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Digital Communication (GTU)

2.

5-1

Pulse Code Modulation

Number of quantization levels Q = 65,536


we know that Q = 2N
2N = 65,536
N = 16 bits.

...Ans.

Number of bits to encode each sample is N = 16.


3.
Number of bits per second
= Number of samples/sec. Number of bits/sample
= 15 103 16 = 240 k bits/sec.
Practical sampling rate fs = 44.1 kHz
Number of bits per second = 44.1 16 103 = 705.6k bits/sec.

4.

...Ans.

Transmission bandwidth B = = = 352.8 kHz. ...Ans.


Ex. 5.15.18 :

A Delta Modulator system operates at 3 times Nyquist rate for signal with 3.3 kHz
bandwidth. The quantisation step is 250 mV. Determine the maximum amplitude of a 1
kHz input sinusoid for which the DM does not show slope overload.

Soln. :
Given :
1.

.Page No. 5-62.

W = 3.3 kHz, fm = 1 kHz, = 250 mV, fs = 3 2W = 19.8 kHz.

Let the maximum amplitude of 1 kHz input sinusoid be A.


The condition to avoid the slope overload is
A
Maximum value of A = =
Substituting the values we get,
Amax =
Amax = 0.787

Ex. 5.15.19 :

An audio signal with highest frequency component 3300 Hz is pulse code modulated with
a sampling rate of 8000 samples/sec. The required signal-to-quantisation noise ratio is
40 dB.
1.

What is the minimum number of uniform quantising levels needed ?

2.

What is the minimum number of bits per sample needed ?

3.

Calculate the minimum number of bits per sample needed ?

Soln. :
Given : fs = 8000 samples/sec. , fm = 3300 Hz.
1.

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= 40 dB

To calculate Q and N :
Assuming the input signal to be non sinusoidal we write
S/N = (4.8 + 6 N) dB
40 = 4.8 + 6N

N = 5.86 6
Thus the number of bits per word is 6.
Q = 2N = 26 = 64

...Ans.
...Ans.

Digital Communication (GTU)

5-2

Pulse Code Modulation

Thus the number of quantization level is 64.


2.

The signaling rate (r) :


r = N fs = 6 8 103 = 48 kbits/sec.

3.

Transmission bandwidth :
Minimum BW,

Ex. 5.15.20 :

BT = r = 24 kHz.

Delta modulator (DM) gives output pulses + p (t) of p (t). The output of DM is + p (t)
when instantaneous sample is larger than previous sample value and is p(t) when
instantaneous sample is smaller than previous sample value (last sample). The p(t) has
2 microsecond duration and 628 mV amplitude and repeats every 10 microsecond. Plot
the input and output of DM on graph paper one below other to same scale if the input to
DM is 1 Volt sine wave of frequency 10 kHz for one cycle of input wave. What is the
maximum frequency with 1 Volt amplitude that can be used in this system without slope
overload distortion.

.Page No. 5-62.

Soln.
Part I : To plot the DM signal
The D. M. Signal is as shown in Fig. P. 5.15.20.

Fig. P. 5.15.20 : DM signal


Part II : Maximum frequency :

Digital Communication (GTU)

5-3

Pulse Code Modulation

Given :
A = 1V, fm = 10 kHz,
fs = 1/Ts = 1/10 s = 100 kHz. = 265 mV.
The condition for avoiding the slope overload is
A >
1 =

n = 25.6 103 rad /sec.


fmax = 4074.36 Hz

...Ans.

This is the maximum input frequency without introducing any slope overload distortion.