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WiTricity-The Wireless Power Transfer

[Mobile Radio]
The investigated design consists of two copper coils, each a self-resonant system. One of
the coils, attached to the power source, is the sending unit. Instead of irradiating the
environment with electromagnetic waves, it fills the space around it with a non-radiative
magnetic field oscillating at MHz frequencies.

A Comparative Study Between Novel

Witricity and Traditional Inductive
Magnetic Coupling in Wireless
A non-radiative energy transformer, commonly referred as Witricity and based on `strong
coupling' between two coils which are separated physically by medium-range distances, is
proposed to realize efficient wireless energy transfer. The distance between the resonators
can be larger than the characteristic sizes of each resonator. Non-radiative energy transfer
between the first resonator and the second resonator is facilitated through the coupling of
their resonant-field evanescent tails. The proposed system operates as traditional inductive
magnetic coupling devices when the operating frequencies are not the resonant frequency.
Corresponding finite element analysis (FEA) and experiments have been carried out to
facilitate quantitative comparison. Compared with typical magnetic inductive coupling
energy transmission devices, the efficiency of the proposed system is much higher. This
investigation indicates that it is feasible to use wireless energy transfer technology to
recharge batteries, particularly in implant devices.

Resonant Frequency Calculation of

Witricity Using Equivalent Circuit Model
Combined with Finite Element Method

Wireless power transfer, known as witricity, has become a topical issue for academicians
and engineers alike since the pioneering work of a Massachusetts Institute of Technology
(MIT) research group based on the well-known principle that the electromagnetic coupling
of two systems with the same resonant frequency is strongest. This paper presents a model
and method to calculate the resonant frequency of planar spirals for wireless power
transfers based on equivalent circuit model and three-dimensional finite element analysis.
The numerical results on a prototype resonator as reported validate the feasibility and
advantages of the proposed approach.

Experimental System Design of Wireless

Power Transfer Based on Witricity
Wireless power transfer based on witricity technology is a new technology which energy can
be transferred via coupled magnetic resonances in the non-radiative near-field. In order to
verify its feasibility, coupled mode theory and power transfer system structure was proposed
in this paper. Based on these analysis, The wireless power transfer experimental device is
designed. Experimental results shows that the power can be transmitted is up to 30W, the
transfer efficiency is more than 60%, the maximum distance of energy transfer can reach to

Magnetic Levitation
Magnetic Levitation is a way to suspend objects in air without any support, as if in
defiance of gravity. An unsung phenomenon of the past which is now being put to
use in a variety of interesting and useful applications. As a child we must have
seen a ping pong ball being levitated on an air stream at the output pipe of a
vacuum cleaner. Magnetic levitation, also known as maglev is used in a similar
way to levitate objects in air without any support, using magnetic field.
Levitation is the process by which an object is suspended against gravity, in a
stable position, without physical contact. For levitation on Earth, first, a force is
required directed vertically upwards and equal to the gravitational force, second,
for any small displacement of the levitating object, a returning force should appear
to stabilize it. The stable levitation can be naturally achieved by, for example,

magnetic or aerodynamic forces. Though any electromagnetic force could be used

to counteract gravity, magnetic levitation is the most common.
Though any electromagnetic force could be used to counteract gravity, magnetic
levitation is the most common. Diamagnetic materials are commonly used for
demonstration purposes. In this case the returning force appears from the
interaction with the screening currents. For example, a superconducting sample,
which can be considered either as a perfect diamagnet or an ideally hard
superconductor, easily levitates an ambient external magnetic field. In very strong
magnetic field, by means of diamagnetic levitation even small live animals have
been levitated.

The electrochemical ultracapacitor is an emerging technology that promises to
play an important role in meeting the demands of electronic devices and systems
both now and in the future. This newly available technology of ultracapacitors is
making it easier for engineers to balance their use of both energy and power.
Energy storage devices like ultracapacitors are normally used along with batteries
to compensate for the limited battery power capability. Evidently, the proper
control of the energy storage systems presents both a challenge and opportunity
for the power and energy management system.
This paper traces the history of the development of the technology and explores
the principles and theory of operation of the ultracapacitors. The use of
ultracapacitors in various applications are discussed and their advantages over
alternative technologies are considered. To provide examples with which to outline
practical implementation issues, systems incorporating ultracapacitors as vital
components are also explored. This paper has aimed to provide a brief overview of
ultracapacitor technology as it stands today. Previous development efforts have
been described to place the current state of the technology within an historical
Scientific background has also been covered in order to better understand
performance characteristics. Possible applications of ultracapacitor technology
have also been described to illustrate the wide range of possibilities that exist.
Because of the advantages of charging efficiency, long lifetime, fast response, and
wide operating temperature range, it is tempting to try and apply ultracapacitors
to any application that requires energy storage.

The limitations of the current technology must be fully appreciated, however, and
it is important to realize that ultracapacitors are only useful within a finite range
of energy and power requirements. Outside of these boundaries other alternatives
are likely to be the better solution. The most important thing to remember about
ultracapacitors technology is that it is a new and different technology in its own