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Republic of the Philippines

DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL WELFARE AND DEVELOPMENT


KALAHI-CIDSS PROJECT

TECHNICAL STANDARD
SPECIFICATION FOR RURAL ROADS

ENGINEERING UNIT

FOREWORD

The KALAHI-CIDSS-NCDDP Project is a community driven development project


being implemented by the Department of Social Welfare and Development with funding
assistance from World Bank and Asean Development Bank. The Project caters the need
of the rural and urban communities in terms of social and small infrastructures in
addressing the poverty situation of the locality. Most of the common interventions
identified by the communities are rural access such as roads and bridges.
Engineering designs plans and specifications are prepared prior to the approval of
the proposed sub-projects. Considering that the Project requires the proponent to submit
technical specifications for the construction and rehabilitation of road and bridges, The
Project adopted the
DPWH Standard Specifications for Roads, Bridges and Ports
(Volume II)1 as reference. Modifications on the content were made in order for the
technical staff to simple understands the specifications and the other aspect of the work
items.
Although there are areas covered by the Project that are isolated such as island
municipalities, far flung communities in which available materials may not pass the
standard specification as provided for from the DPWH Blue Book, the Project may adopt
the materials and practices being observed on the particular areas.

STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR HIGHWAYS, BRIDGES, AND AIRPORTS


PART C EARTH WORK
ITEM 100 Clearing and Grubbing
102 Excavation
103 Structure Excavation
104 Embankment
105 Subgrade Preparation
PART D SUBBASE AND BASE COURSE
ITEM 200 Aggregate Subbase Course
201 Aggregate Base Course
PART E SURFACE COURSES
ITEM 311 Portland Cement Concrete Pavement
PART G DRAINAGE AND SLOPE PROTECTION STRUCTURES
ITEM 500 Pipe Culverts and Storm Drains
501 Underdrains
505 Riprap and Grouted Riprap
506 Stone Masonry

ITEM 100.CLEARING AND GRUBBING


100.1. Description
This item shall consist of the removal and disposal of trees, stumps, brush, roots,
vegetation, logs, rubbish and other objectionable matter, as directed by the Engineer.
100.2. Construction Methods
Trees, Vegetation, Rubbish The road width as extended one (1) meter beyond the top of
cut slopes shall be cleared of all objectionable materials.
All roots shall be grubbed to a minimum depth of 0.3 meters and adequate provisions shall
made to ensure that no roots or other objectionable matter is incorporated into the embankment.
Trees mark for preservation purposes shall not be cut. Care shall be taken to protect such
trees from damage during the clearing and grubbing operations.
Large holes and depressions resulting from grubbing operations shall be backfilled with
suitable material in accordance with, EMBANKMENT construction procedure, with the cost
included under this item.
Demolition Except when so provided for in the Bid Schedule under, REMOVAL OF
STRUCTURES, the cost of demolition and disposal of existing structures, stone, masonry, timber,
concrete, pavement, sidewalk, and like materials shall be included in this item.
Holes and depressions resulting from such demolition and removal shall be backfilled with
suitable material in accordance with, EMBANKMENT, work with the cost included under this
item.
Disposal of Refuse All cleared materials, except those arising from Timber Concession
under the jurisdiction of the Bureau of Forest Development, shall be burnt or deposited off the site
in areas provided by the Contractor in a manner approved by the KALAHI-CIDSS Engineer.
All suitable lumber found in the project as a result of this work shall be turn over to LGU
for safe keeping.
100.3. Method of Measurement

Clearing and grubbing shall be measured in square meter. Measurement for payment
shall be made for areas specified in this item and for areas of roadway, channel and structural
excavation as required for the construction or as otherwise directed .

Clearing and grubbing carried out by the Contractor in borrow pits shall not be
measured for direct payment.
100.4. Basis of Payment
All works performed and measured as provided above, including Demolition in 100-2.2,
shall be paid for at the contract unit price for CLEARING AND GRUBBING, which price shall be
full compensation for furnishing all labor, equipment, tools, supplies and ioncidentals necessary to
complete the item.

ITEM 102. SURPLUS COMMON EXCAVATION


102.1. Description
This item shall consist of excavating and grading the roadway including ditches and
approaches as indicated on the construction drawings and, when directed by the Engineer, shall
also include excavating unsuitable materials below subgrade, removal of slide materials and
widening of roadway cuts and flattening cut slopes to obtain material needed for construction of
embankment.
Excavation for structures shall not be included in this item.
102.2. Construction Method
Utilization or Disposal of Suitable Excavated Materials
Suitable excavated materials shall mean excavated materials deemed by the Engineer to be
suitable for use in construction of embankment or other fills.
Unless otherwise specifically indicated on the construction drawings or directed in writing
by the Engineer, all suitable materials from excavations shall be utilized in the construction of
embankments or other fills, regardless of the haul distance. NO OVERHAUL WILL BE PAID.
When indicated on the drawings or so directed by the Engineer, all suitable materials to be
wasted shall be disposed of on sites provided by the Contractor outside the right-of-way, unless
waste sites inside the right-of-way are designated by the Engineer.
Disposal of Unsuitable Materials. Unsuitable materials shall mean excavated materials
deemed to be unsuitable for incorporation into embankment or other fills.
Unsuitable materials shall be disposed of on sited provided by the Contractor outside the
right-of-way at his own expense.
Rock Excavation. Rock excavation consist of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rock
which cannot be excavated without blasting or the use of rippers, and all boulders or other
detached stones each having a volume of one cubic meter or more as determined by physical
measurements or visually by the Engineer.

Excavation Below Subgrade. Where shown on the drawings or directed by the Engineer,
excavation shall be made below the subgrade level in cut areas and/or below the existing ground
surface in fill areas. The materials excavated shall be wasted and disposed in accordance to this
item.
The areas excavated shall be backfilled with approved materials and compacted in
accordance with, EMBANKMENT construction procedure.
Removal of Slides and Overbreaks. Slide materials and materials from unavoidable over
breakage due to slides shall be removed as directed by the Engineer and utilized or disposed of as
provided by the Project Engineer.
Widening of Cuts. The widening of cuts beyond the limits of the typical section as shown
on the drawings is prohibited in all instances except by written order from the Engineer. When so
directed, cuts shall be widened and/or slopes flattened over those shown on the drawings in cases
where additional materials are required for construction of roadway embankments and other fills.

Ditches. Ditches shall mean roadway ditches and gutters, changes in channels of streams,
inlet and outlet ditches of culverts and other structures and ditches outside the road prism, whether
the excavation is wet or dry.
All suitable materials excavated from ditches, except materials shown on the drawings to
be placed in dikes, shall be placed in embankments, unless otherwise directed by the engineer.
Selected Materials. The excavation shall be performed in such manner and sequence that
suitable materials may be selected and removed separately for specific uses in construction of
roadway embankments and other fills.
When practicable, such selected materials shall be hauled directly from excavation to final
use in construction. If this procedure is impracticable, such selected materials shall be stockpiled
for future use.
No additional or separate compensation will be made for stockpiling and handling of
selected materials, unless specified in the special Provisions and included in the Bid Schedule.
Commencement of Excavation. Hauling of materials from cuts to areas of fill shall
proceed only when sufficient compaction equipment is operating at the place of disposition to
ensure compliance with the requirements of, EMBANKMENT works.
Finishing of Cut Slopes. All earth slopes shall be finished to reasonable smooth surfaces,
which will merge, with adjacent terrains without any noticeable break. Rock fragments, which
move when pried with a crowbar, shall be removed.
102.3. Method of Measurement
Materials Incorporated Into Works. The compensation for excavation of materials used in
the construction of embankments and other fills shall be deemed included in the items relating to
the parts of the works where the material in used.
Roadway Excavation (Solid Rock). When included in the Bid Schedule, the volume of the
solid rock (Vr.) excavation shall be measured in its original position and computed by the average
and area method.
Roadway Excavation (Waste). The volume of waste excavation of both suitable and
unsuitable materials to be paid for shall be computed as follows:

a) The total volume of excavation (vt) shall be measured in place and computed by
the average and area method.
b) The volume of unsuitable material (Vv) shall be measured in place and computed
by the average end area method.
c) The volume of surplus suitable (Vs) shall be equal to the total volume of
excavation (Vt), minus the total volume of fill (Vf), minus the volume of
unsuitable excavation (Vv), minus the rock volume (Vr).
Vs = Vt - Vf - Vv - Vr
If the volume of the surplus suitable materials (Vs) thus computed is less than Zero, then
the value shall be considered as zero.

d) The volume of waste excavation (Vv) to be paid for shall be the volume of surplus
suitable material (Vs), plus the volume of unsuitable material (Vv).
Vv = Vs + Vv (Vs 0)
No shrinkage factor shall be applied in computing the quantities for payment under this
item.
102.4. Basis of Payment
The volume, measured as provided above, shall be paid for at the contract unit price per
cubic meter for ROADWAY AND DRAINAGE EXCAVATION (WASTE) AND ROADWAY
AND DRAINAGE EXCAVATION (ROCK), which payment shall constitute full compensation
for all labor, equipment, tools and incidentals necessary to complete the excavation and disposal of
the materials.
Pay Item No. and Name
(1)

(2)

Unit of Measurement

Roadway and Drainage


Excavation (Waste)

Cubic Meter

Roadway and Drainage


Excavation (Rock)

Cubic Meter

ITEM 104. EMBANKMENT


104.1. Description
This item shall consist of the construction of embankment using acceptable materials from
roadway and drainage excavation, structural excavation and borrow in accordance with these
specifications and in conformity with the lines, grades and dimensions as shown in the plans or as
stated by the Engineer.
104.2. Construction Methods
Preparation of Embankment foundation. After the embankment foundation has been
cleared and grubbed, in accordance with the provisions of, CLEARING AND GRUBBING work,
the top 0.20 meter shall be compacted to 95% of maximum density as determined by ASSHTO
T180 before starting embankment construction.
When, in the opinion of the Engineer, the foundation material is not satisfactory, the
unsuitable material shall be excavated and disposed of and payment for such excavation shall be
made in accordance with, ROADWAY AND DRAINAGE EXCAVATION. The unsuitable
material shall be excavated to the extent and to the depth specified by the Engineer, and the
excavated area shall be backfilled and compacted as hereinafter specified for placing and
compacting embankments.
When embankment are located on slopes of hillsides, the Contractor shall begin by cutting
benches into the existing ground not less than 3 meters in width with vertical and horizontal faces.
The excavated material, if declared suitable by the Engineer, shall be incorporated into the fill.
Borrow Pits
a) Fill material required in addition to that provided by the excavation in the works
shall be obtained from borrow pits. The contractor shall be responsible for the
selection and acquisition of borrow pit areas. All borrow shall be subject to the
approval of the Engineer.
b) The Contractor shall notify the Engineer sufficiently in advance of opening any
borrow area so that the borrow material can be tested before being used.
Sufficient time for testing the borrow material shall be allowed.

c) The Contractor shall provide all accesses, clear and remove vegetation, rock,
boulders, and unsuitable or oversize materials.
The contractor shall provide adequate supervision in every borrow pit to ensure
that approved borrow in every borrow pit to ensure that approved borrow material
is not contaminated with unsuitable materials. All borrow materials shall be
subject to test upon delivery to the job site.
d) Borrow pits shall be excavated to regular widths and shapes and shall be cleaned
upon completion so that the sides are neatly trimmed and the bottom graded to
allow adequate drainage and away from the works.
e) No separate compensation shall be paid to the Contractor for providing the works
as described above, as these shall be considered incidental to the cost of work item
Embankment Borrow.

Compaction Trials. Before commencing the formation of embankment, the contractor


shall submit to the Engineer for approval his written proposals for the compaction of each type of
fill material to be used. The proposals shall include the relationship between the types of
compaction equipment, and the number of passes required and the methods of adjusting moisture
content. The contractor shall carry out full scale compaction trials on areas not less than 6 m wide
and 50 m long as required by the Engineer and using his proposed procedures or such amendments
thereto as may be found necessary, shall satisfy the Engineer that all specified achieved.
Compaction trials with the various types of fill materials to be used shall be completed before
work with the corresponding materials will be allowed to commence.
Throughout the period when compaction of earthwork is in progress the Contractor shall
adhere to the compaction procedures found during compaction trials to be satisfactory for each
type of material being compacted, each type of compaction equipment employed and each degree
of compaction specified.
At the time of compaction, the moisture content of embankment material shall be such that
the specified relative compaction will be obtained. Embankment material which contains
excessive moisture shall be dried by aeration as necessary before compacting to obtain required
density.
Embankments in swamps or on soft foundation material that will not support construction
equipment shall be constructed as specified in the Special Provisions or as directed by the
Engineer. In cases where special instructions are not provided, the lower part of the embankment
may be constructed by dumping successive loads in a uniformly distributed layer of thickness not
greater than that necessary to support the equipment while placing subsequent layers, after which
the remainder of the embankment shall be constructed in layers and compacted as specified.
Placing Rock Fill. Rock fill shall be constructed in layers not to exceed 0.75 meter. Large
rocks shall be reduced in size until it can be readily incorporated into the 0.75meter layer.
Sufficient spalls, fines and/or granular materials shall be incorporated with the coarse rock to fill
the interstices to provide a dense mass. Individual rocks not greater than 1.2 meters in the longest
dimension may be placed in the fill if carefully positioned.
The lifts of rock fill shall not be constructed above an elevation 0.75 meter below the
finished subgrade. Only common fill material and selected borrow subgrade when specified shall
be used in the top layers of the embankment.
Compaction of Fills. Roadway embankment of earth material shall be placed in horizontal
layers not exceeding 0.20 meter. Each layer of material shall be compacted uniformly by the use
of adequate and appropriate compaction equipment and in accordance with the procedures
established in Compaction Trials.

Common fill shall be compacted to 90% of maximum density as determined by AASHTO


Designation T-180, except that the top 0.15 meter of the embankment shall be prepared as
specified under SUBGRADE contract. In-place density shall be determined in accordance with
AASHTO T-191.
Rock fill shall be systematically compacted in a longitudinal direction by approved heavy
compaction equipment until there is no visible movement of the fill under the equipment.
104.3. Method of Measurement
The quantity of embankment to be paid for shall be measured in cubic meters compacted
in place and accepted, formed of materials arising from any source.

104.4. Basis of Payment


The accepted quantities measured as provided above shall be paid for at the contract unit
price per cubic meter of EMBANKMENT.
Payment shall constitute full compensation for
excavating all materials used to form the embankment, all hauling, placing, watering, rolling, labor,
equipment, tools and incidentals necessary to complete the item. NO PAYMENT FOR
OVERHAUL OF MATERIALS .
Pay Item No. and Name

Unit of Measurement

(1) Embankment from Roadway


and Drainage Excavation
(Common)

Cubic Meter

(2) Embankment from Borrow

Cubic Meter

(3) Embankment from Roadway


and Drainage Excavation (Rock)

Cubic Meter

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ITEM 105. SUBGRADE PREPARATION


105.1. Description
This item shall consist of the preparation of the subgrade for the support of overlying
structural layers. It shall extend to full width of the roadway. Unless authorized by the Engineer,
subgrade preparation shall not be done unless the Contractor is able to start immediately the
construction of the pavement structure.
105.2. Materials
Unless otherwise stated in the contract and except when the sub-grade is in rock cut, all
materials below sub-grade level to a depth 150 mm or to such greater depth as may be specified
shall meet the requirements of Section 107 2, Selected Borrow Sub-grade.
105.3. Construction Methods
Prior Works. Prior to commencing preparation of the sub-grade, all culverts, cross drains,
ducts and the like (including their fully compacted backfill) ditches, drains and drainage outlets
shall be completed. Any work in the preparation of the sub-grade shall not be started unless prior
work herein described shall have been approved by the Engineer.
Subgrade Level Tolerances
The finished compacted surface of the subgrade shall conform to the allowable tolerances
as specified hereunder:
Permitted variation from
design LEVEL OF SURFACE
Permitted SURFACE IRREGULARITY
Measured by 3-m STRAIGHT EDGE

+ 20 mm
- 30 mm

30 mm

Permitted variation from design


CROSSFALL OR CAMBER

+ 0.5%

Permitted variation from design


LONGITUDINAL GRADE over 25 m length

+ 0.1%

Subgrade in Common Excavation. Unless otherwise specified, all unsuitable materials


below subgrade level in earth cuts to a depth 150mm or other depth shown on the plans or as
directed by the Engineer shall be excavated. The materials shall be disposed off in accordance with
the requirements of the works of surplus common excavation.
Where materials has been removed from below subgrade level, the resulting surface shall
be compacted to a depth of 150 mm and in accordance with the other requirements of
Embankment works.
All materials immediately below sub-grade level in earth cuts to a depth of 150 mm, or to
such greater depth as may be specified, shall be compacted in accordance with the requirements of
Embankment works.

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Subgrade in Rock Excavation. Surface irregularities under the subgrade level remaining
after trimming of the rock excavation shall be levelled by placing specified material and
compacted to the requirements of Embankment works.
Subgrade on Embankment. After the embankment has been completed, the full width
shall be conditioned by removing any soft or other unstable material that will not compact properly.
The resulting areas and all other low sections, holes, or depressions shall be brought to grade with
suitable material. The entire roadbed shall then be shaped and compacted to the requirements of
Embankment work Scarifying, blading, dragging, rolling, or other methods of wok shall be
performed or used as necessary to provide a thoroughly compacted roadbed shaped to the crosssection shown on the Plans.
Subgrade on Existing Pavement.
Where the new pavement is to be constructed
immediately over an existing Portland Cement concrete pavement and if so specified in the
Contract the slab shall be broken into pieces with greatest dimension of not more than 500 mm and
the existing pavement material compacted as specified in subsection 109-2.6 as directed by the
Engineer. The resulting subgrade level shall, as part of pavement tolerances this work by placing
and compacting where necessary a levelling course comprising the material of the pavement
course to be placed immediately above.
Where the new pavement is to be constructed immediately over an existing asphalt
concrete pavement or gravel surfaced pavement and if so specified in the contract the pavement
shall be scarified, thoroughly loosened, reshaped and recompacted in accordance with subsection
109-2.6. The resulting subgrade level shall conform to the allowable tolerance of Subsection 1123.2.
Protection of Completed work. The Contractor shall be required to protect and maintain
at his own expense the entire work within the limits of his Contract in good condition satisfactory
to the Engineer from the time he first started work until all work shall have been first started work
until all work shall have been completed. Maintenance shall include repairing and recompacting
ruts, ridges, soft sports and deteriorated sections of the sudgrade caused by the traffic of the
sections of the subgrade caused by the traffic of the contractors vehicle/equipment or that of the
public.
Templates and Straight-edges. The Contractor shall provide for use of the Engineer,
approved templates and straight-edges in sufficient number to check the accuracy of the work, as
provided in this Specification.

105.4. Method of Measurement


Measurement of Items for payment shall be provided only for:
a) The compaction of existing ground below subgrade level in cuts of common
material as specified in this work.
b) The breaking up or scarifying, loosening, reshaping and recompacting of existing
pavement as specified in this work. The quantity to be paid for shall be the area of
the work specified to be carried out and accepted by the Engineer.
Payment for all work for the preparation of the subgrade, including shaping to the required
levels and tolerances, other than as specified above shall be deemed to be included in the Pay Item
for Embankment or Pay Item Selected Borrow Sub-grade whichever is applicable.

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105.5. Basis of Payment


The accepted quantities, measured as prescribed in this work shall be paid for at the
appropriate contract unit price for Pay Item listed below that is included in the Bill of quantities
which price and payment shall be full compensation for the placing or removal and disposal of all
materials including all labor, equipment, tools and incidentals necessary to complete the work
prescribed in this Item.

Payment will be made under:


Payment Item No. and Name

Unit of Measurement

(1) Subgrade Preparation


(Common Material)

Square Meter

(2) Subgrade Preparation


(Existing Pavement)

Square Meter

(3) Subgrade Preparation


(Unsuitable Material)

Square Meter

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ITEM 200. AGGREGATE SUB-BASE COURSE


200.1. Description
This item shall consist of furnishing, placing and compacting an aggregate sub-base course
on a prepared sub--grade in accordance with this Specifications and the lines, grades and cross
sections shown on the plans, or as directed by the Engineer.
200.2. Materials
Aggregate for sub-base shall consist of hard, durable particles or fragments of crushed
stones, crushed slag, or crushed or natural gravel and filler of natural or crushed sand or other
finely divided mineral matter. The composite material shall be free from vegetable matter and
lumps or balls of clay, and shall be of such nature that it can be compacted readily to form a firm
stable subbase. The sub-base material shall conform the following requirements:
200.2.1. Grading Requirements
Sieve Designation
Standard
Mm
50
25
9.5
0.075

Alternate
US Standard
2
1
3/8
No. 200

Mass Percent Passing

100
55-85
40-75
0-12

The fraction passing the 0.075 mm (No. 200) sieve shall not be greater than 0.66 (two
thirds) of the fraction passing the 0.425 (No. 40) sieve.
The coarse portion, retained on a 2.00 mm (No. 10) sieve shall have a mass percent of
wear not exceeding 50 by the Los Angeles Abrasion Test as determined by AASTHO T96.
In addition, that portion of the material passing the 0.425 mm sieve shall have a liquid
limit not exceeding 35 and a plasticity index not exceeding 12 as determined by AASGTO T89
and T90, respectively. Moreover, the type of grading to be used shall be in accordance with the
plans or as directed by the Engineer.

The material shall have soaked CBR value or not less than 25% as determined by
AASHTO T-193. The CBR value shall be obtained at the maximum dry density as determined by
AASHTO T-180, method D.
200.3. CONSTRUCTION METHOD
Preparation of Existing Surface. Immediately before sub-base material is place, the subgrade shall be finished or refinished as provided under the construction of Embankment and
subgrade.
Placing. The aggregate sub-base material shall be placed as a uniform mixture on a
prepared sub-grade in a quantity which will provide the required compaction thickness. When
more than one layer is required, each layer shall be shaped and compacted before the succeeding
layer is placed.

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The placing of materials shall begin at the point designated by the Engineer. Placing shall
be from vehicles especially equipped to distribute the material in a continuous uniform layer or
windrow. The layer or windrow shall be of such size that when spread and compacted the finished
layer be in reasonably close conformity to the nominal thickness shown on the Plans.
When hauling is done over previously placed material, hauling equipment shall be
dispersed uniformly over the entire surface of the previously constructed layer, to minimize rutting
or uneven compaction.
Spreading and Compacting. When uniformly mixed, the mixture shall be spread to the
plan thickness, for compaction.
Where the required thickness is 150 mm or less, the material may be spread and
compacted in one layer. When the required thickness is more than 150 mm, the aggregate subbase shall be spread and compacted in two or more layers of approximately equal thickness, and
the maximum compacted thickness of any one layer shall not exceed 150 mm. All subsequent
layers shall be spread and compacted in a similar manner.
The moisture content of sub-base material shall, if necessary, be adjusted prior to
compaction by watering with approved sprinklers mounted on trucks or by drying out, as required
in order to obtain the required compaction.
Immediately following final spreading and smoothening, each layer shall be compacted to
the full width by means of approved compaction equipment. Rolling shall progress gradually from
the sides to the center, parallel to the centerline of the road, and shall continue until the whole
surface has been rolled. Any irregularities or depressions that develop shall be corrected by
loosening the material at these places and adding or removing material until the surface is smooth
and uniform. Along curbs, headers, and walls, and at all places not accessible to the roller, the
sub-base material shall be compacted thoroughly with approved tampers or compactors.
If the layer of sub-base material, or part thereof, does not conform to the required finish,
the contractor shall, at his own expense, make the necessary corrections.
Compaction of each layer shall continue until a field density of at least 100 percent of the
maximum dry density determined in accordance with AASHTO T180. Method D has been
achieved. In-place density determination shall be made in accordance with AASHTO T191.
Trial Sections. Before sub-base construction has started, the Contractor shall spread and
compact trial sections as directed by the Engineer. The purpose of the trial sections is to check the
suitability of the materials and the efficiency of the equipment and construction method is
proposed to be used by the contractor. Therefore, the contractor must use the same material,
equipment and procedures that he proposes to use for the main work. One trial section of about
500 square meter shall be made for every type of material and/or construction
equipment/procedure proposed for use.

After final compaction of each trial section, the contractor shall carry out such field
density tests and other tests required as directed by the Engineer.
If a trial section shows that the proposed materials, equipment or procedures in the
Engineers opinion are not suitable for sub-base, the material shall be removed at the contractor
expense, and a new trial section shall be constructed.
If the basic condition regarding the type of material or procedure change during the
execution of the work, new trail sections shall be constructed.

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Tolerance.
Aggregate sub-base shall be spread with equipment that will provide a
uniform layer which when compacted will conform to the designed level and transverse slopes as
shown on the plans. The allowable tolerance shall be as specified hereunder:
Permitted variation from design
THICKNESS OF LAYER

20 mm

Permitted variation from design


LEVEL OF SURFACE

+ 10 mm
- 20 mm

Permitted SURFACE IRREGULARITY


MEASURED by 3-m straight-edge

20 mm

Permitted variation from design


CROSSFALL OR CAMBER

+ 0.3%

Permitted variation from design


LONGITUDINAL GRADE over 25 m length

+ 0.1%

200.4. Method of Measurement


Aggregate sub-base should be measure in cubic meter. The quantity to be paid for shall be
the design volume compacted in place as shown on the plans and accepted in the completed course.
No allowance will be given for materials placed outside the design limits shown on the crosssections. Trial sections shall not be measured separately but shall be included in the quantity of
sub-base herein measured.
200.5. Basis of Payment
The accepted quantities measured as provided above shall be paid for at the contract unit
price per cubic meter of AGGREGATE SUB BASE including filler material, which price and
payment shall constitute full compensation for furnishing all materials, hauling, placing, watering,
rolling, labor, equipment, tools and incidentals necessary to complete the item.
Pay Item No. and Name
a.) Aggregate Sub-Base Course

Unit of Measurement
Cubic Meter

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ITEM 201. AGGREGATE BASE COURSE


201.1. Description
This item shall consist of furnishing, placing and compacting a base course composed of
natural gravel/crushed stone and filler materials, constructed on a prepared roadbed in one or more
layers, in accordance with these specifications and in conformity with the lines, grades and typical
cross-sections shown on the drawings.
201.2. Materials
Materials for aggregate base course shall consist of hard, durable fragments of stone or
gravel and filler of sand or binder which meets the quality requirements. The composite material
shall be free from vegetable matter and lumps of clay and be uniformly graded to conform with the
requirements given in Table 201-1 and 201-2 for the grading specified in the Bid Schedule.
That portion of the material retained on a 4.75 mm sieve shall be known as coarse
aggregate, and that portion passing a 4.75 mm sieve shall be known as filler.
TABLE 201-2 Requirements for Grading (Natural Gravel)
Sieve Designation
Standard
Alternate
mm
US Standard
50
37.5
25.0
19.0
12.5
4.75
0.425
0.075

2
1
1

No. 4
No. 40
No. 200

Mass Percent Passing


Grading A
Grading B

100
60-85
35-65
20-50
5-20
0.12

100
60-85
30-55
8-25
2-14

TABLE 201-2 Grading Requirements (Crushed Aggregates)

Sieve Designation
Standard
Alternate
mm
US Standard
37.5
25
19
12.5
4.75
0.425
0.075

1
1

No. 4
No. 40
No. 200

Mass Percent Passing


Grading A
Grading B

100
60-85
30-55
8-25
2-14

100
60-90
35-65
10-30
5-15

For all grading, the percentage passing the 0.075mm sieve shall not be greater than 2/3 the
percentage passing the 0.425mm sieve.

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The coarse aggregate shall have a percentage of wear not exceeding 50 at 500 revolutions
as determined by AASHTO Method T-96.
The portion of the filler passing the 0.425mm sieve, including any blended filler, shall have liquid
limit of not more than 25 and a plasticity index of not more than 6 as determined by AASHTO
Method T-89 and T-90, respectively.
The material passing the 19mm (3/4 inch) sieve shall have a soaked CBR value of not less
than 80% as determined by AASHTO T-193. The CBR value shall be obtained at the maximum
dry density (MDD) as determined by AASHTO T180 Method D.
If crushed gravel or crushed stone aggregate base is specified in the Bid Schedule, not less
than sixty percent (60%) by weight of the coarse aggregate particles shall have at least one (1)
fractured face.
201.3 Construction Methods
Preparation of Roadbed - Before any base course material is being placed, the roadbed
shall be prepared and finished as provided for under Item 112 Sub-grade and other applicable
items of these Specifications.
Placing and Spreading - The base course shall be spread on the prepared surface in layers
of uniform thickness, mixed and compacted as herein specified. The compacted thickness, of any
individual layer shall not be greater than 0.15 meter. Spreading shall be by approved equipment
capable of distributing the material without segregation.
Mixing - After the base material has been deposit as described above, water should be
added. If required using approved watering equipment. The base material shall be thoroughly
mixed to the full depth of the layer by means of a self-propelled blade grader, pulvi-mixer or other
equipment approved by the Engineer. When uniformly mixed, the material shall be spread and
fine graded and compacted to the cross-section shown on the drawings.
Additional Filler - Additional filler, when required and when not added at the screening
plant, shall be spread in a uniform layer over the loosely spread base material as specified by the
Engineer, and then watered and mixed as described above.
Trial Sections - At least ten (10) days before the construction has started the Contractor
shall spread and compact trail sections as directed by the Engineer. The object of the trial sections
is to check the suitability of the materials and the efficiency of the equipment and construction
methods proposed by the Contractor. Therefore, the contractor shall use only the materials,
equipment and procedures which he has proposed for the work. One trial section of approximately
500 square meters shall be made for every type of material and/or construction equipment and
procedure proposed for use.

If a trial section shows that the proposed material, equipment or procedures in the
Engineers opinion are not suitable, the material shall be removed at the contractors expense, and
a new trial section shall be constructed.
If the basic conditions regarding type of materials, equipment or procedures change during
the executive of the work, new trial sections should be constructed when directed by the Engineer.
Tolerances - The aggregate base course shall be lain to the designed level and transverse
slopes shown on the Plans. The allowable tolerances shall be in accordance with the following:

18

Permitted variation from design


THICKNESS OF LAYER
Permitted variation from design
LEVEL OF SURFACE
Permitted SURFACEIRREGULARITY
Measured by 3-m straight-edge

+ 10 mm
+ 5 mm
- 10 mm

5 mm

Permitted variation from design


CROSSFALL or CAMBER

+ 0.2%

Permitted variation from design


LONGITUDINAL GRADE
Over 25 m length

+ 0.1%

Compacting - Immediately after fine grading, the base material shall be compacted to the
full width, using adequate and appropriate compaction equipment and in accordance with the
procedures established under 200-3.5, Trial Sections.
Rolling shall continue until the actual density of the layer being compacted reaches 100%
of the maximum dry density as determined by AASHTO T180, Method D. In-place density shall
be determined in accordance with AASHTO T191.
Surface Finishing - If irregularities in the surface, or parts thereof, exceed 5 mm in depth
when measured with a 3 meter long straightedge; required grade and cross-section, water and
recompact to produce a smooth surface free of cracks or loose materials.
201.4. Method of Measurement
Aggregate base course would be measure by the cubic meter (m 3). The quantity to be
paid for shall be the design volume compacted in place as shown in the plans, and accepted in the
completed base course. No allowance shall be given for materials placed outside of the design
limits shown on the cross-sections. Trial sections shall not be measured separately but shall be
included in the quantity of aggregate base course.
201.5. Basis of Payment
The volume of AGGREGATE BASE COURSE material determined as provided above
shall be paid for at the contract unit price per cubic meter which price and payment shall constitute
full compensation for furnishing, transporting and placing the material; for mixing and blading, for
all rolling and watering; and for reconditioning of subgrade, shoulders and gutters.

Pay Item No. and Name


(1) Aggregate Base Course
(Crushed)
(2) Aggregate Base Course
(Uncrushed)

Unit of Measurement
Cubic Meter (cu.m.)

Cubic Meter (cu.m.)

19

ITEM 311. PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE PAVEMENT


311.1. Description
This item shall consist of a pavement of portland cement concrete, with or without
reinforcements, constructed or a prepared base in accordance with the specifications and in
conformity with the lines, grades, thickness and typical cross section shown in the plan.
311.2. Materials
Portland Cement The type of cement to be use shall be Portland Cement Type 1
( ASTM C150 ). Different brand of cement shall not be use nor other types of cement unless the
design mix is approved. Partially set cement or which contains lump of cement cake shall be
rejected. Cement salvaged from discarded or used bags shall not be used. Sample testing shall be
in accordance with ASSTHO T 1217.
Fine Aggregates It shall consist of natural sand, stone screening, having hard, strong and
durable particles, and must be taken from approved source by DPWH. Fine aggregates from
different sources shall not be mixed at storage or stockpile area. Beach sand shall not be allowed.
This shall be free from injurious effect of organic impurities. It shall be well graded from course
to fine and shall conform to the following table:
311.2.1. Grading Requirements for Fine Aggregates
Sieve Designation
9.5 mm (3/8 in)
4.75 mm ( No.4)
1.18 mm (No.16
0.300 mm (No.5)
0.150 mm (No.100)

Mass Percent Passing


100
95 - 100
45 80
5 30
0 10

Course Aggregate It shall consist of crushed stone, gravel, blast furnace slag or other
approved materials of similar characteristics; having hard, strong, durable pieces and free from any
adjacent coatings, and must be taken from approved source by DPWH. It shall have a mass
percent of wear not exceeding forty (40) percent when tested by ASSHTO T96. When subjected to
five (5) cycles of the sodium sulfate soundness test, the weighted loss shall not exceed twelve (12)
mass percent.

311.2. 2 Grading Requirement for Course Aggregates


Sieve Designation

Mass Percent Passing

Standard
Alternate
Grading
Grading
Grading
mm
U.S. Standard
A
B
C
75
3 in.
100
63
2 in.
90 100
100
100
50
2 in.
90 100
95 - 100
37.5
1 in.
25 60
35 70
25
1 in.
0 15
35 70
19
in.
0 10
12.5
in.
0- 5
0- 5
10 - 30
4.75
No. 4
Water Water to be used shall be clean and free from oil, acid alkali, grass or other
substances impervious to the finish product. Potable water maybe used without tests.

20

Reinforcing Steels Reinforcing steel dowel to be used shall conform to the requirements
of ASSHTO M 31 or M 42. During its use, dowels shall be free from rust, oil, or grease coatings.
Joint Fillers Poured joint fillers shall be mixed asphalt and mineral or filler conforming
to the applicable requirement of joint filler materials.
All materials shall be stored in proper places. Cement shall be stored on a weather proof
building which will protect the cement from dampness. Floor shall be raised to the ground. Fine
aggregates and course aggregates shall be stored and or stockpiled separately to avoid
contamination from injurious substances. Steel bars shall be stored properly to keep them away
from rust.

311.2.3. Proportioning of Concrete


Prior to any concrete works, the contractor shall prepare in the presence of PRIE the trial
mix for type of concrete mix needed in the sub-project. This trial mix shall be in accordance to the
proposed concrete design mix submitted by the contractor. In order not to delay further the work,
the contractor at the presence of PRIE will allowed to crushed one concrete cylinder sample at the
7th day from the time it was casted for the said concrete the trial mix. The requirement shall be
that the test at the 7th day crushing must not fall below 75% of the required compressive stress. If
the test samples fails to meet the required compressive stress for the 7th day, then the two samples
shall be tested at the required period of 28 days. If it fails again, then the contractor must
undertake another set of trial mix until the results of test samples will be satisfactory. During this
stage, determination of quantity of water to have a good consistency of concrete shall be made in
order to get a slump from 75mm to 100mm. The desired strength of concrete at 28th day,
compressive strength test shall be 3,500 psi.
311.3. Construction Requirements
Prior to any concrete paving activities, the Provincial Rural Infra Engineer (PRIE) or the
Project Site Inspectors shall undertake the following:
1.) Check whether the sub-base or base have been tested have pass the required Field
Density Test (FDT);
2.) Availability of Water Supply;

3.) Working condition of working equipment such as: portable concrete mixer, transit
mixer including its accessories;
4.) Number and types of hand tools and finishing tools;
5.) Provision of curing;
6.) Size and organization of crew to place, finish and cure concrete;
7.) Check if the forms are air tight before the pouring;
8.) Levels, alignment and elevation;
9.) Result of the trial mix.

21

311.3.1. Mixing Concrete


The concrete maybe mixed at the site in a central mix plant or in truck mixers. The mixer
shall be of an approved type and capacity. Mixing time will be measured from the time all
materials, except water are in drum.
When mixed at the site or in a central mixing plant, the mixing time shall not be less than
fifty (50) seconds or more than ninety (90) seconds.
Four seconds shall be added to the specified mixing time if timing starts the instant the
skip reaches its maximum raised position. Mixing time ends when the discharge chute opens.
Transfer time in multiple drum mixers is included in mixing time. The contents of an individual
mixer drum shall be removed before a succeeding batch is emptied therein.
The mixer shall be operated at the drum speed as shown on the manufacturers nameplate
attached on the mixer. Any concrete mixed less than the specified time shall be discarded and
disposed off by the contractor at his expense. The volume of concrete mix per batch shall not
exceed the mixers nominal capacity in cubic meter, as shown on the manufacturers standard
rating plate on the mixer, except that an overload up to ten (10) percent above the mixers nominal
capacity permitted provided concrete test data strength, segregation, and uniform consistency are
satisfactory, and provide no spillage of concrete take place.
Mixed concrete from the central mixing plant shall be transported in truck mixers, truck
agitators, or non-agitating trucks. The time elapsed from the time water is added to the mix until
the concrete is deposited in place at the site of the work shall not exceed forty five (45) minutes
when the concrete is hauled in non-agitating trucks, nor ninety (90) minutes when hauled in truck
mixers or truck agitators.
Retampering concrete by adding water or by other means shall not be permitted, except
that when concrete is delivered in truck mixers, additional water may be added to the batch
material and additional mixing be performed to increase the slump test to meet the specified
requirements, if permitted by the Engineer, provided all these operations are performed within
forty five (45) minutes after the initial operation and water-cement ratio is not exceeded.
311.3.2. Limitation of Mixing
No concrete shall be mixed, placed or finished when natural light is insufficient.

No manual mixing will be allowed. One-bagger mixer is the minimum requirements.


Water-cement ratio must be properly observed. Approximately 16 ot 20 liters per bag of
cement mixture.
Concrete not in place within ninety (90) minutes from the time the ingredients were
charged into the mixing drum or that has develop initial set shall not be used. Retampering of
concrete or mortar, which has partially hardened, that is remixing with or without cement,
aggregate and water shall not be permitted.
311.3.3. Placing Concrete
Concrete shall be deposited upon the subgrade evenly and in a manner that requires a
minimum of rehandling and redistribution. Unless truck mixers or non-agitating hauling
equipment are equipped with means to discharged concrete without segregation of the materials,
the concrete shall be unloaded into an approved spreading device and mechanically spread on the

22

grade in such a manner as to prevent segregation. Placing shall be continuous between transverse
joints without the use of intermediate bulkheads. Necessary hand spreading shall be done with
shovels.

311.3.4. Finishing
The finishing of the surface is perhaps the most important step in pavement construction.
The riding public is entitled to expect a smooth-riding, skid resistant surface. Properly constructed
joints, uniform texture of final finish and freedom from irregularities are all important in obtaining
good riding qualities.
Finishing at Joints The concrete adjacent to joints shall be compacted or firmly placed
without voids or segregation against the joint material, also under and around all load-transfer
transfer devices, joint assembly units, and other features designed to extend into the pavement.
311.3.5. Machine Finishing
a.) Non-Vibratory Method The concrete shall be distributed or spread as soon as placed,
then it shall be struck off and screeded by an approved finishing machine. The machine shall go
over each area of pavement as many times and at such intervals as necessary to give proper
compaction and leave surface of uniform texture. Excessive operation over a given area shall be
provided. The tops of the forms shall be kept clean so that the machine may ride directly on them
without wobbling or other variation tending to affect the precision finish.
During the first pass of the finishing machine, a uniform ridge of concrete shall be
maintained ahead of the front screed in its entire length. Workmen should not track dust or mud
into it, nor should the sub-grade or base materials be sprinkled in such a way that dust is thrown on
the exposed edge of the slab. Footprints made in the concrete after it has been struck off are dug
out with a shovel and the depression thus formed is filled with concrete.
Whenever the mixer is shut down for more than thirty (30) minutes a construction joint
should be installed. If this is not done, a sloping plane of weakness will be left which may push up
when the concrete expands or cause a crack as the slab contracts. When the mixer is stopped for a
shorter period the new and old concrete should be thoroughly mixed with the spreader or sliced
together with shovels to make sure that no cleavage plane is left.
Concrete shall be deposited as near as possible to the expansion and construction joints
without disturbing them, but shall not be dumped from the discharged bucket or hopper into a joint
assembly unless the hopper is well centered on the joint assembly.

b.) Vibratory Method Concrete should be vibrated since such method permits the
satisfactory placing of denser and stronger mixes than possible by hand tamping. Vibrators should
not be used to move concrete laterally and should not be inserted and withdrawn vertically at close
intervals. A systematic pattern of vibration should be used to insure that all concrete have been
adequately consolidated.
Vibration shall be of sufficient duration to provide through compaction, but not prolonged
so as to cause segregation.
Vibrators shall operate at a frequency of 8,300 to 9,600 impulses per minute under load at
a maximum spacing of 60 cm.
Floating After the concrete has been struck off and consolidated, it shall be further
smoothed by means of a longitudinal float, either by hand or mechanical method.

23

a.) Hand Method A manually operated longitudinal float should be used. It may be
made of a plank not less than 265 cm in length and 15 cm in width, properly stiffened to prevent
flexibility and warping. Two men who stand on bridges spanning the pavement handle this
longitudinal float. It is laid on the pavement at one edge and pulled toward the other edge with a
wiping motion, leveling transverse ridges and other high spots and filling depressions. The
longitudinal float is an efficient tool for getting a smooth-riding surface because it eliminates the
transverse ridges sometimes left by screeds.
b.) Mechanical Method The mechanical longitudinal float shall be of a design approved
by the Engineer, and shall be in good working condition. The float is operated transversely across
the pavement with its longitudinal axis approximately parallel to the centerline and it shall pass at
least two times over each area of the pavement, but excessive operation over a given area will not
be permitted. Any excess water or soupy materials shall be waste over the side forms on each pass.
Straight-Edge Testing and Surface Correction Following longitudinal floating, the
surface is scrapped to remove small ridges left by the transverse finisher or longitudinal float, but
while the concrete is still plastic, the surface of the concrete shall be tested for real with 300 cm
long straight-edge. The straightedge shall be held in contact with the surface in successive
positions parallel to the road centerline and the whole area gone over from one side of the slab to
the other as necessary. Straightedge testing and surface corrections shall be continued until the
entire surface is found to be free from observable departures from the straightedge and the slab
conforms to the required grade and cross-section.
Final Finish If the surface texture is broom finish, it shall be applied when the water
sheen has practically disappeared. The broom shall be drawn from the center to the edge of the
pavement with adjacent strokes slightly overlapping. The brooming operation should be so
executed that the corrugation produced in the surface shall be uniform in appearance and shall not
be more than 1.5 mm in depth. Brooms shall be of the quality, size and construction and be
operated so as to produce a surface finish meeting the approval of the Engineer.
If the surface texture is belt finish, when straight-edge is complete and water sheen has
practically disappeared and just before the concrete becomes non-plastic, the surface shall be
betted with a 2-ply canvass belt not less than 20 cm wide and at least 100 cm longer than the
pavement width. The object of belting is the even distribution of the surface mortar and the
production of a granular, gritty surface that provides uniform fraction.
a.) Edging - After the final finish, but before the concrete has taken its initial set, the
edges of the pavement along each side of each slab, transverse expansion joints, formed joints,
transverse construction joints, shall be worked with an approved tool and rounded to the radius
required in the plan.

At all joint, any tool marks appearing on the slab adjacent to the joints shall be eliminate
by brooming the surface. In doing this, the rounding of the corner of the slab shall not be
disturbed.
At all joints, care must be taken to prevent the newly finished surface overhanging the
body of the adjacent slab.
Surface Test As soon as the concrete pavement has hardened sufficiently, the surface
shall be test with a 3-m straight edge or any specified device. Any area showing high spot greater
than 3 mm but not exceeding 12 mm in 3-m shall be marked and immediately ground down with
an approved grinding tool to an elevation where the area will not surface deviation in excess of 3
mm. Where the departure from correct cross-section exceeds 12 mm, the pavement shall be
removed and replaced by and at the expense of the Contractor.

24

Any area or sections on the pavement so removed shall not less than 1.5 m in length and
not less than the full width of the lane involved.
Curing - Curing is the treatment or protection given concrete during the hardening period.
Proper curing consists of keeping the concrete moist and warm to insure adequate hydration of the
cement and to protect the concrete against early shrinkage due to the loss of moisture or abrupt
changes in temperature. Strength lost due to lack of warmth or moisture during the first few days
cannot be regained by subsequent curing. Pavement, which has been properly cured, has higher
strength and better durability than the poorly cured pavement.
Removal of Forms Forms for concrete shall remain in place undisturbed for not less than
twenty-four (24) hours after concrete pouring. Crowbars should be used in the removal of forms
by pulling out nails and pins. Care should be taken so as not to break edges nor disturb the
pavement. Major honeycombed area will be considered as defective work and shall be removed
and replaced at the expense of the Contractor. Any area or section so removed shall not be less
than the distance between weakened plane joint nor less than the full width of the lane involved.
Sealing Joints After the concrete has hardened and sufficiently and before the pavement
is opened to traffic, all joints must be filled with sealing materials. Immediately before sealing the
joints, they should be cleaned in such a manner those all-loose and foreign materials, including
membrane curing compound is removed.
The pouring should be done in such a manner that the materials would not be spilled on
the exposed surfaces of the concrete. The sealing materials shall be applied to each joint opening
to conform to the details shown on the plans or as directed by the Engineer.
Seals should be install by suitable tools, without elongation and secured in place with an
approved lubricant adhesive that shall cover both sides of the concrete joints.
Protection of Pavement The Contractor should protect the pavement and its
appurtenances against both public traffic and traffic caused by its own employees and agent by
designating watchmen to direct traffic and the erection of warning signs, lights, pavement bridges
or cross-over.
Any damage to the pavement occurring prior to final acceptance shall be replaced or the
pavement is replaced.

311.3.6. Acceptance of Concrete


The strength of concrete shall be considered satisfactory if the average of all sets of all
three (3) consecutive strength results equal or exceeds to the specified strength fc and no
individual strength test results shall be deficient by more than 15% of the specified fc.
The concrete core taken, it will be considered adequate if the average strength of the cores
is equal to at least 85% of and if no single core is less than 75% of the specified strength fc.
311.3.7. Adjusted Price due Strength Deficiencies
Percent less

Percent (%) of Contract

5 to less than 10
10 to less than 15
Beyond 15 %

95%
70%
Replacement

25

311.3.8. Thickness Tolerances


The allowable thickness tolerance for concrete pavement shall be +5mm on cases when
thickness deficiencies will be beyond + 10mm, the pavement which have this type of thickness be
remove and replace by the contractor at his own expenses.
311.5. Basis of Payment
Under this work item, the contractor shall be paid in square meter of payment placed and
accepted in the completed pavement. Length measurement shall be done longitudinally and
horizontally.
Payment Item No. And Name

Unit of Measurement

Portland Cement Concrete Pavement

Square Meter (sq.m.)

26

ITEM 500. PIPE CULVERTS AND STORM DRAINS


500.1. Description
This item shall consist of the construction or reconstruction of pipe culverts and storm
drains in accordance to the plan and in conformity with lines and grades.
500.2. Materials
Under this project; the materials that is required for the work shall be reinforced concrete
culvert storm drain and sewer pipe AASHTO T 170. Mortar to be use in this work shall consist of
one (1) part by volume of Portland cement and two parts of approved sand with water necessary to
obtain the required consistency. Mortar shall be used within 30 minutes after its preparation.
Backfilling materials to be use shall be in conformity with materials used in the roadway.
500.3. Construction Methods
Trenches for pipe culverts shall be excavated the depth and width as specified in the plan.
Once the desired dimension of trench has been attained; the base shall be compacted by the use of
plate compactor until it has attained a compaction density of 95.00%. Once prepared the bedding
materials as approved shall be spread and compacted to a compaction density of 95.00%.
If the plan calls for concrete bedding materials, then the concrete mix to be used shall be
those that will attain 2,500 psi when tested at 28 days compressive test. Laying of RC pipes shall
start the downstream section of the stream or conduit progressing upstream. Outsides joints shall
be covered with mortar grout at least 75 mm thick and 120 m wide. Inside joints of the conduits
shall likewise be provided with mortar grout all around. Continuation of backfilling at the sides of
the pipes shall commence when the mortar has attained the strength sufficient enough not to crack.
Materials to be used in backfilling shall be the same as that of the adjacent. Backfilling procedures
at the top section of the conduit/RC pipes shall conform to the corresponding type of work for the
roadway.
500.4. Basis of Payment

Under the item the work completed shall be paid per Line Meter including excavation,
bedding construction backfilling and other incidental works needed to complete the project.
Payment Item No. and Name

Unit of Measurement

(1) Pipe Culverts, _____mm.


(2) Storm Drain, ______mm.

Linear Meter (ln.m.)


Linear Meter (ln.m.)

27

ITEM 505. RIPRAP AND GROUTED RIPRAP


505.1. Description
This item shall consist of the furnishing and placing of riprap with or without grout as the
case maybe, furnished and constructed in accordance to lines, grades and dimensions shown on the
plans.
505.2. Materials
Stones for riprap shall consist of rock as nearly rectangular in section as is practical. The
stones shall be sound, tough, durable, dense, resistant to the action of air and water and suitable in
all respects for the purpose intended.
Stones to be used in the project shall be Class A and Class B stone shall be used as
foundation, while class A stone shall be used on work above foundation.
When filler materials are required and are shown on the plane: riprap shall be placed to
prevent fine embankment materials to be washout.
Mortar for grouting riprap shall consist of sand, cement and water conforming to structural
concrete requirements. This shall be mixed in a proportion one part of cement to three (3) parts of
sand by volume and water sufficient to produce a thick but fluid mortar.
505.3. Construction Methods
Excavation: Bed of riprap shall be excavated to the required depths and properly
compacted trimmed and shaped. The bed shall be below the scoured depth or as shown on the plan.
Placing: Placing of stones shall be done manually. Stone place underwater shall be
distributed early. Laying and placing of stones shall be closed and shall be finally bedded into the
slope and against the stones. Spaces between the stones shall then be filled with cement, mortar.
Sufficient mortar shall be used to completely fill the voids except that the faces of the stones shall
be left exposed. Grout shall be placed from the bottom to top of the surface swift with stiff broom.
Curving of grouted riprap shall for a period of three (3) days.

505.4. Basis of Payment


Basis of payment under this item shall be in cubic meter including form works temporary
bracing and other incidental items relative to the work.
Payment Item No. And Name

Unit of Measurement

(1) Riprap, Class A


(2) Riprap, Class B
(3) Riprap, Class C
(4) Riprap, Class D
(5) Grouted Riprap, Class A

Cubic Meter (cu.m.)


Cubic Meter (cu.m.)
Cubic Meter (cu.m.)
Cubic Meter (cu.m.)
Cubic Meter (cu.m)

28

ITEM 506. STONE MASONRY


506.1. Description
This item shall consist of stone masonry in minor structures in headwalls for culverts and
retaining walls as the case maybe.
506.2. Materials
Stone: Stones to be used under this work shall be clean, hard and durable. Adobe stones,
limestone and other similar stones shall be used. All stones to be used shall not be less than 150
mm in diameter. This shall be dressed to removed any of this or weak portions and provide bed
and joint lines to ensure a form bedding.
Mortar: Cement fine aggregates and water shall conform to the requirements of materials
for structural concrete. Mortar for masonry shall composed of one (1) part of portland cement and
two (2) parts of fine aggregates by volume and sufficient water to make the mortar of such
consistency that it can handle easily and spread with towel. Mortar that is not used within 90
minutes after water has been added shall be discarded. Retempering of mortar shall not be
permitted.
506.3. Construction Methods
Foundation are which the stone will be placed shall be excavated and trimmed in
accordance to the plan. Before placing of the stones; this shall cleared thoroughly and wetted
immediately. All stones shall be place in one (1) row at the same elevation. Once in place, the
stones shall be moisture prior to spreading of mortar. All joints shall be placed with mortar. In
succeeding layers, all stone shall be place and handle so as not to jar or displaced all stones already
set. Joints in stones may vary from 20 mm to 50 mm in thickness. Face stones shall be at least 150
mm. longitudinally and 50 mm vertically. At no place shall corners of four (4) stones be adjacent
to each other. Backing shall be built chiefly of large stones and shall be constructed in workman
like manner. All openings shall be filled completely with mortar or with spalls surrounded
completely by mortar. Constructive at the top sections of structure shall be made of stones that will
cover the entire width of the wall. It shall have a minimum concrete coping of 150 mm. Weep
holes as called for in the plans shall be provided with a 2 diameter PVC pipe.

506.4. Basis of Payment


Payment for this item shall be in cubic meter constructed/built. This includes all incidental
works and materials needed in the work.
Payment Item No. And Name
Stone Masonry

Unit of Measurement
Cubic Meter (cu.m.)

29

UNDERDRAIN (RCPC WITH __________)


Description
General. The work shall consist of the construction of culverts and drainage pipes
accordance with the lines, grades and dimensions on the drawings or as ordered by the Engineer.
The work shall includes excavation and backfill for the pipe, the bedding, the furnishing
and laying of the pipe, the construction of such joints and connection to other pipes, or other
structures as may be required to complete the work as shown on the drawings or as required by the
Engineer.
The work shall also include the removal and disposal of unsuitable material below grade in
the excavation and the refilling of the excavation to grade with selected materials.
The work shall also include the removal and disposal of existing culverts, pipes and
headwalls as shown on the drawings or as directed by the Engineer.
Unless otherwise permitted by the Engineer, the Contractor shall not order and deliver the
pipes for any work until the Engineer has approved correct list of sizes and lengths.
Materials
Materials and Manufacture. The pipe shall meet the requirements of Reinforced Concrete
Culvert Pipe, AASHTO Designation M.-170.
Construction Methods
Excavation. A trench shall be excavated to the depth and grade required with due
allowance for chamfer. The bottom of the trench shall be shaped to fit the pipe for at least 10
percent of the depth of the pipe. The width of the trench shall not be greater than necessary to
permit adequate compaction of the backfill materials under and around the pipe. The bedding shall
provide a firm foundation of uniform density for the entire length of the culvert.
Where rock or soft materials is encountered below grade in the excavation, the rock or soft
materials shall be removed to the specified by the Engineer and replaced with fine, granular
materials, compacted to 95% of maximum density as determined by AASHTO T- 180.

Methods of Measurement
Pipe in place includes bedding and accepted shall be measured by the meter along the axis
of the pipe.
Basis of Payment
Concrete Pipe. Pipe of several sizes, may be specified which prices and payment shall
constitute full compensation for furnishing or manufacturing; for hauling and installing the pipes;
for jointing and joint materials; for excavating and backfilling; and for all materials, labor,
equipment, tools and indicating necessary to complete the item.
The removal and disposal or cleaning of existing culverts as specified shall not be
measured for payment but shall be deemed to be included in the price for the construction of new
pipe culverts as provided herein.

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Payment Item No. And Name

Unit of Measurement

Reinforced Concrete Pipe


Culverts, diameter

Line Meter (ln.m.)

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SPILLWAY STRUCTURE
Description
This item of works shall consist of cut of walls, concrete base, R.C. Pipes spaced in
accordance to the plans, top slabs and protection works for bridge approaches. Riverbank
protection and spur dikes maybe provided, however, this maybe optional. Works on this shall be in
accordance with these specifications and to the approved plans.
Material Requirements
Portland Cement - Portland Cement to be use shall be Type I. Cement samples shall be
obtain in accordance to AASHTO T 1217. Different brand of Cement aside from previously tested
shall not be used. Cement which has already set or which contains lumps of caked cement will be
rejected. Likewise, cement salvage from discarded or used bags shall not be used.
Fine Aggregates - Fine aggregates shall consist of natural sand, stone screening or other
inert materials with similar with strong and durable characteristic. It shall be washed and clean and
shall have the same grading requirement as that of the work item.
Portland Cement Concrete Pavement - Beach sand not is allowed. Likewise, sand which
contain clay and silt in greater volume shall be repeated.
Course Aggregates - Course aggregate shall consist of crashed stones, river ran gravel or
other approved inert materials of similar characteristics. Grading requirement for course
aggregates shall be the same as in the Portland Cement Concrete Pavement grading C.
A) Boulders - Boulder to be used as base in the bottom slab shall be durable strong and
clean. It shall have a maximum of 2.00 m. and not smaller than 1.00 mm. in aggregate
size.
B) Reinforcing Steel - Reinforcing steel bars to be used shall be Grade 40, with a
minimum yield of fy=40,000 psi. All bars to be used shall be free rest and oils.
Previously used bars shall not be used. All bars to be bent shall be done in cold bent.
C) Concrete Mix - Concrete mix to be used in this work shall be of Class A with a
minimum compressive strength of 3,000 psi. Prior to its use, design concrete mix shall
be made including its trial mix. No concrete mix shall be use unless satisfactory
laboratory tests have been concluded.

D) Reinforced Concrete Pipes - Reinforced Concrete Pipes to be use shall be in


accordance to the size, (alienator, thickness and length).
When taken from commercial source, test certificate shall be required including a
certification from the dealer of RCP that the pipe has been previously tested.
However, one RC Pipes shall be crushed at the project site at the expense of the
Contractor to determine the type and size of steel reinforcement used.
Construction Methods
Controls - All vertical and horizontal controls shall be relocated and re-established by the
Contractor with the assistance from LGU or from the service provider hired for the sub-projects.

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The Contractor shall attempt to undertake excavation work unless the correct alignment
and elevation has been done by the Contractor in relocating vertical and horizontal control, shall be
at his own risks.
A) Excavation Works - All excavation works intended for the prosecution of the works
shall be in accordance to the approved plans. Excavation works shall be true to lines,
grades and elevation as indicated in the approved plan and or as directed by the Project
Engineer.
Any over excavation done by the Contractor shall not be paid by the project.
Instead, the Contractor shall restore all unnecessary excavated works back to its
original position at his own expense.
In the event, the work calls for the provision of forms and other devices to provide
a concrete, such additional items is deemed included in other items of work and shall
no paid under this item.
B) Reinforcing Steel Works - Cutting and bending of steel bars shall be in accordance to
the approved plans. No reinforcing steel bars shall be used unless it has satisfactorily
passed the required test on bending and tensile.
The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer the required Bar Bending Schedule
before any cutting or bending shall be started. This bar bending schedule shall be the
basis of payment to the Contractor.
Steel Bars placed shall be properly fastened by Gauge # 15 tie wire. Spot welding
in lieu of tie wire fastening are not allowed as this tends to brittle the steel bars. No
concrete pouring shall be made by the Contractor unless, steel work has been
inspected by the Project Engineer and all intersections between bars have been
fastened.
C) Concrete Works - All concrete works can only be started once the design mix has been
submitted and the trial mix has been successful at the 7 days compressive test results.
No concrete works shall be done if forms are not properly anchored, fastened and
braced. In order to have the uniform concrete cover concrete blocks of approved
dimension shall be use as spacer between the forms and the steel bars.
All concrete works shall be of Class A with a minimum compressive strength of
3,000 Psi. For filler on the boulder voids Lean Concrete shall be use, with a minimum
compressive strength of 2,400 Psi. Batching, placing, conveying, finishing and curing
of concrete mix shall be in accordance to the works as indicated the Structural
Concrete and the Portland Cement Concrete Pavement works.

D) Quality of Concrete Works - No concrete shall be deemed acceptable if no satisfactory


compressive test result have been made.
In cases where the Contractor fails to take concrete cylinder samples by his own
negligence then such structure shall not be paid.
All concrete works or section thereof which fail to acclaim the required strength
after the regimenting period of 28 days, shall be reflected and shall not be paid.
Otherwise, the Contractor shall removed and replaced sections of the work that failed.
Reduction of payment under this project is not acceptable.

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E) Reinforced Concrete Pipes - All reinforced concrete pipes to be installed shall be free
from cracks and surface imperfections especially the inside surface of the pipes.
Distances in the installation of RC pipes shall be in accordance to the approved
plans. Tongue and grove of each pipe shall match with each other and no
misalignment shall be allowed. Strings and other means shall be use to cluck the
alignment of pipes. To temporary hold the pipes in its position, concrete block shall be
used.
Once the pipes are firmly set, concrete pouring shall be done in between the pipes.
The concrete mix to be use shall be Class A with a minimum compressive strength
of 3,000 Psi. Concrete pouring shall be done simultaneous in between each pipe to
avoid unnecessary movement of pipes. Wood stopper shall be at ends of row pipes to
hold freshly poured concrete mix. Concrete pouring shall be done until it reaches the
desired elevation above the R.C. Pipes.
During concrete pouring operations workers shall not be allowed to walk over the
rows of installed R.C. Pipes in order to prevent unnecessary movement.
F) ITEM 201- Item 201 shall be use as conclusion between the concrete covering of R.C.
Pipes and the top slab the spillway.
The purpose of item 201 material is to act as conclusion that will reduce the
impact to be carried by R.C. Pipes.
Works on this section shall be in accordance to the requirement of item 201 under
this project.
No payment shall be made to the Contractor unless the necessary Field Density
Test (FDT) has been complied with satisfactorily.
G) Portland Cement Concrete Paving - Prior to any concrete pouring works for the top
slab of the structure, works under item 201 has been complied with in accordance to
the specifications.
Likewise, all steel reinforcement needed such temperature bars and main bars are
in placed secured and properly fastened with each other.

All concrete works under this Item shall be in accordance to the work as describe
in the herein scope for Portland Cement Concrete Paving.
Methods of Measurement
Reinforced Concrete Pipes Culverts (RCPC) shall be paid per linear meter installed
correspondingly with its physical test as describe herein.
Concrete Works shall be paid including other subsidiary works such as form works,
provision of concrete blocks and other items need to complete the execution of the works. Payment
shall be in cubic meter poured with is corresponding satisfactory test results. Classes of Concrete
shall be paid separately.
Reinforcing Steel Works payment for steel works shall be on the basis of the actual
quantity of Reinforcing steel placed by the Contractor. No allowance will be made to tie wires,
separators, wire chains and other materials for fastening reinforcing steel in place. If the Contractor
insist to provide more steel bars in describe in the plan, such excess bars shall not be paid.

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Likewise, no measurement or payment will be made for splices added by the Contractor
for his convenience. Under this item of works the Contractor shall be paid in kilograms.
Item 201 the Contractor shall be paid in cubic meters. This includes the cost of finishing
the materials, labor and equipment use in the work. Payment to the works done shall only be made
upon the satisfactory test results.
Excavation Works Payment of all excavation works shall be in cubic meters excavated in
accordance to the approved plans and specification. Allowance for form works and working shall
not be paid.
Basis of Payment
Description of Work
1. Concrete Class A
2. Lean Concrete
3. Reinforcing Steel
4. R.C. Pipes Installed
5. Item 201
6. Excavation Works

Measurements
Cu.m.
Cu.m.
Kgs.
Lin. Meter
Cu.m.
Cu.m.

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