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New Forms of Education of Professionals for Vocational Education and Training (EUROPROF) Graham Attwell Institüt Technik und

Bildung, University of Bremen Traditionally vocational education and training has never been seen as a profession in itself, like, for instance doctors or general schoolteachers. At a research level VET has been the preserve of a variety of different disciplines - including psychology, pedagogy, labour market research, and work science. Planners and policy makers in vocational education and training have likewise been drawn from many different fields. The failure of vocational education and training to gain recognition as a profession is reflected in the relatively low prestige, and rates of pay, for vocational teachers and trainers. It may also be seen in the generally low levels of training for people working in the field when compared with established professions. ‘New Forms of Education of Professionals in VET’ (EUROPROF) is a two year Leonardo Surveys and Analyses project bringing together researchers from fourteen different European countries. The long term aim of the project is to develop a ‘community’ of VET researchers and practitioners and the ‘professionalisation’ of VET, in other words to gain the recognition of VET as a discipline and a profession in its own right. In the shorter term the project aims to build an international network of VET researchers and to develop new qualifications for VET professionals, planners, teachers and trainers, through a European Masters (MA) qualification to be offered in universities in different European countries. The very ambitious aims for the project, together with the national diversity of the partnership and the spread of disciplines, interests and approaches of the project scientists, has posed a serious challenge in terms of the development and application of methodology. This paper will examine some of the questions that have been raised and some of the approaches the project has adopted. It is not intended to convey the impression that EUROPROF solved all the problems facing partners in trans-national European research. Rather it is hoped that the ideas developed in the project may serve as a basis for information and reflection and mutual learning between members of the international VET research community. In this respect two important methodological approaches should be mentioned at the outset. The first has been our desire to build links and networks and seek active interchange with researchers, practitioners and policy makers in the carrying out of the project activities. For this activity we have coined the phrase ‘on-going interactive dissemination’. In particular EUROPROF has built strong links with a number of other Leonardo Survey and Analyses projects and actively collaborated with the FORUM1 network, with CEDEFOP and with the VETNET network. We have also sought to actively involve new institutions and individuals in the project activities through creating the status of Associate Partner. Secondly the project has adopted a ‘problem finding approach’ in stead of just seeking to solve problems. We are aware that any international research effort of this sort is going to face fairly serious problems in carrying through its activities especially if the desired impact is reform and change in different member states. For this reason it is better to actively seek to identify the research challenges and problems in order to be able to bring a collective experience to their consideration if not resolution. Collaboration and Co-operation

FORUM is the Forum for European Research in Vocational Education and Training. The network, comprised of researchers and practitioners, is examining the development of a European path for VET. VETNET is the VET network of the European Education Research Association.


Two important questions concerned the project design and methodology. Traditionally international projects in vocational education and training have tended to work through comparative methodology, through an examination of the different national systems for VET. Such a methodology is inadequate for the aims of EUROPROF. Instead the project has developed the idea of collaborative research2, through both building transnational teams to focus on common research questions (See figure 1), and through a process of mutual learning based on national research (Attwell and Heidegger, 1997 forthcoming). The aim is not to transfer features from one national system to another but rather to use the analysis of different national systems as a springboard for the development of new ideas and innovations. Whilst the project will, of course, address its findings to policy makers and planners, the driving force for change is from the bottom up, in changing the practice in the different partner countries and in developing ‘model projects’ which can serve as an observatory for evaluation and reform. As such the project is based within the tradition of ‘action research’. Figure 1: Research Questions and Development Tasks Research Questions • Defining work process knowledge; • • • • • Vocational Education and Training, Human Resource Development and regional development The connection between collaborative research and comparative research What are the ‘shaping skills’ required for ‘anthropocentric’ production? New European occupational profiles and cultural diversity and curriculum flexibility Project dissemination and the development of new programmes for education of VET professionals Development Tasks • • The development of new forms of Vocational Education and Training and Human Resource Development for ‘social organisation of innovation’ and life-long learning. The examination of the strengths and weaknesses of existing provision of Education for Vocational Education and Training professionals in the member states of the European Union and the identification of the opportunities for new programmes and provision. The identification and development of new occupational profiles for VET professionals. The development of new curricula for the education of VET professionals and the launch of pilot programmes

• •


Collaborative research involves comparative tools, but not as an end in itself.


The second methodological question regards the question of different national cultures and traditions. Within the arena of social policy there are quite different degrees of similarity and difference in different fields of activity. Vocational education and training systems in Europe are unusually diverse, reflecting their emergence in different historical, social, economic and cultural situations (Rose, 1991). Even following the establishment of the European Union and the growth of an international economy, processes of convergence have been accompanied by simultaneous divergent trends. A European qualification implies a degree of conformity in terms of recognition, curriculum, organisation and pedagogy. At the same time it is necessary to respect and capitalise on the different traditions of education in the different countries and on the different regional and national economic needs such education programmes will address. In part our different understanding of quite basic and fundamental ideas underpinning national vocational education and training systems causes this problem. This is not merely a language question. In fact it is precisely in those areas where language is most similar that the greatest problems of understanding arise. For instance the English term ‘competence’ may easily be understood in any European language. However when the real meaning of the term is explored there are very different conceptual understandings of the nature of competence which, in themselves, reveal different approaches to the whole question of vocational education and training. For instance in the UK competence is seen as the ability to perform a series of pre-defined external tasks to a given standard whilst in Germany competence is an internal quality of the individual relating to both their knowledge and skills but also to their occupational identity. Another example comes from Finland where the concept of ‘work-life’ underlies much of the research in vocational education and training. Whilst the term ‘work life’ is perfect English as a concept it has no meaning. Therefore in undertaking research and development projects in Europe it is necessary to spend some time sorting out and agreeing on the basic ideas before rushing into development activities. In recognition of the importance of ‘training the trainers’ the European Commission has sponsored a plethora of different projects and initiatives over the past decade. Yet, despite well meaning intentions and hard and earnest endeavours by researchers and policy makers alike, there has been a marked failure to develop any common approach to the education of VET professionals. The project has developed an approach to this question based on identifying and elaborating a series of common ‘cornerstones’ that underpin the surveys and analyses (Attwell, 1996). Anthropocentric Production and Shaping Skills


The first of the project cornerstones is the idea of anthropocentric production - that workers should be given the skills and the autonomy to shape and control technology and design their own work organisation. Such a concept stands in contrast to the customary ‘deficit model’ of vocational education and training, to providing the skills and understanding required for people to adapt to socio-economic and technological development. This model has led to a situation where VET is always following behind new technology and new economic developments in a vain attempt to catch up. Instead the project proposes that VET should be providing for ‘future skills’. But instead of trying to predict or guess future skill needs, for new production processes and new commercial and social services, it is proposed that people themselves should have the ability to participate in the shaping of the content, form and organisation of work technology. Obviously this idea is underpinned by social principle and on wider ideas of the organisation of society itself. But it is also predicated within the changes in the organisation of manufacturing and services with increasing rates of change in technology and new emphasis on quality and small batch production. The move away from mass production, the emphasis on small and medium enterprises as the driving force for job creation and the emergence of the ‘learning organisation’ as a goal for organisational development all ask new competencies of the workforce. The ability of workers to undertake work self-reliantly, independently and to utilise creative and communication skills is a new goal for vocational education and training. Human centred innovation has implications for the organisation of production with the competences of teamwork, and communication becoming highly valued. The ‘Social Organisation of Innovation’ The idea of ‘shaping’ is linked to the aim of the ‘social organisation of innovation’. Human skills are increasingly seen as the key element in economic competitiveness resulting in the high priority currently being given to vocational education and training. The European cultural tradition of social partnership and social inclusion emphasises not only economic competitiveness but also social competitiveness - social cohesion and personal self-fulfilment. Technical innovation and new forms of work organisation, linked to regional development, the creation of new employment opportunities and social reform comprises the social organisation of innovation. In other words innovation and economic growth and development are not based just on the introduction of new technology and cheaper production costs but also on the social process of skilled work. VET professionals, planners, teachers, trainers, have a wider role than the traditional passing on of a set of skills. In viewing human skills as the basis of societal innovation then VET professionals themselves become pivotal in the process of innovation. Work Process Knowledge


The aim of life long learning has been the focus for numerous national and European Community initiatives over the past five years. Life long learning demands new skills and a new approach to learning and work, which cannot be gained from traditional VET. VET professionals themselves not only must understand the new skills required, demanding changes in their own skills and knowledge, the new didactic models and methodologies such an approach implies but must themselves accept the need for life long learning. If teachers and trainers are to utilise the workplace as the basis for lifelong learning then they, themselves need a thorough grounding in occupational and technical skills and work process knowledge. A third cornerstone for the project is the idea of work process knowledge. The role of skilled work in the encouragement of innovation has already been explained. Empirical research has pointed to the importance of work process knowledge - knowledge encompassing the whole work process, often acquired through the experience of work and knowledge which is required for successful performance in the workplace (Fischer, 1996). Whilst theories of the learning organisation and of situated learning have illustrated the centrality of the design of the workplace as a medium and opportunity for learning, less attention has been paid to the role of the teacher and trainer in mediating and facilitating this process. Many of the studies in the field have tended to concentrate on the human resource development and the implications of new forms of work organisation for management development, rather than examine the role of the teacher and trainer in the acquisition and development of work based knowledge and skills (Attwell and Jennes, 1996). New Occupational Profiles The new role and responsibilities for VET professionals are very different to the traditional view of a vocational teacher or trainer. One of the major objectives for the project has been to identify new occupational profiles for VET professionals in the different European countries. Of course many of the teachers and trainers do not currently require or utilise the wide range of competences and skills being proposed. As such a traditional needs analysis would not be sufficient for this purpose, concentrating as it does on the present skills demands. Instead the researchers have conducted interviews with a wide range of different organisations and individuals including policy makers and planners, existing providers of education for teachers and trainers, managers and HRD specialists in enterprises and VET practitioners themselves. The new occupational profiles are multi-dimensional and involve the integration of different expertise and skills. One key decision has regarded the different organisational focus for the planners, teachers and trainers. Should there be separate occupational profiles for a school teacher working in initial vocational education and training, a trainer working in a training centre with the long term unemployed and in enterprise based trainers in initial and continuing education? The EUROPROF project team has attempted to bring together these different roles within a single broad occupational profile. Firstly it is felt that the present divide between initial and continuing VET does not reflect the goal of lifelong learning. Secondly it is seen as desirable that the VET professional of the future is able to employ a wide variety of learning strategies and pedagogic methodologies. Obviously there are different learning strategies for continuing training in a work based situation and for young students in a vocational school. But VET professionals should have an understanding of the theories of learning and to be able to design learning situations based on the needs of the trainees. It is also felt that in the future VET professionals should themselves possess the skills and knowledge to be able to move between different contexts for learning, in the development of their own professional career. An understanding of the broad basis of vocational education and training is also central to the idea of a community of practice, itself an integral part of the goal of developing VET as a profession. Occupations and Human Resource Development 5

A further decision, and one that has excited much debate and not inconsiderable disagreements, has regarded the occupational focus of the profiles. Over the past decade Human Resource Development has become well established as a university discipline and within enterprises there has been a move away from seeing training as a personnel function to the appointment of HRD managers. The background for these new HRD professionals is varied although many seem to have an initial degree in business studies. University courses in Human Resource Management are almost always free of any occupational focus, concentrating as they do on the theory, process and management of human resources. In contrast the EUROPROF project design has adopted an occupational focus as the basis for new occupational profiles. The reason lies in the belief in the practice of skilled work as the basis for innovation and on work process knowledge as central to life long learning. One of the conditions for the development of occupational expertise is the ability to reflect on ones own professional and occupational practice. As such VET professionals play two roles, as a skilled practitioner in their own occupational area and as a teacher, trainer or planner in education and training. This is not to imply that the two are separate and can be acquired as add on components. A teacher or trainer in health care needs to be able to reflect on his or her practice as a health care professional from the viewpoint of vocational education and training; similarly they must be able to reflect on their practice as a teacher from the viewpoint of a health care professional. In other words the new occupational profiles include both technical and pedagogic skills. Whilst occupationally focused it would be foolish to narrow the occupational range of practice unnecessarily, especially given the movements towards multiskilling within the European workforce. In practice the selection of a range of occupations as a basis for the new profiles is not as difficult as it might at first sight appear. Most European countries have a classification system for similar broad occupational roles. In fact the EUROPROF project partners have concentrated on two different groups of occupations those in areas where technological development and new work organisation is leading to very rapid development and change, such as engineering, and new emerging occupations, like child care and tourism. The decision to develop occupationally based profiles does not mean, however, that the importance of human resource development has been ignored. Many of the ideas, which have been developed by HRD practitioners, such as the learning organisation and the importance of continuing training are included in the new profiles. New tasks and Profiles: New Methodological Questions


The cornerstones served as the basis for a series of surveys undertaken in different partner countries. The EUROPROF project did not set out to analyse and compare the present occupational roles and profiles of VET professionals, but rather to develop future scenarios (Heidegger, 1996). Such aims influenced the methodology leading the partners to undertake a series of semi-structured interviews and qualitative analysis instead of conducting a quantitative survey. A further concern was to identify trends and changes in the activities being undertaken by VET professionals. The work of McLagen (1989) and surveys undertaken in Europe utilising the McLagen questionnaire (Ginkel, Mulder and Nijhof 1994; Odenthal and Nijhof, 1997) reveal changes in the functions of HRD professionals, what they fail to reveal is crucial changes being undertaken within these functions and in particular new methods, activities and strategies being employed in teaching and instructing. Functional analyses of the role of VET professionals like in the UK (TDLB, 1995) similarly only show the present activities undertaken by VET professionals. A second reason for wishing to undertake a series of interviews was the necessity to build networks for intervention and change. The individuals, institutions and organisations that serve as the primary source of information and data also are important as potential change agents for dissemination, impact and change. Project partners are organising national networks and meetings to disseminate the findings of the surveys, to validate the findings and to propose further activity to implement the outcomes in their own countries. Convergence of trend: divergence of effect The results of our studies have posed new methodological questions in transforming the survey and analyses work into an ongoing action plan for the development of new programmes for VET professionals. The EUROPROF survey reveals a complex process of simultaneous convergence and divergence. Firstly there is a broadening in the role of VET professionals in most countries in Europe. Perhaps of greatest significance is the increased attention being paid to continuing vocational training. Where as previously the main focus for continuing training lay in the area of management development the acceptance of ideas such as life long learning and the changes in work organisation are extending continuing training to include wider sections of the workforce. This is meaning new responsibilities for traditional HRD specialists but also leading to a blurring in the division of roles between what was seen as the work of VET practitioners and that of HRD professionals. Allied to this trend is the new emphasis on organisational learning leading to new roles for VET and HRD professionals within the work process and new tasks in initial education and training. The third area where roles have broadened is in the provision of vocational education and training for the unemployed where there is a movement away from lower level instructional activities to view the task of retraining the workforce as a major concern and including counselling, work placement, monitoring as well as the planning and management of more demanding retraining programmes. The trend towards decentralisation of vocational education and training provision is leading to new roles in the management of the VET. At the same time the emphasis on situated learning and work process knowledge are leading to deep seated changes in the form of VET provision with a move away from instruction and classroom provision towards a new focus on the management of the learning process and the identification, design and structuring of learning activities. This in turn is highlighting activities such as mentoring, coaching, simulating and facilitating rather than instructing and training. Once more the trends towards reform of initial vocational education and training towards more work process related activities rather than classroom learning is both broadening the role of VET professionals and at the same time leading to a convergence between the traditional roles of VET and HRD specialists. For both their main role is becoming the management of learning.


However the way these changes are manifested in effect in different sectors and countries is very complex. Much depends on the interaction between occupational profiles and the labour market. In countries with a strongly regulated labour market such as Germany the changes in role may be slower to appear as regulations take time to catch up with the new profiles and there remains a strong division between the roles of VET teachers, instructors and industrial trainers (Heise, 1996). In deregulated labour markets like the UK there may be a tendency towards increased specialisation in order to reduce costs. In some industrial sectors groups of employers have a strong influence over the actual implementation of occupational profiles and in some sectors and countries social partners also play a major role (Force, 1994; Nielsen, 1996). The design and organisation of initial VET in different countries also has a major influence on the roles undertaken by VET professionals. Whilst there is a general movement towards some form of alternance training throughout most of Europe in those countries with a school based VET system divisions between the VET and HRD function remain stronger. There are further differences caused by cultural and societal influences. EUROPROF studies undertaken in Greece (Patiniotis, 1996) have noted the strong influence of family environments exerting pressure for university education and the relative isolation of vocational education from labour market needs. Finally the very forms of education for VET professionals, which forms the central focus for the EUROPROF studies, will in themselves effect the occupational profiles and roles. In order to see the enactment of the new broader roles being advocated then there is the need for a thoroughgoing professionalisation of the education and training of VET professionals. Existing education for VET Professionals The second field of development tasks, the existing provision of education for VET professionals reveals a picture of inconsistency and fragmentation (Attwell, 1997). Not only are there very different patterns of education of VET professionals between different countries but provision varies within individual occupations, countries and regions. The fragmentation of provision may be seen as a reflection in the fragmentation of VET provision itself. Indeed it is generally within those countries with the fullest developed systems for vocational education and training that is seen the best practice in the education of VET provision. But it is also a reflection of the lack of esteem attached to VET provision and also the uneasy status of VET in failing to develop as a discipline in itself but rather forming a sub set of a number of related disciplines. From fragmentation to collaboration While it is possible to prescribe a need for professionalisation in the education and practice of VET professionals in Europe and to identify convergence of trends in occupational roles and profiles the situation outlined above does not hold promise for the introduction of new common programmes between different countries. Realistically the task may be posed as moving from fragmentation to collaboration in VET professional education (Kauppi, 1997). There remains the need for further comparative research but there is also an imperative to seek and develop new methods for collaboration and co-operation at a research level. How might this be achieved? The fragmentation outlined above limits the possibility for formal cooperation between governing and regulatory bodies in order to instigate a raising of standards. The limited mobility of VET teachers and language barriers also impose a limitation on student exchange and mobility as do the different national requirements for VET practitioners.


The project is presently exploring different approaches to overcome the problems outlined above. One proposal is to form an ongoing network for universities and institutions involved in research and provision for the education of VET professionals. The purposes of the network could be as follows: 1. The development, piloting and mutual recognition of new MA and Doctorate programmes for the education of VET professionals; 2. The promotion of exchange programmes for teachers in VET; 3. The promotion of contacts between alumni of networking institutions; 4. The sharing of knowledge through collaborative research, workshops and publications. 5. The development of shared databanks of resources and research findings and papers. The first task is to develop methodologies which can allow collaboration in the development of new programmes whilst respecting institutional and cultural autonomy and diversity. Two approaches are being explored both of which have specific strengths and weaknesses. The first is the definition of a list of common learning outcomes, which could be incorporated into new and existing programmes for VET professionals. However there are well-documented problems with outcome based approaches. The major one is that of disaggregation. This means getting the level of breakdown and weighting right between the many different skills and competences a VET professional needs. Secondly is the question of defining and describing knowledge requirements. John Walton (1997) has drawn attention to the difficulties in ensuring a trans-cultural and inter-language understanding of a set of outcomes. This is particularly so given the specific and sometimes obscure nature of the language of VET. He also advances some useful ideas on how this problem can be overcome. Advantages of the outcomes approach include the potential clarity of a shared set of outcomes and the potential to focus development activities in a direct way. Furthermore specifying a series of core outcomes allows plenty of room for institutional and regional differentiation in design and delivery of programmes and pedagogy whilst maintaining a common approach. The second approach is to further develop the initial cornerstones to provide a framework for programme development and mutual recognition. The key difference here is that whilst the outcomes approach is based on what the students can do as a result of successfully completing a ‘EUROPROF MA’, the cornerstones method would be a way of ‘kitemarking’ institutions, curricula and programmes. The disadvantages of this approach may be the necessarily rather general nature of the framework and the difficulty in precise interpretation and application. Towards a European research culture in Vocational Education and Training Both approaches described above continue to develop the methodologies applied through the course of the EUROPROF project in building networks and seeking to promote and extend collaboration and co-operation between different researchers and institutions in Europe through the identification of common research questions and development tasks. In applying this approach we have attempted to develop a more extended and generalised picture of what such a process implies. The aim is to develop a European research culture in Vocational Education and Training. It is not intended to replace the existing work being undertaken. Instead we have attempted to build on the existing fragments of a European research culture and to take and extend the existing methodologies which underpin European research in this field (Figure 2; Attwell & Heidegger, 1997 forthcoming).


Figure 2: Towards a European research culture in Vocational Education and Training


Existing research methodologies Comparative research Observation and case studies Combination / interaction of various disciplines VET as the ‘application’ of various disciplines ‘General’ aspects (according to disciplinary approaches) e.g. • history of VET • development of industrial work (Industrial sociology Different disciplines dealing with various work processes ‘General’ professionalisation (MA, PhD level) for VET professionals (e.g. HRD, MBA, Educational Sociology)

Supplementary methodologies and approaches Collaborative (co-operative) research on common themes (integrated research groups) Action / intervention orientation (‘pedagogics’ as ‘practical science’) Integration of disciplines in VET perspective: ‘true’, integrative interdisciplinarity VET recognised as a discipline in itself Analysis / shaping of work processes in specific ‘vocational subject areas’ Specific pedagogical didactical measures Intervention / action approach Different work processes (work process knowledge areas) enlightened by various disciplines professionalisation with respect to specific work process knowledge


various disciplinary research on VET

VET research ‘in itself’: concrete interaction of: • work (organisation) • technology • education, training within societal / historic conditions.

The table reflects our belief that the education of VET professionals cannot be divorced from the question of VET research culture as a whole. It is not a finished product. However we hope that by developing such an analysis and publishing our findings for other VET scientists we can assist in the process of interaction and debate which underpins the development of an active VET community and a community of practice in Europe. Concluding Remarks Research methodologies cannot be considered when divorced from the context in which they are applied. As such two challenges face researchers in vocational education and training. The first is to adapt, borrow and extend methodologies taken from a variety of different disciplines to apply to the questions confronting vocational education and training. The second is to develop methodologies for international research. Both tasks have their own peculiarities and problems. VET is as yet an immature science and we still have to learn to work with scientists from different cultures and nationalities. The experience of the EUROPROF project has revealed to us many of the problems and we have, we hope, made some modest progress in developing new tools and methodologies to confront these questions. Through an identification of common understandings and cornerstones, through a process of discourse and interaction and through networks of collaboration it will prove possible to take the first steps towards developing a European research culture in vocational education and training.


References Attwell G and Jennes A, 1996, Work Process Knowledge and New Forms of Education of Professionals for Vocation Education and Training, Paper presented to 3rd Work Process Knowledge Network meeting, Bremen, 12-14 December 1996 Attwell, G., 1996, The Eight Cornerstones of the EUROPROF Project, EUROPROF Working Paper, Institute Technik und Bildung, Bremen Attwell, G., 1997, Pressures for change in the education of vocational education and training professionals, in Brown, A. (ed), Promoting Vocational education and Training: European Perspectives, Tampereen yliopiston opettajankoulutuslaitos, Tampere Attwell G. and Heidegger G., 1997 forthcoming, Towards a European Vocational Education and Training Profession, in ITB 10 Year Conference Report, ITB, Bremen Fischer, M., 1996, Acquiring Work Process Knowledge on the Shop-Floor Level, Paper presented to 3rd Work Process Knowledge Network meeting, Bremen, 12-14 December 1996 FORCE, 1994, Motor Vehicle and Cars Sector, CEDEFOP, Berlin Ginkel K. van, Mulder, M. and Nijhof, W., 1994, Role Profiles of HRD Professionals in the Netherlands, Toegepaste Onderwijskunde, Univeriteit Twente, Enschede Heidegger G., 1996, New Forms of Basic and Further Education of Professionals for Vocational Education and Training, EUROPROF Working Paper, ITB, Bremen Heise, W. 1996, Existing provision of education for VET professionals in the member states of the European Union – the Case of Germany. paper presented to EUROPROF Workshop, Evora, Portugal, 10-12 October 1996 Kauppi, A., 1997, From fragmentation to collaboration in vocational teacher education, in Lline, Vol. 2, No 2 McLagen P. A., 1989, Models for HRD practice: The models, American Society for Training and Development, Washington DC Training and Development Lead Body (TDLB), 1995, National Standards for Training and Development, TDLB, London Nielsen, S., 1996, The dynamics of change in VET in Denmark: the role of the social partners, paper presented at EUROPROF project workshop, Hydra, Greece, 25-27 April 1996 Odenthal, L. and Nijhof, W. (1996), HRD Roles in Germany, Toegepaste Onderwijskunde, Enshede: Universiteit Twente Patiniotis, N.,1996, VET teachers and Trainers in Greece, paper presented at EUROPROF project workshop, Hydra, Greece, 25-27 April 1996 Rose R, 1991, Youth training in a time-space perspective, in Ryan P (ed), International Comparisons of Vocational Education and Training for Intermediate Skills, Falmer Press, London Walton J., 1987, The development of Common Core Learning Outcomes for HRD Professionals which have currency across National Boundaries: A European Case Study, paper presented at American Academy of Human Resource Development Conference, Atlanta, March 1987