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Chapter 6

table, and so momentum is conserved.

[1]

applies if the Earth is considered to rise as

the ball falls. The momentum of the Earth

upwards equals the momentum of the ball

downwards.[1]

The weight of the ball has an equal and

upwards force on the Earth due to Newtons

third law.

[1]

2 a

Momentum of ball before striking wall

= mass velocity

= 23.0 =6.0kgms1 towards the ball

[1]

Momentum after striking the wall

=6.0kgms1 away from the wall

[1]

1

Change in momentum of ball = 12kgms

away from the wall.

[1]

b There is no change in kinetic energy as the

balls speed and mass are unchanged.

[1]

3 a

Linear momentum = mass velocity

[1]

1

b [units of mass] [units of velocity] = kgms

[1]

c Using v2 = 2as,

v = (23.540) = 280 = 16.7ms1[1]

so momentum = mass speed = 90016.7

=1.5104kgms1[1]

d Combined momentum to left

=3.04.02.04.0 = 4.0kgms1[1]

Combined mass = 8.0kg[1]

So velocity after collision

1

= 4.0

[1]

8.0 = 0.50ms to the left

4 a i In an elastic collision, both momentum

and kinetic energy are conserved.

[1]

ii In an inelastic collision, momentum is

conserved but not kinetic energy.

[1]

b Change in momentum

= momentum after momentum before [1]

= 0.352.50.35(2.8)

= 1.855kgms11.9kgms1[1]

c When the table (plus the Earth) is also

considered, then the initial momentum of the

ball is equal to the final momentum of the

5 a

Change in momentum

= mass change in velocity

[1]

= 1100(24) = 26400Ns 26000Ns[1]

b Force =

change in momentum

[1]

time

= 26400

20 = 1320N 1300N[1]

c Average speed during braking = 12ms1[1]

so distance travelled in 20s = 1220 = 240m

[1]

6 a

Momentum = mass velocity

[1]

1

= 0.100.40 = 0.040kgms [1]

b For each marble, component of momentum

in x-direction = half of original momentum

=0.020kgms1[1]

0.020

so momentum of one marble = sin45

1

=0.0283kgms [1]

1

and velocity = momentum

= 0.0283

mass

0.10 = 0.283ms

1

0.28ms [1]

c k.e. before = 12 mv2 = 12 0.100.402 = 0.0080J

[1]

k.e. after = 212 0.100.2832 = 0.0080J[1]

7 a

Initial momentum of ball = 0.1625

=4.0kgms1[1]

Change in momentum = 4.0(4.0)

=8.0kgms1[1]

momentum = 8

[1]

b force = change intime

0.003

= 2667N 2700N[1]

c The bat slows down.

[1]

The law of conservation of momentum

requires that the change in momentum of the

ball and of the bat are equal but in opposite

directions.[1]

Energy is neither created nor destroyed,

butthermal energy (heat / internal energy)

and sound are created from the drop in k.e.

(of the bat).

[1]

The impact is non-elastic.

[1]

8 a

The total momentum before the collision

is equal to the total momentum after the

interaction.[1]

11

a

The system is closed.

or There are no external forces acting.

[1]

Change in

Initial kinetic Final kinetic

momentum/ energy/J

energy/J

b i final momentum = initial momentum

1

kgms

0.35v = 0.2530

[1]

4

5

4

v = 21.4 21ms1[1]

Truck X 6.010

2.510

4.010

ii Change in momentum

4

4

5

Truck Y 6.010

1.510

1.3510

=0.25300.2521.4

[1]

change in momentum = 2.14 2.1kgms1

One mark for each correct change in

or 2.15 2.2kgms1[1]

momentum.[2]

iii Change in total kinetic energy

One mark for correct kinetic energy values

= 12 0.25302 12 0.3521.42[1]

forX.[2]

change in total k.e. = 32.4 32J

[1]

One mark for correct kinetic energy values

forY.[2]

iv The arrow stops and the ball moves off

1

with a speed of 30ms [1]

b Total initial k.e. = 2.65105J

Relative speed remains unaltered in an

and total final k.e. = 1.75105J

[1]

1

elastic collision, 30ms [1]

Collision is not elastic, because the total k.e.

has decreased in the collision.

[1]

9 a i The total kinetic energy before the collision

p 6.0104

c Force = t = 1.6 [1]

is equal to the total kinetic energy after the

collision.[1]

3.75104 3.7 or 3.8104N[1]

ii In a completely inelastic collision, the

maximum amount of kinetic energy is

lost (subject to the law of conservation of

momentum, which must be obeyed). [1]

b i Momentum is conserved, as there are no

external forces / the system is closed. [1]

Momentum of alpha-particle in one

direction must equal that of uranium

nucleus in the exactly opposite direction

for the change to be zero.

[1]

27

25

ii 6.6510 v + 3.8910 vx = 0

[1]

v

iii vx = 58.5 58 or 59

[1]

10

a Momentum and kinetic energy

[1]

b i Momentum = 0.014640 = 8.96

9.0kgms1[1]

ii Bullets leave with momentum forwards

and gun has equal momentum backwards.

[1]

To stop motion / momentum of the gun,

the soldier must provide a force.

[1]

p

iii F = t ; 140 = n8.96

[1]

Number of bullets per second = 15.6 or

15or 16.

[1]

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