphase 2

prophase 2

______________ of meiosis
separates ______
_____________

What does
this division
look like?

Meiosis 2

1n = ___
double
stranded

prophase 2
metaphase 2
anaphase 2
telophase 2

Meiosis 2

interphase
prophase 1
metaphase 1
anaphase 1
telophase 1

Meiosis 1

2nd division of meiosis


separates ___________
____________________
(1n 1n)
* just like mitosis *

1st division of
meiosis separates
____________________
(2n 1n)
reduction division

Steps of meiosis

Meiosis 1 & 2

_______________

DNA breaks & re-attaches

homologous pairs swap


pieces of chromosome

during _____________, sister


chromatids intertwine

________

____________________

Trading pieces of DNA


prophase 1

What are the


advantages of
crossing over in
sexual
reproduction?

___________________________

cross over
breakage of DNA
re-fusing of DNA

3 steps

Crossing over

Mitosis vs. Meiosis

___ division
daughter cells
genetically ________
to parent cell
produces _________
____ ____
produces _________
_________________
no crossing over

Mitosis

___ division
daughter cells
genetically ___________
from parent
produces _________
____ ____
produces ____________
___________________

Meiosis

Mitosis vs. Meiosis

23

46
sperm

23

________ egg

46

gametes

___________

23

23

___________
development

zygote

46
46 46
46 46 46
46
46
46

meiosis fertilization mitosis + development

Putting it all together

metaphase1

Driving evolution
providing variation for natural selection

which sperm fertilizes which egg?

_____________________

mixing of alleles across homologous chromosomes

_____________________

random alignment of homologous chromosomes in Metaphase 1

_____________________ of chromosomes

_________________________

Sexual reproduction introduces genetic variation

The value of sexual reproduction

from Mom

from Dad

offspring

random assortment in humans produces


______________ different combinations in gametes

new gametes
made by offspring

meiosis introduces genetic variation


gametes of offspring do not have same
combination of genes as gametes from parents

Independent assortment of chromosomes

Variation from genetic recombination

creates an ___________
variety in gametes

Crossing over creates completely new


combinations of traits on each chromosome

Variation from crossing over

any 2 parents will produce a zygote with


over 70 trillion (__________) possible diploid
combinations (not even counting crossing
over!!!!!!!!!)

Sperm + Egg = ?

Variation from random fertilization

Baldwin brothers

Martin & Charlie Sheen, Emilio Estevez

Jonas
Brothers

Sexual reproduction allows us to maintain both


genetic similarity & differences.

Sexual reproduction creates variability

Testis
Coiled
seminiferou
s
tubules

continuous & prolific process


Cross-section of
seminiferous
each ejaculation
=
tubule
100-600 million sperm

Spermatogenesis

Vas
deferens

Epididymi
s

spermatozo
a

primary
spermatocyt
e
(diploid)
secondary
spermatocyte
s
(haploid)
spermatid
s
(haploid)

germ cell
(diploid)

Sperm production

MEIOSIS
II

MEIOSIS
I

Meiosis 2 completed
triggered by
fertilization

Meiosis 1 completed
during egg
maturation

eggs in ovaries halted


before Anaphase 1
Meiosis 1 completed
during maturation
Meiosis 2 completed
after fertilization
1 egg + 2 polar bodies

Oogenesis

Egg production

ovulation

unequal
divisions

second
polar body

fertilization

MEIOSIS
II
after

first polar
body

MEIOSIS
I

fertilizatio
n

ovum
(haploid
)

primary
oocyte
(diploid
)
secondar
y
oocyte
(haploid)

germinal
cell
(diploid)

Oogenesis
primary
follicles

fallopian
tube

corpus
luteum

developin
g
follicle
mature follicle
with
secondary oocyte
ruptured
follicle
(ovulation)

Putting all
your egg
in one basket!

must for sexual reproduction

which one is dominant (2n or n) differs


but still alternate between haploid & diploid

Not all organisms use haploid & diploid stages


in same way

Differences across kingdoms

What are the


DISadvantages of
sexual
reproduction?

Eggs are Precious,


Sperm is Cheap.
Any Questions??

Review Questions

They have half the amount of cytoplasm and twice the amount of DNA.

They have half the number of chromosomes and one-fourth the amount
of DNA.

They have the same number of chromosomes and half the amount of
DNA.

They have half the number of chromosomes and half the amount of
DNA.

They have twice the amount of cytoplasm and half the amount of DNA.

1. How do cells at the completion of meiosis


compare with cells that have replicated their
DNA and are just about to begin meiosis?

I
II
III
IV
V

2. Which number represents G2? *

I
II
III
IV
V

3.. Which number represents the DNA content of a sperm


cell?

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

daughter cell after meiosis II


gamete
daughter cell after mitosis in gametophyte generation of a plant
cell in prophase I
cell in prophase II

4. Which of the following would not be considered a


haploid cell?

twice as much DNA and twice as many chromosomes.

four times as much DNA and twice as many chromosomes.

four times as much DNA and four times as many chromosomes.

half as much DNA but the same number of chromosomes.

half as much DNA and half as many chromosomes.

A.

B.

C.

D.

E.

5. A cell in G2 before meiosis compared with one of


the four cells produced by that meiotic division
has