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1.1 ................................................................................................................................ 1
1.2 ................................................................................................................................ 6
1.3 .............................................................................................................................. 20
............................................................................................................. 26
2.1 .................................................................................................................. 26
2.2 .............................................................................................................. 38
2.3 .................................................................................................................. 43
............................................................................................................. 49
3.1 ...................................................................................................................... 49
3.2 ...................................................................................................... 63
3.3 ...................................................................................... 69
3.4 .............................................................................................................. 72
..................................................................................................................... 77
4.1 .......................................................................................... 77
4.2 .................................................................................................. 83
4.3 .......................................................................................................... 90
............................................................................................................. 91
5.1 .............................................................................. 91
5.2 ...................................................................................... 94
5.3 .......................................................................................................... 98
5.4 ............................................................................................ 101
....................................................................................................................... 104
() ........................................................................................ 112
1.1 ......................................................................................................... 113

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## 1.2 ................................................................................................................. 118

() ............................................................................ 120
2.1 ............................................................................................................. 120
2.2 ......................................................................................................... 123
........................................................... 127
3.1 ............................................................................................................. 127
3.2 ............................................................................................................. 131
....................................................... 137
4.1 ..................................................................... 137
4.2 ......................................................................................... 141

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1.1

1.
D f x D
y f D y=f(x) x
y D

Z = { y | y = f ( x), x D}

2.

x + 1x < 1

y = f ( x) = x 2
-1 x 1
5 x
x >1

x1 x1
y=f(x)

3.
y=f(x) Fxy=0 yy(x)

4.
y=f(x) x = ( y ) f(x)

x = f 1 ( y ) y = f 1 ( x)

1.
yC
2.
3.

y = x
y = a x a0a1
y = e x e2.7182

4.

y = log a x a0a1
1

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y = log10 x = lg x

y = log e x = ln x

5.
6.

## lim arctan x lim arctan x lim+

x +

x 0

1
ex

lim

x 0

1
ex

lim ln x y = arctan x
x 0 +

y = e x y = ln x

u = g ( x)

U
X U*

y = f (u )

1.

U U y = f [ g ( x)] X u

2.

1. y=f(x) X M x X f ( x) M
f(x) X
2.

X x X f ( x ) = f ( x ) f ( x )

X x X f ( x ) = f ( x ) f ( x ) X
y
3.

f ( x ) X x1 X x2 X x1 < x2

f ( x1 ) < f ( x2 ) f ( x1 ) > f ( x2 ) f ( x ) X
x1 X x2 X x1 < x2 f ( x1 ) f ( x2 ) f ( x1 ) f ( x2 ) f ( x ) X

4.

f ( x ) X T 0 x X
2

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x + T X f ( x + T ) = f ( x ) f ( x ) T f ( x )

f ( x ) = ln ln ln x + 100 x
2

ln ln ln x x > e

100 x 2 x 2 100x 10
f ( x ) ( e
10]
y=

x x +

ln x 5

x x x 1 x = 0

1
x 5x 4x 6
ln x 5

{0} [1
4 ) ( 4
5 ) ( 5
6 ) ( 6
+ )

f ( x ) [ aa ] ( a > 0 ) f x 1

a x 1 a 1 a x 1 + a
2

a 1 1 a 0 x 1 + a x 1 + a

## 0 < a < 1 1 a > 0 1 a x 1 + a

1 a x 1 + a 1 + a x 1 a

0 x<2
1
2 x4
2

g ( x) =

f ( x ) = g ( 2 x ) + g ( x 1)

3
f .
2

g ( x ) [ 0
4] 0 2 x 4 0 x 2 0 x 1 4

1 x 5 f ( x ) [1
2]

3
1
= g ( 3) + g = 2 + 1 = 3
2
2

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y=e

1
3 3
x 1

ln y =

1
3

x = 3 1+

x3 1

, x3 1 =

1
,
ln 3 y

1
, y > 0 y 1
ln 3 y

(0,1) (1, +)

## 1. f(x) g(x) fg(x).

f ( x) 1 =

x
1
1
1 =

= x 1 x 1
x 1
x 1 f ( x) 1

1
x
f
.
x 1
f ( x) 1

f ( x) =

1
x 1
x 1
= f ( x 1) =
=

( x 1) 1 x 2
f ( x) 1
f ( x) =

1 + x2

f k ( x) =

f 2 ( x)f [ f ( x) ] =
x
1 + kx 2

f [ f (

x 1, x 2

f ( x)) ] = f n ( x) .

f ( x)
1 + f 2 ( x)

f k +1 ( x) =

1+

1 + x2
f k ( x)

1 + f k2 ( x)

x
1 + (k + 1) x 2
n f n ( x) =

x
1 + nx 2

## 2. g(x) f[g(x)] f(x).

1

f (e + 1) = e

2x

+ e x + x f(x).
4

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x
x2

=
2
1+ x
1 + 2 x2
x

1 + kx 2

1+

x2
=
1 + kx 2

e + 1 = u x = ln(u 1)

f (u ) = (u 1) 2 + (u 1) + ln(u 1) = u 2 u + ln(u 1)
f ( x) = x 2 x + ln( x 1)

f (e ) = xe

f (1) = 0 f(x).

e = t , x = ln t f (e ) = f (t ) =

f ( x) f (1) =

ln t

t
x

ln t
1
1
dt = ln 2 t = ln 2 x
t
2
2
1

1 2
ln x
2

f (1) = 0 f ( x) =

F ( x) = f ( x)

A f(x) F(x)
B f(x) F(x)
C f(x) F(x)
D f(x) F(x)
(B) f ( x) = x , F ( x) =
2

x3
+1
3

## (C) f ( x) = cos x + 1, F ( x) = sin x + x

(D) f ( x) = 2 x, F ( x) = x (, +)
2

(A)

F ( x) = F (0) + f (t )dt , f

F ( x) = F (0) +

f (t )dt = F (0) + f (u )d (u )
0

= F (0) + f (u )du = F ( x)
0

I =

F ( x)

x[ x 5 + (e x e x ) ln( x + x 2 + 1)]dx.

f1 ( x) = e x e x f1 ( x) = e x e x = f1 ( x), f 2 ( x) = ln( x + x 2 + 1)

f 2 ( x) = ln( x + x 2 + 1) = ln

( x 2 + 1) x 2
x + x2 + 1
5

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= ln1 ln( x + x 2 + 1) = f 2 ( x)
x

x(e e ) ln( x +
x

x 2 + 1)

I = x 6 dx + 0 = 2 x 6 dx =

x
x
+ cos
2
3
x
x
4 f 2 ( x) = c os
f1 ( x) = sin
2
3

1 f ( x) = sin

4 6 12 f ( x) 12
2 f ( x) = sin 2 x + cos x
f 2 ( x) = c os x

f1 ( x) = sin 2 x

2 f ( x)
3 f ( x) = sin 2 x + (1 sin 2 x)

f 2 ( x) = 1 sin 2 x

f1 ( x) = sin 2 x

f1 ( x) f 2 ( x)

f ( x) = f1 ( x) + f 2 ( x) = 1

4 f ( x) g ( x) f ( x) g ( x) f ( x) g ( x) < 0
a < x < b

## (A) f ( x) g (b) > f (b) g ( x)

(B) f ( x) g (a ) > f ( a) g ( x)

## (C) f ( x) g ( x) > f (b) g (b)

(D) f ( x) g ( x) > f ( a) g ( a )

f ( x )
1
f ( x)

= 2 [ f ( x) g ( x) f ( x) g ( x)] < 0

g ( x)
g ( x) g ( x)

x<b

f ( x) f (b)
>
(A)
g ( x) g (b)
1.2

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1.
1 lim xn = A
n

{ xn } A

## > 0 N n>N xn A < .

2 lim f ( x ) = A
x +

## > 0 X x>X f ( x ) A < .

3 lim f ( x ) = A
x

4 lim f ( x) = A
x

## > 0 X|x|>X f ( x ) A < .

5 lim f ( x ) = A

x x0

## > 0 0 < x x0 < f ( x ) A <

6 lim+ f ( x ) = A f ( x0 + 0 )

x x0

## > 0 0 < x x0 < f ( x ) A <

7 lim f ( x ) = A f ( x0 0 )

x x0

## > 0 < x x0 < 0 f ( x ) A <

f ( x0 + 0 ) f ( x ) x0 f ( x0 0 ) f ( x ) x0
lim f ( x ) = A
xn = f ( n )

2.
1

lim f ( x ) = A lim f ( x ) = B A = B

lim f ( x ) = A lim g ( x ) = B
x f ( x ) g ( x ) A B
7

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A > B x f ( x ) > g ( x )
g ( x ) 0B = 0
3 lim f ( x ) = A x f ( x )
4

lim f ( x ) = A lim g ( x ) = B
1 lim f ( x ) + g ( x ) = A + B

2 lim f ( x ) g ( x ) = A B
3 lim f ( x )i g ( x ) = Ai B

f ( x) A
=
g ( x) B

5 lim f ( x )

g( x)

( B 0)

4 lim

( A > 0)

= AB

1.

lim f ( x ) = 0 f ( x )

1
1
= 0 x x x0
x x
x

M > 0 x f ( x ) > M f ( x )

2.

x lim

lim f ( x ) =
3.

x f ( x )

1
1
f ( x ) f ( x ) 0

f ( x)
f ( x)
4.

lim f ( x ) = A f ( x ) = A + a ( x )
5.

lim a ( x ) = 0

lim f ( x ) = 0
lim g ( x ) = 0 lim

f ( x)
=l
g ( x)

(1) l = 0 f ( x ) g ( x ) f ( x ) = o g ( x )
8

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g ( x ) f ( x )
(2) l 0 f ( x ) g ( x )
(3) l = 1 f ( x ) g ( x ) f ( x ) g ( x )
6.

x0

sin x x
tan x x
arcsin x x
arctan x x
1
a
ln (1 + x ) x
1 cos x x 2e x 1 x
(1 + x ) 1 ax a
2
7.

1.
2.
1

1 xn +1 xn n xn m n lim xn = A A m
n

2 xn +1 xn n xn m n lim xn = A A m
2

g ( x ) f ( x ) h ( x )

3.

lim g ( x ) = A
lim h ( x ) = A lim f ( x ) = A

sin x
=1
x 0
x

lim

2
4.
5.

1
1
1
lim 1 + = e lim 1 + = e lim (1 + v ) v = e
v 0
n
u
n
u

x 0 e = 1+ x +
x

x2
+
2!

sin x = x

x3 x5
+ +
3! 5!

+ ( 1)

cos x = 1

x2 x4
+
2! 4!

+ ( 1)

ln (1 + x ) = x

x 2 x3
+
2 3

xn
+ o ( xn )
n!

x 2 n +1
+ o ( x 2 n +1 )
( 2n + 1)!
x2n
+ o ( x2n )
( 2n ) !

+ ( 1)

n +1

xn
+ o ( xn )
n
9

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arctan x = x

(1 + x )

= 1+ x +

x3 x5
+
3 5

( 1)
2!

+ ( 1)

x2 +

x 2 n +1
+ o ( x 2 n +1 )
2n + 1

( 1)

( n 1) n
x + o ( x n )
n!

6.

0
1 lim f ( x ) = 0 lim g ( x ) = 0
0

2 x f ( x ) g ( x )

f ( x)
=A
g ( x)

lim

f ( x)
f ( x)
lim

g ( x)
g ( x)

1 lim f ( x ) = lim g ( x ) =

( lim

f ( x)
=A
g ( x)

3 lim

2 x f ( x ) g ( x )

f ( x)
=A
g ( x)

3 lim

lim

f ( x)
=A
g ( x)

7.
lim

x 0

f ( x0 + x ) f ( x0 )
= f ( x0 )
x

8.

1 n

n n
k =1

lim

k 1
f = f ( x ) dx
0
n

9.
10.

10

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am x m + am 1 x m 1 + + a1 x + a0
n 1
x b x n + b
+ + b1 x + b0
n
n 1 x

am 0b n 0 lim

am x m + am 1 x m 1 + + a1 x + a0
lim
n 1
x b x n + b
+ + b1 x + b0
n
n 1 x
= lim
x

x m n am + am 1 x 1 +
bn + bn 1 x 1 +

+ a1 x1 m + a0 x m

+ b1 x1 n + b0 x n

0 m < n

a
m m = n
bn

m > n
n

lim(a + ar +
n

1 rn
a
=
n 1 r
1 r

+ ar n 1 ) = a lim

+ ar n 1 ) .

a 0 r < 1 lim(a + ar +

2 2 2 2 3
1 lim +
n 3
3 3

2
2
2 a = r =
3
3

+ (1)

1
1+ +
2
2 lim
n
1
1+ +
3

n +1

2

3

2
2
3
=
2 5
1
3

1
+
2 = 2 = 4
n
3 3
1
+
2
3

3n +1 2n
.
n 2 n +1 + 3n

3 lim

2
3
n
3 =3
3 lim
n
n
2
2 +1
3

r < 1 lim r = 0
n

11

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4 l lim

k (k + l ) .
k =1

1
1 1
1
=

k (k + l ) l k k + l

n
1
1 1
1 1 n 1
1 1 n 1 n 1
=

=
k + l l k =1 k k + l l k =1 k k =1 k + l
k =1 k ( k + l )
k =1 l k
n

1 1
= 1 + +
l 2

1 1
+ +
+
l l +1

1 1

+
n 1+ l

1 1
= 1 + +
l 2

1
1
+

l n +1

n+l

k (k + 1) = 1
k =1

k (k + 2) = 2 1 + 2 = 4
k =1

l2

1 1+ d
+ 2 +
2
n
n

1 n
d
i {1 + [1 + (n 1)d ]} =
2
2
n 2

lim

(d = 1)

2
1
lim 2 + 2 +
n n
n

(d = 2)

3
1
lim 2 + 2 +
n n
n

1 lim

1+ x 1 x
x

x 0

1 + (n 1)d
.
n2

6 d0 lim

n + l

l1

2 lim

1 lim

1
+
l

1
+
2

1
1
+
+
n n +1

1
l

1 +

n 1
=
n 2 2

2n 1
=1
n 2

2 lim
x 0

lim
x 0

1+ x 3 1 x
x

(1 + x ) (1 x )

1+ x + 1 x

2
=1
2

12

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lim

) (

1+ x 1

1 x 1

x 0

1
x
x
2

2 =1
lim
x 0
x

( 1)
1

2 1+ x 2 1 x
1, lim
=1
x 0
1
2 lim
x 0

(1 + x ) (1 x )

x 3 1+ x

) +(
2

1+ x

)(

) (

1 x +

1
1
8
n

## 1 r < 1 lim(1 + r )(1 + r )

n

1
1
1 2
2
2 3

1 2
n

2 lim 1

(1 + r 2 )

n+1

1 r2
1
1 1-r lim
=
n 1 r
1 r

1 1 1 1
1 + 1 1 +
2 2 3 3

2 lim 1

1 3 2 4
2 2 3 3

lim i i i

1 1
1 1 +
n n

n 1 n + 1
n +1 1
= lim
=
i
n

n
n
2n
2

lim cos
n

x
x
cos
2
4

cos

2n

x=0 =1

x
x
x
x
cos n
cos cos
n
2
2
4
2
x0 = lim
n
x
n
2 sin n
2
x
x
x
x
2n 1 cos cos
cos n 1 isin n 1
2
4
2
2 =
= lim
n
x
2n sin n
2
x
sin x
sin x 2n
sin x
= lim
i
=
= lim
n n
x n x
x
x
2 sin n
sin n
2
2
2n sin

13

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1 x

2
3

2 = 1
lim

n
x

sin n

2
2

2
1 lim 1
x
x

x +10

1 x x
2 lim

x 0 1 + x

2
1 lim 1
n
x

x +10

x 2( x +10)

2 x

2
= lim 1 +
x
x

( 2 )1+

2 2
lim 1 +

x
x

lim (1 x ) x

1 x
x 0
=
lim
=
1
x 0 1 + x

lim (1 + x ) x

x 0

x 0

e 1
=
= e 2
e

1+ x 2

x 0

cot x

2 lim x x 1

1 lim(1 + tan x)

3 lim(cos x)

x 1

cot 2 x

x 0

1
tan x = t cot x = x 0 t 0
t
1

## lim(1 + tan x)cot x = lim(1 + t ) t = e

1
i ( 1)
x

2 x 2 x 1+ x
1 x x
1+ x 2x x
lim
= lim
= lim 1 +
= e 2

x 0 1 + x
x 0
x0
x
x
1
1
+
+

= e 2

lim [1 + ( x) ]

10

1
x

x 0

t 0

2 x 1 = t x = 1 + t x 1 t 0
4

## lim x x 1 = lim(1 + t ) t = lim (1 + t ) t = e 4

t 0
x 1
t 0

3 lim(cos x)
x 0

cot 2 x

cos 2 x

= lim(1 sin x)
2

2sin 2 x

x 0

= lim 1 + ( sin x) (
x 0

1 3 5 2n 1
).
2n
2 4 6
1 3 5 2n 1
2 4
2n
xn = i i
yn = i

2 4 6
2n
3 5 2n + 1
1
2
0<xn<yn 0 < xn < xn yn =
2n + 1
1 lim( i i
n

lim xn2 = 0 0.
x

14

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1
sin 2 x

cos 2 x
( 2 )

1
2

2
n

1 lim

lim

2 lim

n +k

k =1

n +n
2

n
n2 + n

n +k
2

k =1

= lim

1
1+
n

n +k
2

k =1

k
+n+k

n2 + 1

lim

n2 + 1

= lim

=1

1
1+ 2
n

=1

1+ 2 + + n n
k
1+ 2 + + n
2
2
2
n +n+n
n + n +1
k =1 n + n + k

lim

k =1

=1,

1
n(n + 1)
1+ 2 + + n
1
2
=
=
lim
lim
2
n
n n( n + 2)
n + 2n
2

1
n(n + 1)
1+ 2 + + n
1
2
= lim 2
=
lim 2
n
n n + n + 1
n + n +1
2
n

k
1
=
2
k =1 n + n + k

lim
n

lim

n
k =1

n
.
+ k2

n
n2
n
n2

n 2 + n 2 k =1 n 2 + k 2 n 2 + 12

n2
1
n2
=
lim
=1

n n 2 + n 2
2 n n 2 + 12

lim

.
n

n
1 n
=
lim

2
2
n
n n
k =1 n + k
k =1

lim

1
k
1+
n

dx

1+ x
0

1p + 2 p + + n p
.
n
n p +1

p > 1 lim

15

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= arctan x 0 =

1
1 n k
1
p
x dx

0
n n
p +1
k =1 n

lim

.
0

1
1
sin
n.
1 lim n
1
n
sin 3
n
1.

lim
x 0

x sin x
sin 3 x

x 0

x sin x
1 cos x
sin x 1
lim
= lim
=
3
2
0
0
x
x

3x
6x
6
x

1
.
6

lim

1
x2

e
.
x 0 x10

lim

2 x2
1
2
e

3
x
0
e
x
1 lim
= lim 12
9

x
x
0
0
10 x
5x
0

e x
et
t5
lim 10 = lim 5 = lim t
t + e
x 0 x
t + t

5t 4
lim t =
t + e

= lim

t +

5!
=0
et

2. -0.
1

1
1
x .
x 0 x e 1

lim

1
(e x 1) x
1
lim x = lim
x 0 x e 1 x 0 x (e x 1)

ex 1
ex
1
1
lim
=
lim
=
x
x
x
x
x
x 0 2 + x
x 0 (e 1) + xe
x 0 e + e + xe
2

lim

lim(
x 0

1
cos 2 x

).
x2
sin 2 x
16

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1
=t
x2

1
4
2 x sin 2 x cos 2 x
x 2 sin 2 2 x
x 2 sin 2 xicos 2 x
4
4
lim
lim
lim
x 0
x 0
x 0
4 x3
x4
x 2 sin 2 x
1
x sin 4 x
1 cos 4 x
4sin 4 x 4
4
lim
lim
= lim
=
3
2
0
0
x 0
x

2x
6x
12 x
3

3 lim+ sin x ln x .
x 0

x 1
=0
( ) lim+
3
x 0 2 x

ln x
lim+ x ln x = lim+ 2
x 0
x 0 x
2

3. 1 0
lim [ f ( x )]

g ( x)

lim g ( x ) ln[ f ( x ) ]

lim g ( x ) ln [ f ( x ) ] 0

2 .
lim+ x
x 0

y=x

sin 2 x

sin 2 x

ln y = sin x ln x

## lim ln y = lim+ sin 2 x ln x = 0 2 3, lim+ y = e0 = 1

x 0+

lim ( cos x )
x 0

cot 2 x

x 0

.
2

ln y = cot x ln cos x

y = ( cos x )

cot 2 x

x 0

ln cos x
ln cos x
= lim
2
x 0 tan x
x0
x2

x 0

x 0

0
tan x
1
lim
= lim y = e 2
x 0
x 0
0
2x
2

lim sin

1
1
+ cos .
x
x
x

1
1
1
1

## y = sin + cos ln y = x ln sin + cos

x
x
x
x

1
1

ln sin + cos
cos t sin t
ln(sin t + cos t )
x
x
lim
=1
= lim
lim ln y = lim
x
x
t 0
t 0 sin t + cos t
1
t
x
lim y = e
x

17

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n2 + n + 1
sin n 2 + 1 .
1 lim
n
3n + 1
3

1 1 1
3
+ 2+ 3
n2 + n + 1
n
n n = 0 sin n 2 + 1 1
lim
= lim
n
n
1
3n + 1
3+
n
3

0.
2

(1 cos 2 x) arctan 3x
.
x 0 (e x 1) ln(1 + 2 x ) sin 5 x

lim

1
(2 x) 2 i(3 x)
3
2
=
, lim
x 0 x i(2 x )i(5 x )
5
1
x .
3 lim
x 0 (1 + cos x ) ln(1 + x )
3sin x + x 2 cos

1
sin x
3
x
cos
+
x
1
x= 3
lim

x 0 1 + cos x
ln(1 + x)

2
x

1
sin x x + x3
6 .
1 lim
5
x 0
x

sin x = x

x3 x5
+ + o( x 5 )
3! 5!

x 0

x5
+ o( x 5 )
1
1
lim 5! 5
= =
x 0
5! 120
x

f ( x0 ) = 2 lim

x 0

lim

x 0

f ( x0 + 3x) f ( x0 2x)
.
x

[ f ( x0 + 3x) f ( x0 )] [ f ( x0 2x) f ( x0 )]
x

18

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3 lim

x 0

f ( x0 + 3x) f ( x0 )
f ( x0 2x) f ( x0 )
+ 2 lim
0

3x
( 2x )

3 f ( x0 ) + 2 f ( x0 ) = 5 f ( x0 ) = 10
2

2
n

y = f ( x) y = sin x lim nf ( ) .
n

## f (0) = 0 f (0) = (sin x)

x=0

=1

2
f f (0)
n
2
= 2 f (0) = 2
lim nf = lim 2i

n
n
2
n
0
n

xn +1 xn =

xn1 i

a
xn1

= a > 0

xn

a xn2
1
a
+

=
0 xn +1 xn
x
x
n
n
2
2 xn
xn

1
a
1
a
lim xn .
x1 + xn = xn 1 +
2
2
xn1 n
x1

1 a > 0 x1 = b > 0 x2 =

{ xn } 1 lim xn = A

1
a
1
a
xn 1 +
A = A +
2
A
2
xn1

xn =

A2 = a A0 A = a lim xn = a
n

sin 2 x
x
1 f ( x) =
2
x
1 cos x

f (0 0) = lim
x 0

x <0
x >0

sin 2 x
sin 2 x
= lim 2
=2
x 0
x
2x

x2
x2
= lim+
= 2,
f (0 + 0) = lim+
x 0 1 cos x
x 0 1 2
x
2

lim f ( x ) = 2
x 0

19

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x
2
e
sin x
+

2 lim
.
+
4
x 0
x
1+ ex

1
3

4x

x
2+e
sin x
2e + e x sin x

lim
+
= 2 1 = 1 , lim+
+
= 0 +1 = 1
4
4

x 0
x 0
x
1 + e x ( x)
e x + 1

x
2
e
sin x
+

lim
+
=1
4
x 0
x
1+ ex

lim
x 1

x 2 + ax + b
= 3 a b.
sin( x 2 1)

lim( x + ax + b) = 0 1+a+b=0,

lim

x 2 + ax + b
2x + a
2+a
= lim
=
=3
2
2
1

x
sin( x 1)
2 x cos( x 1)
2

x
1
t2
dt = 1 a b.
x 0 bx sin x 0
a+t

lim

lim

x2 a + x
b 1 0 1 b = 1
b cos x

x 0

a = 4, b = 5

x 1

x 1

lim
x 0

1
x2
2
2
= lim
=
i
0
x

a + x 1 cos x
a+x
a

2
= 1 a=4.
a

1.3
()

1. x0
1

y = f ( x ) x0 x

x0 0 y 0 lim y = 0
x 0

20

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lim f ( x0 + x ) f ( x0 ) = 0

x 0

y = f ( x ) x0
y = f ( x ) x0
2

y = f ( x ) x0 x x0 f ( x )

x0 f ( x0 ) lim f ( x ) = f ( x0 )
x x0

y = f ( x ) x0 lim f ( x ) = lim+ f ( x ) = f ( x0 )
x x0

x x0

lim f ( x ) = f ( x0 ) = f lim x
x x0

x x0

x0 x0
y = f ( x ) lim f ( x ) = f ( x0 ) f ( x ) x0

x x0

lim+ f ( x ) = f ( x0 ) f ( x ) x0

x x0

2 y = f ( x ) x0 f ( x ) x0

2.

y = f ( x ) ( ab ) f ( x ) ( ab )

y = f ( x ) a b

f ( x ) [ ab ]

1.
y = f ( x ) x0 x0 f ( x )
2.

1
x0 y = f ( x ) f ( x ) x0

x0 f ( x )

21

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x = 0 f ( x ) =

x
sin x
1
f ( x ) =
f ( x ) =
x
x
x

f ( x ) = sin

1 I () I
2
3 I
4
5

[ ab ] f ( x )

1 f ( x ) [ ab ] f ( x ) [ ab ]

2 f ( x ) [ ab ]

f ( x0 ) = M [ ab ] x0 [ ab ]

M m
M m

x f ( x ) M M f ( x ) [ ab ]
m

3 f ( x ) [ ab ]
M m m M C [ ab ]

f ( ) = C

f ( x ) [ ab ] f ( a ) f ( b ) ( ab )

f ( ) = 0

()

22

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1
e x x < 0

1 f ( x ) = 0 x = 0 , x = 0

1
x sin x > 0
x

f ( 0 0 ) = lim f ( x ) = lim e x = 0
1

x 0

x 0

## f ( 0 + 0 ) = lim+ f ( x ) = lim+ x sin

x 0

x 0

1
=0,
x

f (0) = 0

f ( 0 0 ) = f ( 0 + 0 ) = f ( 0 ) f ( x ) x = 0 .

f ( 0 0 ) = lim
x 0

f ( 0 + 0 ) = lim+
x 0

1
ln(1 x)
= lim ln(1 x) x = 1
x 0
x

1+ x 1
1
1
= lim+
=
x0
x
1+ x +1 2

ln(1 x)

x < 0

1
2 f ( x) =
x = 0 , x = 0 .

2

1 + x 1
x > 0

f ( 0 0 ) f ( 0 + 0 ) lim f ( x ) f ( x ) x = 0 .

x 0

sin x

x 0

x = 0 k.
1 f ( x) = x

k x = 0

sin x
= 1 , f ( 0 ) = k
x 0
x

lim f ( x ) = lim
x 0

k =1

sin x x < 0

x = 0 x = 0 p q.
2 f ( x ) = p

x sin + q x > 0

lim f ( x ) lim
x 0

x 0

1
sin x = 1, f (0) = p
x

f ( x ) x = 0

p =1
23

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## lim+ f ( x ) lim+ x sin + q = q, f (0) = 1

x 0
x 0
x

f ( x ) x = 0

q = 1.

1 f ( x) =

x 1

x 1
.
x 1

x = 1
3

lim

x 1
lim
x 1
x 1

)(

x 1

x 1
3

x2 + 3 x + 1

lim

x 1 3

x2 + 3 x + 1

1
3

x = 1 f ( x ) .

x2 2 x
.
x ( x2 4)

2 f ( x) =

x = 0 -22 x = 0 -22 .
.

f (0 0) = lim

x( x 2)
1
x( x 2)
1
= f (0 + 0) = lim+
=
x 0 x ( x 2)( x + 2)
x( x 2)( x + 2)
2
2

x 0

x = 0

x = 0 .

x = 2 f ( 2 0) = f (2 + 0) = lim

x 2

x( x 2)
=
x ( x 2)( x + 2)

x = 2 .
x = 2 f (2 0) = f (2 + 0) = lim =
x2

x( x 2)
1
=
x( x 2)( x + 2) 4

x = 2 . f (2) =

1
f ( x ) x = 2 .
4

1
f x 0
3 f ( x) (, +) lim f ( x ) = a , g ( x) = x
x
0
x=0

(A) x = 0 g ( x) .

(B) x = 0 g ( x) .

(C) x = 0 g ( x) .

(D) g ( x) x = 0 a .

24

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1
lim g ( x) = lim f = lim f (t ) = a
x 0
x 0 x t

a = 0 x = 0 g ( x) a 0 x = 0 g ( x) D.
4 f ( x) g ( x) (, +) f ( x) f ( x) 0 g ( x)

(A) g[ f ( x)]

(B) [ g ( x)]

(C) f [ g ( x)]

(D)

g ( x)
f ( x)

1 (x 0)
f ( x) 1 g[ f ( x)] 1
(x <0)
1

(A) g ( x) =

(B) g ( x) [ g ( x)] 1
2

g ( x)

f ( x)

g ( x)
= h( x) g ( x) = h( x) f ( x)
f ( x)

(D)

## (C) (A) f ( x) g ( x) f [ g ( x)] 1

1. f ( x) x0 f ( x)

lim f ( x) = f ( lim x) = f ( x0 )

x x0

x x0

x x0 .

sin x
.
x

1 lim arctan
x 0

sin x
= 1 y = arctan u u = 1
x 0 x

lim

sin x

sin x

arctan lim
= arctan1 =
lim arctan

x 0
4
x 0 x
x
2

4
1
2
.
x 2 x 4

x 2

## f ( x) x=2 f (2) = 3 lim f ( x ) = 3

x 2

25

http://bbs.kaoyan.com/

4
( x + 2) 4
1
1
= lim f ( x)
2
= lim f ( x)i

2
x 2
x+2
x 4
x 2 x 4 x 2

lim f ( x)
x 2

1
3
=
x 2 x + 2
4

x 2

## 1 f ( x) [ ab ] f (a ) < a f (b) > b f ( x) = x (ab)

.
g ( x) = f ( x) x g ( x) [ ab ]

## g (a) = f (a) a < 0 , g (b) = f (b) b > 0

g ( x) (ab) f ( x) = x (ab)

e + e
x

f ( x) = e + e
x

= 4 + cos x (, +) .

cos x 4 f ( x) (0, +)

## f (0) = 3 < 0 f (2) = e2 + e 2 cos 2 4 > 0

f ( x) [ 0, 2] (0, 2) f ( ) = 0 .
x
x
f ( x ) = e e + sin x > 0 ( x > 0 ) f ( x) (0, +)

f ( x) (0, +) f ( x) (0, +)
f ( x) (, +) (, +) .

2.1

1.
y = f ( x ) x0 x x0 x

f ( x0 + x ) f ( x0 )
y

= lim
x 0 x
x 0
x

y = f ( x0 + x ) f ( x0 ) lim
26

http://bbs.kaoyan.com/

f ( x ) x0 f ( x0 )

df ( x )
y = f ( x ) x0

dx x = x
x = x0

dy
y x = x0
dx

y = f ( x ) x0
x = x0 + x x = x x0

f ( x0 ) = lim

x x0

f ( x ) f ( x0 )
x x0

f ( x ) f ( x0 )
f ( x0 + x ) f ( x0 )
= lim+
x 0
x
x x0

f ( x0 ) = lim

f ( x ) f ( x0 )
f ( x0 + x ) f ( x0 )
= lim
x 0
x x0
x

x x0

x x0

f + ( x0 ) = lim+

2.

f ( x ) x0 f ( x ) x0

y = f ( x ) x0 f ( x0 ) f ( x0 )

y = f ( x ) ( x0f ( x0 ) )

y f ( x0 ) = f ( x0 )( x x0 )
y f ( x0 ) =

1
( x x0 )
( f ( x0 ) 0 )
f ( x0 )

S t S = f ( t ) f ( t0 )

f ( t0 ) t0
3.

y = f ( x ) x0 f ( x ) x0

y = f ( x ) x0 x0 y = f ( x ) = x x0 = 0

4.
y = f ( x ) x0 x y = f ( x0 + x ) f ( x0 )
27

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y = A ( x0 ) x + o ( x )
( x 0 )
A ( x0 ) x o ( x ) x 0 x f ( x ) x0
y A ( x0 ) x f ( x ) x0 dy |x = x0

df ( x ) x = x
0

dx x
5.

y = f ( x0 + x ) f ( x0 ) y = f ( x ) x0
x f ( x0 )

dy |x = x0 y = f ( x ) M 0 x0f ( x0 )

6.

f ( x ) x0 f ( x ) x0 dy |x = x0 = A ( x0 ) x = f ( x0 ) dx .
y = f ( x ) dy = f ( x ) dx

7.

dy

dx

f ( x ) =

y = f ( x ) y = f ( x ) x0 y = f ( x ) x0

y = f ( x ) x0 y x = x y ( x0 )
0

d2y
dx 2

x = x0

f ( x ) x0

y = f ( x ) ( n 1) y = f ( x ) n

dny
y ( n )f ( n ) ( x ) n y = f ( x ) n
dx

1.

( c ) = 0

( x ) = ax
a

a 1

d (c) = 0

(a
)

dx a = ax a 1dx
(a
)

28

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( sin x ) = cos x

## d sin x = cos xdx

( cos x ) = sin x

## d cos x = sin xdx

( tan x ) = sec2 x

d tan x = sec2 dx

( cot x ) = csc2 x

## d csc x = csc x cot xdx

( log a x ) =
1
x

( a ) = a

ln a
( a > 0a 1)

de x = e x dx

1
1 x

( arccos x ) =

1 x

) =

ln x + x 2 a 2 =

d arctan x =

1
x +a
2

1
1 x2

d arccos x =

1
1 + x2

ln x + x 2 + a 2

d arcsin x =

( arctan x ) =

1
dx
x

da x = a x ln adx
( a > 0a 1)

( arcsin x ) =

dx

( a > 0a 1)
x ln a

( e ) = e

d ln x =

d log a x =

( ln x ) =

( a > 0a 1)
x ln a

dx

1
1 x2

1
dx
1 + x2

d ln x + x 2 + a 2 =

d ln x + x 2 a 2 =

x2 a2

2.

f ( x ) g ( x ) = f ( x ) g ( x )
f ( x )i g ( x ) = f ( x ) g ( x ) + f ( x ) g ( x )
f ( x ) f ( x ) g ( x ) f ( x ) g ( x )

( g ( x ) 0)

=
g 2 ( x)
g ( x)

d f ( x ) g ( x ) = df ( x ) dg ( x )
29

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dx

x + a2
2

x2 a2

dx

dx

d f ( x )i g ( x ) = g ( x ) df ( x ) + f ( x ) dg ( x )
f ( x ) g ( x ) df ( x ) f ( x ) dg ( x )

d
( g ( x ) 0)
=
g 2 ( x)
g ( x)
3.
y = f ( u )u = ( x ) ( x ) x f ( u ) u

dy dy du
=
= f ( x ) ( x )
dx du dx

y = f ( x ) x

dy = f ( u ) du = f ( x ) ( x ) dx

dy = f ( u ) du u

4.

x = ( t )y = ( t ) y = y ( x ) ( t ) ( t ) ( t ) 0

dy ( t )

=
( ( t ) 0 )
dx ( t )

dy
dy
d d
1 ( t ) ( t ) ( t ) ( t )
d y
dx = dx
2 =
i =
3
dx
dt
dx
dx
( t )
dt
5.

y = f ( x ) x = g ( y ) f ( x ) 0

g ( y ) =

1
1

=
( f ( x ) 0)
f ( x ) f g ( y )

1
d

d g ( y )
f ( x) 1

g ( y ) =

i
=
dy
dy
dx
dx

f ( x )
f ( x )

f g ( y )

{ f g ( y )}

( f ( x ) 0)

6.
y = y ( x ) F ( xy ) = 0 y F ( xy ) = 0
x y y
30

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i y
2 x + 2 y
= 0y =
x 2 + y 2 = 1

x
( y 0)
y

7.
y

y = f ( x )

g ( x)

y = e

g ( x ) ln f ( x )

f ( x ) = ( x a ) g ( x ) g ( x ) a f ( a )

f ( a ) = lim
x a

f ( x) f (a)
( x a ) g ( x ) 0 = lim g x = g a
= lim
( ) ( )
xa
xa
xa
xa

f ( x) = x a
n

) x a n f ( a )

g ( x )

x a a

xn an ) x a 0
(
f ( x) f (a)
= lim
f ( a ) = lim
xa
x a
xa
xa
= lim ( x n 1 + ax n 2 +

+ a n 1 ) x a = 0

xa

x x < 0
x0 = 0
x x 0

y = f ( x ) = x =

y = f ( x ) = x x0 = 0 f ( 0 ) = 0

## lim f ( x ) = lim f ( x ) = 0 , lim+ f ( x ) = lim+ x = 0

x 0

x 0

x 0

x 0

lim x = f ( 0 ) = 0
x 0

x0 = 0 f ( x )
31

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f ( 0 ) = lim

0 + x 0
x
y
x
= lim
= lim
= lim
= 1
0
0
0
x

x
x
x
x

f + ( 0 ) = lim+

0 + x 0
x
y
x
= lim+
= lim+
= lim+
=1
x 0 x
x 0 x
x x 0
x

x 0

x 0

f ( 0 ) f + ( 0 ) y = x
x 2 x 1
, ab f ( x ) x = 1
ax + bx > 1

2 f ( x ) =

f ( x ) x = 1

f (1 0 ) = lim f ( x ) = lim x 2 = 1

x 1

x 1

x 1

f (1 + 0 ) = lim+ f ( x ) = lim+ ( ax + b ) = a + b
x 1

f (1) = lim
x 1

x 1

f ( x ) f (1)
x2 1
= lim
= lim ( x + 1) = 2
x 1 x 1
x 1
x 1

f ( x ) f (1)
a ( x 1)
ax + b 1
= lim+
= lim+
=a
x 1
x 1
x 1
x 1
x 1

f + (1) = lim+

f ( x ) x = 1 a + b = 1 b = 1 a

f ( x ) x = 1 f (1) = f + (1) 2 = a
a = 2b = 1 a = 1 2 = 1 f ( x ) x = 1

1.
1
2

1 y = 1 + x ln( x + 1 + x )

( 1 + x ) ln ( x +
2

2 y = cot x arccos 1 x

( (

1 + x 2 + 1 + x 2 ln x + 1 + x 2

1 y =

1
x
i1 +
ln x + 1 + x 2 + 1 + x 2
x + 1 + x 2
1 + x2
1 + x2

x
1+ x

ln x + 1 + x 2 + 1

32

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))

2 y = cot x arccos 1 x

2 cos x

sin 3 x

2 cot x csc x +

1 1 + x2

( x)
1 x2

2
x 1 x

x2

1 y = e

2 y =

sin x

1 dy = sin

ln x + cot x
sin x

## xde x + e x d sin x = 2 xe x sin xdx +

cos x x2
ie dx
2 x

2
cos x
= e x 2 x sin x +
dx
2 x

## sin xd (ln x + cot x) (ln x + cot x)d sin x

(sin x) 2

cos x
1 1
2
csc x dx 2 (ln x + cot x)dx
sin x x
sin x

2 dy =

## cos x ln x cos x cot x

1
csc3 x

dx
sin 2 x
sin 2 x
x sin x

f ( x) = x( x 1)( x 2)

g ( x) = x( x 1)( x 2)

( x 100) f (50) .
( x 49)( x 51)

( x 100)

f ( x) = ( x 50) g ( x)

f ( x) = g ( x) + ( x 50) g ( x)
f (50) = g (50) = (50!)(1)50 (50!) = (50!)2

f ( x) y = f (ln x)e

f ( x)

dy.

## dy = f (ln x)de f ( x ) + e f ( x ) df (ln x) f ( x)e f ( x ) f (ln x)dx +

e

f ( x)

1
f (ln x)e f ( x ) dx
x

+
f
x
f
x
f (ln x) dx
(
)
(ln
)

2.
1

y = y ( x) arctan( x + y ) = ye

33

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dy
dy .
dx

x y x .

1 + x2 + y 2

2y
y
2
2
1 + x + y

y
2 x

y =

2x

1+ x + y

=2 xe

1 + x2 + y 2

2y

(2 x + 2 yy) = ye

2 x

2x

1 + x2 + y 2

1 + x 2 + y 2 2 4 xx

=
2
4 y x 2 x 1 + x 2 + y 2 e x

ye

1 + x 2 + y 2 2 4 xx

dx
dy =
2
4 y x 2 x 1 + x 2 + y 2 e x

d arctan( x 2 + y 2 ) = d ye

1 + x2 + y

2 2

d x 2 + y 2 = e x dy + yde

( xdx + ydy ) = e

dy +

1 + x2 + y

2 2

ye

2y

2
2
1 + x + y

dy = y e

2 x

2
4 y x 2 x 1 + x 2 + y 2 e

2
2 x 1 + x 2 + y 2

2 x

e x dx

dx
2
2 2
1+ x + y

2x

ye
dy =

1 + x 2 + y 2 2 4 xx

dy =
dx

2
2 2
x
4 y x 2 x 1 + x + y e

ye

2
2
1 + x + y 4 xx
dx
2

2
2
2 x 1 + x + y

34

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1 + x 2 + y 2 2 4 xx

dy
=
2
dx
4 y x 2 x 1 + x 2 + y 2 e x

ye

3.
1

x( x + 1)( x + 2)
y .
( x 2 + 1)(e x + x)

1
ln y = ln x + ln( x + 1) + ln( x + 2) ln( x 2 + 1) ln(e x + x)
3

1
1 1
1
1
2x
ex +1
y = +
+
2
x

y
3 x x +1 x + 2 x +1 e + x

1 x( x + 1)( x + 2)
y = 3 2
3 ( x + 1)(e x + x)

1
1
1
2x
ex +1
+
2
x
+

x x +1 x + 2 x +1 e + x

y=

4.

dy
2t sin t + t 2 cos t
dy dt
=
=
dx dx
3t 2
dt
1+ t 3

x = ln(1 + t ) dy .
2

dx

y = t sin t

## 1 + t 3 )(2t sin t + t 2 cos t ) (1 + t 3 )(2sin t + t cos t )

(
=
=
3t 2

3t

1 y =

1
1
( x > 0) x0 ,
x
x0

2.

1 1
= ( x x0 )
x0 x02

y = 0 x X = 2 x0
x = 0 y Y =

S=

x0

2
1
1
XY = (2 x0 ) = 2
2
2
x0
35

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x = 1 + t 2

t = 2 .
y = t 3

x0 = 1 + 22 = 5 y0 = 23 = 8 .

dy 3t 2 3
=
= t
dx
2t
2

dy
= 3 y 8 = 3( x 5) , 3x y 7 = 0
dx t =2

1.

y =

y = ln x + x + a

x + x2 + a2

(x +

) y .

x2 + a2

1
+
=
2
2
2
2

x+ x +a
x + a

x + a2

( x2 + a2 )

x = arctan t
d2y

.
2

dx 2

y = ln(1 + t )

2t
dy
dy dt 1 + t 2
=
=
= 2t
1
dx dx
dt 1 + t 2

1
y = ( x 2 + a 2 ) 2 i2 x =
2

d y
=
dx 2

dy
d
dx
dx

y =

dy
d
dx dx
=
=
dt
dt

2
= 2(1 + t 2 )
1
1+ t 2

y = y ( x) x + y = 1 y .

2 x + 2 yy = 0 y =

1 y xy
=
y2

y+

x2
y

y2

x
y

y 2 + x2
1
= 3
3
y
y
36

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2. n n2
y y y

( n)

y (n) = e x

2 y = a (a > 0, a 1)

y ( n) = a x (ln a) n

3 y = sin x

n
y ( n ) = sin x +

4 y = cos x

n
y ( n ) = cos x +

5 y = ln x

y ( n) = (1) n1 (n 1)! xn

y = x k
y

k (k 1)
y ( n ) =

0
y=

nk
n>k

xn
( n)
y n .
1 x

x n 1) + 1
(
y=
=
1 x

n .

(k n + 1) x k n

( n)

1 y = e

1
x n1 + x n2 +
1 x

+ x +1

(n)
n!
y ( n ) = (1 x)1 =

(1 x) n+1

y=

y=

1
(n)
y n .
x 3x + 2
2

( x 1)( x 2)

1
1
1
1
= ( x 2) ( x 1)

x 2 x 1

y = ( x 2)2 ( x 1)2

## y ( n ) = (1) n n ! ( x 2)( n+1) ( x 1)( n+1)

37

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y = sin x + cos x y

(n)

n .

1 cos 2 x 2 1 + cos 2 x 2 1
3 1
2

y =
2 + 2 cos 2 x = + cos 4 x
+

4
4 4
2
2

1
n
n
y ( n ) = i4n cos 4 x + = 4n1 cos 4 x +

4
2
2

2.2

.
()

f ( x)

3 f (a ) = f (b) .

1a,b
2a,b

( ab ) f ( ) = 0 .

## 1 y = f ( x) A(a, f (a )) B (b, f (b))

A B.

2 y = f ( x) AB x
A B

3 y = f ( x ) A B
y = f ( x ) A B A B
x

f ( x )
1 [ ab ]
2 ( ab )

38

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( ab )

f (b) f ( a )
= f ( )
ba

f ( b ) f ( a ) = f ( )( b a )
(a < < b)
f ( x0 + x ) f ( x0 ) = f ( x0 + x )ix
( 0 < < 1)
x0 a b x

1 y = f ( x ) A af ( a ) B bf ( b )
A B
2 y = f ( x ) A B
y = f ( x ) AB A B

AB

f ( x ) ( ab ) f ( x ) 0 f ( x ) ( ab )

f ( x )g ( x ) ( ab ) f ( x ) g ( x ) ( ab )

f ( x ) = g ( x ) + c c

f ( a ) = f ( b )

f ( x ) g ( x )

1 [ ab ]
2 ( ab ) g ( x ) 0
( ab )

f ( b ) f ( a ) f ( )

=
( a < < b)
g ( b ) g ( a ) g ( )

g ( x ) = x

x = g ( t )
t [ ab ] A ( g ( a )f ( a ) )
y = f ( t )

AB

B ( g ( b )f ( b ) ) AB
39

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AB

1 n
f ( x ) x0 n

f ( x0 )
f ( x0 )
2
f ( x ) = f ( x0 ) +
( x x0 ) +
( x x0 ) +
1!
2!

f(

n)

( x0 )

n!

( x x0 )

+ Rn ( x )

( x x0 )

n
Rn ( x ) = o ( x x0 ) ( x x0 ) lim

Rn ( x )

= 0

x x0 ( x x )n
0

cos x
ln(1 + x)(1 + x) a n
e
sin x
x

2 n

x [ ab ]

f ( x0 )
f ( x0 )
2
( x x0 ) +
( x x0 ) +
1!
2!

f(

n)

( x0 )

n!

( x x0 )

+ Rn ( x )

f ( x ) = f ( x0 ) +

f ( x ) x0 ( ab ) n + 1 [ ab ] n

Rn ( x ) =

f ( n +1) ( )
n +1
( x x0 ) x0 x
( n + 1)!

x0 n x0 = 0 n
lim Rn ( x ) = 0
n

1 f ( x ) [03] ( 03 ) f ( 0 ) + f (1) + f ( 2 ) = 3

f ( 3) = 1 ( 03 ) f ( ) = 0
f ( x) [03] f ( x) [02] M m ,

40

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## m f (0) M m f (1) M m f (2) M m

1
[ f (0) + f (1) + f (2)] M
3

c [02]

f (c) =

1
[ f (0) + f (1) + f (2)] = 1
3

f ( c ) = f ( 3) f ( x ) [c3] ( c3 )
( c3 ) ( 0
3) f ( ) = 0
2

1) 3
f ( x ) [01] ( 0

f ( x ) dx = f ( 0 ) .
2
3

( 01) f ( ) = 0

2
f ( x ) dx = f ( c ) 1 3
1

2
3

2
c ,1
3

f ( c ) = 32 f ( x ) dx = f (0)

f ( x ) [ 0c ]
( 0c ) (0
1) f ( ) = 0

x > 0

x
< ln(1 + x) < x .
1+ x

1.

f (t ) = ln(1 + t ) [ 0, x ]

f (t ) =

1
1
ln(1 + x) ln1 =
[ x 0] (0 < < x)
1+
1+ t
x
1+

ln(1 + x) =

x
< ln(1 + x) < x
1+ x

(0 < < x)

f ( x ) [ ab ] ( ab )

f ( a ) = f ( b ) ( ab ) f ( ) > 0 .

c (a, b)

f (c ) f ( a ) = f (b)
41

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f ( c ) > f ( a ) f ( x ) [ ac ] 1 (a, c)

f (c ) f ( a )
>0
ca

f (1 ) =

f ( b ) > f ( c ) f ( x ) [ cb ] 2 (c, b)

f ( 2 ) =

f (b) f (c)
> 0
bc

(a, b) f ( ) > 0
3

## f ( x) < 0 f (0) = 0 x1 > 0 x2 > 0

f ( x1 + x2 ) < f ( x1 ) + f ( x2 )

x1 x2

0 < 1 < x1

f ( x1 ) = f ( x1 ) f (0) = ( x1 0) f (1 )

f ( x1 + x2 ) f ( x2 ) = [ ( x1 + x2 ) x2 ] f (2 ) x2 < 2 < x1 + x2
1 < 2

f ( x) < 0 f ( x) f (1 ) > f (2 )

f ( x1 ) > f ( x1 + x2 ) f ( x2 )

f ( x1 + x2 ) < f ( x1 ) + f ( x2 )

2.
1

f ( x ) [ ab ] ( ab ) b > a > 0

( a, b) ( a, b) f ( ) =

a + b f ( )
i

g ( x )

f ( )
f (b) f ( a )
f ( )( b a )
=
=
g (b) g( a )
g ( ) g ( b ) g ( a )
.

f ( )
f ( )
f ( )( b a )
=
=
a+b
2
b2 a 2

g ( x ) = x 2 .
42

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f ( ) =

b 2 + ab + a 2 f ( )
i 2 g ( x ) = x3
3

1 f ( x ) [ 0
1] f ( 0 ) = f ( 0 ) = f (1) = 0 f (1) = 1 .
( 01) f ( ) 4

f ( x ) x = 0

f ( x ) = f ( 0) + f ( 0) x +

1
f (1 ) x 2
2!

(0 < 1 < x)

f ( x ) x = 1

f ( x ) = f (1) + f (1)( x 1) +

1 1
f = f (1 )
2 8

( x < 2 < 1)

x =

1
2
f ( 2 )( x 1)
2!

1
1
f = 1 + f ( 2 )
8
2

1
(0 < 1 < ) ,
2

1
( < 2 < 1)
2

f (1 ) f ( 2 ) = 8 f (1 ) + f (2 ) 8

max { f (1 ) , f (2 ) } 4

( 01)

f ( ) 4

2.3

f ( x ) ( ab ) f ( x ) > 0 ( < 0 ) f ( x ) ( ab )

f ( x ) 0 ( 0 ) f ( x ) ( ab )

+ ) ( a
+ ) f ( x ) > 0 ( < 0 )
f ( x ) [ a
f ( a ) = 0 x > a f ( x ) > 0 ( < 0 )

1.
f ( x ) ( ab ) x0 ( ab )
43

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x0 x ( x x0 ) f ( x ) < f ( x0 )
f ( x0 ) f ( x ) x0 f ( x )
x0 x ( x x0 ) f ( x ) > f ( x0 )
f ( x0 ) f ( x ) x0 f ( x )

2.
f ( x ) x0 x0 f ( x ) f ( x0 ) = 0
f ( x0 ) = 0 x0 f ( x )

3.
f ( x ) x0 0 < x x0 < f ( x0 ) f ( x0 ) = 0
( x0 x0 ) x f ( x ) > 0 ( x0x0 + )

x f ( x ) < 0 f ( x0 ) x0
( x0 x0 ) x f ( x ) < 0 ( x0x0 + )

x f ( x ) > 0 f ( x0 ) x0
( x0 x0 ) ( x0x0 + ) x f ( x )

f ( x0 ) x0
4.

f ( x ) x0 f ( x0 ) = 0f ( x0 ) 0
f ( x0 ) < 0 f ( x0 ) x0
f ( x0 ) > 0 f ( x0 ) x0

1.

f ( x ) [ ab ] f ( x ) ( ab )

x1 xk f ( x1 ) , f ( xk ) , f ( a ) , f ( b )
f ( x1 ) , f ( xk ) , f ( a ) , f ( b ) f ( x ) [ ab ] M
44

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f ( x ) [ ab ] m
2.

1.
f ( x ) I x1 x2

x +x 1
f 1 2 > f ( x1 ) + f ( x2 )
2 2

x +x 1
f 1 2 < f ( x1 ) + f ( x2 )
2 2

f ( x ) I
y = f ( x ) y = f ( x )

y = f ( x ) y = f ( x )

2.

3.

f ( x ) ( ab ) f ( x )
( ab ) x , f ( x ) > 0 y = f ( x ) ( ab )

( ab ) x , f ( x ) < 0 y = f ( x ) ( ab )
y = f ( x )
f ( x )
x1 x2 xk

1.

lim f ( x) =

x a+

lim f ( x) =

x a

x = a y = f ( x)
45

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2.

lim f ( x) = b

x +

lim f ( x) = b

y = b y = f ( x)
3.
lim

f ( x)
= a 0 lim f ( x ) ax = b
x +
x

lim

f ( x)
= a 0 lim f ( x ) ax = b
x
x

x +

y = ax + b y = f ( x)

(1) y = f ( x)
(2) f ( x ) f ( x ) = 0 f ( x )

(3) f ( x ) f ( x ) f ( x ) f ( x )

(4)
(5)
() y = f ( x)

()

y = f ( x) M ( x, y ) k =

y
1 + ( y )2

3/ 2

k 0 R =

M ( x, y ) M D MD = R D
D R
()

## D f (1) > f ( 0 ) f (1) > f ( 0 )

( B)
46

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f (1) f ( 0 ) = f ( )(1 0 ) = f ( )
0 < < 1 f ( x ) > 0 f ( x )

## f (1) > f ( ) > f ( 0 )

2 f ( x) [ a, b ] ( a, b ) f (a ) = 0 f ( x)
( x) =

( x) =

f ( x)
( a, b ) .
xa

( x a) f ( x) f ( x)
2
( x a)

( x) =

f ( x ) f ( )
xa

f ( x ) f ( x ) f ( )

(a < < x)

f ( x) = f ( x) f (a ) = f ( )( x a)

( x ) > 0 ( x ) ( a, b )

f ( x) (, +) f ( x)

A
B
C
D

C.
2

f ( x) = max {2 x , 1 + x } .

1 + x
f ( x) =
2 x

1
< x <1
3
x 1x

1
3

1 2

3 3

f =

47

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lim

f ( x) x0

f ( x) f ( x0 )

x x0

( x x0 ) n

= k n k 0 n f ( x0 )

f ( x) f ( x0 )
( x x0 ) n

= k + ( x) lim ( x) = 0
x x0

f ( x) f ( x0 ) = k ( x x0 ) n + ( x)( x x0 ) n
n x x0 <

f ( x) f ( x0 ) k k0 f ( x0 ) k0 f ( x0 ) .

f ( x0 ) .

2
2
4 f ( x) = x ( x 1) 3 .
3

f ( x) f ( x0 ) x0
n x x0 <

1
2 3 x 1 1

2 2
3
.
1 f ( x ) = ( x 1) =
3 3
33 x 1

(2) f ( x ) = 0 x = 2 x = 1 f ( x) .

## (3) x < 1 f ( x) > 0 1 < x < 2 f ( x) < 0 , f ( x) x = 1

x > 2 f ( x) > 0 f ( x) x = 2 .
(4) f (1) =

2
1
f (2) = .
3
3

y = 1 +

2x
.
( x 1) 2

1 y = f ( x) (,1) (1 + )

2 f ( x) =

2( x + 1)
4( x + 2)
f ( x) =
3
( x 1) 4
( x 1)

f ( x) = 0 x1 = 1 f ( x) = 0 x2 = 2
48

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3 x2 = 2 x1 = 1 f ( x) (, 2) (2, 1)

(1,1) (1, +) . f ( x) f ( x)
.
x

(,2)

(2,-1)

(1,1)

(1+)

f ( x)

f ( x)

yf(x)

y1x1

4 f (2) =

5
1
f (1) = y
9
2

5
17
(01)(25) 3, 4, .

3.1

()

f ( x ) F ( x ) I F ( x ) = f ( x ) I

F ( x ) f ( x ) I f ( x ) I f ( x ) I

f ( x )dx

x f ( x )

f ( x ) dx
2

f ( x )dx = F ( x ) + C F ( x ) f ( x ) C

F ( x )dx = F ( x ) + C

f ( x ) dx = f ( x )

kf ( x )dx = k f ( x ) dx

dF ( x ) = F ( x ) + C

d f ( x ) dx = f ( x ) dx

49

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## f ( x ) g ( x )dx = f ( x )dx g ( x )dx

3
f ( x ) I f ( x ) I

( )

( )

sin x dx cos x dx

dx
sin x
cos x
x2
e dx
dx
dx
ln x
x
x

x a +1
+C
1 x dx =
a +1

a 1

xdx = ln x + C

3 a dx =
x

1 x
a +C
ln a

e dx = e
x

a > 0 a 1

+C

2

7 csc xdx =

cos

dx = tan x + C

6 sec xdx =

sin

dx = cot x + C

10.

11.

12.

## sec xdx = ln sec x + tan x + C

13.

cs c xdx = ln cs c x cot x + C

14.

15.

dx

x
+C
a

a > 0

1
dx
x
= arctan + C
2
+x
a
a

a > 0

a2 x2
2

= arcsin

50

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16.

17.

dx
1
a+x
=
ln
+C
2
x
2a a x
dx

x a
2

(a > 0)

= ln x + x 2 a 2 + C

(a > 0)

1()

f ( u )du = F ( u ) + C ( x )

f ( x ) ( x ) dx = f ( x )d ( x )

u = ( x )

f ( u ) du

= F (u ) + C = F ( x ) + C

f ( ax + b )dx = a f ( ax + b ) d ( ax + b )

(2)

f ( ax

(3)

f ( ln x )

(4)

f x x

(5)

f ( x)

dx
= 2 f
x

(6)

f ( a )a dx = ln a f ( a ) d ( a )

+ b ) x n 1dx =

1 1
= f d
x x

( x)d ( x)

( a 0a 1 )

f ( e )e dx = f ( e ) d ( e )
x

( a 0n 0 )

dx
= f ( ln x ) d ( ln x )
x

1 dx

1
f ( ax n + b ) d ( ax n + b )

na

(a 0)

(1)

(7)

(8)

(9)

f ( tan x ) sec

(10)

f ( cot x ) csc

(11)

(12)

## xdx = f ( cot x )d ( cot x )

51

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f ( arcsin x )

dx = f ( arcsin x )d ( arcsin x )

(13)

(14)

(15)

f ( arctan x )
dx = f ( arctan x )d ( arctan x )
1 + x2

f ( arc cot x )
dx = f ( arc cot x )d ( arc cot x )
1 + x2

f arctan
x

dx =
2
1+ x

(19)

(20)

dx = f ( arccos x )d ( arccos x )

1
1

f arctan d arctan
x
x

f ln x + x 2 + a 2

dx =

2
2
x +a
f ln x + x 2 a 2

dx =

2
2
x a

(18)

1 x2

f ln x + x 2 + a 2

f ln x + x 2 a 2

(17)

f ( arccos x )

f ( x)
dx = ln f ( x ) + C
f ( x)

(16)

1 x2

)d ( ln ( x +

x2 + a2

)) ( a > 0 )

)d ( ln ( x +

x2 a2

)) ( a > 0 )

( f ( x ) 0)

x = ( t ) ( t ) 0

f ( x )dx

x = ( t )

f ( t ) ( t ) dt = G ( t ) + C

f ( t ) ( t ) dt = G ( t ) + C = G ( x ) + C t = ( x )
1

x = ( t )

x n ax + b x n

ax + b
x
e
cx + d

e x + b g ( x ) = t x = ( t )
x = ( t )

Ax 2 + Bx + C ( A 0 ) Ax 2 + Bx + C = t
52

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x = (t ) A > 0
2
2
A ( x x0 ) l 2 A < 0 A l 2 ( x x0 )

a2 x2

x = a sin t

a2 + x2

x = a tan t

x2 a2

x = a sec t

1
2

x 2 a 2 dx =

x 2 a 2u

1
x2 a2 d ( x2 a2 )
2
3
1 3
1
udu = u 2 + C =
x2 a2 ) + C
(
3
3

x2 + a2
1
x2 + a2
t
2 2 2 1
dx =
d ( x 2 + a 2 ) x +a t 2
dt 2
2
x
x
2
2 t a2

3.

t2
a2
=
+
dt
1
t 2 a 2 dt
t 2 a2

a a t
a a a2 + x2
= t + ln
+ C = x 2 + a 2 + ln
+C
2 a+t
2 a + a2 + x2

u ( x )v ( x )

u ( x )dv ( x ) = u ( x ) v ( x ) v ( x )du ( x )
u ( x )v ( x ) dx = u ( x ) v ( x ) u ( x )v ( x ) dx

u ( x ) v ( x )
1 pn ( x ) e pn ( x ) sin axpn ( x ) cos ax pn ( x ) n a
ax

n e
sin ax
cos ax v ( x ) u ( x )
ax

53

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## 2 pn ( x ) ln xpn ( x ) arcsin xpn ( x ) arctan x pn ( x ) n

arcsin x
arctan x u ( x )
pn ( x ) v ( x ) ln x

ax

ax

## 3 e sin bxe cos bx

4 dx

dv ( x )
()

dx .

(1 x )

3
1
1
4 3 2 5
1 2x + x2
1
dx = x 2 2 x 2 + x 2 dx = 2 x 2 x 2 + x 2 + C
=
3
5
x

x4 + 1
x 2 + 1dx

dx

x ( x + 1)

x 4 1) + 2
(
x4 + 1
2

dx =
dx = ( x 2 1) + 2 dx
1 2
2
x +1
x +1
x + 1

x3
x + 2 arctan x + C
3

dx

2i3x 5i2 x
3x dx

2
5
x
x

3
2
2 1
2 5i dx = 2 x 5
+ C 2x + C
ln 2 ln 3
3 ln 2
3

x ( x + 1) = x x + 1dx = ln x ln x + 1 + C ln

x
+C
x +1

54

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1 tan xdx

sin

dx
x cos 2 x

## 1 tan xdx sec x 1 dx = tan x x + C

1
1
sin 2 x + cos 2 x
1
=
dx
sin 2 x cos2 x sin 2 x cos2 x dx = cos2 x + sin 2 x dx
tan x cot x + C

1
n

+ 1)

dx n1

2x + 3
dx
+ x +1

1 + xn xn
1
x n 1
dx
=
dx

x( x n + 1)
x x n + 1dx

ln x

1
ln x n + 1 + C = ln
n

( 2 x + 1) + 2dx =

x( x

x + x +1
2

d ( x 2 + x + 1)
x + x +1
2

+C

x +1
n

+ 2

dx
x + x +1
2

dx+
4 3
2x +1
2
2

2
ln ( x + x + 1) + 2
arctan
ln ( x + x + 1) +
+C
2
2
3
3
1 3

x+ +
2 2

1 cos xdx

2 cos xdx

## 4 sin x cos xdx

5 sec xdx

6 tan xdx
2

1
1 + cos 2 x
2
1 cos xdx =
dx = 1 + 2 cos 2 x + cos ( 2 x ) dx
2
4

1
1

1 + 2 cos 2 x + (1 + cos 4 x ) dx

4
2

3
1
1
= x + sin 2 x + sin 4 x + C
8
4
32

2 cos xdx =
5

## (1 sin x ) d sin x = (1 2sin

2

55

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x + sin 4 x )d sin x

2
1
= sin x sin 3 x + sin 5 x + C
3
5

2

( sin

## x 2sin 4 x + sin 6 x )d sin x

1
2
1
= sin 3 x sin 5 x + sin 7 x + C
7
3
5
1
1 1 cos 4 x 1 + cos 2 x
sin 2 ( 2 x )icos 2 xdx =

dx

4
4
2
2

5 sec xdx =
6 tan xdx =

1
1 + cos 2 x cos 4 x ( cos 2 x )( cos 4 x ) dx
16

1
1

16
2

1
1
1
1
1

16
2
4
12
4

## (1 + tan x )d tan x = tan x + 3 tan

2

( sec

x+C

x 1) dx = ( sec4 x 2sec2 x + 1) dx
2

ex
1 + e x dx

1
1

## = tan x + tan 3 x 2 tan x + x + C = tan 3 x tan x + x + C

3
3

1 + e dx
x

1
dx
+ e x
1

(1 + e x )

dx

e . e dx = de ,
x

ex
1
x
1 + e x dx = 1 + e x d ( e + 1)
= ln (1 + e x ) + C

(2)

(1 + e

> 0) .

1
ex
1
x
x
e x + e x dx = e2 x + 1dx e x 2 + 1de arctan e + C .
( )

1 + e = u x = ln(u 1) dx =
x

56

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1
du
u 1

1+ e

dx =

1
1
1
du =
du ln u 1 ln u + C
u (u 1)
u 1 u

ln

ex
+ C x ln(1 + e x ) + C .
x
1+ e

d (1 + e

1
1 + ex ex
ex

=
=

dx
dx
1
dx

1 + ex
1 + ex 1 + ex
1 + ex

134.

(1 + e )
x

(1 + e )

x 2

dx

x ln (1 + e x ) +

1
1
dx
d 1 + ex )
2 (
x
x
1+ e
(1 + e )

1
+C.
1 + ex

dx

dx
1
2 x

xe
3

xe

3
2

2 ( x ln x) (ln x + 1)dx

1
2 x
1
1

1
= e xd = e x + C
x

1 + ex ex

dx =
2
(3)

) x ln 1+ e x + C .
( )

(4)

2 ( x ln x) 2 (ln x + 1)dx = ( x ln x ) 2 d ( x ln x ) =

5
2
( x ln x) 2 + C
5

dx
x+3 x

dx
x+3 x

x =t 6

6 t t +1
2

t 3 + 1) 1
(
6t 5 dt
t3
t 3 + t 2 = 6 t + 1dt = 6 t + 1 dt

1
3
2
dt = 2t 3t + 6t 6 ln t + 1 + C
t +1

2 x 3 3 x + 6 6 x 6 ln
2
1

x +1 + C

dx

3
2 2

(1 x )

57

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a 2 x 2 dx

a0

(x

dx
2

+a

2 3/ 2

a0

dx
2

x2 4

1 x = sin t

dx

3
2 2

(1 x )

cos tdt
x
= sec 2 tdt = tan t + C
+C
3
cos t
1 x 2

2 x = a sin t

a2
a x dx = (a cos t )(a cos tdt ) = (1 + cos 2t )dt
2

a 2 1
a2
=
sin
2
+
+
t
t
C
(t + sin t cos t ) + C

2 2
2

a 2
x x a 2 x 2
a2
x
1
2
2

+ C = x a x + arcsin + C
arcsin + i
a a
a
a
2
2
2

## 3 x = a tan t dx = a sec tdt

( x2 + a2 ) 2

1
x
a sec 2 tdt 1
+C
= 2 cos tdt = 2 sin t + C
3
3
a sec t a
a
a2 a2 + x2

dx

## 4 x = 2sec u dx = 2sec u i tan udu

dx
2

x 4
2

2sec u i tan u

4sec 2 u i 4sec 2 u 4

1 sec u i tan u
1
1
du
du
2

4 sec u i tan u
4 sec u

1
1
cos udu sin u + C =

4
4

du

x2 4
+C
4x

1 xe dx

2 2 x

2 x e
x

1 xe dx = xde

dx

( 3x

+ x 1) cos xdx

= xe x + e x dx = ( x + 1)e x + C

1 2 2 x
1
1
x de = x 2 e2 x + e 2 x dx 2

2
2
2
1 2 2 x
1
1
2 2 x
2 x
2 x
x e + xe dx = x e xde
2
2
2

2 2 x

2 x e

dx =

1 2 2 x 1 2 x 1 2 x
1
1

x e xe + e dx = e2 x x 2 + x + + C
2
2
2
2
2

58

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( 3x

## + x 1) cos xdx = ( 3x 2 + x 1)d sin x

( 6 x + 1) sin xdx

( 6 x + 1)d cos x

3 x + x 1 sin x sin xd 3 x + x 1
3 x + x 1 sin x
3 x + x 1 sin x +

2

1 x ln xdx (n 1)

1 n +1
1
x n +1
1
n +1

x ln x
x
+
C
ln x
+C
2
n +1
n +1
n +1
( n + 1)

## arcsin xdx = x arcsin x xd arcsin x = x arcsin x

= x arcsin x +

3 arctan xdx

1
1 n +1
1
1
ln xd ( x n +1 )
x ln x
x n +1 i dx

x
n +1
n +1
n +1

1 x ln xdx (n 1) =

2 arcsin xdx

xdx
1 x2

1 d (1 x 2 )
2
x arcsin x + 1 x + C

2
2
1 x

arcsin x = t x = sin t

2

## 3 arctan xdx = x arctan x xd arctan x

x arctan x
3

x
1 d (1 + x 2 )
1
2
x arctan x ln(1 + x ) + C
dx
x
arctan
x
=

2
1 + x2

2 1+ x
2

1 ln xdx

2 arcsin xdx

( x ln x )i x dx = x ln

1 ln xdx = x ln x 3

1
x

x 3 ln 2 xdx

x ln x 3 x ln x + 3 x ( 2 ln x )i dx x ln x 3 x ln x + 6 ln xdx
3

59

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1
x

x ln x 3 x ln x + 6 x ln x 6 xi dx x ln x 3ln x + 6 ln x 6 + C
3

( arcsin x )

x ( arcsin x ) 2
2

dx = x ( arcsin x ) xd ( arcsin x )

x arcsin x
1 x

dx x ( arcsin x ) + 2 arcsin xd 1 x 2
2

x ( arcsin x ) + 2 1 x arcsin x
2

1 x 2 d arcsin x

x ( arcsin x ) + 2 1 x arcsin x dx
2

x ( arcsin x ) + 2 1 x arcsin x 2 x + C
2

arcsin x = t x = sin t

( arcsin x )

2

## t sin t + 2t cos t 2sin t + C x(arcsin x) + 2 1 x arcsin x 2 x + C

4

ax

1 e sin bxdx

a 0, b 0

x 2 + a 2 dx

a0

1
1
1
sin bxdeax = eax sin bx e ax d sin bx

a
a
a
1 ax
b ax
1 ax
b
ax
e sin bx e cos bxdx = e sin bx 2 cos bxde
a
a
a
a

1 e sin bxdx =

ax

1 ax
b
b2
e sin bx 2 eax cos bx 2 eax sin bxdx
a
a
a

b 2 ax
1 ax
b ax
1 + 2 e sin bxdx = e sin bx 2 e cos bx + C
a
a
a
ax
e sin bxdx =

e ax
( a sin bx b cos bx ) + C
a 2 + b2

x 2 + a 2 dx = x x 2 + a 2 xd x 2 + a 2

x x +a
2

x2
x2 + a2

dx = x x 2 + a 2 x 2 + a 2 dx + a 2

2 x 2 + a 2 dx = x x 2 + a 2 + a 2 ln x + x 2 + a 2 + C

60

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dx
x2 + a2

5
1

dx

x 3e x

x 2
a2
x + a 2 + ln x + x 2 + a 2 + C
2
2

x 2 + a 2 dx =

tde

dx
1
3 x

xe

1 1 1
= e x d
x
x

1
=t
x

arctan e x
e x dx

te t dt

1 1
= te t e t dt = te t + e t + C e x + e x + C
x

2 e = t

1
1 1
arctan e x
arctan t
1
e x dx = t 2 dt = arctan td t = t arctan t + t i1 + t 2 dt

f ( x ) F ( x ) = ln

)+C

(x +

x 2 + 1 I = xf ( x )dx

I = xdf ( x ) = xf ( x ) f ( x )dx = xF ( x ) F ( x ) + C

1
arctan e x + x ln (1 + e 2 x ) + C
2

arctan t +
dt arctan t + ln t ln 1 + t
2
t
2
t
t 1 + t

2x

x +1
2

ln x + x 2 + 1 ln 2 x + x 2 + 1 + C

2 F ( x ) = f ( x ) x 0 f ( x ) F ( x ) =

F ( x ) > 0 f ( x )

xe x
2 (1 + x )

( x 0) .

2 f ( x ) F ( x ) dx = 2 F ( x ) dF ( x ) = F 2 ( x ) + C1

( x + 1) 1 e x
de x
ex
=
=

dx
dx
(1 + x )2 (1 + x )2
1 + x (1 + x )2 dx
xe x

61

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F ( 0 ) = 1

ex
ex
ex
ex
+ C2
=
+
dx
dx =
2
1 + x (1 + x )2
1+ x
(1 + x )
F 2 ( x) =

ex
+ C F ( 0 ) = 1 C = 0 F ( x ) > 0
1+ x
x

ex
e2
=
F ( x) =
1+ x
1+ x

f ( x) = F( x) =

f sin x =

x
1
x
e2
xe 2
2 1+ x =
3
1+ x
2 (1 + x ) 2

e2 1+ x

x
x
f ( x ) dx
I =
sin x
1 x

u = sin x sin x =
2

I =

u x = arcsin u f ( u ) =

arcsin u
u

arcsin x
arcsin x
dx =
d (1 x ) = 2 arcsin xd 1 x
1 x
1 x

1
2

= 2 1 x arcsin x + 2 1 x

1
d x
1 x

= 2 1 x arcsin x + 2 x + C

x = sin t
2

I =

x
sin t
=
dx = 2 cos t sin tdt
1 x cos t

sin t t

cos t sin t

## = 2t cos t + 2 cos tdt = 2t cos t + 2sin t + C

= 2 1 x arcsin x + 2 x + C
4

In =

In =

(x

dx
2

+a

2 n

( n 2, a > 0 )

1
x

2
3
n
I
+

(
)
n 1

2 ( n 1) a 2 ( x 2 + a 2 )n 1

62

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1
In = 2
a

(x + a ) x
x +a
(
)
2

2 n

1
1
dx = 2 I n 1 2
2a
a

xd ( x 2 + a 2 )

(x

+ a2 )

1
1
1

= 2 I n 1 +
xd
2 ( n 1) a 2 ( x 2 + a 2 )n 1
a

1
1
x

I
I
+

n 1
n 1

a2
2 ( n 1) a 2 ( x 2 + a 2 )n 1

1
x

+ ( 2n 3) I n 1
=

2 ( n 1) a 2 ( x 2 + a 2 )n 1

3.2

[ ab]

f ( x ) dx = lim f (i )( xi xi 1 ) i [ xi 1xi ]
d 0

i =1

1. f ( x ) [ ab ]

## < xi 1 < xi <

xn = b

1 i n

d = max ( xi xi 1 ) f ( x ) [ ab ] f ( x ) [ ab ] [ ab ]

2.
f ( x ) [ ab ]

f ( x ) dx y = f ( x )
a

x = ax = b x x x
3.
a

f ( x ) dx = f ( x ) dx

f ( x ) dx = 0

k1 f1 ( x ) + k2 f 2 ( x ) dx = k1 f1 ( x )dx + k2 f 2 ( x )dx
a
a

f ( x ) dx = f ( x ) dx + f ( x ) dx

a
b

5 a bf ( x ) g ( x )

c [ ab ]
b

( a x b ) a f ( x ) dx a g ( x ) dx
63

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6 a < bm f ( x ) M
7 a < b

( a x b ) m ( b a ) a f ( x ) dx M ( b a )

f ( x ) dx f ( x ) dx

8 f ( x ) [ ab ]

[ ab ]

f ( x ) dx = f ( )( b a )
a

1 b
f ( x ) dx f ( x ) [ ab ]
b a a

f ( x ) dx = 0 f f ( x ) dx = 2 f ( x ) dx

f
f ( x ) T a

a +T

f ( x ) dx = f ( x ) dx

10

1.

f ( x ) [ ab ] F ( x ) =

f ( t ) dtx [ ab]
x

1 f ( x ) [ ab ] F ( x ) =
2 f ( x ) [ ab ] F ( x ) =

F ( x ) =

2 ( x )
1 ( x)

f ( t ) dt [ ab]
x

f ( t ) dt [ ab] F ( x ) = f ( x )
x

f ( t ) dt1 ( x )2 ( x ) f ( x )

F ( x ) = f 2 ( x ) 2 ( x ) f 1 ( x ) 1 ( x )
2.
f ( x ) [ ab ] F ( x ) f ( x ) [ ab ]
b

f ( x ) dx = F ( x )

= F (b) F ( a )

f ( x ) [ ab ]

f ( x ) [ ab ]

1.
f ( x ) [ ab ] x = ( t )
64

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1 ( t ) [ ] [ ]
2 ( ) = a ( ) = b t a ( t ) b

f ( x ) dx =
a

f ( t ) ( t ) dt

2.
u ( x )v ( x ) [ ab ]

u ( x )v ( x ) dx = u ( x ) v ( x ) a u ( x )v ( x ) dx
b

u ( x )dv ( x ) = u ( x ) v ( x ) v ( x )du ( x )

f ( x ) dx [ ab] f ( x ) [ ab]
b

f ( x )

f ( x ) dx = lim

f ( x ) dx

f ( x ) dx .
b

f ( x ) dx = lim

f ( x ) dx

a a

f ( x ) dx

b + a

1.
1

f ( x ) dx =

f ( x ) dx +

a a

b + c

f ( x ) dx = lim

f ( x ) dx + lim f ( x ) dx

lim

R + R

f ( x ) dx .

lim

f ( x ) dx .

, p > 1
dx =
p 1
p
x
p 1

65

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f ( x ) dx

f ( x ) dx

R + R

f ( x ) dx

f ( x ) dx

f ( x ) dx

, p > 1
+ du =
dx
p 1
=

p
p
1 u
x(ln x)

p 1

(0
(k 0
x k e x dx
( 0

2.
1
f ( x ) [ ab) lim f ( x ) = b f ( x )
x b

f ( x ) dx = lim
a

f ( x ) dx

f ( x ) dx .
a

f ( x ) dx .

f ( x ) ( ab] lim+ f ( x ) = a f ( x )
xa

f ( x ) dx = lim
0+

a +

f ( x ) dx

f ( x ) dx
a

f ( x ) dx .
a

## f ( x ) [ ac) (cb] lim f ( x ) = c f ( x )

b

f ( x ) dx = f ( x ) dx + f ( x ) dx = lim

x C

1 0

C 1

f ( x ) dx + lim+
2 0

f ( x ) dx

C + 2

( 1 2 0 )
+

f ( x ) dx
a

f ( x ) dx .
a

1
1 dx
dx
dx (q1

0x 1q 1 x q
0 x q (q 1
1

.
()

66

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x 2 cos xdx

x 2 cos xdx=

x arctan xdx

3
2

x 2 d sin x = x 2 sin x 0 2

ln 2

e x 1dx

x sin xdx
2

## xd cos x = 2 x cos x 0 2 cos xdx 4 2sin x 0 = 4

x arctan xdx =

1 3
1 3 x2
x2
3
2
xdx
=
x

dx
arctan
arctan
0
2 0
2
2 0 1 + x 2

3
1 3
1
arctan 3 1
dx
2
2 0 1 + x2

1
2

3 arctan x 0

) = 2 23 + 12 3 = 23 23
(

1
2t 2
1
1

2[
arctan
]

=
t
t
2
dt = 2 1
dt
1
2
2
0
0 t +1
0
1 + t
4

ln 2

e x 1dx =

2
1

x 2 3 x dx

(x

1
e

ln x dx

## min {1, x 2 }dx

3x )dx ( x 2 3 x )dx = 3
1

1
e
1
e
1
ln x dx = 1 ( ln x ) dx + ln xdx ( x ln x + x ) 1 + ( x ln x x ) 1 = 2 1
1
e
e
e

1
e

x 2 3 x dx =

2t
dt , x = 0 t = 0 x = ln 2 t = 1
t +1
2

dx =

3 e 1 = t , x = ln t + 1

## min {1, x 2 }dx = dx + x 2 dx + dx =

1

11
3

1
1 I =

2 I =

2
0

4
0

f (sin x)
dx ,f f (sin x) + f (cos x) 0
f (sin x) + f (cos x)

## ln(1 + tan x)dx

1 x =

I =2
0

t
2

f (cos t )

dt , 2I = 2 dt = ,I =
0
f (cos t ) + f (sin t )
2
4

67

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2 x =

t
4

0
2

1 tan t
4
(
)
ln
I = ln 1 +
d
t
dt ln 2 I , 2 I = ln 2, I = ln 2

0
1 + tan t
4
4
8
1 + tan t
4

f ( x ) f ( x ) = ln x

f ( x )dx f ( x )dx

f ( x )dx = A f ( x ) = ln x A
1

1 e
e

f ( x )dx =

## ln xdx Adx = ( x ln x x) 1 A(e 1)

A = e (e 1) A(e 1), eA = 1, A =

sin n xdx ( n = 0
1
2

n 2 I n =
1 I n =

n 1
I n 2 , (2) I n
n

In =

1
e

1
f ( x )dx = e

(1)

## = ( n 1) cos 2 x sin n 2 xdx = ( n 1) (1 sin 2 x ) sin n 2 xdx

= ( n 1) I n 2 ( n 1) I n

nI n = ( n 1) I n 2 I n =

2 I 0 =

dx =

n 1
I n2 ( n 2 )
n

I1 = sin xdx = 1
2

n = 2k

I n = I 2k =

2k 1
2k 1 2k 3
I 2k 2 =
i

2k
2k
2k 2

( 2k ) !
( 2k ) !
1

= 2k
i
i
iI0 =
2
2
2
( 2k k !) 2 2 ( k !) 2

n = 2k + 1

2k
2k
2k 2

i
I n = I 2 k +1 =
I 2 k 1 =
2k + 1
2k + 1 2k 1
2

Jn =
x=

2
2k k !)
(
22 k ( k !)
2
I1 =
=

3
( 2k + 1)! ( 2k + 1)!
2

cos n xdx ( n = 0
1
2 ) J n = I n ( n = 0
1
2

2
tJ n = cos n t d ( t ) = sin n tdt
0
2
2
2

68

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J n = I n
1
2
( n = 0

Kn =

1 K n =

tan 2 n xdx
( n = 123

2 K1 =

1
K n 1
2n 1

2 K n
2
3
( n = 1
1 K n =

## tan 2( n 1) x ( sec 2 x 1) dx = tan 2( n 1) xd tan x K n 1 =

1
K n 1
2n 1

4
2
tan 2 xdx =
= 1
0 ( sec x 1) dx = [ tan x x ]
4
0

1
1 1
K 2 = 1 K 3 = 1
3 4
5 3 4
n

+ ( 1)

k 1
n

( 1)
1
+

k = 2 2k 1

n > 3 K n = ( 1)

n 1

(a > 0)

1
+

## eax cos bxdx = lim

+ 0

(2)

(1)

1 .

dx

0 (2 x)

1 x

eax
(a cos bx + b sin bx) + C
a 2 + b2

eax
a

2
2
+ a + b
a + b2

lim

2 x = sin t
2

## 2sin t cos tdt

sin t
dx
= 2
= 2 2
dt
2
0 (2 sin t ) cos t
0 1 + cos 2 t
(2 x) 1 x

d cos t
1 + cos 2 t

cos t =u

1 du
du

1
2
2 arct an u 0 =
2
2
0 1+ u
2
1+ u

x=1

3.3

69

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F ( x) =

2 ( x )

f (t )dt f ( x ) 1 ( x) 2 ( x)

( )
1

F ( x ) = f 2 ( x ) 2 ( x ) f 1 ( x ) 1 ( x )

f ( x) =

ln t
dt ( x > 0) f ( x ) +
1+ t

1
f
x

1
x ln t
ln t
1
dt + x
dt
g ( x ) = f ( x ) + f g ( x ) =
1 1+ t
1 1+ t
x

1
ln x
1 ln x
+ x 2 =
g ( x) =
x
1+ x 1+ 1 x
x
ln x
1
g ( x) =
dx = ln 2 x + C
2
x
ln

## g (1) = f (1) + f (1) = 0 C=0

1 1
g ( x ) = f ( x ) + f = ln 2 x
x 2

f ( x) =

ax

et ( 2 a t ) dt

a I =

I = x f ( x ) 0 x f ( x ) dx = xe

xe

(a

x2

) dx = 1

2 0

(a

x2

f ( x ) dx
0

( a x ) 2 a ( a x )

)d a2 x2 1 (a
(
) e

x2

( 1) dx

(
2

) = 1 ea 1
0

x 3 f ( x 2 )dx =

x = t xdx =
2

1 a2
xf ( x )dx
( a > 0 )
2 0

1
dt
2

x = 0 t = 0 x = a t = a x = t [ 0a ]
2

x 3 f ( x 2 )dx =

1 a2
1 a2
dt
=
xf ( x )dx
tf
t
()
2 0
2 0

f ( x ) [ 01]

xf ( sin x )dx =

x = t
70

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f ( sin x )dx
2
0

## = ( t ) f ( sin t )dt = ( x ) f ( sin x )dx

= f ( sin x ) dx xf ( sin x ) dx

x > 0

t =

xf ( sin x ) dx =

f ( sin x ) dx
2 0
1
1 dt
dt
x
=
x 1 + t 2 1 1 + t 2

1 dt
1
1
1

= 1
2
x 1+ t
1
x
u
1+ 2
u

1
1
du
dt
1

x
x
du

=
=
2 1 2

u +1 1 1+ t2
u

f ( x ) g ( x ) [ ab ] ( ab )
b

f ( ) g ( x)dx = g ( ) f ( x)dx

## 2 xf ( sin x ) dx = f ( sin x )dx

F ( x ) = f (t )dt g (t )dt

F ( x ) [ ab ] ( ab ) F ( a ) = F ( b ) = 0
( ab ) F ( ) = 0

F ( x ) = f ( x ) g (t )dt g ( x) f (t )dt

f ( ) g ( x)dx g ( ) f ( x)dx = 0
b

f ( ) g ( x)dx = g ( ) f ( x)dx

f ( x ) [ ab ]

xf ( x )dx

a+b b
f ( x)dx
2 a

a+x x
f (t )dt
a
2 a
1 x
a+x
F ( x ) = xf ( x ) f (t )dt
f ( x)
2 a
2
xa
1 x
1 x
1 x
1 x

## f ( x ) f (t )dt = f ( x)dt f (t )dt f ( x ) f (t ) dt 0

2 a
2
2 a
2 a
2 a

F ( x ) = tf (t )dt

F ( x ) [ ab ] F ( b ) F ( a ) = 0
71

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a+b b
f (t )dt 0
a
2 a
b
a+b b
a xf ( x)dx 2 a f ( x)dx

tf (t )dt

3.4

1.

S1 = [ y2 ( x) y1 ( x) ]dx
a

y2 ( x) y1 ( x), x [ ab ]

S 2 = [ x2 ( y ) x1 ( y ) ]dy
c

x2 ( y ) x1 ( y ), y [ cd ]

1 2
r ( )d
2
1
S 2 = r22 ( ) r12 ( )d

S1 =

x = (t )

y = (t )

( t )

( ) = a ( ) = b (t ) [ ] [ ] (t )

72

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(t ) 0
C x = a x = b x )

S = ydx = (t ) (t )dt

()
1
y = y ( x) (axb)[ y(x)]

S=

b
a

2
1 + y ( x) dx

dS = 1 + y ( x) dx
2.
r = r ( )
r ( ) [ ]

2
[ r ( )] + r ( ) d

S=

x = x(t )

y = y (t )

( t )

x(t ) y (t ) [ ]

S=

x (t ) 2 + y (t ) 2 dt

1
z z=c z=d z z(c
zd) z S(z)
d

V = S ( z )dz
c

2
(1) y = f ( x) (O)
x = a x = b x x

Vx = f 2 ( x)dx
a

y
b

Vy = 2 xf ( x)dx
a

(2) x = g ( y ) (O) y = c y = d y y
73

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Vy = g 2 ( y )dy
c

x
d

Vx = 2 yg ( y )dy
c

()
C = AB x x S
1. AB y = f ( x)
b

2
S = 2 f ( x) 1 + f ( x) dx
a

2. AB r = r ( )

2
2
S = 2 r ( ) sin [ r ( )] + r ( ) d

3. AB x = x(t ) y = y (t )

axb

2
2
S = 2 y (t ) x (t ) + y (t ) dt

4. AB S x = x( s ) y = y ( s )
l

0sl

S = 2 y ( s )ds
0

()

2
3
x

2
3
y

2
3
a

x = a cos3 t , y = a sin 3 t

0

12a

## 2 sin 4 t cos 2 tdt

12a

2 sin 4 t (1 sin 2 t ) dt

1
2

3a 2
8

y = 2 x
1
2

1
2 yy = 2y ( 11) =
2
y

=1
y =1

74

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1
3
x + y =
2
2

y 1 = ( 1) x

y = 2 x x + y =
2

3
9

3
2
2

2
1 3
16
y
S = y dy =
3
3
2
2

x 3 + y 3 = a 3

x = a cos ty = a sin t
( 0 t 2 )
3

l = 4

2
x ( t ) + y ( t ) dt = 12a sin t cos tdt = 6a sin 2 t = 6a
0
0

r = a (1 + cos )
( 0 2 )

l = 2

r ( ) + r ( ) d = 2a
0
2

[1 + cos ] + [sin ]

= 2a 2 cos d = 8a
0
2

1 y = x 2 x y = 0 x = 1 x = 3 y
.

A1 y

V1 = 1 + 1 + y dy =
1

11
6

A2 y
3

V2 = 27 1 + 1 + y dy =
0

43

Vy = V1 + V2 = 9
3

Vy = 2 x x 2 2 x dx
1

2
3
= 2 x ( 2 x x 2 )dx + x ( x 2 2 x ) dx
2
1

2
x4 2 x4 2 3
= 2 x3 + x3 = 9
4 1 4 3 2
3
2

D1 y = 2 x x = ax = 2 y = 0
2

75

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## D2 y = 2 x 2 x = ay=0 0 < a < 2

1 D1 x V1 D2 y V2

a V1 + V2

4
32 a 5 )
(
a
5
2 a2 y
2a 2
i
V2 = a 2
dy = a 4
0
2
2

V1 = ( 2 x 2 ) dx =
2

V2 = 2 xi2 x 2 dx = a 4

2 V = V1 + V2 =

4
(32 a5 ) + a 4 .
5

V = 4a (1 a ) = 0
a=1

(0, 2) a = 1 .

= 4 < 0 a = 1 . V1 + V2

129
.
5

1
1y = sin x ( 0 x )y = 0

2r = a (1 + cos )( a > 0 )

## S = 2 y 1 + y2 dx = 2 sin x 1 + cos 2 xdx

= 2

1 + cos 2 xd ( cos x ) = 2

1 + u 2 du = 4

1
u
1
= 4 1 + u 2 + ln u + 1 + u 2 = 2
2
2
0

1 + u 2 du

2 + ln 1 + 2

))

2 r ( ) = a (1 + cos ) r ( ) = r ( )

r = a (1 + cos )
0

S = 2 r ( ) sin r 2 ( ) + r ( ) d
0

76

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## = 2 a (1 + cos ) a 2 (1 + cos ) + a 2 sin 2 sin d

2

= 2

2a 2 (1 + cos ) 2 d (1 + cos )

= 2 2a 2

5
2
(1 + cos ) 2
5

(1 + cos )

32 2
a
2

## + sin 2 = 1 + 2 cos + cos 2 + sin 2 = 2 (1 + cos )

1 f ( x) [a, b] ( a, b) f ( x) > 0 ( ab )
y = f ( x )y = f

( )x = a S1 y = f ( x )y = f ( )x = b

S2
F (t ) =

F ( a ) = 3

f ( t ) f ( x )dx 3

f ( x ) f ( t ) dx

f ( x ) f ( a ) dx < 0

b
F ( b ) = f ( b ) f ( x ) dx > 0
a

( ab )

F ( ) = 0 , f ( x ) > 0 f ( x )

4.1

()

1
()

77

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dy
= P ( x ) Q ( y )
(Q ( y ) 0)
dx

dy

Q ( y ) = P ( x )dx + C

2 M 1 ( x ) N1 ( y ) dx + M 2 ( x ) N 2 ( y ) dy = 0

( )
( )
( M ( x ) 0N ( y ) 0 )
M ( x )dx + N ( y ) dy = C
M1 x

N2 y

2.

dy
y
y
= f = u
x
dx
x

dy
du
du
dx
=u+x
= f ( u )
= + C = ln x + C

dx
dx
f (u ) u
x

dy
= f ( ax + by + C )
( a 0b 0 ) ax + by + C = u
dx
du
du
= a + bf ( u )
= dx = x + C

dx
a + bf ( u )

1.

dy
+ P ( x) y = 0
dx

P ( x ) dx
y = Ce

2.

dy
+ P ( x) y = Q ( x)
dx

.
78

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P ( x ) dx
y = C ( x) e
C ( x )

P ( x ) dx
P( x ) dx dx + C
y=e
Q ( x )e

dy
+ P ( x ) y = Q ( x ) y
( 01)
dx
dz
1
z = y
+ (1 ) P ( x ) z = (1 ) Q ( x )
dx

3.

dx
dy
1
=

+ P( y ) x = Q( y ) y x
dx Q( y ) P ( y ) x
dy

1 xy + x dx + y x y dy = 0

4.

1 xy + x dx + y x y dy = 0
2

x (1 + y 2 ) dx + y (1 x 2 ) dy = 0

(1 + y 2 ) d (1 x 2 ) + (1 x 2 ) d (1 + y 2 ) = 0

d (1 + y 2 )
1+ y2

d (1 x 2 )
1 x2

+ C

ln (1 + y 2 ) = ln 1 x 2 + C

1+ y2
1 + y2

ln
= C 2 = e c = C
2
1 x
1 x
2
y
dy
y
= ex +
dx
x
y
dy
du
1 = u
= u + x
x
dx
dx
du
du
dx
u+x
= eu + u u = + C1
dx
e
x

e u = ln x + C1 = ln Cx

e x = ln Cx
79

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## e x > 0 0 < Cx < 1

3

( y x ) 1 + x

32
dy
= (1 + y 2 ) .
dx

y = tan ux = tan v

## ( tan u tan v ) sec v

sec 2 udu
= sec3 u
sec 2 vdv

du
=1
dv
dz du
dz
z = u v
=
1 sin z
= 1 sin z
dv dv
dv

sin ( u v )

sin z

1 sin z dz = dv + C

( sin z 1) + 1 dz = v + C
1 sin z

1 + sin z
dz = v + C
1 sin 2 z
1 + sin z
dz = v + C
z +
cos 2 z
z + tan z + sec z = v + C

z +

## ( arctan x arctan y ) + tan ( arctan y arctan x ) + sec ( arctan y arctan x ) = arctan x + C

(1 + xy ) + ( y x )
2

1 + xy

yx
( arctan x arctan y ) +
+
1 + xy

= arctan x + C

1 .

5
dy 2 y

= ( x + 1) 2
dx x + 1

dy
y
=
dx x + y 4

1.

dy
2y

=
dx x + 1

y = C ( x + 1) 2

5
2
dy

y = ( x + 1) 2
dx x + 1
1

C ( x) = ( x + 1) 2 C ( x) =

y = C ( x)i( x + 1) 2

3
2
( x + 1) 2 + C
3

3
2

2
y = ( x + 1) 2 + C ( x + 1) 2 ( x + 1) 2 + C ( x + 1) 2
3
3

2 x y

80

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dx x + y 4 dx 1
x = y3

=
dy
y
dy y

1
3
Q( y ) = y
y

P( y) =

x=e

1
dy
y

3
y e

1
dy
y

1
dy + C = y 4 + Cy
3

2 y = e xy + p ( x ) y = x y x=ln 2 = 0 .

y = e P ( x) = xe

dy
+ (e x 1) y = 1
dx

x
dy
+ (e x 1) y = 1 y = e x + ce x + e
dx

x
dy
+ (e x 1) y = 0 y = Ce x + e
dx

y = x=ln 2 = 0

y = ex e

2 + 2e 2 C = 0, C = e
x+e x

1
2

1
2

F ( x ) = f ( x ) g ( x ) f ( x )g ( x ) (
+ )

f ( x ) = g ( x ) g ( x ) = f ( x ) f ( 0 ) = 0 f ( x ) + g ( x ) = 2e x
1 F ( x )
2 F ( x )

F ( x ) = f ( x ) g ( x ) + f ( x ) g ( x ) = g 2 ( x ) + f 2 ( x )

= f ( x ) + g ( x ) 2 f ( x ) g ( x ) = ( 2e x ) 2 F ( x )
2

F ( x )

F ( x ) + 2 F ( x ) = 4e 2 x
2 dx
2 dx
2 F ( x ) = e
4e 2 x i e dx + C = e 2 x 4e 4 x dx + C = e 2 x + Ce 2 x

81

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F ( 0 ) = f ( 0 ) g ( 0 ) = 0 C = 1

F ( x ) = e 2 x e 2 x

4
1

dy y
+ = ( ln x ) y 2
dx x

2 x y + xy = y
2

y 2

1 y

d ( y 1 )
dx

dy 1 1
+ y = ln x
dx x

1 1
y = ln x
x
dz 1
z = ln x
dx x

z = y

1 dx
1 dx
2
1

z = e x ( ln x ) e x dx + C = x ( ln x ) + C

2
1
( ln x ) + C = 1
2

z = y yx

2
2

dy y 2 xy y y
=
=
dx
x2
x x

y
du
= u u + x
= u2 u
x
dx
du
x
= u 2 2u
dx
dx
du
u 2 2u = x C1 = ln x + C1
1
ln ( u 2 ) ln u = ln x + C1
2
u2
= Cx 2 y 2 x = Cx 2 y
u
2x
y (1 Cx 2 ) = 2 xy =
1 Cx 2

dz
1
x 2 dy x
+ = 1 = z x 2
+ xz = 1
2
y dx y
y
dx
dz 1
1
z = 2
dx x
x

z=

y=

1
+ C1 x
2x

2x
2x
=
2
1 + 2C1 x 1 Cx 2
82

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4.2

(n)

= f ( x)

f ( x )( dx )

y =

+ C1 x n 1 + C2 x n 2 +

+ Cn 1 x + Cn

y = p y = p

y = f ( xy )

p = f ( xp ) p = g ( xC1 )
y = g ( xC1 ) y = g ( xC1 )dx + C2

y = p p y

y = f ( yy )

dp dp dy
dp
yy
= i =p
dy
dx dy dx
dp 1
= f ( yp )
dy p

y =

p = g ( y, C1 )

dy
= g ( yC1 )
dx

dy

g ( yC ) = x + C

y + p ( x ) y + q ( x ) y = 0

(1)

y + p ( x ) y + q ( x ) y = f ( x )

( 2)

1. y1 ( x )y2 ( x )

C1 y1 ( x ) + C2 y2 ( x ) C1C2 y1 ( x ) y2 ( x )
y1 ( x ) y2 ( x )

y = C1 y1 ( x ) + C2 y2 ( x )
2 y1 ( x ) y2 ( x ) y1 ( x ) y2 ( x )

83

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3.

y ( x ) y ( x )

y ( x ) + y ( x )
4.

y C1 y1 ( x ) + C2 y2 ( x )

C1C2

y = y ( x ) + C1 y1 ( x ) + C2 y2 ( x )

5. y1 ( x ) y2 ( x ) y + p ( x ) y + q ( x ) y = f1 ( x ) y + p ( x ) y + q ( x ) y = f 2 ( x )
y1 ( x ) + y2 ( x ) y + p ( x ) y + q ( x ) y = f1 ( x ) + f 2 ( x )

1. y + py + qy = 0 pq

2 + p + q = 0

1 = p 4q > 0 12
2

y = C1e1x + C2e2 x

2 = p 4q = 0 1 = 2
2

y = ( C1 + C2 x ) e1x

3 = p 4q < 0 a i
2

y = e ax ( C1 cos x + C2 sin x )

2. n

y ( n ) + p1 y ( n 1) + p2 y ( n 2) +

+ pn 1 y + pn y = 0

pi ( i = 1
2 n )

n + p1 n 1 + p2 n 2 +

+ pn 1 + pn = 0

1 n 12 n

y = C1e1x + C2 e2 x +

+ Cn en x
84

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2 0 k ( k n )

(C + C x +

+ Ck x k 1 ) e0 x

3 a i k ( 2k n )

e ax (C1 + C2 x +

Ck x k 1 ) cos x + ( D1 + D2 x +

+ Dk x k 1 ) sin x

y + py + qy = f ( x )

pq

y = y + C1 y1 ( x ) + C2 y2 ( x )

C1 y1 ( x ) + C2 y2 ( x )

f ( x ) y

y f ( x ) y
1. f ( x ) = pn ( x ) pn ( x ) n
1 0 y = Rn ( x ) = a0 x + a1 x

ai ( i = 0
1
2 n )
2 0 y = xRn ( x )
3 0 y = x Rn ( x )
2

2. f ( x ) = pn ( x ) e pn ( x ) n a
ax

1 a y = Rn ( x ) e

ax

2 a y = xRn ( x ) e

ax

3 a y = x Rn ( x ) e
2

ax

3. f ( x ) = pn ( x ) e sin x f ( x ) = pn ( x ) e cos x
ax

ax

85

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n 1

+ an 1 x + an

pn ( x ) n a
1 a i y = e Rn ( x ) cos x + Tn ( x ) sin x
ax

Rn ( x ) = a0 x + a1 x
n

n 1

+ an 1 x + an

ai ( i = 0
1 n )
Tn ( x ) = b0 x n + b1 x n 1 +

+ bn 1 x + bn

bi ( i = 0
1 n )
2 a i y = xe Rn ( x ) cos x + Tn ( x ) sin x
ax

n 1)

+ pn 1 xy + pn y = 0 pi ( i = 12 n ) n

x n y ( ) + p1 x n 1 y (

x = e t y
t

dy dy dt
dy 1 dy
dy dy

x
= i = et
=
=
dx dt dx
dt x dt
dx dt

d 2 y dt d dy t d t dy 2t d 2 y 2t dy
=
e
=e
=e
e
dx 2 dx dt dx
dt
dt
dt 2
dt

2
1 d 2 y dy
d 2 y dy
2 d y
=

= 2 2 x
x dt
dt
dx 2 dt 2 dt

1 x y 2 xy ( y ) = 0
2

1 y = p y = p

x 2 p 2 xp p 2 = 0

2
1
p = 2 p 2
x
x
dz 2
1
1
z = p
+ z= 2
x
dx x
p

2 dx
1 2 dx
1
z = e x ( 2 )e x dx + C = 2 ( x + C1 )
x

86

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1
x2
=
z C1 x

p=

y=

1
x2
2
dx + C2 = ( x + C1 ) C12 ln x C1 + C2
C1 x
2

2
1 yy ( y ) + 1 = 0
2

1 y = p y = p

dp

dy

yp

dp
= p2 1
dy

dy
pdp
= + C1
2
1
y

1
ln p 2 1 = ln y + C1
2
p = 1 + C1 y 2

dy
= 1 + C1 y 2
dx

C1 > 0

1
ln
C1

C1 < 0

1
arcsin
C1

C1 y + 1 + C1 y 2 = x + C2

C1 y = x + C2

1 y 7 y + 6 y = 0

2 y 6 y + 9 y = 0

3 y 6 y + 13 y = 0

4 y 4 y + 5 y 2 y = 0

2 7 + 6 = 0 ( 1)( 6 ) = 0

1 = 12 = 6

2 6 + 9 = 0 ( 3) = 0
2

y = C1e x + C2e6 x

= 3

y = ( C1 + C2 x ) e3 x
87

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2 6 + 13 = 0

= 3 2i

y = e3 x ( C1 cos 2 x + C2 sin 2 x )

3 4 2 + 5 2 = 0 ( 1) ( 2 ) = 0
2

1 = 1 2 = 2

y = ( C1 + C2 x ) e x + C3e 2 x

2x

2 5 + 6 = 0

1 = 22 = 3

y 5 y + 6 y = 0

y 5 y + 6 y = xe

Y = C1e 2 x + C2 e3 x

f ( x ) = xe = 2 = 1 y = x ( b1 x + b0 ) e
2x

2b1 x + 2b1 b0 = x

b1b0 y

2b1 = 1
2b1 b0 = 0

1
b1 = b0 = 1
2

1
1

y = x x 1 e 2 x = ( x 2 + 2 x ) e 2 x
2
2

y = Y + y = C1e 2 x + C2 e3 x

1 2
x + 2 x ) e2 x
(
2

2 y + y 2 y = 2 cos 2 x

y + y 2 y = 0

1 = 22 = 1 Y = C1e
88

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2 x

2 + 2 = 0

+ C2 e x

2x

y = 0 = 2 + i = 2i
y = A cos 2 x + B sin 2 x

## ( 2 A + 2 B 4 A) cos 2 x + ( 2 B 2 A 4 B ) sin 2 x 2 cos 2 x

6 A + 2 B = 2

6 B 2 A = 0
A =

3
1
B =
10
10

3
1
cos 2 x + sin 2 x
10
10
3
1
y = C1e 2 x + C2 e x cos 2 x + sin 2 x
10
10
y=

3 y 2 y + 2 y = e cos x
x

y 2 y + 2 y = 0

2 2 + 2 = 0

1 = 1 + i2 = 1 i

Y = e x ( C1 cos x + C2 sin x )

f ( x ) = e cos x + i = 1 + i y

y = xe x ( A cos x + B sin x )

## 2 A sin x + 2 B cos x = cos x

1
A = 0B =
2

1 x
xe sin x
2
1
y = e x ( C1 cos x + C2 sin x ) + xe x sin x
2
y=

4 y1 = xe + e y2 = xe + e y3 = xe + e
x

2x

2x

e x

y1 y3 = e xy1 y2 = e 2 x e x
( y1 y3 ) + ( y1 y2 ) = e2 x
x

2x

e e

y y 2 y = 0
89

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y y 2 y = f ( x ) y1 = xe + e f ( x ) = (1 2 x ) e
x

2x

y y 2 y = (1 2 x ) e x

y = C1e x + C2 e 2 x + xe x + e 2 x .

1 xy y = x
2

x x y xy = x
2

dy
dy 1 dy d 2 y 1 t dy 1 d 2 y 1 dy
= et
=
=

= e
dx
dt x dt dx 2 x dt x 2 dt 2 x 2 dt

x = e
t

d2y
dy
2 = e3t
2
dt
dt
1
y = e3t + C1e 2t + C2
3
1 3
y = x + C1 x 2 + C2
3

e = x

y = f ( xy )

y = p y = p xp p = x
2

y = p = C11 x + x 2

y = C11 x + x 2 dx + C2 =

1 3
x + C1 x 2 + C2
3

xy y
y
=
1

=1
x2
x

y
= x + C1y = x 2 + C1x
x
1
y = x 3 + C1 x 2 + C2
3

4.3

0 ) y
1 ( 3
90

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y = y ( x ) M ( xy ) Y y = y ( X x )

y A ( 0y xy ) AM = AO x + ( xy ) = ( y xy )
2

1 2

2 yy x y = x

y
=0
x =3
1
u x u = x
y 2 = u
u
=0
x =3

3
3
2
x + y =
2
2

u = 3x x y = 3x x
2

5.1

1.

D p ( xy ) D f z
z xy z = f ( xy ) D
z = f ( xy ) xy D

z = 1 x 2 y 2D : x 2 + y 2 1

1 D xy
1
2. n

u = f ( xyz )
( xyz ) u = f ( xyz )
u = f ( x1x2 xn ) n

91

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f ( xy ) ( x0y0 ) > 0 > 0

0<

( x x0 ) + ( y y0 )
2

< f ( xy ) A <

lim f ( xy ) = A
x x0
y y0

lim

( xy )( x0y 0 )

f ( xy ) = A

( xy ) ( x0y0 ) f ( xy ) A .
( xy ) ( x0y0 )

( x0y0 )

1.
lim f ( xy ) = f ( x0y0 ) f ( xy ) ( x0y0 )
x x0
y y0

2.

f ( xy ) D f ( xy ) D

f ( xy ) D f ( xy ) D

f ( xy ) D f ( xy ) D

max f ( xy ) = M min f ( xy ) = m

( xy )D

( xy )D

f ( xy ) D M m

m c M ( x0y0 ) D f ( x0y0 ) = C

1 z = arcsin

x
+ xy
3

x
1 3 x 3
3

xy 0 x 0y 0 x 0y 0

3 x 0
0 x 3

y 0
y 0
92

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4 x 2 y 2 + ln ( y 2 2 x + 1)

2 z =

4 x y 0 y 2 x + 1 > 0 ,
2

2
2
2
x + y 2
2
y + 1 > 2 x

D x + y 2
2

y + 1 = 2 x
2

1 f ( x + yx y ) = x y + y f ( xy )
2

1
1
( u + v )y = ( u v )
2
2
1
1
2
2
f ( uv ) ( u + v ) ( u v ) + ( u v )
8
4
1
1
2
2
f ( xy ) ( x + y ) ( x y ) + ( x y )
8
4

x + y = ux y = v x =

2 f ( x + yxy )x + 3 xy + y + 5 f ( xy )
2

f ( xy ) = x 2 + y + 5

x 2 + 3xy + y 2 + 5 = ( x 2 + 2 xy + y 2 ) + xy + 5 = ( x + y ) + xy + 5

x2

1 x+ y
1 lim 1 +
a 0
x
xy
y a
x2

xy xy( x+ y )

1
= lim 1 +

x
xy

y a

xy

1
x2
1
1
= lim
= = e a
lim
x xy ( x + y )
x
y a

y a
ya y 1 +

2 lim
x 0
y 0

1
1
lim 1 + t = xy lim 1 + = e
x
t
xy
t
y a

x2 y
x4 + y 2

y = lx = lim
x 0

lx 3
=0
x4 + l 2 x2
93

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lx 4
l
=

4
2 4
x + l x 1+ l2

y = lx = lim
2

x 0

x2 y 2
3 lim 4
x 0 x + y 2
y 0

x + y 2 x y x y
4

x 2 y 2 x 2 y 2 1 12
0 4

= y
x + y 2 2 x2 y 2

lim

1 12
y = 0
lim 0 = 0
x 0 2
x 0
y 0
y 0
= 0

5.2

1.
z = f ( xy )

x 0

f ( x0 + xy0 ) f ( x0y0 )
z
f x ( x0y0 )

x
x ( x0y0 )

lim

z x ( x y ) z = f ( xy ) ( x0y0 ) x
0
0

y 0

z y

( x0y0 )

f ( x0y0 + y ) f ( x0y0 )
z
f y ( x0y0 )

y ( x0y0 )
y

lim

z = f ( xy ) ( x0y0 ) y

u = f ( xyz )

df ( xy0z0 )

f x ( x0y0z0 )

dx
df ( x0yz0 )

f y ( x0y0z0 )
f x ( x0 , y0 , z0 )

x = x0

dy

y = y0

df ( x0 , y0 , z )
dz

z = z0

2.
94

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f x ( x0 , y0 ) z = f ( x, y ) y = y0 ( x0 , y0 , f ( x0 , y0 ) ) x

f y ( x0 , y0 ) z = f ( x, y ) x = x0 x0 , y0f ( x0 , y0 )
y
3.
z = f ( x, y ) f x ( x, y ) f y ( x, y

z = f ( x, y )
z 2 z
= f xy ( xy )
=
y x xy

z 2 z
= f yx ( xy )
=
x y yx

z 2 z
= f yy ( xy )
=
y y y 2

z 2 z
= f xx ( xy )
=
x x x 2

2 z 2 z
2 z
2 z

( xy )

xy yx
xy yx

n
n ( n 3)

1.

z = f ( xy ) ( x0y0 )

z = f ( x0 + xy0 + y ) f ( x0y0 )

z = Ax + By + o ( ) =

( x ) + ( y )
2

AB x y x0y0 z = f ( xy ) ( x0y0 )

Ax + By z = f ( xy ) ( x0y0 ) dz ( x y ) df
0

2.

( x0y0 )

z = f ( xy ) ( x0y0 )

## dz ( x y ) = f x ( x0y0 ) x + f y ( x0y0 ) y = f x ( x0y0 ) dx + f y ( x0y0 ) dy

0

dx = xdy = y

dz = df ( xy ) = f x ( xy ) dx + f y ( xy ) dy
95

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3.

z = f ( xy ) ( x0y0 ) dz

( x0y0 )

z = f ( xy )

( x y f ( x y ) )
0

4.

n ( n > 3)

## df ( xyz ) = f x ( xyz ) dx + f y ( xyz ) dy + f z ( xyz ) dz

n

df ( x1x2 xn ) = f xk ( x1 xn ) dxk
k =1

z z

z z
x y
z = f ( xy ) dz
x y
z = f ( xy )

z = f ( xy ) ( x0y0 ) ( xy )

2
f ( x0y0 )
f ( x0y0 )
1 f ( x0y0 )
2
f ( xy ) = f ( x0y0 ) +
( x x0 ) +
( y y0 ) +
( x x0 )
2
2!
x
y
x

2
2 f ( x0y0 )
1 f ( x0y0 )
2
+
( x x0 )( y y0 ) +
( y y0 ) + R
2
2!
xy
y

R=

3
3 f ( )
1 f ( )
3
2
x
x

+
3
(
)
( x x0 ) ( y y0 )

0
3
2
x
x y
3!

3 f ( )
3 f ( )
2
3
x
x
y
y
y
y
+3

(
)(
)
(
)

0
0
0
xy 2
y 3

x0 x y0 y

1
1 z = x + y 4 x y
4

2 z = x

3 z = x sin ( x + y )

96

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z
= 4 x 3 8 xy 2
x

2 z
= 12 x 2 8 y 2
x 2
2

z
= yx y 1
x

z
= 4 y3 8x2 y
y
2 z
= 16 xy
xy

2 z
= 12 y 2 8 x 2
y 2

z
= x y ln x
y

2 z
= y ( y 1) x y 2
2
x

2 z
= x y 1 + yx y 1 ln x = x y 1 (1 + y ln x )
xy

2 z
= x y ln 2 x
y 2

z
= sin ( x + y ) + x cos ( x + y )
x

z
= x cos ( x + y )
y

2 z
= 2 cos ( x + y ) x sin ( x + y )
x 2

2 u =

x2 + y2 + z 2

1
r
1 x
x
u du r

i = 2 = 3
=
r r
r
x dr x

r = x 2 + y 2 + z 2 u =

2 z
= x sin ( x + y )
y 2

2 z
= cos ( x + y ) x sin ( x + y )
xy

u
y
= 3
r
y

u
z
= 3
r
z

2u
1
3x 2 r 2 2 x 2 y 2 z 2
4 x
=

3
r
=
=
(
)
x 2
r3
r
r5
r5

2u 2 y 2 z 2 x 2 2u 2 z 2 x 2 y 2
=
2 =

r5
r5
y 2
z

y 3 xy
2u
= x ( 3r 4 ) = 5
r
r
xy

97

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2u 3xz
2u 3 yz
=
= 5
yz r 5
zx r

x
3 u =
y

z 1

zx z 1
= z ,
y

u x
x
= ln ,
y
z y

z 1

x
2 =
y

2u z ( z 1) x
=

y2 y
x 2

z
2u z ( z + 1) x
,
=
y z+2
y 2

2u x z 1 z x
= z +
y
y y
xz

x
u
= z
y
y

z 2

z 1

x x
ln =
y y

z ( z 1) x z 2
=
yz

z 1

1 z x
+ ln
y y y

2u x x
= ln
z 2 y y

z 2 i x z 1
2u
= z +1
y
xy

z = e
xy

x 1 z
x
2u
1 x z x
= ln = + ln
y y y y
y
yz
y y y

zx
zx z
=

y y
y z +1

u z x
=
x y y

z
z
= ye xy = xe xy
x
y

dz = e xy ( ydx + xdy )

u = ln

x 2 + y 3 + z 4 du

1
u = ln ( x 2 + y 3 + z 4 )
2

x
u

= 2
x x + y 3 + z 4
du =

3y2
u

=
y 2 ( x 2 + y 3 + z 4 )

2z3
u
= 2
z x + y 3 + z 4

2 xdx + 3 y 2 dy + 4 z 3 dz
2 ( x2 + y3 + z 4 )

5.3

98

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1.

z = f ( uv )u = u ( xy )v=v ( xy )

z z u z z z u z
=
+
=
+

x u x x y u y y
2.

u = f ( xyz )z=z ( xy )
z
u
i
x = f x + f z
x
u
z
= f y + f z
i
y
y

3.

u = f ( xyz )y = y ( x )z = z ( x )

du
= f x + f y
i y ( x ) + f z
i z ( x )
dx
w = f ( uv )u = u ( xyz )v = v ( xyz )

4.

w
u
v
i
x = fui x + f v
x

u
v
w
= fu + f v

y
y
y
w
u
v
= fu + f v

z
z
z

Fy
F z
z
= x =
Fz y
Fz
x

1.

F ( xyz )0 z = z ( xy )

2.

x = x ( yz )

Fy x
F
x
= = z
Fx z
Fx
y

3.

y = y ( zx )

F
y
F y
= z = x
Fy
z
Fy x

1 u = f ( xyz ) y = y ( x ) z = z ( x )

sin t
du
dt
0
dx
t
du
dy
dz
= f x + f y + f z
dx
dx
dx

e xy xy = 2 e x =

3.

x z

99

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dy

dy

e xy = 2 x e y + x
y + x = 0
dx
dx
xy

e =
x

xy

y
dy
= ( e xy 1)
dx
x

x z

sin ( x z ) dz
sin t
dt x e x =
1
t
( x z ) dx

ex ( x z )
dz
= 1
sin ( x z )
dx

x
du f y f e ( x z ) f
=

+ 1

dx x x y sin ( x z ) z

2 u = f ( x, y, z ) z = z ( x, y ) xe ye = ze du
x

F ( x, y, z ) = xe ye ze Fx = ( x + 1) e Fy = ( y + 1) e Fz = ( z + 1) e
y

u
z
x + 1 x z
e ,
= f x + f z = f x + f zi
z +1
x
x

u
z
y + 1 yz
e
= f y + f z = f y f z
z +1
y
y

u
u
x + 1 x z
y + 1 yz

e dx + f y f z
e dy
dx + dy = f x + f z
x
y
z +1
z +1

2.

du =

F x + 1 x z z
y + 1 yz
z
= x =
e =
e
z +1
x
y
Fz z + 1

xe ye = ze
x

(1 + x ) e x dx (1 + y ) e y dy = (1 + z ) e z dz

1 + x ) e x dx (1 + y ) e y dy
(
dz =
(1 + z ) e z

(1 + x ) e x dx (1 + y ) e y dy

du = f x dx + f y dy + f z dz = f x dx + f y dy + f z

(1 + z ) e z

x + 1 x z
y + 1 yz

e dy
du = f x + f z
e dx + f y + f z
z +1
z +1

x y
z z

F = 0 z = z ( xy ) F ( uv )z ( xy )
100

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z
z
+y =z
x
y

x y
F ( uv ) = F = G ( xyz ) = 0
z z
1
1
x
y
i Gy = Fv
i Gz = Fu 2 + Fv 2
Gx = Fu
z
z
z
z

G y
G
zFu
zFv
z
z
,
=
=
= x =
Gz xFu + yFv
Gz xFu + yFv y
x
z
z
+y =z
x
y

5.4
z = f ( xy )

2 l )
( xkyk )
( k = 1

f x ( xy )0
f y ( xy )0

## k = f xx ( xkyk ) f yy ( xkyk ) f xy ( xkyk )

f ( xkyk )

k > 0

k < 0

f xx ( xkyk ) > 0

f ( xkyk )

f xx ( xkyk ) < 0

f ( xkyk )

k = 0

f ( xkyk )

( n 2 )
u = f ( x1 xn )

1 ( x1 xn )0

m ( x1 xn )0

(m < n)
101

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F = F ( x1 xn1 m )f ( x1 xn ) +

( x x )
i =1

Fx1 = 0

Fx = 0
n

F1 = 1 ( x1 xn ) = 0

Fm = m ( x1 xn ) = 0

(k)

x1 xn

(k )

2 l )
) ( k = 1

z = x + y x 2 xy y
4

z z
=
= 0
x y

z
= 4 y3 2 x 2 y
y

z
= 4 x3 2 x 2 y
x

x + y = 2 x3 = 2 y 3

x = y

x = 1

y =1

x = 1

y = 1

x = 0

y = 0

2 z
2 z
2 z
2
= 12 y 2 2 (11)

2
12
x
2
=

2
2
y
xy
x

A=

2 z
x 2

1)
(1

10

B=

2 z
xy

1)
(1

C=

-2

2 z
y 2

1)
(1

10

= AC B 2 = 96 > 0
A10 > 0 (11
) z

( 1-1)

A=

2 z
x 2

( 1-1)

1)
(1

10 B =

-2

2 z
xy

( 1-1)

-2 C =

102

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2 z
y 2

( 1-1)

10

## = AC B 2 = 96 > 0 A10 > 0 ( 1-1) z

( 00 )

A=

2 z
x 2

( 00 )

-2

B=

2 z
xy

( 00 )

-2 C =

( 1-1)

2 z
y 2

-2

( 00 )

-2

= AC B 2 = 0
x = y = z = 2 > 0
4

x = y = z = 2 4 < 0
4

( 00 )

x2 y2 z 2
+
+ = 1 p
52 32 22

2x 2 y 2z
2 2
2
5 3 2

p ( xyz ) p

2
2
1
x ( X x ) + y (Y y ) + z ( Z z ) = 0
25
9
2

x2 y 2 z 2
2
2
1
xX + yY + zZ 2 2 + 2 + 2 = 0
25
9
2
3
2
5

2
2
1
xX + yY + zZ 2 = 0
25
9
2
25
x (Y = 0Z = 0 ) X =
x

y ( Z = 0X = 0 )

Y=

25
y

z ( X = 0Y = 0 )

Z=

V=

1 25 9 4 150
i
i
i =
x
y z xyz
6

x2 y2 z 2
+
+ 10 ( x >0y >0z >0 )
52 32 22
F = F ( xyz ) =

x2 y2 z 2
150
+ 2 + 2 + 2 1
xyz
3
2
5

103

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Fx =

150 2
x=0
+
x 2 yz 25

Fy =

150 2
y=0
+
xy 2 z 9

( 2)

Fz =

150 2
z=0
+
xyz 2 4

( 3)

x2 y 2 z 2
+ + 1 = 0
52 32 22

( 4)

x (1) + y ( 2 ) + z ( 3)

2 =

450
+ 2 = 0
xyz

450
xyz

( 5 ) (1)
( 2 )( 3)

( 5)

5
3
2
y =
z =
3
3
3

x=

F =

(1)

5 3 2
V = 15 3 .
3 3 3

1.

f ( xy ) D D n

1 2 n k ( k = 1
2 n ) ( kk )
n

lim f ( kk ) k
d 0

k =1

k k d k k d = max d k
1 k n

f ( xy ) D

f ( xy )d
D

f ( xy ) D f ( xy ) D f ( xy ) D
104

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2.
f ( xy ) D f ( xy ) 0

f ( xy )d
D

z = f ( xy ) D z
S xy D z = f 2 ( xy )

z = f1 ( xy ) S

f ( xy ) f ( xy )d
2

3.

kf ( xy )d = k f ( xy )d ( k )
D

f ( xy ) g ( xy )d = f ( xy )d g ( xy )d
D

f ( xy )d = f ( xy )d + f ( xy )d
D

D1

D2

D = D1 D2 D1 D2
4 f ( xy ) g ( xy )
( xy ) D

f ( xy )d g ( xy )d
D

S D

mS f ( xy )d MS
D

f ( xy ) d f ( xy ) d

5 m f ( xy ) M
( xy ) D

7 f ( x, y ) D S D ( , ) D

f ( xy )d = f ( )iS

1
f ( xy )d f ( xy ) D
S
D

4.
1

f ( x, y ) D D x

f ( xy )d = 2 f xy d
(
)

D1

f ( xy ) y
f ( xy ) y

D1 D x
105

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f ( x, y ) D D y

f ( xy )d = 2 f xy d
(
)

D2

f ( xy ) x
f ( xy ) x

D2 D y
3

f ( x, y ) D D

f ( xy )d = 2 f xy d
(
)

D3

f ( x-y ) f ( xy )
( xy ) D
f ( x-y ) = f ( xy )
( xy ) D

D3 D
f ( x, y ) D D y = x

f ( xy )d = f ( yx )d
D

D = D4 D5D4D5 D y = x

f ( xy )d = f ( yx )d
D5

D4

D = {( xy ) a x b1 ( x ) y 2 ( x )}
1 ( x ) 2 ( x ) [ ab ] f ( xy ) D

2 ( x )

f ( xy )d = f ( xy )dxdy = adx ( x ) f ( xy ) dy

D = {( xy ) c y d1 ( y ) x 2 ( y )}
1 ( y ) 2 ( y ) [ cd ] f ( xy ) D

f ( xy )d = f ( xy )dxdy
D

2 ( y )
d
f ( xy ) dx
= dy
c
1 ( y )

106

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D D
D
D

D D

D=

r
D

{( r ) a ( ) r
1

( )}

1 ( ) 2 ( ) [ a ] f ( xy ) = f ( r cos r sin ) D

2 ( )

## f ( r cos r sin ) rdr

= d

1 ( )

{( r ) 0 2 ( ) r

D=

( )}

1 ( )1 ( ) [ 0
2 ] f ( xy ) = f ( r cos r sin ) D

2 ( )

1 ( )

D =

## f ( r cos r sin )rdr

{( ) 0 r ( )}

( ) [ ] f ( xy ) = f ( r cos r sin ) D
107

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D =

( )

## f ( r cos r sin )rdr

{( r ) 0 20 r ( )}

( ) [ 0
2 ] f ( xy ) = f ( r cos r sin )
D

D

( )

= d

## f ( r cos r sin )rdr

xydxdy D xy = 1x+y= 2

2
5
2
1 2 5
1
2 x
xydxdy
=
dx
xydy
x
x
=

dx
D
12 1x
2 12 2
x

1 25 2 5 3 1 4
2 165
ln 2
x x + x ln x 1 =

4
2 8
3
2 128

( x

+ y 2 ) dxdy D y = xy = x + ay = a y = 3a ( a > 0 )

3a
y
3a x 3
y
2
2
2
x
y
dx
+
=
+
x
y
dxdy
dy
=
+
xy
(
)
(
)
y a dy
D
a ya
a 3

3a 2
2ay 3 a 2 y 2 a 3 y 3a
a3
2
2

+
+
=
ay
a
y
ay
dy

3 2 + 3 a
a
3

2a 4
52a 4 a 2
= 14a 4
i8a 2 +
3
3
2

108

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## y dxdy D x = a ( t sin t )y = a (1 cos t )( 0 t 2 )

2

x
y = y ( x )

y ( x) 2
2 a
1 2 a 3
y ( x ) dx
dx
y dy =
0
3 0
0

2
y dxdy =
D

x = a ( t sin t )
dx = a (1 cos t ) dty ( x ) = a (1 cos t )
=

32a 4 8
64a 4 2 8
64a 4
7 i 5 i 3 i 1 35 a 4
i
i =
=
=
sin
sin
udu
udu
3 0
3 0
3
8i6i4i2 2
12

x + y )dxdy

a 4 2
16a 4 2 8 t
4
t
dt
1
cos
sin dt

=
(
)
3 0
3 0
2

x + y 1

( x + y )dxdy = 8

xdxdy

= 4

x 0y 0
x + y 1

x 0y 0
x + y 1

y x 2 dxdy

x 1
0 y 2

1
1 x
1
4
= 8 xdx
dy = 8 x (1 x ) dx =
0
0
0
3

2
1
x2 2

2
dx
1 0 x ydy + x 2 y x dy

2
3
3 y = 2
2 1
2 1
2 y = x
2
2 2
x
y
dx
y
x
dx

(
)
(
)
3 1
3 1
y=0
y = x2

2 1
x
3 1

3
3
4 1 3
4 1
1 4 1
2
2
x dx + ( 2 x 2 ) dx = + ( 2 x 2 ) dx

3 0
3 0
3 3 0

x=

dx +

3
2 1
2 2

x
dx
2
(
)
3 1

2 sin t

109

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3
1
1
1
3 1 3

4
4 3
2 2
4
x
dx
tdt

=
=
2
4
cos
4
(
)
0
0
0 8 + 2 cos 2t + 8 cos 4t dt = 4 32 + 4 = 8 + 1

y2

1 4 3
5
+
+ 1 = +
3 3 8
3 2

dxdy D y = xy = 1 y

y2

y2

1 1 2
dxdy = dx e y dy
0
x

1
y y2
y2
e
dxdy
dy
=
D
0 0e dx
x e

0ye

y2

1
2
1
1 1
dy = e y
= 1
0
2
2 e

y2

ydxdy D x
D

D 0

0 r 2a cos

r sin i rdr

1 2 3 2a cos
sin d
r
3 0 0

8a 3
3

I =

2
2
cos3 sin d a 3 cos 4 2 = a 3
3
0 3

x 2 + y 2 + y d

x2 + y 2 4

( x + 1)

+ y 2 = 2ax ( a > 0 ) x

2 a cos

ydxdy = d
D

+ y2 1

110

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x 2 +y 2 + y d =

x2 +y2 d + 0(= d r 2 dr =

3
2

x2 +y2 d + 0 = d

x 2 +y 2 + y d =

2cos

r 2 dr =

16

32
9

16
( 3 2 )
9

yd = 0
D

x 2 +y 2 d = 2 x 2 +y 2 d
D

= 2

x 2 +y 2 d +

D1

x 2 +y 2 d

D 2

2
2

4
16 16
4
= 2 2 d r 2 dr + d
r 2 dr = 2 + = ( 3 2 )
2 cos
0
9 9
3
3
0

2x

0dx x f ( xy ) dy

f ( xy ) dxdy
D

D y = xy = 2 x x = 2

y
2

0dy f ( xy ) dx + 2dy f ( xy ) dx

6dx

2 x
x2
4

y
2

f ( xy ) dy

f ( xy ) dxdy
D

111

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x2
1 y = 2 x
4

D y =

2 y
2 1+ y
8

dy
f
x
y
dx
dy
+
(
)
1 2 1 + y
0 2 1 + y f ( xy ) dx
0

2
2 x x2
1dx 2 x f ( xy ) dy

f ( xy ) dxdy D y = 2 x y =

2 x x 2

1+ 1 y 2

2 y

f ( xy ) dx

2a

dx

2 ax x 2

f ( xy ) dy ( a > 0 )

f ( xy ) dxdy
D

2ax x 2 y = 2ax x = 2a D = D1 D2 D3
y2
2
2
2
y = 2ax x x = a a y
2a

D y =

2 ax

dy

y=

2ax x =

a a2 y2

dy y2

2a

f ( xy ) dx + dy
0

2a

2a

a+ a y

2a

f ( xy ) dx + dy + y2 f ( xy ) dx
a

2a

()

1-1+1-1++(-1)n+1+

(1-1)+(1-1)++(1-1)+=0
1-(1-1)-(1-1)--(1-1)=1
112

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1-1+1-1++(-1)n+1+=S

1-[1-1+1-1+]=S
2S=1 S =

1-S=S

1
2

(1)??
(2)?
(3)?

1.1
()

1
u1u2u3un

n =1

=u1+u2+u3++un+

u
()
n

S n = uk =u1+u2+u3++un
k =1

(n=123)

n {Sn}(n=123)

lim sn ()=S
n

u
n =1

u
n =1

=S

lim sn
n

u
n =1

(
)
2
(1)

n =1

n =1

n =1

un vn ab

(au

n =1

n =1

+ bvn ) a un + b vn

(2)
(3)

113

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(4)

u
n =1

lim un =0
n

(1)

n +1

lim(1)

n +1

n =1

1
1
1
n +1

0
=
lim
(

1)

n
n =1 n
n =1 n
n =1

lim un =0
n

u
n =1

3
(1)()

ar

ar

n =0

|r|1

ar

a
1 r

|r|<1

n =0

(2)p

n
n =1

(a0)

n =0

p>1

n =1

P1

n
n =1

1 2
1
= )

2
p
6
n =1 n
n =1 n

(p>1

un0(n=123)

u
n =1

Sn+1Sn(n=123){Sn}

Sn

u
n =1

114

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Sn

C>0 nN Cvnun>0

v
n =1

n =1

u
n =1

v
n =1

2
un0vn0(n=123)

un
=
n v
n

lim

n =1

n =1

un vn

(2) A=0

n =1

(3) A=+

u
n =1

n =1

n =1

un vn

u n +1
=
un

(1) <1

3()
un>0 lim

(1) 0<A<+

n =1

u
n =1

(3) =1
( lim

un +1
)
un

4()
un0 lim

(1) <1

un =

u
n =1

## (2) >1 ( =+)

u
n =1

(3) =1
115

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=1

un>0

(1)

n +1

n =1

un

(1)

n +1

n =1

un

un(n=123)

(1)

(2) lim un =0

n =1

n =1

## (1)n+1 un 0< (1)n+1 un <u1

n =1

n =1

| un | un

| u

| un
n =1

n =1

n =1

n =1

un | un | un
n =1

3
(1)

(2)

2 (| u
n =1

(1) n+1

np
n =1

(1) n+1

np
n =1

(1) p>1

116

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1
| +un ) (un | un |)
n =1 2

(1) n+1

np
n =1

(2)0<p1

(1) n+1

np
n =1

(3) p0

()

(1)

n =1 n ( n + 1)

(2)

n(n + 1)(n + 2)
n =1

n
n
1
1
1
1
1

(
) = 1
=
n

k +1
n +1
k =1 k ( k + 1)
k =1 k
n =1 n ( n + 1)

lim sn = lim(1
n

1
) =1
n +1

n(n + 1) =1

(1)

n =1

n
1
1
1 n
1
1

[
]
=

2 k =1 k (k + 1) (k + 1)(k + 2)
n =1 n ( n + 1)( n + 2)
k =1 k ( k + 1)( k + 2)

lim sn =

Sn

1
4

n(n + 1)(n + 2) = 4

(2)

n =1

n =1

n =1

n =1

an
n

(3)

(1)

a
n =1

## lim an = 0 =1 N n>N an<1 an2 <1an=an

n

(2)

n =1

n =1

an an2

an
an
1
1
=
( an + 2 ) ()
2
n
n
2
n
117

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an

1+ a
n =1

an
1
1
1
a

(
+
)

n
2
2
n
n =1 n
n =1 n
n =1 2

an

n =1

(3)an0

an
an (n=123)
1 + an

an

n =1 1 + an

an

n =1

1.2
()
()
1

u
n =1

un (x0) x0 un (x)
n =1

n =1

## un (x0) x0 un (x) un (x)

x0I

(x) I

un(x) (n=1,2,3,) I

n =1

n =1

n =1

un (x) x S(x)=
n =1

u
n =1

(x)x

S(x)

u
n =1

(x)

a
n =1

x0=0

(x-x0)n (x-x0)an(n=012)

n =0

n =0

an xn x an x n

a (x x )
n =0

118

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a x
n

n =0

(1)(-+)

a x

n =0

x R=+

(2)

a x
n

n =0

R=0

(3)(-RR)(-RR-RR)-RR
R(0<R<+)
R (1)(2)(3)
R

an +1
1
= l (+) lim n | an | = l (+) R= ( l=+

n
an
l

lim

n =0

n =0

|x|<min(R1,R2)
2

n =0

an x R>0S(x)=

## R=0 l=0 R=+)

a x
n =0

n =0

(1)S(x)(-RR)
S(x)=(

n =0

n =0

n =1

an xn )= (an x n )= nan x n1

s(x)(-RR)
S(k)(x)=

n(n 1)(n k + 1) x

nk

,| x |< R

(k=123)

n=k

(2)S(x)(-RR)

an n +1
x
n=0 n + 1

S (t ) dt = an t n dt =
n =0

()

119

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n =0

n =1

na x
n =1

n =1

n =1

n 1

R=3

## nan x n+ 2 R=3 nan ( x 2)n+2 R=3(-1,5)

a ( x 3)
n =0

a t
n=0

x=0 x=6

t=-3 R3t=3 R

a ( x 3)
n =1

[06)

()

3 R=3-33)

2.1

()

O O
x y z O
1 M1(x1y1z1)M2(x2y2z2)

d =| M 1M 2 |= ( x2 x1 )2 + ( y2 y1 ) 2 + ( z2 z1 )2

2
M(xyz) M1(x1y1z1)M2(x2y2z2)

x=

x1 + x2
y + y2
z +z
,y= 1
,z = 1 2
2
2
2

1
A B AB A
B AB | AB |
1
2
120

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O M M (xy
z) i j k OM

OM = xi + y j + zk
OM

OM =(x,y,z)
xi yj zk OM x y z xyz

OM x y z
OM x y z

x2 + y 2 + z 2
y

x + y2 + z2
2

cos=

cos=

x2 + y 2 + z 2

cos=

cos2+cos2+cos2y=1

OM OM

| OM |= x 2 + y 2 + z 2

OM =(xyz)

OM
OM

## b = b1i + b2 j + b3k = {b1 , b2 , b3 }

c = c1i + c2 j + c3 k = {c1, c2 , c3 }

1 a + b ={a1+b1,a2+b2,a3+b3}
a - b ={a1-b1,a2-b2,a3-b3}
121

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1
OM OM
| OM |

2 a ={a1,a2,a3}()

3 a b =| a || b |cos<( a , b )
=a1b1+a2b2+a3b3
<( a , b ) a , b

a b
a b0 a b
a b0 =Prjb a

4 a b
| a b |=| a || b |sin<( a , b )

a b a b

k
a3
b3

i
j
a b = a1 a2
b1 b2

a b a b =- b a | a b | a b

a1 a2
5( a b c )=( a b ) c ( a b c )= b1 b2
c1 c2

a3
b3
c3

(a,b,c) a b c

a ={a1 a2 a3 } b ={b1b2b3}

a b ()

Cos=

aib

Cos=

a b

## a1b1 + a2b2 + a3b3

a12 + a22 + a32 b12 + b22 + b32

a b

a b =0

a1b1+a2b2+a3b3=0

a b

a b =0

a1 a2 a3
=
=
b1 b2 b3

()
122

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1 a b a + b b
(
(A)

ab
| b |2

(B)

a b
| b |2

(C)1 (D) a b

a +b b

( a +b ) b =0

a b +b b = 0
a b +|b|2 =0
ab
(B)
| b |2

b =

2 xOy a ={-4,3,7}
b xOy b ={x,y,0} b a

a b =-4x+3y=0

b x2+y2=1

x=

4 x + 3 y = 0
2
2
x + y = 1

3
4
y=
5
5
3 4
3 4
b = , , 0 b = , , 0
5 5
5 5

2.2
()

1
(1)()()
(2) xy z ()()()
2 A(x1y1z1) B(x2, y2, z2) d

d = ( x2 x1 )2 + ( y2 y1 ) 2 + ( z2 z1 ) 2

123

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3 M(xyz) AB

AM
= AB A(x1y1
MB

z1)B(x2y2z2)

x=

x1 +x2
y +y2
z +z2
y = 1
z = 1
1 +
1 +
1+

x=

x1 + x2
y +y
z +z
y = 1 2 z = 1 2
2
2
2

1()()
n {mnp}
()
2

M(x0y0z0) n ={ABC}

A(x-x0)+B(y-y0)+C(z-z0)=0

n ( r - r0 )=0

r0={x0y0z0} r ={xyz}

Ax+By+Cz+D=0

## ABC xyz n ={ABC)

Ax+By+Cz=0
Ax+By+D=0 z
Ax+D=0 yOz
x=0 yOz
4
A( x1 y1 z1 )B(x2y2z2)C(x3y3z3) AB
C

x x1 y y1 z z1
x2 x1 y2 y1 z2 z1 = 0
x3 x1 y3 y1 z3 z1
5

A1 x + B1 y + C1 z + D1 = 0
L
A2 x + B2 y + C2 z + D2 = 0

124

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k1(A1x+B1y+C1z+D1)+k2(A2x+B2y+C2z+D2)=0(k1k2)(00)
6

A1x+B1y+C1z+D1=0
A2x+B2y+C2z+D2=0

cos=

1 2 ()

2
1

A1A2+B1B2+C1C2=0

A1 B1 C1
D
=
=
( 1 )
A 2 B2 C 2
D2

A1 B1 C1 D1
=
=
=
A 2 B2 C 2 D 2

## Ax1 + By1 + Cz1 + D

A2 + B 2 + C 2

d=

7 Ax+By+Cz+D=0 M(x1y1z1) M
d

s L

2()

x x0 y y0 z z0
=
=
l
m
n

(x0y0z0)lmn
3

x = x0 + lt

y = y0 + mt
z = z + nt
0

s ={lmn)t
4
A(x1Y1z1)B(x2y2y3) A B

x x1
y y1
z z1
=
=
x2 x1 y2 y1 z2 z1
5()

125

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A1 x + B1 y + C1 z + D1 = 0

A2 x + B2 y + C2 z + D2 = 0

s ={A1B1C1}{A2B2C2}

L1 :

x x1 y y1 z z1
=
=
n1
l1
m1

L2 :

x x2 y y2 z z2
=
=
l2
m2
n2
cos=

L1 L2 ()

## l1l2 + m1m2 + n1n2

l12 + m12 + n12 l22 + m22 + n22
l1l2+m1m2+n1n2=0

l1 m1 n1
=
=
l2 m2 n2

Ax+By+Cz+D=0
L

x x0 y y0 z z0
=
=
l
m
n

sin=

L ()

Al + Bm + Cn
A + B + C 2 l 2 + m2 + n2
l m n
= =
A B C
2

Al+Bm+Cn=0
Al+Bm+Cn=0
L

L
L

()
1

l :

x +1 y 1 z
=
= M(21-5) l
3
2
1

l s =(32-1)

n
n = s =(32-1)

3(x-2)+2(y-1)- (z-(-5))=0
3(x-2)+2(y-1)-(z+5)=0
126

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3x+2y-z-13=0
2 (10-l) 4x-y+2z-8=0
n n =(4-12)

n = n1 =(4-12)

4(x-1)-y+2(z+1)=0

4x-y+2z-2=0
3 M(123) l
x=2+3t
y=2t
_________

z=1+t

x=2+3ty=2tz=-1+t s =(321)

s n

n = s =(321)
3(x-1)+2(y-2)+(z-3)=0
3x+2y+z-10=0

3.1

()

1
f(xyz)n
12n k(k=12n)(kkk)

lim f (k ,k ,k )k
d 0

k =1

(k k dk k d = max d k
1kn

f(xyz)

f ( x, y, z)d

f(xyz)
127

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2
(1)

kf ( x, y, z)d = k f ( x, y, z )d

(2)

## f(x,y,z) g(x,y,z)d = f(x,y,z)d g ( x, y, z )d

(3)

(k )

f ( x, y, z )d = f ( x, y, z )d + f ( x, y, z )d

=121 2
(4) f(xyz)g(xyz)(zyz)

f ( x, y, z)d g ( x, y, z )d

(5) mf(xyz)M(xyz)

mV f(x,y,z)dMV

f ( x, y, z )d f(x,y,z) d

(6)

(7) f(xyz)V (
)

f ( x, y, z )d = f ()V

1
f ( x, y , z )d f(xyz)
V

3
f(xyz) xy

f(x,y,z)d = 2

f ( x, y , z ) d u

f(x, y, z)z
f(x, y, z)z

1 xy
yz zx

1
(1)
={(xyz)|z1(xy)zz2(xy)(xy)D}
D xy z1(xy)z2(xy) D
f(xyz)

f ( x, y, z)d = dxdy

z2 ( x , y )
z1 ( x , y )

(2)={(xyz)|z(xy)D(z)}
128

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f ( x, y, z )dz

D(z) z

f ( x, y, z )d =

dz f(x,y,z)dxdy

D(z)

f (x,y,z)dxdydz= f(rcos,rsin,z)rdrddz

(xy)(r) z
3

x =sin cos0

y=sin sin 0
z=cos

02

f ( x, y, z)dxdydz

2
= f (sincossinsincos)sinddd

(xyz)
1

M = ( x, y, z )d

y=
z=

1
M

x(x, y, z )d

1
M

y(x,y,z)d

1
M

z(x, y, z )dv

x=

( x, y , z )

3
x

I x = ( y 2 + z 2 )(x,y,z)d

I y = ( z 2 + x 2 )(x,y,z)d

I z = ( x 2 + y 2 )(x,y,z)d

I 0 = ( x 2 + y 2 + z 2 )(x,y,z)d

()

129

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xy z dxdydz z=xyy=xx=1z=
2 3

xy z dxdydz = dx
2 3

dxdydz

(1 + x + y + z )

xy

dy xy 2 z 3 dz
0

dx

1 1
1 5 6
1
x y dy=
x12 dx=
0 28
4
364

x+y+z=1x=0y=0z=0

1
1 x
1 x y
dxdydz
dz
=
dx
dy
3

0
0
0
(1 + x + y + z )
(1 + x + y + z )3

1 x
1 1
1
1
1 1 1
3 x
dy = (

dx
)dx
2

0
2 0
2 0 1+ x
4
(1 + x + y ) 4
1
5
= ln 2
2
16

x 2 + y 2 dxdydz x2+y2=z2z=1

x=rcosy=rsinz=z

( x

x 2 + y 2 dxdydz = d r 2 dr dz

=2 r 2 (1 r ) dr =
0

+ y 2 )dxdydz x2+y2=2zz=2

2
2
3
( x + y )dxdydz = d r dr r 2 dz = 2 (2

r2 3
)r dr
2

r 4 r 6 2 16
=2 |0 =
3
2 12

xyzdxdydz x +y +z =1x=0y=0z=0
2

(x0y0z0 )
n

3
2
2
xyzdxdydz= 2 d 2 d sin cos sin cos sin d

## = 2 sin cos d 2 sin 3 cos d 5d =

130

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1
48

x 2 y2 z 2
x 2 y2 z2
+
+

)dxdydz
(
+ + )=1
a 2 b2 c2
a 2 b 2 c2

## x=a sin cos ,y=b sin sin ,z=c cos

2
1
x 2 y2 z2
4
+
+

4 d = abc
(
)dxdydz=abc
d
sin
d
2
2
2

0
0
0
a
b c
5

3.2

()
1
xy L f(xy) L n
s1s2snsk(1kn)(kk)

lim f( k k )s k
0

k=1

(sk k = max s k )
1k n

f(xy) L

f(xy)ds

f(xy)ds

L f(xyz) L n
s1s2sn sk(1kn)(kkk)

lim f( k k k )s k
0

k=1

(sk k = max s k )
1k n

f(xyz) L

f(xyz)ds
L

f(xyz)ds

2
()
L
x=x(t)y=y(t)z=z(t)(t)

131

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f(xyz)ds= f [ x(t)y(t)z(t) ]

## [ x(t)] + [ y(t)] + [ z(t)]

2

dt

( f(xyz) x(t)y(t)z(t))

()
1
xy L= AB P(xy) Q(xy)
L L n s1s2snsk(1kn)(xk-1
yk-1)(xkyk)( L )xk=xk-xk-1yk=yk-yk-1(1k
n)sk (kk)
n

lim [ P (
k )x k + Q(
k )y k ]
k
k
0

k =1

L= AB

n
P(xy) Q(xy) L

P(xy)dx+Q(xy)dy

F ds

F= {P(xy)Q(xy)}
ds= {dxdy}

F ds=P(xy)dx + Q(xy)dy

L= AB P(xyz)Q(xyz)
R(xyz) L L n s1s2snsk(1kn)
zk)( L )xk=xk-xk-1
(xk-1yk-1zk-1)(xkyk
yk= yk-yk-1zk=zk-zk-1(1kn)sk (kkk)
n

lim [ P (
kk )x k + Q(
kk )y k + R(
kk )z k ]
k
k
k
0

k =1

n
P(xyz)Q(xyz) R(xyz) L

P(xyz)dx+Q(xyz)dy+R(xyz)dz

F ds

132

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F= {P(xyz)Q(xyz)R(xyz)}
ds= {dxdydz}
L L

2
()
L x=x(t)y=y(t)z=z(t) A B
(<) P(xyz)Q(xyz)R(xy
z) x(t)y(t)z(t)

L= AB

P(xyz)dx+Q(xyz)dy+R(xyz)dz
=

## {P [ x(t)y(t)z(t)] x(t) + Q [ x(t)y(t)z(t)] y(t)+R [ x(t)y(t)z(t)] z(t)}dt

1 L= AB P(xy)Q(xy) L

AB

P(xy)dx+Q(xy)dy=

AB

## [ P(xy)cos +Q(xy)cos ]ds

coscos(xy) A B
2 L= AB P(xyz)Q(xyz)
R(xyz) L

AB

P(xyz)dx+Q(xyz)dy+R(xyz)dz

AB

## [ P(xyz)cos +Q(xyz)cos + R(xyz)cos ]ds

coscoscos AB (xyz) A B

1 ()
xy D L L
D L P(xy)Q(xy) D

( x y )dxdy=
D

Pdx+Qdy

()
133

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xy D (n+1)( n )
L=C0C1Cn C0
C1Cn
L D
P(xy)Q(xy) D

( x y )dxdy=

Pdx+Qdy

## = Pdx + Qdy + Pdx + Qdy

c0

ck

k=1

F {P(xy)Q(xy)} P(xy)Q(xy) D

2 L= AB D

AB

Pdx + Qdy=0

Pdx + Qdy A B L= AB

3P(xy)dx+Q(xy)dy=du(xy)

Q P

=
x y

4D

1 D L

## 5 F {P(xy)Q(xy)} V(xy) F =gradV

V(xy) P=

V
V
Q=

y
x

33 ()

()
S f(xyz) S S n S1
S2SnSk(1kn)(kkk)Sk
Sk

lim f( k k k )Sk
0

k =1

f(xyz) S

f(xyz)dS
S

2
S

z=z(xy)

(xy)D
134

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z(xy) D f(xyz) S

f(xyz)dS= f [ xyz(xy)]

1+ (

z 2
z
) + ( )2 dxdy
x
y

()
1
S ()P(xyz)Q(xyz)R(xyz)
S S n S1S2SnSk(1kn)
yz (Sk)yz zx (Sk)zx xy
(Sk)xySk(1kn)(kkk)

lim P (
kk )(Sk ) yz + Q(
kk )(Sk ) zx + R(
kk )(Sk ) xy
k
k
k
0

k =1

P(xyz)Q(xy
z)R(xyz) S

P(xyz)dydz + Q(xyz)dzdx+R(xyz)dxdy
S

F= {PQR}
dS= {dydzdzdxdxdy}

F dS

2
S
z=z(xy) (xy)Dxy
Z(xy) Dxy R(xyz) S

## R(xyz)dxdy= R [ xyz(xy)] dxdy

S

D xy

S z
xy
S x=x(yz) (yz)Dyz

S

D yz

S x S
y=y(zx)(zx)Dzx

## Q(xyz)dzdx= Q [ xy(zx)z ] dzdx

S

D zx

S y
P
QR 0

135

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## Pdydz+Qdzdx+Rdxdy= [ Pcos +Qcos +Rcos ] dS

S

coscoscos S (xyz)

n 0 = {cos
cos
cos }
F= {PQR}

## Pdydz + Qdzdx + Rdxdy= F n dS

0

1 ()
S P(xyz)Q(xyz)R(xy
z)

( )

## = [ Pcos +Qcos +Rcos ] dS

coscoscos S (xyz)
2 ()
(n+1) S0 Sk(1kn)
S0 P(x
yz)Q(xyz)R(xyz)

S0
( )
n

Pdydz+Qdzdx+Rdxdy

k=1 Sk

( )

## ( x + y + z )d = Pdydz + Qdzdx + Rdxdy

L S L L
S () P(xyz)Q(xyz)R(xyz) S

S

= (
S

## dydz dzdx dxdy

x
y
z
P
Q
R

R Q
P R
Q P
)dydz + (
)dzdx + (

)dxdy
y z
z x
x y

136

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## Pdx + Qdy + Rdz=

S

cos

x
P

cos

y
Q

cos

dS
z
R

4.1

()
1. P ( x, y ) dx + Q ( x, y ) dy = 0,

Q P
=
x y

= du ( x, y )

P ( x, y ) dx + Q ( x, y ) dy =

u ( x, y ) = C , u ( x, y ) du ( x, y ) = P ( x, y ) dx + Q ( x, y ) dy u ( x, y )

x2 + y 2
xdx + ydy = d (
); (2)
2

(3)

x2 y2
);
2

xdx ydy = d (

(1)

ydx + xdy
) = d (ln xy );
xy

xdx + ydy
1

= d ln( x 2 + y 2 ) ; (6)
2
2
x +y
2

(5)

(7)

## ydx + xdy = d ( xy ); (4)

xdx ydy
1

) = d ln( x 2 y 2 ) ;
2
2
x y
2

xdy ydx
y
= d ;
2
x
x

(9) (

(8)

ydx xdy
x
) = d (arctan );
2
2
x +y
y

(10)

x
ydx xdy
= d ;
2
y
y
xdy ydx
y
= d (arctan );
2
2
x +y
x

137

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ydx xdy
1 x y
) = d ( ln
);
2
2
x y
2 x+ y

(12) (

(13)

xdx + ydy
1 1
= d (
);
2
2 2
(x + y )
2 x2 + y2

(14)

(15)

xdx + ydy
1

= d arctan( x 2 + y 2 ) ;
2
2 2
1+ (x + y )
2

(16)

xdx ydy
1

= d arctan( x 2 y 2 ) ;
2
2 2
1+ (x y )
2

(11) (

xdy ydx
1 x+ y
) = d ( ln
);
2
2
x y
2 x y
xdx ydy
1
1
= d ( i 2
);
2
2 2
(x y )
2 x y2

u ( x, y ) = u ( x0, y0 ) +

( x, y )

( x0 , y0 )

P ( x, y )dx + Q ( x, y )dy

x0

y0

u
= P ( x, y )
x

u
P ( x, y ) dx + C '( y ), C '( y ) C ( y ) .
=

y y

y Q ( x, y ) =

( x, y0 )

( x0 , y0 )

u ( x, y ) = P ( x, y ) dx + C ( y )

## = u ( x0, y0 ) + P ( x, y0 )dx + Q ( x, y )dy

( x, y )

2.

Q P
.
=
x y

P ( x, y ) dx + Q ( x, y ) dy = 0

R ( x, y ) R ( x, y ) P ( x, y ) dx + R ( x, y )Q ( x, y ) dy = 0

[ RQ ]
x

[ RP ]
y

R ( x, y )

R ( x, y ) P ( x, y )dx + R ( x, y )Q ( x, y ) dy = du ( x, y )

u ( x, y ) = C . .

()
1 ( x + y )dx + ( x 2 y )dy = 0 .
2

P ( x, y ) = x 2 + y , Q ( x, y ) = x 2 y ,
138

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P Q
=
= 1.
y x

( x 2 + y )dx + ( x 2 y )dy = du ( x, y ).

u ( x, y ).

x0

y0

u ( x, y ) = P ( x, y )dx + Q ( x0 , y )dy.
x0 = y0 = 0,
x

u ( x, y ) = ( x 2 + y )dx + (0 2 y )dy =

u
u
= x 2 + y,
= x 2 y
x
y

u ( x, y ) = ( x 2 + y )dx + ( y ) =

x3
+ xy y 2 .
3

x3
+ xy + ( y ).
3

u
= x + ( y ), '( y ) + x = x 2 y , '( y ) = 2 y, ( y ) = y 2
y

x3
+ xy y 2 .
3

0 u ( x, y ) =

du ( x, y ) = ( x 2 + y )dx + ( x 2 y )dy
= x 2 dx 2 ydy + ( ydx + xdy ) = d (

x3
) dy 2 + d ( xy ),
3

u ( x, y ) =

x3
y 2 + xy
3

u ( x, y ) .
x

2 (1 + e y ) dx + e y (1

x
)dy = 0 .
y
139

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P ( x, y ) = 1 + e y , Q ( x, y ) = e y (1

x
),
y

x
P
Q
= 2 ey =
y
x
y
( x0 , y0 ) = (0,1),
y

u ( x, y ) = dy + (1 + e y )dx
1

x
y

x
y

x
y

= y 1 + x + ye y = x + ye 1, x + ye = C
x

u ( x, y )
= 1 + e y
x

x
y

x
y

u ( x, y ),

u ( x, y ) = (1 + e )dx = x + ye + ( y ),
x

u ( x, y )
x
= e y e y + '( y )
y
y
x

x
= Q ( x, y ) = e y (1 )
y

'( y ) = 0, ( y ) = C1 , *
x
y

u ( x, y ) = x + ye + C1 ,

x
y

x + ye = C , C

x

dx + e y dy + e y (

ydx xdy
) = 0,
y

x
y

x
y

dx + e dy + yde = 0
x
y

dx + d ( ye ) = 0

x
y

x + ye = C

xdx + ( y
3

x2
)dy = 0 .
y

140

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P ( x , y ) = x , Q ( x, y ) = ( y 3

R ( x, y )

[ RQ ]
x

x2
Q P
),
=
.
y
x y

[ RP ]
y

R ( x, y ) P ( x, y ) dx + R ( x, y )Q ( x, y ) dy = 0 .
R ( x, y )

x2
( y 3 ) g ( y )
y

= [ xg ( y )] , g ( y )
y g ( y )
.
x
y

g ( y ) =

1
1
, 2
2
y
y

x
x2
dx
+
(
y

) dy = 0
y2
y3

x2
2x
2x2
)
dx
dy,
=

y2
y2
y3

d(

x
C
g ( y ) = xg '( y ), g ( y ) = 2
y
y

1
1 x2
x2
2
2
d ( y ) + d ( 2 ) = 0, y + 2 = C
2
2 y
y

x 2 + y 4 = Cy 2

4.2
()

1.
y = f ( x ), y x = f ( x), y x +1 = f ( x + 1),

yx = yx +1 yx = f ( x + 1) f ( x)

2 y x = (y x ) = y x +1 y x ,

= ( yx + 2 yx +1 ) ( yx +1 yx ) = yx + 2 2 yx +1 + yx
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n y x = (1)i Cni y x + n i
i =0

2. (Cy x ) = C y x
( y x z x ) = y x z x
3.

f ( x , y x , y x ,

, n yx ) = 0

g ( x, yx , yx +1 ,

yx + n ) = 0

1 .
2 .
3

5 .

yx +1 ayx = 0

1.

y x = ca x C

2.

a 0

yx +1 ayx = f ( x)

a0

yx = y x + ca x (C

y x f ( x ) .
1

f ( x ) = b a 1, y = A y =

b
1 a

a = 1, y = Ax y = bx
2

f ( x ) = b0 + b1 x a 1, y = A0 + A1 x, y = b0 + b1 x (b0 , b1

142

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1
1
b1 ) x + b1 x 2
2
2
b
x
a d 0 y = Ad y =
d x (b, d
d a

a = 1, y = A0 x + A1 x 2 y = (b0
3

f ( x) = bid x

a d = 0 y = Axd x y = bxd x 1
4

## D = (cos w a) + sin w 0, y = A1 cos wx + A2 sin wx,

2

1
[b1 (cos w a) b2 sin w]
D
1
A2 = [b1 (cos w a ) + b2 sin w]
D

A1 =

A1 = b1 , A2 = b2 A1 = b1 , A2 = b2

f ( x ) = bx n

a 1, y = ( A0 + A1 x +

yx +1 + 2 yx = 5 x .
2

a = 2, C (2)

An x n ) .

a = 1, y = x( A0 + A1 x +

An x n )

b n .

()

D = 0, y = x [ A1 cos wx + A2 sin wx ]

y = A0 + A1 x + A2 x 2

3 A0 + A1 + A2 + (3 A1 + 2 A2 ) x + 3 A2 x 2 = 5 x 2

3 A2 = 5

3 A1 + 2 A2 = 0
3 A + A + A = 0
1
2
0

5
10
5
,A1 = A 0 =
3
9
27
5
5
10
y = x2 x
3
9
27

A 2 =

5
10
5
y x = C ( 2) x + x 2 x
3
9
27

2
1 yt = t 3 ,

yt , 2 yt , 3 yt

2 yt +1 3 yt = 2
143

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3 2 yt +1 6 yt = 3t

yt = yt +1 yt = (t + 1)3 t 3 = 3t 2 + 3t + 1
yt +1 = yt + 2 yt +1 = (t + 2)3 (t + 1)3 = 3t 2 + 9t + 7
yt + 2 = yt +3 yt + 2 = (t + 3)3 (t + 2)3 = 3t 2 + 15t + 19
2 yt = yt +1 yt = 6t + 6
2 yt +1 = yt + 2 yt +1 = 6t + 12
3 yt = 2 yt +1 2 yt = 6
t

2 C 3 (C

y = 1

y = C i3t 1

3 2 yt +1 6 yt = 0, a = 3, C 3t

1 t
1
3 , a = 3, d = 3, b =
2
2
b
1
a d = 0,
y = At 3t , A = =
d 6
1

yt = t 3t + C 3t
6

yt +1 3 yt =

3 t St Dt ,

Pt

St = 3 + 2 Pt ; Dt = 4 3Pt 1 ,

St = Dt , t = 0 Pt = P0 t .

3
1
Pt 1 =
2
2
3
a = 1,
2
1
1
Pt = 2 =
3 5
1+
2
3 t
1
3
C ( ) , Pt = + C ( )t
2
5
2
1
1
1
3
t = 0 Pt = P0 C = P0 , Pt = + ( P0 )( )t .
5
5
5
2

St = Dt , 3 + 2 Pt = 4 3Pt 1 ,

Pt +

144

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