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Cambridge International AS Level Physics

Answers to end-of-chapter questions

Answers to EOC questions


Chapter 6

ball added to the momentum of the snooker


table, and so momentum is conserved.
[1]

1 The law of conservation of momentum


applies if the Earth is considered to rise as
the ball falls. The momentum of the Earth
upwards equals the momentum of the ball
downwards.[1]
The weight of the ball has an equal and
upwards force on the Earth due to Newtons
third law.
[1]
2 a
Momentum of ball before striking wall
= mass velocity
= 23.0 =6.0kgms1 towards the ball
[1]
Momentum after striking the wall
=6.0kgms1 away from the wall
[1]
1
Change in momentum of ball = 12kgms
away from the wall.
[1]
b There is no change in kinetic energy as the
balls speed and mass are unchanged.
[1]
3 a
Linear momentum = mass velocity
[1]
1
b [units of mass] [units of velocity] = kgms
[1]
c Using v2 = 2as,
v = (23.540) = 280 = 16.7ms1[1]
so momentum = mass speed = 90016.7
=1.5104kgms1[1]
d Combined momentum to left
=3.04.02.04.0 = 4.0kgms1[1]
Combined mass = 8.0kg[1]
So velocity after collision
1
= 4.0
[1]
8.0 = 0.50ms to the left
4 a i In an elastic collision, both momentum
and kinetic energy are conserved.
[1]
ii In an inelastic collision, momentum is
conserved but not kinetic energy.
[1]
b Change in momentum
= momentum after momentum before [1]
= 0.352.50.35(2.8)
= 1.855kgms11.9kgms1[1]
c When the table (plus the Earth) is also
considered, then the initial momentum of the
ball is equal to the final momentum of the

5 a
Change in momentum
= mass change in velocity
[1]
= 1100(24) = 26400Ns 26000Ns[1]
b Force =

change in momentum
[1]
time

= 26400
20 = 1320N 1300N[1]
c Average speed during braking = 12ms1[1]
so distance travelled in 20s = 1220 = 240m
[1]
6 a
Momentum = mass velocity
[1]
1
= 0.100.40 = 0.040kgms [1]
b For each marble, component of momentum
in x-direction = half of original momentum
=0.020kgms1[1]
0.020
so momentum of one marble = sin45
1
=0.0283kgms [1]
1
and velocity = momentum
= 0.0283
mass
0.10 = 0.283ms
1
0.28ms [1]
c k.e. before = 12 mv2 = 12 0.100.402 = 0.0080J
[1]
k.e. after = 212 0.100.2832 = 0.0080J[1]
7 a
Initial momentum of ball = 0.1625
=4.0kgms1[1]
Change in momentum = 4.0(4.0)
=8.0kgms1[1]
momentum = 8 
[1]
b force = change intime
0.003
= 2667N 2700N[1]
c The bat slows down.
[1]
The law of conservation of momentum
requires that the change in momentum of the
ball and of the bat are equal but in opposite
directions.[1]
Energy is neither created nor destroyed,
butthermal energy (heat / internal energy)
and sound are created from the drop in k.e.
(of the bat).
[1]
The impact is non-elastic.
[1]
8 a
The total momentum before the collision
is equal to the total momentum after the
interaction.[1]

Cambridge International AS and A Level Physics Cambridge University Press 2014

Cambridge International AS Level Physics

Answers to end-of-chapter questions

11
a
The system is closed.
or There are no external forces acting.
[1]
Change in
Initial kinetic Final kinetic
momentum/ energy/J
energy/J
b i final momentum = initial momentum
1
kgms
0.35v = 0.2530
[1]
4
5
4
v = 21.4 21ms1[1]
Truck X 6.010
2.510
4.010
ii Change in momentum
4
4
5
Truck Y 6.010
1.510
1.3510
=0.25300.2521.4
[1]
change in momentum = 2.14 2.1kgms1
One mark for each correct change in
or 2.15 2.2kgms1[1]
momentum.[2]
iii Change in total kinetic energy
One mark for correct kinetic energy values
= 12 0.25302 12 0.3521.42[1]
forX.[2]
change in total k.e. = 32.4 32J
[1]
One mark for correct kinetic energy values
forY.[2]
iv The arrow stops and the ball moves off
1
with a speed of 30ms [1]
b Total initial k.e. = 2.65105J
Relative speed remains unaltered in an
and total final k.e. = 1.75105J
[1]
1
elastic collision, 30ms [1]
Collision is not elastic, because the total k.e.
has decreased in the collision.
[1]
9 a i The total kinetic energy before the collision
p 6.0104
c Force = t = 1.6 [1]
is equal to the total kinetic energy after the
collision.[1]
3.75104 3.7 or 3.8104N[1]
ii In a completely inelastic collision, the
maximum amount of kinetic energy is
lost (subject to the law of conservation of
momentum, which must be obeyed). [1]
b i Momentum is conserved, as there are no
external forces / the system is closed. [1]
Momentum of alpha-particle in one
direction must equal that of uranium
nucleus in the exactly opposite direction
for the change to be zero.
[1]
27
25
ii 6.6510 v + 3.8910 vx = 0
[1]
v
iii vx = 58.5 58 or 59
[1]
10


a Momentum and kinetic energy
[1]
b i Momentum = 0.014640 = 8.96
9.0kgms1[1]
ii Bullets leave with momentum forwards
and gun has equal momentum backwards.
[1]
To stop motion / momentum of the gun,
the soldier must provide a force.
[1]
p
iii F = t ; 140 = n8.96
[1]
Number of bullets per second = 15.6 or
15or 16.
[1]

Cambridge International AS and A Level Physics Cambridge University Press 2014