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Univ.

of Manitoba

MECH 3492 Fluid Mechanics and Applications

Winter Term, 2015

Assignment 6
Please google hotwire velocimetry and wind-tunnel for information on their structures and functions.
Problem 1 (Purpose: understanding Reynolds averaging, viscous and turbulent shear stresses, and
eddy viscosity)
In a wind-tunnel experiment, hotwire velocimetry was used for measuring a turbulent wind field. The
recorded time series of instantaneous velocity data for u, v and w (in m/s) at two close points are
given in the excel book Turbulence.xlsx. The measurements were taken at 1000 Hz. The spatial
distances between the two points are x = x2 x1 = 2.12 mm, y = y2 y1 = 3.91 mm and z =
z2 z1 = 1.88 mm. The density and dynamic viscosity of the air are 1.25 kg/m3 and 1.5 105 Pa s,
respectively.
(1) Determine time-averaged velocities u
, v and w
at both points;
(2) Plot u and u
w.r.t. time in the same diagram for point 1;
(3) Using the measured data to verify the assumption of incompressibility (for the mean flow) at the
midpoint (between the two points);
(4) Determine the value of the viscous shear stress tensor based on Stokess hypothesis at the midpoint;
(5) Determine the value of the Reynolds stress tensor at the midpoint;
(6) Determine the value of the eddy viscosity at the midpoint based on Boussinesqs assumption.
Hints:
(1) you would need to pay attention to the units;
(2) this represents a much simplified hotwire experiment, as only two measurement points are involved.
When you calculate the derivatives, use the first-order accurate scheme (e.g., du/dx u/x).

Problem 2 (Purpose: understanding BL thickness, displacement thickness, momentum thickness, and


integral equation)
For a zero-pressure-gradient laminar BL flow over a flat plate, assume that the velocity profile is of a
polynomial form: u = a + by + cy 3 . Derive all the equations and parameters listed in row 3 of Table 9.2.
Specifically, determine: (1) Uu ; (2) w ; (3) non-dimensionalized BL thickness x (as a function of Rex );

(4) Cf (as a function of Rex ); (5) ; (6) ; and (7) shape factor H = .

Problem 3 (Purpose: understanding turbulent BL and wind-tunnel design)


9.21

Problem 9.21

[Difficulty: 2]

Given:

Data on wind tunnel and boundary layers

Find:

Displacement thickness at exit; Percent change in uniform velocity through test section

Solution
:The solution involves using mass conservation in the inviscid core, allowing for the fact that as the boundary
layer grows it reduces the size of the core. One approach would be to integrate the 1/7 law velocity profile to
compute the mass flow in the boundary layer; an easier approach is to simply use the displacement thickness!
Basic
equations

disp

(4.12)

1 u dy

Assumptions: 1) Steady flow 2) Incompressible 3) No friction outside boundary layer 4) Flow along streamline 5) Horizontal
1

and

The design data is

ft
Udesign 160
s

w 1 ft

The volume flow rate is

Q Udesign Adesign

Q 160

in 0.4 in

exit 1 in

We also have

Hence

disp

1 u dy

U A const

For this flow

h 1 ft

7
y
dy

Adesign w h
ft

Adesign 1 ft

7
1 d where

Hence at the inlet and exit


in
dispin
8

dispin 0.05 in

dispexit

exit
8

dispexit 0.125 in

disp
8

Hence the areas are

Ain w 2 dispin h 2 dispin

Ain 0.9834 ft

Aexit w 2 dispexit h 2 dispexit

Aexit 0.9588 ft

Applying mass conservation between "design" conditions and the inlet

Udesign Adesign Uin Ain 0


or

Also

Uin Udesign

Adesign
Ain
Adesign

Uexit Udesign
Aexit

ft
Uin 162.7
s
ft
Uexit 166.9
s

The percent change in uniform velocity is then

Uexit Uin
Uin

2.57 % The exit displacement thickness is

dispexit 0.125 in