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Task 3.

3 Tackling Societal Challenges: Interim Report
Sophie Tang and Odette Paramor
唐思乐 & 安宁
The University of Nottingham Ningbo China
中国宁波诺丁汉大学
May 2014
2014 年 5 月

DragonSTAR: Task 3.3 Tackling Societal Challenges

Preface
The work presented in this report is on-going and should be considered a work-in-progress.
Two approaches are being used to achieve Task 3.3 which required DragonSTAR to,
‘Assess the scientific state of the art in China and European in two specific topics of societal importance and study a
number of potential synergies. The status of cooperation will be studied as well as very specific challenges (under the
two areas) that need to be further addressed through joint research strategies’.
The first approach uses two case studies in areas of societal importance (water security and urban agriculture) to
identify areas for potential Sino-European collaboration in the future. These topics were selected because there is
high-level interest in further collaboration (e.g. EU-China Joint Declaration on Urbanisation 2012 and the ongoing
China-EU Dialogue on Agriculture and Rural Development) or because funded examples of Sino-European research
collaboration exist (e.g. FP7 SPRING, EuropeAid EU-China River Basin Management Programme). Also, they are both
topics of global significance and limiting factors in China’s economic and social development.
At this stage of the project, the approach used was to identify the main drivers of research in these areas in China,
the main funding agencies, the types of research currently funded and the areas which likely to be funded in the
future. Whilst most reviews of Chinese research focus on work which is published in the international literature, the
vast majority of research funded in China is not well represented in this forum. DragonSTAR has instead tried to
focus attention on the projects which have received funding and then searched for research outputs. Due to the
complexities of the Chinese funding systems, much of this information is highly fragmented, difficult to obtain and
presented in highly technical language which is often difficult to translate into English. It is also worth noting that the
information gathered for this report is that which has been considered suitable for public release. There will be
considerable information withheld from public scrutiny, particularly from international scrutiny, for reasons of
confidentiality and concerns about how the information will be used.
The second approach involves interviewing Chinese and European scientists who have first-hand experience of
conducting EU-China research for their recommendations on how best to develop links and deliver research with
China or Europe based researchers, the challenges they have faced, as well as their experience and views of the
more technical aspects of project management and coordination. The interviews for the pilot study have been
completed but are yet to be analysed so the results are not presented here. The full interview campaign will begin in
the summer of 2014. Researchers working in the two case study areas described above will be targeted
preferentially.
Both approaches will be combined to identify specific topics for future collaboration with guidelines on best practice
on how to support and deliver research in these areas from the view point of the researchers.

Odette Paramor and Sophie Tang
Ningbo, P.R. China
May 2014

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DragonSTAR: Task 3.3 Tackling Societal Challenges

Index
Preface
Index
1.
1.1
1.2

2.
2.1
2.2

2.3

3
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4

3.5

4.
5.

Background ...............................................................................................................................................
Availability of Information .......................................................................................................................
Idiosyncrasies of the Chinese Funding System .........................................................................................
1.2.1 Guanxi (关系) .......... .......................................................................................................................
1.2.2 ‘Standing on the Shoulders of Giants’ ............................................................................................
1.2.3 Risk .................................................................................................................................................
1.2.4 Rivalries between Funders ……………………………………………………………………………………………………......
1.2.5 ‘Jiangke Fei’ (讲课费) .....................................................................................................................
Water Security ..........................................................................................................................................
Introduction ..............................................................................................................................................
Chinese Water Policies .............................................................................................................................
2.2.1 12th Five Year Plan ................ ........................................................................................................
2.2.2 2011 No.1 Document on ‘Accelerating Water Conservancy Reform and Development’................
Funding Programmes ...............................................................................................................................
2.3.1 Chinese Funding Schemes ......................................................... ..................................................
2.3.1.1 Major Science and Technology Programme for Water Pollution Control (Water Programme)...
2.3.1.2 National Natural Science Foundation of China (NNSFC) ..............................................................
2.3.2 International collaboration ………………………………………………………………………………………………........
2.3.2.1 EU-China …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….......
2.3.2.2 China – EU Member State Cooperation ……………………………………………………………………………........
Urban Agriculture .....................................................................................................................................
Introduction ..............................................................................................................................................
Chinese Food Security Policies .................................................................................................................
Urban Agriculture ....................................................................................................................................
Chinese Policies on Urban Agriculture ....................................................................................................
3.4.1 Chinese Government Incentives for Urban Agriculture ...............................................................
3.4.2 Chinese Public Research Funding Schemes .................................................................................
Urban Agriculture Research Foci in China ................................................................................................
3.5.1 Urban Agriculture Key Laboratories .............................................................................................
3.5.1.1 Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture (South) Ministry of Agriculture (KLUAS) ............................
3.5.2 NSFC-Funded Urban Agriculture Projects .................... ...............................................................
3.5.3 Chinese Urban Agriculture Experts ..............................................................................................
3.5.4 Case studies promoted by the 2014 No.1 Document ..................................................................
3.5.5 Commercial Investment in Urban Agriculture ..............................................................................
3.5.5.1 IEDA and Vertical Farming .............................................................................................................
3.5.6 RUAF and Chinese Demonstrator Cities ..........................................................................................
Acknowledgements ..................................................................................................................................
Reference ...................................................................................................................................................
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DragonSTAR: Task 3.3 Tackling Societal Challenges

1.

Background

1.1

Availability of Information

China’s investment in science and technology is advancing at a prodigious rate [1], yet there is a growing anxiety
amongst its political and scientific leaders that despite these investments the domestic innovation system is still
underperforming [2-4]. There have been several excellent recent reviews of the Chinese research system which
provide possible reasons for this limited impact and which identify several areas of the system which are in urgent
need of reform to address this issue [2, 4, 5]. Two of the main issues relate to the high level of fragmentation in the
funding system and its lack of transparency. These issues were also encountered in the preparation of this report
when trying to collect information on research being conducted in China and are worth describing as they impact
international understanding and knowledge of Chinese research and innovation and will affect any attempts to
identify research areas of mutual interest.

A highly fragmented funding system

Researchers can apply for funding from several sources as most ministries and funding organisations have
overlapping research remits. For instance, projects to support one of the 16 national ‘Major Science and Technology
Programmes’ (also called ‘Mega-Engineering Projects’) on ‘Water Pollution Control’ may be eligible for funding from
the Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP), the Ministry of Water Resources (MWR) and the Ministry of Science
and Technology (MoST) who all have overlapping responsibilities for research in this area. To complicate things
further, most ministries also operate a hierarchical funding structure with the same pattern of grants available at the
different levels (e.g. applications for ‘Key Labs’ can be made at the municipal, provincial and national levels under
the general remit of MoST but administered by MoST bureaux operating at the different levels), often with no clear
lines of communication between the different ministries or between the different levels of a ministry1. Overlying this
structure are other funding organisations, such as the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC), who
may also fund research of relevance to this programme. Identifying where to start looking for information on specific
research disciplines is in itself a difficult task.
Commercial Chinese companies are now also investing in research and development and there have been several
significant investments in universities and research institutions both domestically and internationally in recent years
[6, 7]. Sources of information on these types of research funding are particularly fragmented but do tend to be
advertised.

1

It has been widely reported that this complicated system with its lack of clear lines of communication between and within
ministries has led to an exploitation of the system with identical research proposals being submitted to, and funded by, multiple
agencies.

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DragonSTAR: Task 3.3 Tackling Societal Challenges

A lack of transparency & information about funded research

Information on the research funded by the different ministries and funding organisations, such as the NSFC, is not
published widely and is not usually available on their websites. The reasons for this are likely to be complex, but
include concerns about confidentiality and how the information will be used and interpreted, particularly by
foreigners. During the compilation of the case studies for this report, only limited information on funded projects
had been considered suitable for public release on the internet and none of it had been translated into English or
other languages thereby excluding this intelligence from the vast majority of international researchers who may also
be working in these areas.
The general lack of transparency in how research funding has been used has been widely reported in the Chinese
and international media as there have been several high profile investigations into the misappropriation of research
funds [8]. There are claims that only around 40% of Chinese research funding has actually been used for scientific
research.
International scientific databases such as Scopus and Web of Knowledge further exacerbate the problem of
identifying research conducted by specific Chinese researchers as their software does not recognise Chinese
characters. This forces Chinese researchers to translate their names into pinyin and/or adopt more Anglicised
versions of their names2 [9]. Estimates by the Chinese Ministry of Public Security suggest that more than 1.1 billion
people (approximately 85% of China’s population) use only 129 surnames. This low diversity in names is reduced
further with pinyin, as the same pinyin name can be used to represent several different names in Chinese
characters3. This makes it extremely difficult to search for publications associated with a Chinese project using
standard international scientific tools even if one knows the name and institution of a project’s PI which are the
types of information most likely to be released by funding agencies4. These databases are now assigning unique
identifier codes to researchers but these are not well used for the moment and there is still considerable confusion.

2

Pinyin uses the Latin alphabet to represent phonetic sounds in Chinese and is used in place of Chinese characters (e.g. ‘爱玲’ is
translated into ‘Ai Ling’ in pinyin. In this case, it is common to convert ‘Ai Ling’ into ‘Aileen’ or ‘Eileen’ in English). The situation
can be complicated even further as some characters can have multiple spellings in pinyin (e.g. ‘乐’ can be spelled as ‘Le’, or ‘Yue’
in pinyin and researchers may not be consistent in their use of pinyin name).
3

For instance, the pinyin name ‘Wu’ can be used to represent five different Chinese names ( 吴,武,伍,巫,邬), ‘Yu’ may
represent five names (余,俞,玉,于,喻), ‘ Qiu’ may represent four names (邱,丘,裘,仇) and so on.
4

A Scopus search returned 3016 documents in 28 different fields of research when asked to find work published by a researcher
named Wang, Y. at Chongqing University. This is not unusual.

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DragonSTAR: Task 3.3 Tackling Societal Challenges

1.2

Idiosyncrasies of the Chinese Funding System

The idiosyncrasies of the Chinese funding system are also worth noting as there are significant cultural differences
between the EU and China systems (the observations made here are the personal observations of the authors and
do not reflect the views of their institution or funders). These primarily relate to:
1.2.1

Guanxi (关系)

The concept of ‘guanxi’ in China cannot easily be explained in English, but essentially it relates to a special type of
mutualistic relationship in which individuals support and promote each other to other individuals or organisations,
forming a network which permeates through both the professional and personal aspects of their lives. Many guanxi
relationships are made during the training stages of a researcher’s life at school and university but they may also be
made later in life based on individuals have the same ‘hometown’ or some other shared commons (including
extended families). Whilst the social status of individuals in a guanxi relationship may differ, it is expected that the
relationship will be balanced in terms of the reciprocal benefits each receives in the longer term.
The influence of guanxi on research in China cannot be underestimated, particularly at municipal and provincial
levels. From the personal experiences of the authors, and from anecdotal evidence of Chinese researcher colleagues,
significant amounts of research funding are allocated privately in this way. Without guanxi (whether an individual’s
own or via one of their guanxi benefactors), it can be extremely difficult for a researcher to receive funding or even
be able to network and meet new collaborators within China. Both of these activities require that researchers are
introduced to funders and potential collaborators via guanxi relationships. In this area, social events are a
particularly important tool to help build and reinforce new links. Significant grant applications require months if not
years of preparation and relationships with the key contacts are usually first developed in a social arena.
From the perspective of funding agencies, guanxi is seen as a positive phenomenon as it means that funders can
support and work with researchers who have been personally recommended to them by trusted associates. Unlike in
Europe where individual researchers are assessed using more clinical measures requiring documented proof of their
credibility and an assessment by evaluators who may not know them, the Chinese system relies instead on a more
personal approach which many in China consider to be more efficient and reliable.
Whilst foreign researchers are not expected to understand the finer aspects of guanxi, they are usually expected to
understand the general concept if they intend to work in China, and will need to consider what they have to offer
potential guanxi contacts to balance any assistance or hospitality they may receive. It is considered extremely
disrespectful not to reciprocate if one has benefited from a guanxi relationship.

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DragonSTAR: Task 3.3 Tackling Societal Challenges

1.2.2

‘Standing on the shoulders of giants’

Applying for Chinese grants requires that the researcher is both humble and respectful towards senior Chinese
researchers in the field. Not only must the supporting text of a proposal be balanced between research conducted in
China and internationally, but the proposers must also cite and acknowledge the contribution made by those senior
scientists who are likely to be reviewing their applications (for this reason, the list of evaluators are supplied in this
report where possible). Proposals which fail to emphasise any one of these three aspects are unlikely to be properly
reviewed and are unlikely to succeed.
Also, promotion of an applicant’s own work in a proposal is not considered to be a demonstration of their
competence and credibility in an area, but is instead perceived as boastful and uncouth. Again, this will damage a
proposal’s chances of success.
1.2.3

Risk

Whilst some funding agencies such as the NSFC are reforming their approach to risk, most Chinese funders are highly
risk averse. Proposals must contain clear unambiguous descriptions of their intended outcomes supported by
detailed descriptions of how those outcomes will be achieved. The level of detail required in a Chinese application is
significantly higher than that demanded by EU grant applications. Researchers must be confident that the project
outcomes can delivered before work has even started as failure will affect the success of future grant applications
and hinder the careers of the researchers involved.
Funders also try to reduce risk by focussing most of their resources on the more experienced researchers. Eligibility
for most grants is determined by whether a researcher has a track history of successful grant management. For
instance, the NSFC will only accept applications for its International Cooperation Programme from NSFC grant
holders who have successfully delivered at least one smaller project. Although exceptions have been made for a few
very senior international researchers, most international researchers working in China will need to prove themselves
capable of delivering smaller Chinese grants before they will be eligible to apply for the larger grants even if they
have substantial international research experience.
1.2.4

Rivalries between Funders

Many Chinese ministries operated a hierarchical funding structure at national, provincial and municipal (city) levels
with the same pattern of funding supported at each level. For instance international cooperation grants may be
available from a single ministry at national, provincial and municipal levels and administered independently at each
level. It has been reported that this structure can lead to rivalries between funders at the different levels
(particularly provincial and municipal levels) and within levels (e.g. between different cities in a province or between
provinces). For instance, it is generally considered more difficult for researchers in the wealthy city of Ningbo to
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DragonSTAR: Task 3.3 Tackling Societal Challenges

obtain grants from the Zhejiang province-level funders than from their municipal-level funders. The general
perception for this is that Zhejiang-level funders would prefer to prioritise research in the province’s capital city of
Hangzhou which hosts Zhejiang University (one of the top five universities in China) or other less wealthy cities in the
province than send money to Ningbo whose municipal-level schemes can afford to support the research of its own
universities. Again, the issue of guanxi may also play a role here. National-level funding schemes are generally
considered to be the most ‘fair’ (e.g. NSFC).
1.2.5

‘Jiangke Fei’ (讲课费)

‘Jiangke fei’ is a cash payment made to senior researchers to attend Chinese-organised workshops and conferences.
These honoraria are usually given to key note speakers but also any senior delegates who may attend (in addition to
their travel and subsistence costs). For some academics, this is an important supplement to their income as Chinese
universities pay relatively low salaries compared to other professional groups. Current rates are between 500 –
2000RMB a day for a senior researcher but can be in excess of 5000RMB for a distinguished guest speaker.
‘Jiangke fei’ are mentioned here as they are essential for hosting workshops in China and it is extremely difficult to
claim these types of expenses from international funding sources as there is no clear audit trail.

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DragonSTAR: Task 3.3 Tackling Societal Challenges

2.

Water Security

2.1

Introduction

Water is essential for life and may be considered a limiting factor in China’s economic and social development. As a
country, China suffers from a severe shortage of water as a result of both its climate5 and demographics, but these
shortages are being further exacerbated by significant levels of water pollution in many parts of the country and the
long-term effects of a fragmented and ineffective water governance system. China’s per capita availability of
renewable water is around 28% of the world average, but water consumption per unit of GDP is three times the
world average because of water intensive industrial structure, outdated technologies, low reuse rate and
wastefulness [10]. The Chinese Ministry of Water Resources has reported that two thirds of China’s 669 cities are
suffering from water shortages, with 110 classified as ‘severe’ [11].
In terms of demographics, much of China’s population, agricultural land and industry is located towards the north,
whilst the majority of its water is located in the south and there are extreme disparities in the water resources
available per capita across the country (Figure 1 and Table 1). For instance, the Huang, Huai and Hai Rivers and their
catchment areas (see Figure 2 for their location) support 34% of China’s population but contain only 7.5% of its
freshwater resources (Table 2). This area is also responsible for the delivery of 34% of the country’s food production
whose productivity is strongly affected by water availability so there are also important implications for the country’s
food security [12]. By contrast, the south of the country supports 53% of the total population but contains 80.9% of
the nation’s water (Table 2).
Water is used primarily for agricultural, industrial and for domestic purposes and demands for increased water
resources are increasing across all three areas (Table 3). The proportions of water used for these purposes are
changing too as a result of increased economic development, urbanisation and population size (Table 3). Agricultural
demands claim the highest proportion6, but overall demand from industry has doubled from 10% in 1983 to 23% in
2006 [11] and there is a growing demand from the increasing urban

5 The temporal dynamics of China’s water resources are determined by precipitation and approximately 98% of China’s surface waters are
recharged in this way [5].
6 Roughly, the production of one tonne of crop requires 1000 litres of water so there are major water resources issues if China demands
increased domestic food security.

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DragonSTAR: Task 3.3 Tackling Societal Challenges

Figure 1. Per capita availability of water by province in 1998 [13]
population with the installation of indoor plumbing, showers and flush toilets in their accommodation [14]. The
increased demand for energy across these three sectors also has implications for water security as water is essential
for the generation of the majority of China’s electricity acting as a coolant in power plants, generating energy
through hydroelectricity stations, in addition to the requirements for the manufacture and construction of
equipment for power generation [15]. It has been suggested that up to 97% of China’s electricity generation is
dependent upon water [16].

Table 1. Measures of water scarcity [17]
Water availability,
m3 per capita per year
< 1700
< 1000
< 500

Consequences
Disruptive water shortages can occur frequently
Severe water shortages can occur threatening food production and
economic development
Absolute water scarcity

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DragonSTAR: Task 3.3 Tackling Societal Challenges

Table 2. Spatial distribution of China’s water resources and per capita availability [17]

Region
North (total)
Song-Liao
Hai-Luan
Huai
Yellow
Northwest
South (total)
Yangtze
Pearl
South Eastern
South Western
Total

Mean annual renewable water resources,
billions m3 (%)
Surface water Ground water Total

Population,
Millions (%)

450.7 (16.6)
165.3 (6.1)
28.8 (1.1)
74.1 (2.7)
66.1 (2.4)
116.4 (4.3)
2260.8 (83.4)
951.3 (35.1)
468.5 (17.3)
255.7 (9.4)
585.3 (21.6)
2711.5 (100)

592.4 (45.2)
119.6 (9.1)
133.9 (10.2)
198.8 (15.2)
110.6 (8.4)
29.5 (2.3)
694.7 (53.0)
428.3 (32.7)
171.0 (13.0)
74.5 (5.7)
20.9 (1.6)
1311.1 (100)

255.1 (30.8)
62.5 (7.5)
26.5 (3.2)
39.3 (4.7)
40.6 (4.9)
86.2 (10.4)
591.7 (69.3)
246.4 (29.7)
111.6 (13.5)
61.3 (7.4)
154.4 (18.6)
828.8 (100)

535.8 (19.1)
192.8 (6.9)
42.1 (1.5)
96.1 (3.4)
74.4 (2.6)
130.4 (4.6)
2276.6 (80.9)
961.3 (34.2)
470.8 (16.7)
259.2 (9.2)
583.3 (20.8)
2812.4 (100)

Annual per
capita water
resources,
m3
904.1
1621.1
314.4
483.4
672.4
4417.2
3276.6
2244.7
2753.3
3481.3
28064.7
2145.1

Liao River (辽河)
Hai River (海河)
Yellow River
(Huang He/ 黄河)
Huai River (淮河)
Yangtze River
(Chiang Jiang/ 长江)

Pearl River (珠江)

Figure 2. The location of China’s main rivers and main tributaries [18]

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DragonSTAR: Task 3.3 Tackling Societal Challenges
Table 3. Projections of water demand in the North China Plain provinces (millions m 3 and (%)) between 1998 –
2020 [13]
Province

Year
1998

Beijing

2010
2020
1998

Tianjin

2010
2020
1998

Hebei

2010
2020
1998

Shandong

2010
2020
1998

Henan

2010
2020

2.2

Urban and
rural
1224.00
(30.24)
1509.66
(33.47)
1780.31
(36.35)
485.00
(22.53)
655.34
(27.07)
815.96
(30.54)
2173.00
(9.60)
3195.61
(14.05)
4176.02
(18.00)
2445.00
(11.96)
3760.14
(17.14)
5028.64
(20.83)
2789.00
(11.76)
4234.89
(16.35)
5618.07
(20.41)

Industry

Agriculture

1084.00
(26.79)
1366.93
(30.31)
1565.61
(31.97)
619.00
(28.75)
780.57
(32.24)
894.02
(33.79)
2700.00
(11.93)
3404.73
(20.46)
3899.59
(22.44)
4342.00
(15.83)
5475.30
(18.85)
6271.12
(19.78)
3693.00
(16.03)
4656.91
(19.20)
5333.77
(21.04)

1739.00
(42.97)
1633.64
(36.22)
1551.16
(31.68)
1049.00
(48.72)
985.44
(40.70)
935.69
(35.37)
17754.00
(78.46)
16678.32
(65.49)
15836.24
(59.56)
18656.00
(72.17)
17525.67
(64.01)
16640.81
(55.68)
16836.00
(72.21)
15815.94
(64.45)
15017.40
(58.55)

Total
water use

Increment

4047.00
4510.23

463.23

4897.08

850.08

2153.00
2421.35

268.35

2645.66

492.66

22627.00
23278.66

651.66

23911.85

1284.85

25443.00
26761.12

1318.12

27940.57

2497.57

23327.00
24707.75

1380.75

26969.24

2642.24

Chinese Water Policies

The management of water resources in China is a complex process governed by several ministries with overlapping
remits operating at different levels of government (Figure 3). Whilst it has long been recognised that China is facing
a water crisis, reform of its water resource management did not begin until the late 1990s following a period of
extreme water shortages which threatened food security [14, 17]. More recently there have been three policy
documents which have rapidly advanced the reform of water management: the 11 th Five Year Plan (2006 – 2010),
the 12th Five Year Plan (2011-2015) and the 2011 No.1 Document on ‘Accelerating Water Conservancy Reform and
Development 2011-2020’.

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DragonSTAR: Task 3.3 Tackling Societal Challenges

2.2.1

12th Five Year Plan

The 12th Five Year Plan continued the water reforms initiated in the 11th Five Year Plan (see Table 4 for examples of
projects funded) and demanded:
(1)

A reduction in water usage by industry & agriculture

• A 30% reduction in water intensity (water consumed per unit of value-added industrial output).
Unfortunately, this will still lead to an overall increase in water usage from 599 billion m3 in 2010 to 620
billion m3 by 2015 as China continues its economic development.
• Investments in water management and infrastructure to improve irrigation for agriculture.
(2)

Pollution targets

• A 10% reduction in ammonium nitrate and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) from 2007 levels. These
targets were set following the first national census of water pollution in 2010 when it was discovered that
more than 6 million sources of residential, industrial and agricultural pollution were missing from previous
measures of water contamination and that >40% of China’s COD and >55% of its nitrogen discharges come
from agricultural sources. The impact of these target on food production and security is unclear.
• A 15% reduction in heavy metal pollution (specifically lead, mercury, chromium, cadmium and arsenic) by
2015 from 2007 levels.
(3)

Infrastructure

• Accelerate the construction of wastewater treatment and recycling pipes.
(4)

Water quality

• Improve the water quality of rivers and lakes.
(5)

Water fee

• The development of a water fee collection structure at central and local levels to ‘implement the most
stringent water management system’ [16].
The demonstrator areas and projects identified for the 12th Five Year Plan include over 300 technology projects
focussed on improving water quality in several major river basins (namely ‘three rivers7, three lakes8, a stream9, and
a reservoir10’) [19]. These projects include:

The whole process treatment technology of heavy-polluted industrial wastewater (重污染行业废水全过程
治理技术);

7

Three rivers refer to River Huai (淮河), River Hai (海河) and River Liao (辽河).

8

Three lakes refer to Lake Tai (太湖), Lake Chao(巢湖) and Lake Dian (滇池).

9

A stream refers to Stream Songhua (松花江).

10

A reservoir refers to Three Gorges Reservoir (三峡水库).

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DragonSTAR: Task 3.3 Tackling Societal Challenges

The comprehensively harnessing techniques of heavy-polluted river and eutrophic lakes (重污染河流和富营
养化湖泊综合治理技术);

Non-point source pollution control technology (面源污染控制技术);

Water purification technology applicable to different water resources and quality (适用于不同水源水质的
净化技术);

The risk assessment and warning by remote sensing and monitoring of water environment (水环境风险评估
与预警遥感监测);

The development of equipment for monitoring and warning (监控预警设备);

The purification of drinking water to improve quality (饮用水水质净化);

Network leak detection equipment (输配管网检漏设备).

11

DragonSTAR: Task 3.3 Tackling Societal Challenges
Table 4. 11th Five Year Plan: Water Programmes funded by the Major Science and Technology Programme for Water Pollution Control and Treatment
Theme

Project

Watershed Pollution Management and
Eutrophication Comprehensive Control
Technology and Demonstration/ 滇池流域
水污染治理与富营养化综合控制技术及示
范 (2008ZX07102)

Where

What

Who

Beijin and River
Dian in Yunnan
Province

Lake Dianchi is one of the three lakes on Chinese central government' s agenda for
implementing immediate eutrophication and algal bloom control. A six-step
methodology framework on long-term watershed management planning was
proposed in this paper to meet the decision making requirements on eutrophication
control.The framework is based on lake carrying capacity and Total Maximum Daily
Load ( TMDL) and consists of components including eutrophication diagnosis,
investigation and evaluation,TMDL and carrying capacity calculation,planning
tasks designing,adaptive management,and strategic solutions proposal. An
integrated load reduction system was thereby designed to achieve water quality goals
in two planning periods and under four watershed-scale development
scenarios. The strategic solutions were then proposed for eutrophication control in
Lake Dianchi.

College of Environmental Science
and Engineering, Peking University
(PI: Huaicheng Guo 郭怀成), and
the Key Laboratory of Water and
Sediment Sciences Ministry of
Education,Peking University

水专项设置了“湖泊富营养化综合控制技术集成研究”课题,基于湖泊主题各湖泊
研究成果,系统开展湖泊富营养化控制技术分类别、分层次综合集成研究,凝
炼不同类型湖泊富营养化防治的思路,集成湖泊富营养化控制技术体系,构建
集基础数据、集成技术、示范工程、治理案例、管理系统于一体的湖泊流域综
合管理平台,为我国不同类型湖泊富营养化的治理提供支撑。

Xiaozhen Hu (胡小贞) from Chinese
Research Academy of
Environmental Science (中国环境
科学研究院)

Integration Research of Lake Eutrophication
Comprehensive Control Technology (湖泊富
营养化综合控制技术集成研究)
(2009ZX07106-005) with 6 sub-themes.
Lakes

River

The Research and Demonstration of
Environment Comprehensive Management
and Ecological Restoration Technology for
the Arid and Semi - arid Regions (干旱、半
干旱地区湖泊水环境综合治理及生态修复
技术研究与示范)(2009ZX07106-004)
The Conservation of Water Quality and
Quantity and Habitat Improvement
Technology for Typical Water Shortages in
the North (典型北方缺水城市湖泊水质水
量保障与生境改善技术)(2009ZX07106003)
The Water Quality Improvement Aquatic
Vegetation Construction Technology of
Typical Southern Urban Landscape (典型南
方城市景观湖泊水质改善与水生植被构建
技术) (2009ZX07106-002)
The Integrated Technology of Overall
Treatment for Water Environment 河流水
环境综合整治技术集成 (2009ZX07212005)

Hongqiang Hong (任洪强) from the
Chinese Research Academy of
Lakes, Xinjiang (新疆巴音郭楞蒙古
自治州博斯腾湖科学研究所)

Xinjiang
Province

Dongchanghu
City

Research and development of wetland purifying water quality and Optimal Allocation
of Water Replenishment of Water Technology to support water environment
improvement in the North.

Hangzhou City

提出城市景观湖泊生态引布水系统方案,研发生物-生态高效降氮技术,优化构
建了以沉水植物为主的水生植物群落

Qimin Ma (马启敏) from Ocean
University of China (中国海洋大
学)

Zhenbin Wu (吴振斌) from
Institute of Hydrobiology, CAS (中
国科学院水生生物研究所)
Binghu Tian (田秉晖) from the
Research Center for EcoEnvironmental Science, CAS (中国
科学院生态环境研究中心)

Special River

12

DragonSTAR: Task 3.3 Tackling Societal Challenges
The Research and Demonstration of the Key
Technology of Water Pollution Control and
Wetland Ecological Restoration for the
Upper Reaches of Yellow River Irrigation
Area of Farmland (河上游灌区农田退水污
染控制与湿地生态修复关键技术研究与示
范) (2009ZX07212-004)

Monitoring
and Warning

Special River

构建农田退水污染控制综合技术体系,推进灌区农业生产方式转变和水质改善

The Key Technology and Engineering
Demonstration for Water Quality Safety
and Security of Main Canal in the South-toNorth Water Transfer Project (南水北调中
线总干渠水质安全保障关键技术与工程示
范 )(2009ZX07212-003)Four Years

突破南水北调中线总干渠内排段地下水污染风险防控技术,完善中线水质监控
预警技术体系,确保南水北调中线输水水质安全. Key words: 南水北调中线工
程; 总干渠; 水质安全; 南水北调工程; 地下水污染; 生态带; 饮用水源保
护区; 经济社会可持续发展; 安全保障; 全面建设小康社会;

Study on the Framework of Environmental
Technology Verification (ETV) 水污染防治
技术评估验证平台与决策支持平台建设研
究 (2009ZX07529-007)

初步构建我国环境技术验证评估制度体系和技术体系,建立水污染防治技术信
息资源共享中心及辅助决策支持系统,为完善我国环境技术管理体系,推动流
域水污染治理提供支撑

13

Zhengli Yang (杨正礼) from
Institute of Environment and
Sustainable Development in
agirculture, CAAS (中国农科院农业
环境与可持续发展研究所)

Hanhong Chen (陈鸿汉)from
China University of Geosciences in
Beijing (中国地质大学(北
京))
Qianwu Song (宋乾武) Chinese
Research Academy of
Environmental Science (中国环境
科学研究院)

DragonSTAR: Task 3.3 Tackling Societal Challenges

2.2.2

2011 No.1 Document on ‘Accelerating Water Conservancy Reform and Development’

The 2011 No.1 Document on ‘Accelerating Water Conservancy Reform and Development 2011-2020’ is the single
most important piece of water-specific legislation in China. It was introduced to accelerate the reform of water
resource management and achieve sustainable use of water within the decade with a budget of 4000 trillion RMB
(€500 billion) over ten years [10, 20]. This was double the previous budget [21]. A ‘Three Red Lines’ structure was
used to set targets and operationalise the policy [20]. These were:
(1) The Red Line to limit total water use by demand management11, with a target of reducing the total
quantity of water consumed nationwide to below 700 billion m3 by 2030;
(2) The Red Line to achieve higher water use efficiency in industry and agriculture, with targets for attaining
or approaching world advanced levels of water use efficiency in these areas;
(3) The Red Line to improve water quality by reducing pollution loads within Water Functional Zones, with
targets controlling the total quantity of major pollutants discharged into rivers and lakes to within the
pollutant absorption capacity of the water function areas and raising water quality compliance rates in such
areas to higher than 95%.
In order to realise the Three Red Lines, additional shorter-term targets for water resource management were
specified for 2015 and 2020. The priorities for investment for the first phase (2010-2015) were identified as: water
resource security (35% of the investment), flood control and disaster relief (28%), irrigation and farmland
conservation (20%) and water and soil conservation (7%).

11

Demand-driven water resource management ignores the economic nature of water resources and can lead to escalations in
conflict between locally limited water availability and water demand 17.
Jiang, Y., China's water scarcity. Journal of
Environmental Management, 2009. 90(11): p. 3185-3196..

14

DragonSTAR: Task 3.3 Tackling Societal Challenges

Figure 3. Overview of government hierarchy related to the management of water resources [22]

15

DragonSTAR: Task 3.3 Tackling Societal Challenges

2.3

Funding Programmes

Research in the area of water security covers an extremely broad range of issues across multiple disciplines and may
be funded by both the public and private sectors.
2.3.1

Chinese Funding Schemes

In terms of the funding available from the State, all the government ministries presented in Figure 3, in addition to
the Ministry of Science and Technology, support research into on water security. Support is also available from the
more traditional funding bodies such as the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) and the Chinese
Academy of Sciences (CAS) have their own funding schemes too (via CAS, the Chinese Academy of Engineering (CAE),
the Chinese Academy of Space Technology (CAST) and the Chinese Academy of Agriculture (CAAS)).
2.3.1.1 Major Science and Technology Programme for Water Pollution Control (Water Programme)
This section focusses on the funding programmes available through the 12th Five Year Plan ‘Major Science and
Technology Programme for Water Pollution Control’ which is one of the 16 ‘mega-engineering’ projects supported
by the Five Year Plan programme. Funding for this particular programme may be accessed through several ministries
including the Ministry of Environmental Protection and the Ministry of Science and Technology. The funding
programme for the Ministry of Environmental Protection provided the most complete information on their work
programme in this area.
(1) Ministry of Science and Technology
The Water Pollution Control Programme was the largest investment for MoST in water pollution control since 1949
and is worth up to 30 billion RMB [23]. The focus of the MoST involvement is to address key and common
technological issues related to water pollution control and treatment which limit the
The Ministry of Environmental Protection categorised its funding economic and social development of China.
(2) Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP)
for the Major Science and Technology Programme for Water Pollution Control under six themes which were lakes,
rivers, urban, drinking water, monitoring & warning and strategy & policy. These themes were further subcategorised according to specific geographic regions or water sheds.
In 2013, there were four rounds of calls under this programme which were published in May, assessed in June with
successfully funded projects starting in January 2014. Funding came from both central and local sources and was not
usually equally balanced. The list of calls and successful projects are listed in Tables 5, 7, 9 & 11 and Tables 6, 8, 10 &
12 respectively. There was no obvious underlying theme to each of the calls, although the first call had a strong
technology and industrialisation focus to its nine calls and were all supported by budgets over 17 million RMB (Table
5), the second call was dominated by demonstrator schemes (Table 7), the third call was formed of a mixture of 17
16

DragonSTAR: Task 3.3 Tackling Societal Challenges

calls including a couple of relatively small policy schemes (worth 5 million RMB) (Table 9) and the fourth call was
composed of nine large demonstrator schemes (worth between 50 - 105 million RMB each) (Table 11).
MEP published two additional calls in June 2013 on ‘Domestic Water Pollution Control’ (seven calls worth 20-180
million RMB each) (Table 13) and ‘Securing Drinking Water Safety’ (ten calls worth 20-180 million RMB each) (Table
14).
The experts used to evaluate the proposals are listed in Tables 15 & 16. Experts are classified as ‘generalists’ or
‘specialists’ under this scheme.

17

DragonSTAR: Task 3.3 Tackling Societal Challenges

Table 5. First call for the Major Science and Technology Programme for Water Pollution Control (funded by the MEP)
Basin

Liao River

Stream
Songhua

Task Attribute

Programme Name

Technology
Demonstration

The River Catchment Ecological
Supportability Adjustment and
Pollution Reduction Management
Technology Research (流域水生
态承载力调控与污染减排管理
技术研究)

Technology
Demonstration

The Key Technology and Overall
Demonstration of Stream
Songhua Pollution Prevention
and Treatment, and Ecological
Restoration (松花江水污染综合
防治与水生态恢复关键技术及
综合示范)

Huai River

Technology
Demonstration

Chao Lake

Technology
Demonstration

Three
Gorges
Reservoir

Technology
Demonstration

Technology Research and Overall
Demonstration of Water Quality
Improvement and Water
Ecological Restoration in Huai
River Catchment (淮河流域水质
改善与水生态修复技术研究与
综合示范)
Technology and Project
Demonstration of Water
Pollution Control and Heavy
Metal Area Overall Treatment for
Chao Lake (巢湖水污染控制与重
污染区综合治理技术及工程示
范)
Technology and Project
Demonstration of Water
Pollution Overall Prevention and
Treatment for Three Gorges
Reservoir (三峡水库水污染综合
防治技术与工程示范)

Expenditure
(Million RMB)
Central Local

Project Call Name

The Adjustment and Optimising Technology
Research of River Catchment Landscape Ecology
based on marine ecology system health (基于水生
态系统健康的流域景观生态调控优化技术研究)

The Demonstrative Research into Key Technology
of Stream Songhua Water Ecological Integrity
Evaluation and Restoration (松花江水生态完整性
评价与恢复关键技术示范研究)

17

17

0

17

Theme

Local Organization and
Implementation

Duration

Monitoring
and
Warning

Liao Ning Provincial
Department of
Environmental Protection
(辽宁省环保厅), Liao River
Conservation/ Reserve
Area Bureau (辽河保护区
管理局)

01/201412/2016

River

Hei Long Jiang Provincial
Department of
Environmental Protection
(黑龙江省环保厅), Ji Lin
Provincial Department of
Environmental Protection
(吉林省环保厅)

01/201412/2016

01/201412/2016

The Key Technology Research and Demonstration
of Water Quality- Water Quantity-Water Ecological
United Dispatch for Huai River Catchment (淮河流
域水质-水量-水生态联合调度关键技术研究
与示范)

20

30

River

Huai River Basin Water
Resources Protection
Bureau (淮河流域水资源
保 护局)

The Technology Integration and Project
Demonstration of Improving Water Quality by
Controlling Cyanobacteria in Western Water
Source Area in Chao Lake (巢湖西部水源区控制蓝
藻改善水质技术集成及工程示范)

20

30

Lake

安徽省环保厅

The Key Technology Research and Demonstration
of United Dispatch based on Three Gorges
Reservoir and its Downstream Water Environment
(基于三峡水库及下游水环境的水库群联合调度
关键技术研究与示范)

20

20

Lake

湖北省环保厅
重庆市环保局

18

DragonSTAR: Task 3.3 Tackling Societal Challenges

Key River
Catchment

Industrialized

Key River
Catchment

Industrialized

Key River
Catchment

Industrialized

Industrialized

Key River
Catchment

The Key Technology and Industrialized
Demonstration of The Paper Industry Water
Pollution Control in Key River Catchment (重点流
域造纸行业水污染控制关键技术产业化示范)
The Key Technology and Industrialized
Demonstration of Pollution Processing and
Recycling for The Printing and Dyeing Industry
Cluster Area in the Key River Catchment (重点流域
印染产业集聚地废水处理与资源化关键技术与产
业化)

30

60

River

30

60

River

The Overall Demonstration Research of Water
Pollution Treatment and Environmental Protection
Service Mode for the Industrial Park (工业园区废
水治理及环保服务模式综合示范研究)

30

60

River

The Demonstration of Water Environment
Monitoring Instrument Research and Development,
and Socialized Online -monitoring and
Industrialized the Service (水环境监测仪器研发与
在线监测社会化服务产业化示范)

30

60

Lake

19

DragonSTAR: Task 3.3 Tackling Societal Challenges

Table 6. Projects funded under the first call for the Major Science and Technology Programme for Water Pollution Control (funded by the MEP)
Project
Project Name
No.

Implementing Unit

2014ZX The Key Technology Research and Demonstration of United Dispatch based on
071040 Three Gorges Reservoir and its Downstream Water Environment (基于三峡水库 Wuhan University/ 武汉大学
05
及下游水环境的水库群联合调度关键技术研究与示范)

Principal Investigator Attribute

Local organizational joint trial unit

Guolu Yang/ 杨国录

Comprehensive
Demonstration

Chongqing City, Hubei Province/ 重庆
市、湖北省

2014ZX The Key Technology Research and Demonstration of Water Quality- Water
072040 Quantity-Water Ecological United Dispatch for Huai River Catchment (淮河流域 Wuhan University/ 武汉大学
06
水质-水量-水生态联合调度关键技术研究 与示范)

Jun Xia/夏军

Comprehensive
Demonstration

Huai River Water Resources
Committee/淮河水利委员会水资源
(http://szy.hrc.gov.cn/SystemPortal/P
ortal/Main/HomePage.aspx)

2014ZX The Key Technology and Industrialized Demonstration of The Paper Industry
072130 Water Pollution Control in Key River Catchment (重点流域造纸行业水污染控
01
制关键技术产业化示范)

Kexia Chen/陈克复

Industrialization

China Paper Association/中国造
纸协会

Xiamen Weishibang Membrane
2014ZX The Key Technology and Industrialized Demonstration of Pollution Processing
Technology Co. Ltd/ 厦门市威士
072150 and Recycling for The Printing and Dyeing Industry Cluster Area in the Key River
Taishan Shi/ 石泰山
邦膜科技有限公司
01
Catchment (重点流域印染产业集聚地废水处理与资源化关键技术与产业化)
(http://xmvisbe.jdol.com.cn/)

Industrialization

The River Catchment Ecological Supportability Adjustment and Pollution
Chinese Research Academy of
2012ZX
Reduction Management Technology Research (流域水生态承载力调控与污染 Environmental Sciences/ 中国环 Yuan Zhang/ 张远
07501
减排管理技术研究)
境科学研究院
2014ZX The Demonstration of Water Environment Monitoring Instrument Research and Focused Photonics Inc. / 聚光科技
075070 Development, and Socialized Online -monitoring and Industrialized the Service (杭州)股份有限公司
Huajun Ye/ 叶华俊
01
(水环境监测仪器研发与在线监测社会化服务产业化示范)
(http://www.fpi-inc.com/)

2012ZX Water quality improvement and water ecological restoration in the Huai River
07204 Catchment 淮河流域水质改善与水生态修复

Nanjing University/ 南京大学

20

Aimin Li/ 李爱民
(Deputy chief/ 副组
长 of specialists in
theme two)
http://hjxy.nju.edu.cn
/liam/news/?107.html

Common/ Generic
Technology

DragonSTAR: Task 3.3 Tackling Societal Challenges

Table 7. Second call for the Major Science and Technology Programme for Water Pollution Control (funded by the MEP)
Basin

Task Attribute

Programme Name

Project Call Name

Liao River
(inflow)

Technology
Demonstration

Technology verification (ETV) and application demonstration
of water pollution reduction in Liao River and other river
catchments/辽河等流域水污染减排技术验证评估(ETV)
与应用示范

Songhua River
(outflow)

Comprehensive
Demonstration

Hai River
(inflow)

Comprehensive
Demonstration

Hai River
(inflow)

Technology
Demonstration

Hai River
(inflow)

Comprehensive
Demonstration

Hai River
(inflow)

Technology
Demonstration

Hai River
(inflow)

Technology
Demonstration

Research and demonstration of promoted
governance and technology system for
watershed water pollution prevention and
treatment technology evaluation
(Verification) / 流域水污染防治技术评估
(验证)制度和技术推广体系研究与示范
The Key Technology and Comprehensive
Demonstration of Songhua Pollution
Prevention and Treatment, and Ecological
Restoration /松花江水污染综合防治与水
生态恢复关键技术及综合示范
Whole set of technology integration and
comprehensive demonstration of the water
quality improvement in the heavy-polluted
river of Hai River Catchment/ 海河流域重污
染河流水质改善成套整装技术集成与综合
示范
Whole set of technology integration and
comprehensive demonstration of the water
quality improvement in the heavy-polluted
river of Hai River Catchment/ 海河流域重污
染河流水质改善成套整装技术集成与综合
示范
Whole set of technology integration and
comprehensive demonstration of the water
quality improvement in the heavy-polluted
river of Hai River Catchment/ 海河流域重污
染河流水质改善成套整装技术集成与综合
示范
Research and demonstration of governance
and technology extension system of
prevention and treatment of water
pollutant in the catchment/流域水污染防
治技术评估(验证)制度和技术推广体系研
究与示范
Research and demonstration of governance
and technology extension system of
prevention and treatment of water

Expenditure
(Million RMB)

Theme

Central
18

Local
5

Technology integration and comprehensive demonstration
for the life cycle management of non-point pollutant from
agriculture in main grain producing areas of Songhua
Catchment/松干流域粮食主产区农田面源污染全过程控制
技术集成与综合示范
Technology integration and comprehensive demonstration of
water pollutant management and water quality improvement
in Yanghe section of Yongding River in the northern part of
Hai River system/ 海河北系永定河-洋河段水污染控制与水
质改善 技术集成与综合示范

25

40

River

30

60

River

Key technology and demonstration of wetland restoration in
Ziya river catchment downstream of the southern part of Hai
River System/ 海河南系子牙河流域下游湿地生态恢复关键
技术与示范

28

45

River

Technology integration and catchment demonstration of the
agricultural drainage pollutant management in the condition
of multi-water resources irrigation, for the downstream of
the southern part of Hai River System/ 海河南系下游多水源
灌溉条件下农业排水污染控制技术集成与流域示范

25

40

River

Dissemination research and provincial demonstration of the
best available technology for the water pollution prevention
and treatment of key industry in Hai River catchment/ 海河流
域重点行业水污染防治最佳可行技术推广研究与省级示范

18

8

Monitoring
and Warning

Research into technology evaluation and management
system of water prevention and treatment of typical
industrial park in key catchment/ 重点流域典型工业园区水

18

8

Monitoring
and Warning

21

Monitoring
and Warning

DragonSTAR: Task 3.3 Tackling Societal Challenges

Huai River
(inflow)

Comprehensive
Demonstration

Huai River
(inflow)

Technology
Demonstration

Huai River
(inflow)

Comprehensive
Demonstration

Dong River
(outflow)

Comprehensive
Demonstration

Dong River
(outflow)

Comprehensive
Demonstration

Key catchment

Industrialization

Key catchment

Industrialization

pollutant in the catchment/流域水污染防
治技术评估(验证)制度和技术推广体系研
究与示范
Technology research and comprehensive
demonstration of water quality
improvement and water ecological
restoration in the Huai River Catchment/淮
河流域水质改善与水生态修复技术研究与
综合示范
Technology research and comprehensive
demonstration of water quality
improvement and water ecological
restoration in the Huai River Catchment/淮
河流域水质改善与水生态修复技术研究与
综合示范
Technology research and comprehensive
demonstration of water quality
improvement and water ecological
restoration in the Huai River Catchment/淮
河流域水质改善与水生态修复技术研究与
综合示范
Technology integration and comprehensive
demonstration of risk management of water
quality and aquatic ecology in Dong River
catchment/东江流域水质与水生态风险控
制技术集成与综合示范
Technology integration and comprehensive
demonstration of risk management of water
quality and aquatic ecology in Dong River
catchment/东江流域水质与水生态风险控
制技术集成与综合示范
Industrialization demonstration of regional
solutions for managing pollutants from
breeding livestock and poultry in key
catchment/重点流域畜禽养殖污染控制区
域解决方案产业化示范

污染防治技术评估和管理制度研究

Industrialization of key technology and
equipment for the zero-emission of
refractory waste water (liquid) with salt/难
降解含盐废水(液)零排放关键技术和装

Technology research and demonstration for the source
management and centralized treatment of non-point source
pollutant from agriculture in Shaying River catchment/ 沙颍
河流域农业面源源头控制与集中治理技术研究与示范

25

50

River

Research and demonstration of comprehensive management
of toxic pollutants from industrial and domestic water
pollution in Huai River catchment (Bengbu section in the
upstream of Hongze Lake)/淮河流域(蚌埠段-洪泽湖上
游)工业和城市污水毒害污染物综合控制研究与示范

24

24

River

Technology integration and comprehensive demonstration of
water quality improvement for heavy-polluted river in the
downstream of Huai River/ 淮河下游重污染河流水质改善技
术集成与综合示范

25

50

River

Technology integration and comprehensive demonstration of
risk management of aquatic environment of typical
watershed (集水区) in the upstream of Dong River
catchment/东江上游典型集水区水环境风险控制技术集成
与综合示范
Technology integration and comprehensive demonstration of
drinking water safety and security of rivers used as drinking
water source in Dong River catchment/东江流域饮用水源型
河流水质安全保障技术集成与综合示范

25

40

River

25

40

River

Industrialization demonstration of regional solutions for
managing pollutants from breeding livestock and poultry in
key catchment/重点流域畜禽养殖污染控制区域解决方案
产业化示范

25

50

Lake

Industrialization of key technology and equipment of
recycling industrial polluted water with salt in high-efficiency
and low-consumption in the key catchment/ 重点流域含盐
工业废水高效低耗再生关键技术装备产业化

10

20

River

22

DragonSTAR: Task 3.3 Tackling Societal Challenges
备产业化

Key catchment

Demonstrative research into management
innovation of management system and
pollution reduction for aquatic
environment/ 水环境管理体制与污染减排
管理创新示范研究

Key catchment

Demonstrative research into management
innovation of management system and
pollution reduction for aquatic
environment/ 水环境管理体制与污染减排
管理创新示范研究
Research into policy for demonstration,
regarding the management, taxation, paid
use of the water pollutants/水污染控制财
税和有偿使用政策示范研究

Key catchment

Development and industrialization of deeply oxidation
equipment for high density, non-degradable and organic
wastewater/ 高浓度难降解有机废水深度氧化设备开发与
产业化

10

20

River

Industrialization of equipment to evaporate high density and
highly saline organic wastewater with high efficiency and
energy-saving/ 高浓高盐有机废水高效节能蒸发装备产业

10

20

River

Industrialization of drying equipment for processing industrial
condensed wastewater (liquid) from the fine chemical
engineering industries/ 精细化工等行业浓缩废水(液)干
化设备产业化

10

20

River

Development and industrialization of incineration equipment
of high-concentration organic liquid wastes containing highly
saline/高含盐有机废液焚烧设备开发及产业化
Research into comprehensive management system of state's
and catchment's aquatic environment, and demonstrative
results from the trials/国家和流域水环境综合管理及其示范
研究 [Integrate research results of management system
reform, and trial demonstration results, to propose a new
management system according to current situation]
Research into management system of managing agricultural
pollutant source, and demonstrative polciy for reducing
pollution emission/ 农业源控制管理制度与减排政策示范研

10

20

River

5

0

Policy

5

0

Policy

Research on public financial policies and its demonstration of
aquatic environment protection/ 水环境保护公共财政政策
与示范研究

5

0

Policy

23

DragonSTAR: Task 3.3 Tackling Societal Challenges

Table 8. Projects funded under the second call for the Major Science and Technology Programme for Water Pollution Control (funded by the MEP)
Project No.

Project Name

Implementing Unit

Principal Investigator

Attribute

2014ZX07114001

Industrialization demonstration of regional solutions for
managing pollutants from breeding livestock and poultry in key
catchment/重点流域畜禽养殖污染控制区域解决方案产业
化示范
Technology integration and comprehensive demonstration for
the life cycle management of non-point pollutant from
agriculture in main grain producing areas of Songhua
Catchment/ 松干流域粮食主产区农田面源污染全过程控制
技术集成与综合示范

CSD (Beijing) Environmental Protection/北
京中持绿色能源环境技术有限公司
(http://www.zchb.net/csd )

Kai Shao/ 邵凯

Industrialization

Institute of Environment and Sustainable
Development in Agriculture, CAAS/ 中国
农业科学院农业环境与可持续发展研究

Zhengli Yang/ 杨正礼 (specialist
member in theme two)
(http://www.ieda.org.cn/Html/201
3_03_04/2757_49566_2013_03_04
_49580.html)

Comprehensive
Demonstration

Heilongjiang
Province/ 黑龙
江省

2012ZX07203

Whole set of technology integration and comprehensive
demonstration of the water quality improvement in the heavypolluted river of Hai River Catchment/ 海河流域重污染河流
水质改善成套整装技术集成与综合示范

Research Centre for Eco-Environmental
Sciences, CAS/ 中国科学院生态环境研究
中心

2014ZX07203008

Key technology and demonstration of wetland restoration in
Ziya river catchment downstream of the southern part of Hai
River System/ 海河南系子牙河流域下游湿地生态恢复关键
技术与示范

Peking University/ 北京大学

Baoqing Shan/单保庆(Group
Leader/组长 of specialists in theme
two)
(http://sourcedb.cas.cn/sourcedb_r
cees_cas/yw/fs/200906/t20090612
_1038283.html )
Xiaoliu Yang/杨小柳

Comprehensive
Demonstration

Hebei Province/
河北省

2014ZX07211001

Development and industrialization of deeply oxidation
equipment for high density, non-degradable and organic
wastewater/ 高浓度难降解有机废水深度氧化设备开发与产
业化

Sound Group/桑德集团有限公司
(http://www.soundgroup.com/)

Jingzhi Zhang/张景志

Industrialization

2014ZX07204005

Technology integration and comprehensive demonstration of
water quality improvement for heavy-polluted river in the
downstream of Huai River/ 淮河下游重污染河流水质改善技
术集成与综合示范

Research Centre for Eco-Environmental
Science, CAS/ 中国科学院生态环境研究
中心 (in English)

Aijie Wang/王爱杰

Comprehensive
Demonstration

Jiangsu
Province/ 江苏

2014ZX07204008

Research and demonstration of comprehensive management
of toxic pollutants from industrial and domestic water
pollution in Huai River catchment (Bengbu section in the
upstream of Hongze Lake)/淮河流域(蚌埠段-洪泽湖上游)
工业和城市污水毒害污染物综合控制研究与示范

Nanjing University/ 南京大学

Fuqiang Liu/刘福强

Comprehensive
Demonstration

安徽省

2014ZX07201009

24

Local
organizational
joint trial unit

DragonSTAR: Task 3.3 Tackling Societal Challenges
2012ZX07206

Technology integration and comprehensive demonstration of
risk management of water quality and aquatic ecology in Dong
River catchment/东江流域水质与水生态风险控制技术集成
与综合示范

South China Institute of Environmental
Science. MEP/ 环境保护部华南环境科学
研究所 (http://www.scies.org/home.asp)

Zhencheng Xu/ 许振成

2014ZX07206001

Technology integration and comprehensive demonstration of
risk management of aquatic environment of typical watershed
(集水区) in the upstream of Dong River catchment/东江上游
典型集水区水环境风险控制技术集成与综合示范

Shanghai Jiaotong University/ 上海交通
大学

Yiliang He/何义亮

Comprehensive
Demonstration

Guangdong
Province/ 广东

2014ZX07206005

Technology integration and comprehensive demonstration of
drinking water safety and security of rivers used as drinking
water source in Dong River catchment/东江流域饮用水源型
河流水质安全保障技术集成与综合示范
Industrialization of key technology and equipment for the
zero-emission of refractory waste water (liquid) with salt/难降
解含盐废水(液)零排放关键技术和装备产业化
Industrialization of key technology and equipment of recycling
industrial polluted water with salt in high-efficiency and lowconsumption in the key catchment/ 重点流域含盐工业废水
高效低耗再生关键技术装备产业化

South China Institute of Environmental
Science. MEP/ 环境保护部华南环境科学
研究所 (http://www.scies.org/home.asp)

Fantang Zeng/ 曾凡棠

Comprehensive
Demonstration

Guangdong
Province/ 广东

EST/ 爱思特水务科技有限公司
(http://estpure.com/a/technology.aspx )

Xiaowei Sun/ 孙晓慰

EST/ 爱思特水务科技有限公司
(http://estpure.com/a/technology.aspx )

Xiaowei Sun/ 孙晓慰

Industrialization

Development and industrialization of deeply oxidation
equipment for high density, non-degradable and organic
wastewater/ 高浓度难降解有机废水深度氧化设备开发与产
业化
Industrialization of equipment to evaporate high density and
highly saline organic wastewater with high efficiency and
energy-saving/ 高浓高盐有机废水高效节能蒸发装备产业化

Shanghai Institute for Design & Research
on Environmental Engineering/上海市环
境工程设计科学研究院有限公司
(http://huanke.com.cn/08/index.asp )
XI'AN SHAANGU POWER CO.,LTD/ 西安陕
鼓动力股份有限公司
(http://www.shaangu.com/ENGLISH/inde
x.jsp?urltype=tree.TreeTempUrl&wbtreei
d=1070 )
ZHE JIANG HUANXING/ 浙江环兴机械有
限公司 (http://www.zj-zhx.com/)

Yi Zhang/ 张益

Industrialization

Jingxin Liu/ 刘景新

Industrialization

Qilin Yu/ 俞其林

Industrialization

Chinese Research Academy of
Environmental Sciences/ 中国环境科学研
究院

Chunlian Xu/ 许春莲

Common/
Generic
Technology

Sino-Japan Friendship Centre for
Environmental Protection/ 中日友好环境
保护中心 ( http://www.china-epc.cn/)

Zhiwei Xin/ 辛志伟

Common/
Generic
Technology

2014ZX07214

2014ZX07214001

2014ZX07214002

2014ZX07214003

2014ZX07214004

2014ZX07504003

2014ZX07504005

Industrialization of drying equipment for processing industrial
condensed wastewater (liquid) from the fine chemical
engineering industries/ 精细化工等行业浓缩废水(液)干化
设备产业化
Technology verification (ETV) and application demonstration of
water pollution reduction in Liao River and other river
catchments/辽河等流域水污染减排技术验证评估(ETV)与
应用示范
Research into technology evaluation and management system
of water prevention and treatment of typical industrial park in
key catchment/ 重点流域典型工业园区水污染防治技术评估
和管理制度研究

25

DragonSTAR: Task 3.3 Tackling Societal Challenges
2014ZX07602004

Research into management system of managing agricultural
pollutant source, and demonstrative polciy for reducing
pollution emission/ 农业源控制管理制度与减排政策示范研

South China Institute of Environmental
Science. MEP/ 环境保护部华南环境科学
研究所 (http://www.scies.org/home.asp)

26

Genyi Wu/ 吴根义

Policy
Management

DragonSTAR: Task 3.3 Tackling Societal Challenges

Table 9. Third call for the Major Science and Technology Programme for Water Pollution Control (funded by the MEP)
Project No.

Basin

Task Attribute

Programme Name

Project Call Name

2014ZX07101011

Tai Lake /
Taihu/太湖
(freshwater)

Technology
Demonstration

Technology and project demonstration of
eutrophication management and
treatment in Tai Lake/太湖富营养化控制
与治理技术及工程示范

Business operation system of safety
management and decision-making platform for
aquatic environment in Tai Lake river network
(Taihu catchment)/ 太湖河网水环境安全调控与
决策平台业务化运行

2014ZX07508

Liao River
(inflow)/ 辽河

Technology
Demonstration

2014ZX07503004

Songhua River
(outflow)/松
花江

Technology
Demonstration

Technology and comprehensive
demonstration of prevention, treatment,
monitoring, and warning for water
pollution in river catchment/ 流域水污染
防治监控预警技术与综合示范
Technology research and project
demonstration of risk evaluation and
early-warning of catchment aquatic
environment/ 流域水环境风险评估与预
警技术研究与工程示范

2014ZX07105001

Erhai / Erhai
Lake
(freshwater
lake) /洱海

Technology
Demonstration

Technology and project demonstration of
prevention and treatment of water
pollution, habitat improvement and
green watershed construction for Erhai/
洱海水污染防治、生境改善与绿色流域
建设技术及工程示范

2014ZX07509

Key
catchment/ 重
点流域

Industrialization

2014ZX07602003

Tai Lake/ Thai
Lake/ Taihu/
太湖
(freshwater)

Policy

2014ZX07603002

Tai Lake, Huai
River (inflow)/
太湖、淮河

Policy

Demonstrative research into
management innovation of management
system and pollution reduction for
aquatic environment/ 水环境管理体制
与污染减排管理创新示范研究
Research into policy for demonstration,
regarding the management, taxation,
paid use of the water pollutants/水污染
控制财税和有偿使用政策示范研究

Expenditure
(Million RMB)

Theme

Central
20

Local
10

Key technology development of observation
simulation platform of ecological integrity in Liao
River catchment/ 辽河流域水生态完整性观测
模拟平台建设关键技术

20

10

Monitoring
and Warning

Technology research and application
demonstration of risk monitoring and earlywarning of aquatic environment in cross-border
areas between China and Russia/ 中俄跨境地区
水环境风险监控预警技术研究与应用示范

29

15

Monitoring
and Warning

Technology system research and demonstration
of comprehensive prevention and treatment of
non-point pollutants from agriculture in Erhai
catchment/ 洱海流域农业面源污染综合防控技
术体系研究与示范

20

20

Lake

Industrialized dissemination mechanism trial and
platform development of technology
achievement of water pollutant management
and treatment/ 水污染控制与治理技术成果产
业化推广机制试点与平台建设

30

30

Monitoring
and Warning

Research on the strictest management system
design and demonstration of managing industrial
water pollution/ 工业水污染防控最严格管理制
度设计及示范研究

5

0

Policy

Research on taxes and duties, and price policy of
urban sewage treatment, and its demonstration/
城镇污水处理税费价格政策及其示范研究

5

0

Policy

27

Lake

DragonSTAR: Task 3.3 Tackling Societal Challenges
2014ZX07602005

Liao River
(inflow), three
gorges/ 辽
河、三峡

Policy

2014ZX07510

Key
catchment/ 重
点流域

Integration

Demonstrative research into
management innovation of management
system and pollution reduction for
aquatic environment/ 水环境管理体制
与污染减排管理创新示范研究
Technology and comprehensive
demonstration of preventing, treating,
monitoring, and early-warning of
catchment water pollution/ 流域水污染
防治监控预警技术与综合示范

Research on the innovation of system and
mechanism, and integration and demonstration
of catchment ecological civilization construction/
流域生态文明建设体制机制创新与集成示范研

Technology integration and efficiency evaluation
of catchment water pollution management and
treatment/流域水体污染控制与治理技术集成
及效益评估

28

5

0

Policy

40

0

Special
Integration

DragonSTAR: Task 3.3 Tackling Societal Challenges

Table 10. Projects funded under the third call for the Major Science and Technology Programme for Water Pollution Control (funded by the MEP)
Project No.

Project Name

Implementing Unit

Principal Investigator

2012ZX07101

Technology and project demonstration of
Chinese Research Academy of Environmental
eutrophication management and treatment in Tai
Sciences/ 中国环境科学研究院
Lake/太湖富营养化控制与治理技术及工程示范

2012ZX07105

Local
organizational
joint trial unit

Binghui Zheng/ 郑丙辉(Group Leader/组长 in theme
one specialist list)(http://craes.cn/c/cn/news/201107/20/news_2488.html )

Platform of business operation system of safety
management and decision-making for aquatic
Nanjing Institute of Geography & Limnology, CAS/
2014ZX07101011 environment in Tai Lake river network (Taihu
Weiping Hu/ 胡维平
中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所
catchment)/ 太湖河网水环境安全调控与决策业
务化平台
Technology and project demonstration of
prevention and treatment of water pollution,
habitat improvement and green watershed
Shanghai Jiaotong University/ 上海交通大学
construction for Erhai/洱海水污染防治、生境改
善与绿色流域建设技术及工程示范

Attribute

Jiangsu
Comprehensive
Province/江苏
Demonstration

Hainan Kong/ 孔海南(Special Advisor/ 特聘顾问 in
theme one specialist list)

Technology system research and demonstration
of comprehensive prevention and treatment of Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional
Planning, CAAS/ 中国农业科学院农业资源与农 Hongbin Liu/刘宏斌
2014ZX07105001 non-point pollutants from agriculture in Erhai
catchment/ 洱海流域农业面源污染综合防控技 业区划研究所 (http://iarrp.cn/sites/IARRP/)
术体系研究与示范

Yunnan
Comprehensive
Province/ 云南
Demonstration

Key technology development of observation
Liaoning Academy of Environmental Sciences/ 辽
simulation platform of ecological integrity in Liao 宁省环境科学研究院
2014ZX07508001
Jinghai Zhu/ 朱京海
River catchment/ 辽河流域水生态完整性观测模 (http://food.nstl.gov.cn/pollute/MirrorResources
拟平台建设关键技术
/7032/ )

Common/
Generic
Technology (共
性技术类)

Technology integration and efficiency evaluation
of catchment water pollution management and Chinese Research Academy of Environmental
2014ZX07510001
treatment/流域水体污染控制与治理技术集成 Sciences/ 中国环境科学研究院
及效益评估

Common/
Generic
Technology

29

Qiujin Xu/ 许秋瑾

DragonSTAR: Task 3.3 Tackling Societal Challenges

2012ZX07503

Technology and comprehensive demonstration of
preventing, treating, monitoring, and earlyChinese Research Academy of Environmental
warning of catchment water pollution/ 流域水污 Sciences/ 中国环境科学研究院
染防治监控预警技术与综合示范

Technology research and application
demonstration of risk monitoring and earlyNanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences,
2014ZX07503004 warning of aquatic environment in cross-border
MEP/ 环境保护部南京环境科学研究所
areas between China and Russia/ 中俄跨境地区
水环境风险监控预警技术研究与应用示范

Fengchang Wu/ 吴丰昌

Jixi Gao/ 高吉喜

2013ZX07504

Technology integration and efficiency evaluation
of catchment water pollution management and
Tsinghua University/清华大学
treatment/流域水体污染控制与治理技术集成
及效益评估

Kaijun Wang/王凯军

2012ZX07506

Demonstrative research into management
Jiangsu Provincial Academy of Environmental
innovation of management system and pollution
Science/ 江苏省环境科学研究院
reduction for aquatic environment in Tai Lake/太
(http://wmdw.jswmw.com/home/?lid=474)
湖流域水环境管理技术集成综合示范项目

Haisuo Wu/ 吴海锁

30

Common/
Generic
Technology

DragonSTAR: Task 3.3 Tackling Societal Challenges

Table 11. Fourth call for the Major Science and Technology Programme for Water Pollution Control (funded by the MEP)
Basin

Task Attribute

Programme Name

Project Call Name

Central

Local

Tai Lake/ Thai
Lake/ Taihu/
太湖
(freshwater)

Technology
Demonstration

Research and demonstration programme of
monitoring technology system for
catchment aquatic ecology/流域水生态监
测技术体系研究与示范项目

Demonstration of technology development and business
operation system for the monitoring and intelligent
management of national aquatic environment/ 国家水环境监
测智能化管理综合平台构建技术与业务化运行示范

20

20

Monitoring and
Warning

Liao River
(inflow)/ 辽河

Comprehensive
Demonstration

Technology integration and demonstration of aquatic ecological
development and function restoration of Shenfu section in Hun
River catchment/ 浑河流域沈抚段水生态建设与功能修复技
术集成与示范

30

45

River

Songhua River
(outflow)/松
花江

Technology
Demonstration

Technology integration and project
demonstration of comprehensive
treatment of water pollutants in Liao River
catchment/ 辽河流域水污染综合治理技
术集成与工程示范
Technology research and project
demonstration of risk evaluation and earlywarning of catchment aquatic
environment/ 松花江水污染综合防治与水
生态恢复关键技术及综合示范

Research and demonstration of intelligent management
technology cluster for water pollution process in Songhua river
catchment/ 松花江流域污水处理智能化集群调控技术研究与
示范

20

30

River

Comprehensive
Demonstration

Technology research and project
demonstration of risk evaluation and earlywarning of catchment aquatic
environment/ 松花江水污染综合防治与水
生态恢复关键技术及综合示范

Technology research and comprehensive demonstration of
comprehensive treatment of water pollutants and water quality
improvement in Yinma River catchment/饮马河流域水污染综
合治理与水质改善技术研究与综合示范

35

70

River

Technology
Demonstration

Technology research and project
demonstration of risk evaluation and earlywarning of catchment aquatic
environment/ 松花江水污染综合防治与水
生态恢复关键技术及综合示范

Key technology and demonstration of securing the safety of
water quality from riverside pumping/ intaking in Songhua River
catchment / 松花江傍河取水水质安全保障关键技术及示范

15

15

River

Comprehensive
Demonstration

Whole set of technology integration and
comprehensive demonstration of
improving water quality of the heavypolluted river in Hai River catchment/海河
流域重污染河流水质改善成套整装技术
集成与综合示范

Key technology and comprehensive demonstration of improving
aquatic environment quality of the main stream in Hai River/ 海
河干流水环境质量改善关键技术与综合示范

35

70

River

Hai River/
Haihe/ 海河
(inflow)

31

Expenditure (Million
RMB)

Theme

DragonSTAR: Task 3.3 Tackling Societal Challenges
Comprehensive
Demonstration

Whole set of technology integration and
comprehensive demonstration of water
quality improvement for heavy-polluted
rivers in Hai River catchment/海河流域重
污染河流水质改善成套整装技术集成与
综合示范

Research and demonstration of key technology for water
quality security and ecological restoration in water resources
regulation and storage area of Hai River catchment/ 海河流域
水资源调蓄区水质保障及生态修复关键技术研究与示范

30

60

River

Three gorges/
三峡

Technology
Demonstration

Technology and project demonstration of
comprehensive management and
treatment of water pollution in Three
Gorges Reservoir/三峡水库水污染综合防
治技术与工程示范

Business system operation of environment perception system
and platform for aquatic ecology in Three Gorges Reservoir/ 三
峡库区水生态环境感知系统及平台业务化运行

20

30

Lake

Key
catchment/ 重
点流域

Industrialization

R&D and industrialization of plant equipment for high-quality
reclaimed water and water purification/ 高品质再生水与水体
净化成套装备研发及产业化

30

60

Monitoring and
Warning

32

DragonSTAR: Task 3.3 Tackling Societal Challenges

Table 12. Projects funded under the fourth call for the Major Science and Technology Programme for Water Pollution Control (funded by the MEP)
Project No.

Project Name

Implementing Unit

Principal Investigator

Attribute

Local organizational
joint trial unit

Comprehensive
Demonstration

Chongqing City/ 重庆

2014ZX072010 Key technology and demonstration of
Beijing Normal University/ 北京师范大学 Yanguo Teng/ 滕彦国
10
securing the safety of water quality from
riverside pumping/ intaking in Songhua
River catchment / 松花江傍河取水水质
安全保障关键技术及示范

Comprehensive
Demonstration

Heilongjiang Province/
黑龙江省

2014ZX072010 Technology research and comprehensive Northeast Normal University/ 东北师范大 Jiang Feng/冯江
11
demonstration of comprehensive

treatment of water pollutants and water
quality improvement in Yinma River
catchment/饮马河流域水污染综合治理
与水质改善技术研究与综合示范

Comprehensive
Demonstration

Jilin Province/ 吉林省

2012ZX07104 Technology and project demonstration China Institute of Water Resources and
of comprehensive management and
Hydropower Research/中国水利水电科学 Huaidong Zhou/ 周怀东 ( specialist member in theme one)
treatment of water pollution in Three
(http://www.waterscience.cn/zhuanjiaku/zhouhuaidong.ht
研究院
Gorges Reservoir/三峡水库水污染综合
m)
防治技术与工程示范
2014ZX071040 Business system operation of
Chongqing Institute of Green and
06
environment perception system and
Intelligent Technology, CAS/ 中国科学院
platform for aquatic ecology in Three
重庆绿色智能技术研究院
Gorges Reservoir/ 三峡库区水生态环境 (http://www.cigit.cas.cn/)
感知系统及平台业务化运行

Jiahu Yuan/ 袁家虎

2012ZX07201 Technology research and project
Chinese Research Academy of
demonstration of risk evaluation and
Environmental Sciences/ 中国环境科学研
Yuexi Zhou/ 周岳溪 (specialist member in theme two)
early-warning of catchment aquatic
究院
(http://www.craes.cn/cn/hkyr/zhouyx.html)
environment/ 松花江水污染综合防治
与水生态恢复关键技术及综合示范

33

DragonSTAR: Task 3.3 Tackling Societal Challenges
2014ZX072010 Research and demonstration of
Longjiang Environmental Protection Group Yongjian Piao/ 朴庸健
12
intelligent management technology
Plc/龙江环保集团股份有限公司
cluster for water pollution process in
Songhua river catchment/ 松花江流域
污水处理智能化集群调控技术研究与
示范

Comprehensive
Demonstration

Heilongjiang Province/
黑龙江省

2014ZX072020 Technology integration and
Shenyang Jianzhu University/ 沈阳建筑大 Jinxiang Fu/傅金祥
11
demonstration of aquatic ecological

development and function restoration
of Shenfu section in Hun River
catchment/ 浑河流域沈抚段水生态建
设与功能修复技术集成与示范

Comprehensive
Demonstration

Liaoning Province/ 辽
宁省

2014ZX072030 Key technology and comprehensive
Tianjin University/ 天津大学
09
demonstration of improving aquatic
environment quality of the main stream
in Hai River/ 海河干流水环境质量改善
关键技术与综合示范

Min Ji/季民

Comprehensive
Demonstration

Tianjin City/ 天津市

2014ZX072030 Research and demonstration of key
Beijing Water Science & Technology
10
technology for water quality security and Institute/ 北京市水科学技术研究院
ecological restoration in water resources
regulation and storage area of Hai River
catchment/ 海河流域水资源调蓄区水
质保障及生态修复关键技术研究与示

Qingyi Meng/ 孟庆义

Comprehensive
Demonstration

Beijing/北京市

2012ZX07202 Technology integration and project
demonstration of comprehensive
treatment of water pollutants in Liao
River catchment/ 辽河流域水污染综合
治理技术集成与工程示范

Chinese Research Academy of
Environmental Sciences/ 中国环境科学研 Yonghui Song/ 宋永会(Deputy Chief/副组长 of specialists
究院 (http://longjiang.greeningin theme two)(http://craes.cn/c/cn/news/2010china.com/ )
11/16/news_2076.html )

34

DragonSTAR: Task 3.3 Tackling Societal Challenges
2014ZX072160 R&D and industrialization of plant
OriginWater/北京碧水源科技股份有限公 Richeng Dai/ 戴日成
01
equipment for high-quality reclaimed
司 (http://www.originwater.com/)
water and water purification/ 高品质再
生水与水体净化成套装备研发及产业

Industrialization

2013ZX07502 Research and demonstration programme China National Environmental Monitoring Yeyao Wang/ 王业耀 ( specialist member in theme five)
of monitoring technology system for
Centre (CNEMC)/中国环境监测总站
(http://www.cnemc.cn/publish/totalWebSite/news/news_1
catchment aquatic ecology/流域水生态
7.html)
监测技术体系研究与示范项目
2014ZX075020 Demonstration of technology
China National Environmental Monitoring Tingliang Liu/ 刘廷良
02
development and business operation
Centre (CNEMC)/中国环境监测总站
system for the monitoring and intelligent
management of national aquatic
environment/ 国家水环境监测智能化
管理综合平台构建技术与业务化运行
示范

35

Common/ Generic
Technology

DragonSTAR: Task 3.3 Tackling Societal Challenges
Table 13. Technology research and demonstration for managing urban water pollution and comprehensive treatment of aquatic environment call / 城市
水污染控制与水环境综合整治技术研究与示范主题 (funded by the MEP)

Programme Name

Expenditure (Million RMB)

Project Call Name

Central

Local

Research and comprehensive demonstration of improving the quality of urban water
environment in Chaohu City/ 巢湖市城市水环境质量改善研究与综合示范

65

Has to be no less than 65.

1. Technology research and comprehensive demonstration of optimizing drainage system,
and reducing and managing the pollutants in the industrial cluster area/ 产业集中区排水系
统优化与减排控污技术研究与综合示范

70

Has to be no less than 105.

2. Technology research and comprehensive demonstration of aquatic environment
improvement of the urban core area/ 城市核心区水环境改善技术研究与综合示范

65

Has to be no less than 90.5.

3. Technology research and comprehensive demonstration of securing aquatic environment
quality in urbanized new area/ 城镇化新区水环境质量保障技术研究与综合示范

65

Has to be no less than 90.5.

Technology research and comprehensive demonstration of
urban water pollution management and aquatic environment
treatment in Tien Lake (or Dian Chi) catchment/ 滇池流域城市
水污染控制及水环境治理技术研究与综合示范

Technology development and project demonstration of water quality improvement low
environment impact in Neicaohai (part of Tien Lake) water system/ 内草海水系水质改善及
低环境影响技术开发与工程示范

60

Has to be no less than 60.

Research and demonstration on system planning and
management technology of urban aquatic environment/ 城市
水环境系统规划和管理技术研究与示范

Research and demonstration of regulatory system, and support technology for the
treatment of urban water pollutants/ 城市水污染治理监管体系及支撑技术研究与示范

20

N/A

Technology integration of the management of urban water
pollutants and comprehensive treatment/remediation of
aquatic environment/ 城市水污染控制与水环境综合整治技术
集成

Technology integration of the management of urban water pollutants and comprehensive
treatment/remediation of aquatic environment/ 城市水污染控制与水环境综合整治技术
集成

22

N/A

Technology research and comprehensive demonstration of
water pollution management and aquatic environment
treatment in Chao Lake catchment/ 巢湖流域城市水污染控制
及水环境治理技术研究与综合示范

Technology integration and comprehensive application
demonstration of aquatic environment improvement in Yixing
City/ 宜兴市水环境改善技术集成与综合应用示范

36

DragonSTAR: Task 3.3 Tackling Societal Challenges
Table 14. Technology research and demonstration of securing drinking water safety/ 饮用水安全保障技术研究与示范主题 (funded by the MEP)
Expenditure (Million RMB)

Programme Name

Project Call Name

Management technology integration and
capability development of securing drinking
water safety/ 饮用水安全保障管理技术集
成与能力建设

1. Research into monitoring technology of water quality from the source to the tap, and the
standardization of the drinking water/ 饮用水全流程水质监测技术及标准化研究
2. Development demonstration of monitoring and managing technology of municipal water supply
systems, and its business operation platform/ 城市供水系统监管技术与业务化平台建设示范
1. Research on the emergency water supply technology, and demonstration of emergency
capability development in the key areas/应急供水技术研究与重点区域应急能力建设示范

Technology integration and comprehensive
demonstration of securing drinking water
safety in key river catchments/ 重点流域饮
用水安全保障工程技术集成与综合示范

Generic technology innovation and
application demonstration of securing
drinking water safety/饮用水安全保障共
性技术创新与应用示范

Central

Local

20

N/A

45

Has to be no less than 67.5.

40

Has to be no less than 15.

2.Research on pollutant characteristics of water source and security strategy of the drinking water
safety in key river catchments/ 重点流域水源污染特征及饮用水安全保障策略研究

45

N/A

3. Technology integration and comprehensive demonstration of water supply in urban and rural
areas of Jiangsu Province/ 江苏省域城乡统筹供水技术集成与综合示范

60

Has to be no less than 120.

50

Has to be no less than 100.

35

Has to be no less than 35.

1. Research and demonstration of technology of refactoring the microcirculation of water system in
architecture/建筑水系统微循环重构技术研究与示范

40

Has to be no less than 60.

2. Research and demonstration of key technology for intelligent management system of urban
water supply pipeline network/ 城市供水管网智能管理系统关键技术研究与示范

45

N/A

3. Research and application of original technology for removing special pollutants (e.g. organic
pollutants like chlorinated solvents, and radionuclides) in drinking water/ 饮用水特殊污染物去除
原创性技术研究与应用

80

Has to be no less than 80.

4. Research and demonstration of the technology of optimizing the dispatch of water supply from
the water source, and securing the water quality in Chaohu City/ 巢湖市水源优化与水质保障技术
研究与示范
5. Technology system development of securing the safety water supply for the rural, and its largescale application in key river catchments/ 村镇安全供水技术体系构建及重点流域规模应用

37

DragonSTAR: Task 3.3 Tackling Societal Challenges

Table 15. MEP Generalist Evaluators for the Major Science and Technology Programme for Water Pollution Control
Name

Institution

Job Title

Segregation of Duty

Field
Environmental Science/ 环境
科学

Wei Meng/ 孟 伟
(http://www.craes.cn/cn/kydw/yszj.html )

Chinese Research Academy of Environmental
Sciences/ 中国环境科学研究院

Academician of Academy of
Engineering / 工程院院士

Chief Engineer/ Professional
Technical Persona in Charge/
总师/专职技术责任人

Jining Chen/ 陈吉宁
(http://www.tsinghua.edu.cn/publish/th/6176/i
ndex.html )

Tsinghua University/清华大学

Professor/ 教 授 (Chancellor of
Tsinghua University)

Deputy Chief Engineer/ 副总师

Environmental System
Analysis/ 环境系统分析

Yisheng Shao/ 邵益生 (No Profile)

China Academy of Urban Planning & Design/ 中国城
市规划设计研究院

Researcher/ 研究员

Deputy Chief Engineer/ 副总师

Water Resources and
Environment/ 水资源与环境

Xiaodong Yu/ 于晓东 (No Profile)

China International Engineering Consulting
Corporation/ 中国国际工程咨询公司

Professor Level Senior
Engineer/ 教授级高工

Member/ 成 员

Technical Economy/ 技术经济

Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Science,
CAS/ 中国科学院生态环境研究中心

Researcher/ 研究员

Member/ 成 员

Environmental Science/ 环境
科学

China National Environmental Monitoring Centre/ 中
国环境监测总站

Researcher/ 研究员

Member/ 成 员

Environmental Science/ 环境
科学

Tsinghua University/清华大学

Professor/ 教 授

Member/ 成 员

Environmental Engineering/ 环
境工程

Jinnan Wang/ 王金南 (No Profile)

Chinese Academy For Environmental Planning/ 环境
保护部环境规划院

Researcher/ 研究员

Member/ 成 员

Environmental Economics/ 环
境经济

Bin Yi/ 易 斌
(http://www.chinacses.org/c/cn/news/201202/09/news_3967.html )

Chinese Society For Environmental Sciences/ 中国环
境科学学会

Researcher/ 研究员

Member/ 成 员

Environmental Technology/ 环
境科技

Huaidong Zhou/ 周怀东 (No Profile)

China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower
Research/中国水利水电科学研究院

Professor Level Senior
Engineer/ 教授级高工

Member/ 成 员

Environmental Chemistry/ 环
境化学

Researcher/ 研究员

Member/ 成 员

Environmental Science/ 环境
科学

Professor Level Senior
Engineer/ 教授级高工

Member/ 成 员

Water Supply and Drainage/ 给
水排水

Researcher/ 研究员

Member/ 成 员

Environmental Management/
环境管理

Researcher/ 研究员

Member/ 成 员

Agro-ecology/ 农业生态

Zijian Wang/ 王子健
(http://sourcedb.rcees.cas.cn/zw/zjrck/yjy/2009
06/t20090612_1038198.html )
Yeyao Wang/ 王业耀
(http://www.cnemc.cn/publish/totalWebSite/ne
ws/news_17.html)
Kaijun Wang/ 王凯军
(http://www.tsinghua.edu.cn/publish/env/6422
/2011/20110219161451921795862/2011021916
1451921795862_.html)

Binghui Zheng/ 郑丙辉
(http://www.craes.cn/cn/hkyr/zhengbh.html )
Xingcan Zheng/ 郑兴灿
(http://www.cadreg.com.cn/tabid/148/InfoID/6
741/frtid/180/Default.aspx)
Bing Ke/ 柯 兵 (No Profile)
Xurong Mei/ 梅旭荣
(http://211.147.18.70/templates/jiaoyu_001_1/
second.aspx?nodeid=217&page=ContentPage&c

Chinese Research Academy of Environmental
Sciences/ 中国环境科学研究院
North China Municipal Engineering Design &
Research Institute/中国市政工程华北设计研究总
院 (in English)
The Administrative Centre for China's Agenda 21/ 中
国 21 世纪议程管理中心
Institute of Environment and Sustainable
Development in Agriculture, Chinese Academy of
Agricultural Sciences/ 中国农业科学院

38

DragonSTAR: Task 3.3 Tackling Societal Challenges
ontentid=281 )
Xiaohu Dai/ 戴晓虎
(http://sese.tongji.edu.cn/ShowSummary.aspx?i
nfo_id=1983&info_lb=308&flag=99 )

Tongji University/ 同济大学

Professor/ 教 授

39

Member/ 成 员

Environmental Engineering/ 环
境工程

DragonSTAR: Task 3.3 Tackling Societal Challenges

Table 16. MEP Specialist Evaluators for the Major Science and Technology Programme for Water Pollution Control
Name

Institution

Job Title

Field

Research Interests

Jinan WANG/王金南

Chinese Academy For
Environmental Planning/ 环境保
护部环境规划院
Nanjing University/ 南京大学

Researcher/ 研究员
&
Team Leader/ 组长
Professor/ 教 授
&
Deputy Chief/副组长

Environmental
Economics/ 环境经

Environmental
Management/环境
管理

N/A

Zhong MA/马 中

Renmin University of China
(RUC)/ 中国人民大学

Professor/ 教 授

Environmental
Economics/ 环境经

Yi WANG/ 王 毅

Institute of Policy and
Management, CAS/中国科学院
科技政策与管理科学研究所

Researcher/ 研究员

Environmental
Economics/ 环境经

Economic evaluation of environment and natural resources, environmental policy and
management, wetland conservation and sustainable development. More can be
referred to in Chinese through the link below
http://envi.ruc.edu.cn/newcn/a/shizililiang/huanjingjingjiyuguanlixi/2011/1104/43.ht
ml.
Sustainable development, public policy, development strategy, resources,
environment, energy, climate change, watershed general management. More can be
referred to in Chinese through the link below.
http://sourcedb.ipm.cas.cn/zw/zjrc/200908/t20090814_2401639.html

Junhao WANG/王俊豪

Zhejiang University of Finance &
Economics/ 浙江财经大学

Professor/ 教 授

Ming SU/ 苏 明

Research Institute for Fiscal
Science, Ministry of Finance, P.R.
China/ 财政部财政科学研究所

Researcher/ 研究员

Industrial
economics/产业经
济学
Economics/ 经济学

Shiqiu Zhang/张世秋

Peking University/ 北京大学

Professor/ 教 授

Environmental
policy/ 环境政策

Hongxing ZHANG/ 张鸿星

Water Resources Division,
Ministry of Water Resources/ 水
利部水资源司
Chinese Society for
Environmental Sciences/ 中国环
境科学学会

Senior engineer/ 高 工

Water resources
conservation/ 水资
源保护
Environmental
technology/ 环境科

Jun BI/毕 军

Bin YI/易 斌

Researcher/ 研究员

40

Environmental management and policy analysis, environmental risk analysis and
emergency, environmental health assessment and risk management, global change,
low-carbon economics, air pollution control, watershed environment management.
More can be referred to the link after his name in Chinese. For his information in
English, please refer to: http://www.researchgate.net/profile/Jun_Bi3/ and
http://hjxy.nju.edu.cn/files/faculty/bij.htm

Industrial management, government governance, public enterprise management.
More can be referred to in Chinese through the link below.
http://mba.zufe.edu.cn/jsfc1/zzjs/wjh.htm
Fiscal expenditure policy, finance and tax of 'agriculture, farmer and rural', finance
and tax of energy, environment, and climate. More can be referred to in Chinese
through the link below.
http://www.crifs.org.cn/crifs/html/default/suming/index.html
Environmental and resource economics, environmental management and policy,
global commons, international environmental treaties. More can be referred to the
link after his name in English. http://cese.pku.edu.cn/personal/professor/enviscience/zhangshq/English%20Version.htm
N/A

N/A More can be referred to in Chinese through the link below.
http://www.chinacses.org/cn/zh_xhjs/zh_xhjs_msc.html

DragonSTAR: Task 3.3 Tackling Societal Challenges
Guang XIA/夏 光

Shangbin GAO/ 高尚宾 (

Linwei ZHANG/章林伟

Chazhong GE/葛察忠

Policy Research Centre for
environment and Economy,
Ministry of Environmental
Protection, P.R.C/环境保护部环
境与经济政策研究中心
Rural Energy & Environment
Agency, Ministry of Agriculture/
农业部农业生态与资源保护总

Development Division, Ministry
of Housing and Urban-Rural
Development of the People's
Republic of China (MOHURD)/住
房城乡建设部城市建设司
Chinese Academy For
Environmental Planning/ 环境保
护部环境规划院

Researcher/ 研究员

Environmental
Policy/ 环境政策

Environmental protection policy research and management. More can be referred to
in Chinese through the link below. http://prcee.org/jgsz/zxld/251268.shtml

Researcher/ 研究员

Agricultural
Environment/农业
环境

N/A More can be referred to in Chinese through the link below.
http://www.reea.moa.gov.cn/zzjs/zld/

Deputy Inspector/副巡视

Urban Water
Management/城镇
水务管理

N/A

Researcher/ 研究员

Environmental
Economics Policy/
环境经济政策

Environmental Policies on China's investment overseas. More can be referred to in
Chinese through the link below
(http://www.caep.org.cn/ReadNews.asp?NewsID=430)

41

DragonSTAR: Task 3.3 Tackling Societal Challenges

2.3.1.2

National Natural Science Foundation of China (NNSFC)

The NSFC is regarded as one of the most transparent and fairest funding opportunities at national level for
fundamental research and is often used as the vehicle to link China’s involvement with collaborative international
research programmes which require matched funding.
The NSFC have a series of funding schemes including the Major Programme, Key Programme and General
Programme. Water-related projects are funded under all three themes but the information on them was difficult to
extract as the NSFC funds its research based around eight subject categories, (Mathematical and Physical Sciences,
Chemical Sciences, Life Sciences, Earth Sciences, Engineering and Materials Sciences, Information Sciences,
Management Sciences, Health Sciences) and water projects could appear in any of them.
For this report, the Major Programme was examined as it supported the highest number of projects. According to
the NSFC annual reports, the Major Programme supported very few water projects between 2003 and 2010
although did fund the ‘Long-term Ecological Effect/ Impact of Large-scale Hydraulic Project on the Important
Biological Resources in the Yangtze Basin’ (大型水利工程对长江流域重要生物资源的长期生态学效应) project in
2004. This project was managed by Dr Jianbo Chang (常剑波) from Institute of Hydrobiology, CAS (中国科学院水生
生物研究所) and was worth 8 million RMB between 2004-200712 [24]. In 2011, two water projects were funded to
run between 2012-2016. One was the 20 million RMB ‘Multi phase transfer and its effect of water body in the third
pole geo system’ project [25] (第三极地球系统中水体的多向态转换及影响) [26] managed by Dr Yao Tandong (姚
檀栋) from Institute of Tibetan Plateau, CAS(中科院青藏高原研究所) and the other project was the ‘Theory and
method of engineering hydraulic computation in changing environment’ project (变化环境下工程水文计算的理论
与方法) coordinated by Professor Xi Chen (陈喜) from Hehai University (河海大学), which was worth 15 million
RMB.

2.3.2

International collaboration

There have been several significant European - China collaborations in water research over the last two decades
operating at the level of the EU, Member States and Associated Countries. In more recent years, several
international companies have also participated in water security projects in China (e.g. Atkins and Veolia).

2.3.2.1

EU-China

There is a long history of the EU funding water research in China. A selection of those related to groundwater and
irrigation are presented in Table 17. The size of these projects is varied but there have been significant multi-million
Euro investments.

12

The maximum size of the grant at this time was 10 million RMB.

42

DragonSTAR: Task 3.3 Tackling Societal Challenges

(1)

EU-China River Basin Management Programme (RBMP) 中国—欧盟流域管理项目

The EU-China River Basin Management Programme aimed to support the Chinese Ministry of Water Resources,
Ministry for Environmental Protection and related Chinese partners, especially River Basin Commissions to enhance
integrated river basin management (IRBM) policies and practices by sharing EU experience and best practices and
helped to support the development of the 2011 No.1 Document on ‘Accelerating Water Conservancy Reform and
Development’ which was influenced by the EU Water Framework Directive (2000). RBMP ran between 2007 – 2012
and had a total value of €186 million (EuropeAid contributed €25 million, the Chinese government contributed €79
million and the World Bank €82.5 million).
One of principal legacies of the EU China River Basin Management Programme, was the China Europe Water
Platform (CEWP) which was launched in 2012 following a joint agreement between the Ministry of Water Resources
of the PRC and the Presidency of the Council of the European Union, represented by the Danish Minister of the
Environment [27]. This Platform is designed to maintain the dialogue on water resources policy, management,
research and private sector involvement regarding water challenges, between China and the EU and its Member
States and associated countries and provide more opportunities for businesses and researchers between China and
the EU [21].
The China-EU 2020 Strategic Agenda for Cooperation was released at the 16th China-EU Summit where the ChinaEU Water Platform was used as a vehicle to promote water policy dialogue, enhance joint scientific research and
business cooperation in the three areas identified by the 2011 No.1 Document Three Red Lines. Currently, CEWP is
focussing on developing EU-China collaboration in the following areas:
• Water quantity (water scarcity, drought, ground water, urban water systems, water and security
nexus),
• Water use efficiency (water recycling, industrial water use, water and food nexus, water and
energy nexus),
• Water quality (pollution reduction, river basin management), and water disasters [28].
These topics are all progressing and there have been a series of meetings and workshops in the last year to better
described potential areas of research. Further information as it develops is available from the CEWP website
(http://cewp.org/).
(2)

SPRING (FP7)

The FP7 SPRING project (‘Scoping China’s Environmental Research Excellence and Major Infrastructure: foresight,
potentials and roadmaps’) [29] ran a series of EU-China workshops between 2010-2013 to identify the main research
challenges in the areas of climate change, water, atmosphere, biodiversity, soil and natural disasters.

43

DragonSTAR: Task 3.3 Tackling Societal Challenges

2.3.2.2
(1)

China – EU Member State Cooperation
Sino-Danish Initiatives

There have been several small Sino-Danish initiatives in water research which have mainly focused on education,
PhD studentships and academic exchanges (Table 18 lists those in the areas of groundwater).

(2)

Sino-Dutch Cooperation

The Joint Scientific Thematic Research Programme (JSTP) is a Sino-Dutch scientific programme for research
collaboration. Between 2009-2013, it funded the ‘Integrated Water Management in Relation to Climate Change and
Sea Level Rise’ project involving the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NOW), The Royal Netherlands
Academy of Arts and Sciences (KNAW), the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science (OCW) and their Chinese
partner organisations (CAS, CASS and MoST) [30]. Both the Chinese and Dutch sides contributed €3 million to the
project.
This programme had four themes:
• Predictability of extreme drought and rainfall, especially monsoons and typhoons,
• Links between hydrology, morphodynamics and hydrochemistry in relation to policy in the areas of ecology and
sediment management,
• Groundwater extraction and management of peat areas,
• Management of water-rich areas via information from satellites and sensors.

44

DragonSTAR: Task 3.3 Tackling Societal Challenges

Table 17. EU-China Groundwater and Irrigation Projects [21]
Project Acronym
& Funder

SAFIR4EU
http://www.safir4
eu.org/
EU-funded

Title

Safe and High Quality
Food Protection using
Poor Quality Waters and
Improved Irrigation
Systems and
Management

RECLAIM WATER
(http://www.istworld.org/Project
Details.aspx?Proje
ctId=cdf4c9803a3
64e4b81cf8997d4
1e74b7 )

Water Reclamation
Technologies for safe
artificial groundwater
recharge

Funded by the EU,
DG XII, Program
STD-INCO, and
the Swiss
Government.

Policies for water
savings in the Yellow
River Basin: a DSS
applied to Ningxia and
Shandong

EU-funded

Period

Partners

Chinese Partners

Other Partners

20052009

University of Aarhus (DK) ( Coordinator: F. L. Plauborg),
BRGM (FR), Eawag (CH), Grundfos Bioboosters (DK),
Consorzio di Bonifacia di secondo grado per il Canale
Emiliano Romagnolo (IT), University of Belgrade (CS), Nat.
Agricultural Research Foundation (GR), Polish Academy
of Sciences (PL), NERC (UK), Polish Academy of Sciences
(PL) NERC( UK), University of Copenhagen (DK) SSICA(IT),
London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine (UK), DHI
(DK).

CAAS, China Agricultural University

NETAFIM Ltd (IL)

20052008

RWTH Aachen (DE) ( Coordinator: T. Melin), BRGM (FR),
DHI (DK), BfG (DE), Eawag (CH), University de Barcelona
(ES), Cranfield University (UK), UNESCO-IHL (NL), RIBO
Technologies BV (NL), Aquafin N.V. (BE), Inst. Za Ekoloski
Inzeniring DOO (SI), TU Berlin (DE), CNR (IT)

Tsinghua University

Mekorot (IL); United Water Int. PTY.
Ltd (AU), Public Utilities Board (SG),
Nat. University of Singapore (SG),
CSIR (ZA), University Nac. Aut. De
Mexico (MX)

University Tecnica de Lisboa (PT) (Coordinato: L.S.
Pereira), CEMAGREF (FR), EPFL (CH), IHE Delft (NL)

Wuhan University of Hydraulic and
Electric Engineering, Ningcia Water
Conservancy Service, Shandong Bojili
Irrigation District, Institute of Water
Conservancy and Hydroelectric Power
Research

Central Soil Salinity Research Institute
(IN)

Central Arid Zone Research Inst. (IN),
Centro Regional de Investigaciones
Cientificas y Tecnicas (AR), Inst. Nac.
de Tecnologia Agropecuaria (AR),
Inst. Nac. de Ciencia Y Tecnica
Hidricas (AR), Environment and
Climate Research Inst. (EG), Haryana
Agricultural University (IN), University
of Cairo (EG), Int. Crops Research Inst.
for the Semi-Arid Tropics (NG)

19982002

Impact of climate
variability on agroecosystems and water
resources in drylands

19972000

Alterra (NL), University degli Studi di Padova (IT), Int.
Institute for Environment and Development (UK)

Ganxu Research Institute of Water
Conservancy, CAS

Improved water and soil
management for
sustainable agriculture
in the Huang-Huai-Hai
rivers plain (North
China)

19941998

Inst. Superior de Agronomia (PT) ( Coordinator: L.S.
Pereira), EPFL (CH), Cranfield University (UK)

Inst. Of Water Conservancy and
Hydroelectric Power Research

45

DragonSTAR: Task 3.3 Tackling Societal Challenges
Development of
methodologies for the
assessment and
management of
groundwater resources
and risks in coastal zone

AsemWaterNet
EU-funded

Multi-stakeholder
platform for ASEM S&T
cooperation on
sustainable water use

19941998

Lab. Nac. de Engenharia Civil (PT) ( Coordinator: J.P.
Lobo-Ferreira), Lab. De. Engenhaia Civil de Macau (PT),
University of Birmingham (UK)

Dalian University of Technology, South
China University of Technology

20052009

BRGM (FR), MTT Agrifood Research Finland (FI), GEUS
(DK), Lab. Nac. De Engenharia Civil (PT) ( Coordinator: J.P.
Lobo Ferreira), Rothamsted Research (UK), Vrije
University (NL), Alterra BV (NL), University of Osnabruck
(DE), WWC (FR)

Hunan Provincial Science and
Technology Department, Research
Centre on Flood and Drought Disaster
Reduction-MWR, Research Centre for
Eco-Environmental Sciences, Centre for
Chinese Agricultural Policy - CAS, Hunan
University, Changjiang Water Resources
Commission

46

Sustainable Water Resources
Research Centre (KR), NCST (VN),
Dep, of Water Resources (TH)

DragonSTAR: Task 3.3 Tackling Societal Challenges

Table 18. Sino-Danish Cooperation Activities in Groundwater [21]
Project

Where

What

Who

When

Funding

Danish Contact

WHATER4COASTS

Laizhou Bay
SV of Beijing

Saline water
instrusion

GEUS, China Geological Survey, Brazilian
Partners

20142016

Danish Programme for Ecoinnovation 2012

Klaus Hinsby, GEUS

Beijing

Master and PhD
education

8 Danish Universities; Danish Ministry of
Higher Education and Science, Graduate
University of the Chinese Academy of
Sciences ( GUCAS)

2010

The participating parties

Hans Gregersen, Aarhus University;
Peter Holm, University of
Copenhagen

Shandong

Groundwater
mapping

COWI, SkyeTEM, Danish Embassy in Beijing;
GEUS (in reference group)

20102011

Danish Ministry of the
Environment

Jens Schultz Hansen, Danish Ministry
of the Environment

China North
Plain

PhD project,
Modellng of the
NCP with RS input

Department of Geography and Geology,
University of Copenhagen; IMWI

20082010

University of Copenhagen, FIVA,
IMWI

Karsten Høgh Jensen, University of
Copenhagen

Department of Geography and Geology,
University of Copenhagen; Beijing Normal
University

2010

Department of Geography and
Geology, University of
Copenhagen;

Karsten Høgh Jensen, KU IGG

Alectia, GRAS, GEUS

20102012

Part of the HYACINTS project,
funded partly by the Danish
Strategic Research Fund, partlly
by Alectia and GRAS

Jens Chr. Refsgaard, GEUS

20112012

The Danish Council for
Technology and Innovation

Miriam Feiberg DHI mfl

Sino-Danish Centre for
Education and Research
(SDC)
Partnership, Danish Ministry
of the Environment/
Shandong Province
Integrating remote sensing
and hydrological modeling
for groundwater resources
assessment and sustainable
use in the North China Plains
Visiting Professor

China

Modelling of North China
Plain

China North
Plain

Innovative Green System
Solutions

China

Prof. Suhua Fu,
Beijing Normal
University
Cooperation with
Peking University,
upgrading existing
hydrological model
etc.
A network project
in Danish Water
Forum; one work
package on
groundwater
management in
China

47

DragonSTAR: Task 3.3 Tackling Societal Challenges

3.

Urban Agriculture

3.1

Introduction

The world’s human population is expected to reach 9.6 billion by 2050 from its 2013 level of 7.2 billion [31]. This
growth has major implications on how natural resources are allocated and may be protected for future generations.
An added dynamic to this population expansion is the redistribution of populations towards urbanised areas (both
migration from rural areas and expansion of the existing urban population). China and India have experienced the
most extreme cases of this phenomena and it is estimated that 276 million people in China and 218 million in India
will occupy urban areas by 2030 [31].

China is the world’s most populous nation [31]. In 2013, the population size reached 13.86 billion, or 19.3% of the
world’s total, and its size is expected to reach almost 14 billion by 2025 (Figure 1).

Figure 1. Estimated and predicted population growth in P.R. China (1950 – 2025) [32]

Since the 1978 Reform and Open Policy (改革开放), major changes have been observed in the distribution of China’s
population as individuals have increasingly migrated from rural areas to urban areas attracted by the higher salaries
and better opportunities for work [32, 33]. The proportions of the population residing in rural and urban areas are
currently approximately equal (Figure 2), but there has been a rapid decline in the annual growth rate of rural
populations since 1973, and a more gradual decline in the annual growth rate of urban populations since 1980-85
48

DragonSTAR: Task 3.3 Tackling Societal Challenges

following the avocation of birth control by the highest political levels [34] and the introduction of birth control as a
state policy following the 12th Party Congress [35] (Figure 3).

Figure 2. Urban-rural population changes in P.R. China between 1950-2025 [32]

The rapid expansion of China’s urban population has resulted in unprecedented demands for resources such as
water, energy and food in urban areas which have not been observed in other developed countries which have
undergone urbanisation at a more gradual pace.

49

DragonSTAR: Task 3.3 Tackling Societal Challenges

Figure 3. The annual growth rate of urban-rural populations in P.R. China between 1950-2025 [32]

Chinese Food Security Policies

3.2

Food security is a critical issue in China as its population accounts for one fifth of the world’s total but accounts for
only nine percent of the world’s land. To compound matters, it is estimated that the per capita availability of arable
land is less than 40% of the world’s average and the per capita availability of freshwater around 28% of the world’s
average [36].
Ensuring food security in China is a top priority of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (CPC), and
the last eleven No.1 Documents 13 have focused on agriculture, food security, farmers and rural reform (三农问题)
or closely related subjects (e.g. water) (Table 1). For example, the 2014 No.1 Document identified the following
priority areas:

Improve national food security system;

13

The No.1 Document (or ‘No. 1 Central Document’) is the first policy document issued by the CPC and the State Council every
year and outlines the top priority of the coming year.

50

DragonSTAR: Task 3.3 Tackling Societal Challenges

Intensify support and protection for agriculture;

Establish a long-term mechanism for sustainable agricultural development;

Deepen rural land system reform;

Establish a new agricultural management system;

Accelerate the innovation of agricultural financial system;

Balance rural and urban development;

Improve rural governance [37].

Table 1. The No.1 Document Themes from 2004 to 2014
Year
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014

Theme
Boosting Farmers' Incomes [38]
(促进农民增加收入)
Strengthening Rural Work and Improving the Overall Production Capacity of Agriculture [38].
(进一步加强农村工作提高农业综合生产能力)
Constructing A New Socialist Countryside [38]
(推进社会主义新农村建设)
Developing Modern Agriculture and Steadily Promoting the Construction of A New Socialist Countryside
[38](积极发展现代农业扎实推进社会主义新农村建设)
Fortifying the Foundation of Agriculture [38]
(切实加强农业基础建设进一步促进农业发展农民增收)
Achieving Steady Agricultural Development and Sustained Income Increases for Farmers [38]
(促进农业稳定发展农民持续增收)
Speeding Up Coordinated Development Between Urban and Rural Areas and Further Cementing
Foundation of Agricultural and Rural Area Development [38]
(加大统筹城乡发展力度进一步夯实农业农村发展基础)
Accelerating Development of Water Conservancy [38]
(关于加快水利改革发展的决定)
Underscoring the Importance of Scientific and Technological Innovation for Sustained Agricultural
Growth [39]
(关于加快推进农业科技创新 持续增强农产品供给保障能力的若干意见)
Pledging to Accelerate Agricultural Modernization and Rural Development [40]
(关于加快发展现代农业,进一步增强农村发展活力的若干意见)
Underscoring the Importance of Rural Reforms, Developing Modern Agriculture and Maintaining
Agriculture As the Foundation of the National Economy [37]
(关于全面深化农村改革加快推进农业现代化的若干意见)

Whilst China’s agricultural policies are undergoing high-level reform, its population is also experiencing a period of
dietary transition [41] which is affecting both human health [42, 43] and global food markets [44]. Since 1989, the
consumption of rice has declined with observed increases in the consumption of wheat and animal-derived foods.
Consumption patterns in both rural and urban populations have followed similar trends during this period (Tables 2 -

51

DragonSTAR: Task 3.3 Tackling Societal Challenges

5), although the overall quantities of food consumed by urban populations were higher than in rural areas with
significant differences in the quantities of animal-derived and processed foods consumed (Tables 4 & 5)14.

Table 2. Daily consumption (g.day-1) of plant-derived foods by China’s rural population between 1989-2004
arranged in order of total size across all years [41]
Food type
Rice
Wheat
Other cereals
Legumes and products
Tubers
Fresh fruit
Vegetables1

1989
362
314
193
44
174
30
86

1991
338
302
196
59
95
22
37

1993
335
303
211
52
98
21
39

1997
312
292
193
49
91
30
34

2000
290
277
154
60
78
30
22

2004
295
377
173
54
47
32
18

Table 3. Daily consumption (g.day-1) of plant-derived foods by China’s urban population between 1989-2004
arranged in order of total size across all years [41]
Food type
Rice
Wheat
Other cereals
Tubers
Legumes and products
Vegetables15
Fresh fruit

1989
316
242
183
71
88
37
27

1991
336
238
194
59
91
22
22

1993
284
234
169
89
66
26
28

1997
262
239
153
86
67
34
35

2000
237
262
146
91
70
30
30

2004
243
313
152
80
29
36
35

Both the size of China’s population and its changes in dietary behaviour has led to an increasing dependence on food
produced by foreign countries and food demands from China now have a huge impact on global food markets and
subsequently global food security. For instance, currently China imports 5% of its maize which is roughly equivalent
to a third to a half of all maize traded internationally so changes in demand in China affect the global trade and
production of this crop [44]. A more serious concern is the fact that if China were faced with a crisis in its domestic
grain production, it would require approximately twice the amount of grain traded internationally to support its
population [45].
14

It has been argued that migrant workers moving from rural to urban areas may also have exacerbated these dietary trends. A
study conducted by the Development Research Centre of the State Council suggested that migrant workers who move to urban
areas consumed 119.14 kg more crop per person per year compared to rural residents, but which was also 51.04 kg more than
each urban resident 36. China Economic Times (中国经济时报). Food security: China's food security in globalisation/ 粮食安
全:全球化条件下的中国粮食安全. 2013; Available from:
http://www.moa.gov.cn/fwllm/qgxxlb/hn/201311/t20131126_3686389.htm.
15

All vegetables excluding potatoes

52

DragonSTAR: Task 3.3 Tackling Societal Challenges

The increasing dependence on overseas food production has led to high level concerns within China about how to
guard the country’s food security and has led to the introduction of policies aimed at making the country more selfsufficient in certain staple food stuffs [45].
Table 4. Daily consumption (g.day-1) of animal-derived and processed foods by China’s rural population between
1989-2004 arranged in order of total size across all years [41]

Food type
Pork
Fish
Eggs and products16
Poultry
Other meats17
Animal fat
Cakes
Milk and products18
Sugar

1989
44
22
9
4
4
19
1
1
8

1991
59
21
13
7
5
14
3
2
5

1993
52
20
12
6
6
11
1
1
4

1997
49
25
20
10
6
10
2
1
6

2000
60
25
23
12
6
12
1
2
6

2004
54
28
23
13
11
7
6
6
5

Table 5. Daily consumption (g.day-1) of animal-derived and processed foods by China’s urban population between
1989-2004 arranged in order of total size across all years [41]

Food type
Pork
Fish
Eggs and products2
Poultry
Other meats3
Milk and products4
Cakes
Animal fat
Sugar

1989
71
27
16
12
7
5
2
15
8

1991
59
22
15
7
6
5
1
12
4

1993
89
28
22
14
12
7
4
9
7

1997
86
35
33
17
16
9
5
9
8

2000
91
30
32
19
15
17
5
12
6

2004
80
35
33
19
25
25
8
4
4

A target of becoming ‘95% or 90%’ self-sufficient in ‘food’ or ‘crop’19 production was first proposed in 1996 in China's
White Paper on Food Issues (《中国的粮食问题白皮书》) [46]. It was then announced in 2006 that a target of 1.8

16

Products in which egg is the key ingredient
All processed meats
18
Products containing milk
19
In Chinese, the word ‘food’ used in the phrase ‘food security’ is normally translated as ‘粮食’, which is a narrower definition of
‘food’ than in the English context. In the Chinese context ‘food’ includes only crops/ grains/cereals, legume/ beans and
tubers/potatoes which is not consistent with any international standard. Only grain production in China can be compared with
17

53

DragonSTAR: Task 3.3 Tackling Societal Challenges
billion hectares20 of land was to be reserved for agricultural use under the 11th Five Year Plan21 in order to achieve
the approximate targets for self-sufficiency proposed [46, 47]. Two years later, the National Food Security and Longterm Planning Framework (2008-2020) (《国家粮食安全中长期规划纲要》) formally set a target of China
becoming more than 95% self-sufficient in food [45] and the estimated figure of 1.8 billion hectares of agricultural
land required to achieve this target was validated by the State Council when it approved and published the National
Land Use Planning Framework (2006-2020) (《全国土地利用总体规划纲要(2006-2020 年)》)22 in 2008 [48].
This target of 95% self-sufficiency in basic food stuffs was reiterated in the 2013 No. 1 Document which stated that
that the target should be achieved by 2020 [11]. The Chinese Ministry of Agriculture (MoA) estimates that the
country is currently less than 90% self-sufficient in grain (although this figure increases to 97% if imported beans are
excluded [49]), whilst self-sufficiency levels for other agricultural products are around 80%. In terms of grain
production alone (excluding imported beans), this deficit is equivalent to 1 billion tonnes a year [50]. The MoA are
confident that their self-sufficiency targets can be achieved over the coming decades and predict that China will
reach a self-sufficiency rate of 101 % in rice by 2020 and 102% by 2035, of 99% in wheat by 2020 and 100% by 2035.
However, self-sufficiency rates of corn/maize are lower as these foods are primarily used as animal feeds and with
the growing demand for meat, the self-sufficiency rate is likely to drop in the coming years from 92% self-sufficient
by 2020 and to 84% by 2035 [45].
There is widespread recognition that these high levels of food self-sufficiency cannot be achieved through the
reservation of 1.8 billion hectares of agricultural land alone. Not least, the country as a whole suffers from a major
deficit in its freshwater resources [36] and more than 0.2 billion hectares of agricultural land already suffers from
annual droughts. There are also shortages in high quality agricultural land, with some of it being re-designated for
other purposes (e.g. urban developments). This problem is particularly acute in the rapidly developing areas around
the Yangtze River and Pearl River Deltas [49]. Xiaoqing Xu23 has publically stated that only 800 million hectares of
arable land is available within China which can supply food without being affected by the drought or flood [44].

the international data of the same name. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (UNFAO), describes ‘grain’ as
wheat, rice and coarse food grain (which covers grains such as maize, barley, and sorghum). In China, ‘grain’ refers mainly to rice,
wheat, and maize (which together formed 98.4% of the total grain production in China in 2011).
20
This figure was derived from estimates of factors such as crop consumption per person, the crop yield per unit, the multiple
cropping index, the food demand forecast and the predicted demand for cultivated land [17].
21
th
The 11 Five-Year operated between 2006 and 2010.
22
The Land Use Planning Frameworks covers four key issues regarding the land use, two of which relate to agriculture. One is
described as ‘primary farmland’(基本农田) (land which should not fall below 1.56 billion hectares and its quality should be
improved) and the other is ‘reserved land for cultivation’ (耕地保有量) (of which 1.818 billion hectares was planned to be kept
by 2010, and 1.805 billion hectares by 2020). Primary farmland is defined as the land reserved for cultivation for a certain period
calculated with reference to population and domestic economic demands and the prediction of the construction land use during
certain period. Reserved land for cultivation does not have to be primary farmland, and the primary farmland is protected by
law and its function cannot be shifted [17].
23

Director General of the Research Centre of Rural Economy in Development Research Centre of the State Council of the
People’s Republic of China.

54

DragonSTAR: Task 3.3 Tackling Societal Challenges

Alternative strategies of improving self-sufficiency are being investigated and there are excellent opportunities for
international collaboration in this area. The fundamental strategy is to improve productivity and yield per unit area
which will require significant modernisation of the Chinese agricultural industry. The Chinese government is using a
variety of approaches to achieve its self-sufficiency targets including the following:

maintaining and supporting innovation in agricultural management (including the control of reserved land
for cultivation [45], improved governance mechanisms, subsidies for farmers to continue farming and the
adoption of large-scale farming and means of operations, rural-urban development towards agricultural
modernization and agricultural product monitoring network [51]);

strengthening the agricultural infrastructure system (particularly improving soil quality, further R&D in
agricultural technologies and farming techniques, and improved distribution and logistics systems) [45];

supporting the development of sustainable agriculture by promoting new technology applications (including,
developing new breeds, enhancing agricultural green production, and the restoration of polluted soils and
water [51] ), accelerating the technology cluster development to build a platform for innovation, improving
food safety, and reducing food waste;

increasing the number of ‘talents’ in the area of agricultural science and technology [49, 50].

In 2012, the No.1 Document emphasised the importance of innovation in agricultural science and technology in
addition to the need for the training and education of talent [52] in this area of science. In order to improve land
yield, resource efficiency and labour productivity, it specified that technological innovation and agricultural research
should focus on [53]:

The enforcement of basic research, especially in developing the major basic theory and approaches
agriculture, in terms of agricultural genetically modified organisms (农业生物基因调控), molecular breeding
(分子育种), the resistance mechanism of forestry, animal and plant (农林动植物抗逆机理), high-efficient
utilization of agricultural resources (农田资源高效利用), agricultural ecological restoration (农林生态修复),
pest control (有害生物控制), bio-safety, food safety (生物安全和农产品安全) and so on.

Accelerating research in cutting-edge technology to lead agricultural modernisation and achieve major
advancements in domestic innovation in agricultural bio-technology ( 农 业 生 物 技 术 ), information
technology (信息技术), advanced material technology (新材料技术), advanced manufacturing technology
(先进制造技术), precision agriculture (精准农业技术) and so on.

Major achievements in practical technology are needed to overcome the agricultural technology bottleneck.
This includes improving good quality breeding (良种培育), efforts to save costs and lower consumption (节
本降耗), water- saving irrigation (节水灌溉), agricultural machinery equipment (农机装备), new fertilizer
(新型肥药), disease prevention and control / epidemic control (疫病防控), product processing, storage and
55

DragonSTAR: Task 3.3 Tackling Societal Challenges

shipping/ transport/ logistics(加工贮运), circular agriculture (循环农业), marine agriculture (海洋农业),
rural livelihood (农村民生) and so on.
Nevertheless, the 2014 No.1 Document again focused on increasing domestic agricultural productivity though the
modernisation and reform of China’s agricultural system but there was a slight revision in terms of official policy
towards international food resources and markets and there was a consideration of how the country could more
efficiently employ international food sources in the medium to long term in order to stabilise the country’s food
supply [50, 54]. Much of the 2014 No.1 document focussed on the establishment of a national food security system,
intensifying the support and conservation system for agriculture, building up long term mechanism for agricultural
sustainability, deepening land reform measures, constructing a new agricultural operation system, accelerating
innovation in rural finance systems, improving the mechanism of integration between urban and rural development
and enhancing rural governance mechanisms [54]. There was a focus on investing in the science and technology for
innovation in agriculture, agricultural infrastructure and equipment, and accelerating the circulation of agricultural
products. There was particular emphasis on the role of developing high quality seeds and improving breeding,
agricultural irrigation and water conservation, agricultural machinery, information technology and a marketing
network and demands for a national seed bank [50]. Obstacles to improving the efficiency of Chinese agricultural
production were identified as the limited transition of modern agricultural practices, the small scale of production
and operation, limited natural resources, changes in supply and demand related to dietary transitions amongst its
citizens and an increase in natural disasters [36]. There was also a strong emphasis on solving the most urgent and
practical issues for farmers to enable them to both maintain their current levels of production in addition to
accelerating agricultural modernisation. This focused on conserving a baseline of good quality arable land and
developing subsidy and incentivisation schemes for grain production. In terms of developing a comprehensive
international agricultural strategy to support its food security, the 2014 No.1 Document described some developing
policies in this area. One of the aims was to improve the framework and conditions for Chinese agricultural
enterprises operating in domestic and international markets [55], but there was also interest in enhancing
international cooperation in the areas of agricultural technology communication and economic cooperation with
organisations such as the FAO and the World Food Programme. This was further supported by the National
Development Plan for the Agriculture Modernization (《全国现代农业发展规划》) which aimed to increase the
attractiveness of the Chinese R&D environment for the talents and foreign investment through international science
and technology cooperation on agriculture [29]. One interesting recent development in terms of China’s agricultural
interest in the international arena is the leasing of agricultural land from third countries. In 2013, the Xinjiang
Production and Construction Corps signed an agreement with the Ukrainian agricultural firm KSG Agro to lease up to
3 million hectares of Ukrainian agricultural land (equivalent to approximately 5% of Ukrainian land) for crop and pig
production over the next 50 years [56, 57]. There are reports of at least two other Chinese companies looking to
follow similarly [57].
56

DragonSTAR: Task 3.3 Tackling Societal Challenges

3.3

Urban Agriculture

In an era of increasing urbanisation and population size, and faced with a population which is undergoing a period of
dietary transition creating demands for high resource value foods, the Chinese government is facing significant
challenges to meet the nutritional needs and food demands of its population. In particular, the process of
urbanisation which is correlated to increased wealth, higher purchasing power, higher consumption rates has led to
a greater demand for processed food, meat, dairy and fish and is exacerbating China’s food crisis. There are also
issues related to labour shortages as individuals migrate from rural to urban areas.
Urbanisation adds more pressure to the food supply chain and requires changes in the way that food is produced,
stored, processed, distributed and accessed. It has also led to fundamental changes in the pressures facing the
agricultural industry worldwide. The first change is an increasing gap between the supply and demand of food stuffs
of particular importance to urban populations. For example, maize is used largely as animal feed in China and there
is a growing shortage of domestically produced maize with increasing pork production. Moreover, there are even
more obvious shortages in soybeans, edible vegetable oil, sugar and cotton (the self-sufficiency rates are 18%, 40%,
80% and 75% respectively) [50]. The second change is that traditional agricultural production tends to be clustered
around the main production areas so food stuffs need to travel long distances to reach the consumers in the towns
and cities. The third change is the growing attention of consumers on the quality and security of agricultural
products. This is a particular issue for China which has suffered from several high profile food safety issues in recent
years. As a result, there is increased interest in modern urban agriculture (UA) 24 practices from the public and
private sectors, NGO and individuals both in China and abroad. The United Nations has even argued that urban
farming needs to play a bigger role in feeding city populations [59]. The exploitation of urban areas for agriculture is
particularly attractive as these areas normally attract high levels of investment and human capital and provide a
market for high quality and high value produce. Moreover, it has also been argued that urban agriculture contributes
not only to economic development of these areas, but also supports the ecological, environmental and social
development of urban systems [60] and reduces the disparity between rural and urban citizens [61, 62].
Urban agriculture has very different characteristics to traditional forms of agriculture and is more likely to attract
ecological and green agricultural techniques, agro-tourism, highly market-oriented agriculture and cutting edge
science and technology. However, the increased operating costs of urban agriculture resulting from the increased
value of urban land compared to rural and increased labour cost may hinder development. There may also be issues
related to food safety and whether it is safe to cultivate food in urban soils and water.

24

The growing of plants and the raising of animals within and around cities 58. RUAF. What is urban agriculture? 2013 [cited
2013 18/10]; Available from: http://www.ruaf.org/node/512/%20Urban%20Agriculture%20What%20%26%20Why.

57

DragonSTAR: Task 3.3 Tackling Societal Challenges

3.4

Chinese Policies on Urban Agriculture

Although there has been limited specific mention of urban agriculture in official policy documents, several initiatives
have been mentioned which could be defined as such.
First, the National Development Plan for the Agriculture Modernisation (《全国现代农业发展规划》) in 2012
identified peri-urban areas as the most likely candidate areas for the development of modern multi-functional
agriculture which would mean that urban agriculture is leading the modernisation of all the fields of agriculture [63].
Second, the 2012 No.1 Document called for middle25 and large26 sized cities to increase their capacity to supply fresh
food to their inhabitants so as to be more resilient under emergency situations. It also aimed to improve the land
yield, resource efficiency and labour productivity through the innovation of agricultural science and technology [64]
which are key characteristics of urban agriculture. The 2014 No.1 Document further supported this approach when it
demanded that radical approaches be taken to achieve agricultural modernisation by intensifying science and
technology innovation in agriculture, investing in agricultural infrastructure and equipment, and accelerating the
distribution of agricultural products [50, 54].
Third, under the National Development Plan for the Agriculture Modernisation, the cadres’ evaluation is directly
linked to the main indices of urban and modern agricultural development (such as crop production, farmers’ income
and cultivated land conservation) and directly affects their career progression [65]. The ‘Rice Bag’ system for
Provincial Governors (“米袋子”省长负责制)27 and the ‘Basket’ responsibility system for Mayors (“菜篮子”市长负责
制)28, are used to ensure that both levels of government are directly responsible for food supplies. Examples of this
system in operation include Beijing and Shanghai. Both cities employ an urban agriculture index which considers
parameters such as the cities’:

Self-sufficiency in fresh agricultural products29

Area of reserved arable land

Available emergency food supply capability

Safety and quality of food

Development of urban agriculture areas including pilot areas of multi-functional agriculture, modern
agriculture demonstration area and agricultural cluster areas.


25
26

Water conservation [43]

This refers to the cities with a population scale between 0.2 – 0.5 million.
This refers to the cities with a population scale 0.5 - 1 million.

27

Provincial governors are required to ensure food security by stabilising crop production and ensuring that food prices are
steadied by balancing the supply and the demand of crops within their own geographical boundaries.
28

Mayors are required to ensure food security by stabilising the non-staple food production and ensuring that food price are
steadied by balancing the supply and the demand of the non-staple food within their own geographical boundaries.
29

It refers to the proportion of the fresh agricultural products production produced within the city in the general fresh
agricultural product production. Fresh agricultural products are recommended to be able to self-supplied to some extent by
each city or town itself.

58

DragonSTAR: Task 3.3 Tackling Societal Challenges

During the 12th Five-Year Plan Period (2011 – 2015), Beijing planned to transform 1370 farms to zero emission farms
with no pollution. Around 500 farms were converted by 2012 and the rest are due to for completion by the end of
2015 [63].
To conclude, urban agriculture has been promoted across China as an approach to address its food security and to
promote international cooperation in S&I and global trade. The provincial and municipal authorities have been given
rights and responsibility to be innovative using local finance to secure its food supply with a range of flexible and
diverse incentives. The clear and divided responsibility between the central government and the local government
may encourage the development of urban agriculture with a shared the common goal, but adopt innovative
approaches according to local conditions.

3.4.1

Chinese Government Incentives for Urban Agriculture

The economic benefits of urban agriculture are less rewarding than those from other industries such as real estate
and property development and it is highly likely that government incentives will be required to develop this form of
farming beyond demonstrator systems. The Chinese government has traditionally supported farmers with high levels
of incentives for grain production [66] but whether they would be willing to extend this to the more niche markets of
urban agriculture is uncertain. Certainly, there have been overarching government reforms which have involved the
public sector responding directly to marketization and supporting innovation [67], but the returns on modern urban
agriculture may be extremely modest [63].

3.4.2

Chinese Public Research Funding Schemes

The major national funding schemes provided by the state are open applications for research and development of
urban agriculture. These agencies include the Ministry of Science and Technology (MoST), Ministry of Agriculture
(MoA), Ministry of Education (MoE), Ministry of Land and Resources (MoLR), the National Natural Science
Foundation of China (NSFC), Ministry of Water Resources (MWR) , Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP), the
Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), the China Scholarship Council (CSC). Each funding agency funds a range of
programmes of different scale and duration and which are targeted at specific researchers) related to factors such as
age, nationality and professional seniority).
One of the main funders of S&T is the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) whose funding system
consists of three categories of programme: Research Promotion (RP) (项目资助体系), Talent Fostering (TF) (人才培
养资助体系) and Infrastructure Construction for Basic Research (ICFBR) (环境建设资助体系). In 2012, the NSFC
allocated 16.476 billion RMB to RP programmes, 0.374 billion RMB to TF and 0.15 billion RMB to ICFBR [68]. As the
majority of NNSFC funding was allocated to its RP Programme, the NSFC’s research interests can be captured by
analysing its funding distribution amongst this specific programme.

59

DragonSTAR: Task 3.3 Tackling Societal Challenges

The RP programme is further sectioned into the following schemes: General Programme (面上项目), Key
Programme (重点项目), Major Programme (重大项目, Major Research Plan Programme(重大研究计划) and
International Cooperation Programme (实质性的国际合作项目) [69]. The majority of the funding is awarded to
the General Programme which also supports the highest number of projects (in 2012, 12.48 billion RMB was
awarded to 16,891 General Programme projects (approximately 0.739 million RMB per project with a 19.24 %
success rate)). The other schemes fund a smaller number of projects than the General Programme but with higher
resources per project (in 2012, 18 Major Programmes were awarded a total of 0.322 billion RMB (approximately
17.889 million RMB per project); Key Programmes were awarded approximately 2.913 million RMB per project (with
a 19.45 % success rate) and 355 projects were awarded a total of 0.710 billion RMB under the Major Research Plan
Programme (approximately 2 million RMB per project) [68].
The funding available from the NSFC has been increasing year on year. In the General Programme, the total value of
projects in 2001 was 0.8 billion RMB shared amongst 4435 projects (approximately 0.180 million RMB per project)
[36], and went up to 8.989 billion RMB for 15329 project in 2011 (0.586 million RMB per project) [33], 12.48 billion
RMB for 16891 projects in 2012 (0.739 million RMB per project) [34] and to 12 billion RMB for 16194 projects in
2013 (0.741 million RMB per project) [35]. The proportion of the funds allocated to food science, basic agronomy
and crop science has remained relatively stable from 14.10% in 2011 [70], 14% in 2012 [68] and 14.23% in 2013 [71].

3.5

Urban Agriculture Research Foci in China

Information on the funding allocated specifically to urban agriculture is difficult to obtain as there is no formal
classification of these projects under the main funding schemes aside from agriculture. Nevertheless inferences can
be drawn from identifying the main research centres on urban agriculture and identifying the most active academics
in this area and by examining their main areas of interest. Much of the following information was obtained from
Chinese websites without English translations and would be difficult for non-Chinese speakers to access.

3.5.1

Urban Agriculture Key Laboratories

National and Ministerial Key Laboratories30 are used to deliver cutting-edge research in specific fields of science and
technology. There are two Key Laboratories which focus on urban agriculture in China, one located in the north and
one in the south of the country and which have been running since 2009. The Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture
(North) Ministry of Agriculture (KLUAN, 北方重点实验室) is a collaboration between Beijing University of Agriculture
(北京农学院), China Agricultural University (中国农业大学), and the Beijing Academy of Agricultural and Forestry
30

In order to improve the level and capability of innovation in China, the 2010 No.1 Document explicitly mentioned that the
development of key labs needed to be strengthened. This was reinforced by the Outline of the National Program for Long and
Medium- Term Scientific and Technological Development.

60

DragonSTAR: Task 3.3 Tackling Societal Challenges
Sciences (北京市农林科学院). The Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture (South) Ministry of Agriculture (KLUAS, 南方
重点实验室) is based within Shanghai Jiaotong University (上海交通大学). Only KLUAS will be described here.

3.5.1.1 Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture (South) Ministry of Agriculture (KLUAS)
KLUAS was established from a merger of the Eco-Agricultural Research Centre and the Eco-Agriculture and Food
Safety Laboratory and was sponsored by a partnership between Shanghai Jiaotong University and Chongming County
People’s Government [72]. It was the first research institution to specialise in basic scientific research and
technological development in the urban agriculture.
Its main research foci are:

Security and control in agricultural products and their habitats
(农产品及其生境安全与控制)

Germplasm innovation using high-efficiency production techniques and low carbon technology
(种质创新与低碳高效生产技术)

Mechanisation and intelligent informatisation of urban agriculture
(都市农业机械与智能信息化)

Innovation of urban agriculture and urban landscape agriculture
(都市农业创意与城市景观农业)

Structural theory and strategic planning of urban agriculture
(都市农业结构理论与战略规划的研究)

Reports from 2013 showed that KLUAS had received 150 million RMB of research funding since it was established in
2008 [73]. Of this funding, 60% originated from public sources at national and ministerial levels (Table 5). The
majority of projects were funded by the NNSFC General Programme and the Shanghai Municipal Government which
clearly shows that both national and municipal level funding sources are important for research in urban agriculture.
General Programmes and Key Programmes, who participated funding the KLUAS, have been all increasing its general
amount and its intensive extent, as to support research and innovation (R&D).

61

DragonSTAR: Task 3.3 Tackling Societal Challenges

3.5.2

NSFC-Funded Urban Agriculture Projects

The following projects were identified using internet searches on Baidu31. No projects were identified when
‘National Natural Science Foundation of China’ and ‘Urban Agriculture’ were entered in English, but two projects
were identified with ‘National Natural Science Foundation of China’ and ‘Peri Agriculture’ (Table 6).
Only a few more urban agriculture projects were identified using Chinese search terms. Table 7 shows the results
from when “自然科学基金” (NSFC) and “都市农业”(Urban Agriculture)were entered into Baidu.

Table 5. Funding awarded to KLUAS between 2008 - 2013
Project Category

Number of
projects

The National Basic Research Programme/ 973 Programme
[国家 973 项目(子课题)]

1

The National High-Tech Research and Development Programme/863 Programme
[国家 863 项目]
Special Fund for Agro-scientific Research in the Public Interest
[国家公益性行业专项]
Key Program sponsored by the National Natural Science Foundation of China
[国家自然基金重点项目]
General Program sponsored by the National Natural Science Foundation of China
[国家自然科学基金面上项目]
948 project
[农业部 948 项目]
Agricultural Achievement Transformation Project from MoA
[农业部农业成果转化项目]
The National Key Technology R&D Program Project During the 12th Five-Year Plan
["十二五"国家科技支撑计划项目]
International S&T Cooperation Program of China (ISTCP)
[国家国际科技合作与交流项目]
Projects Sponsored by Shanghai Municipal Government
[上海市项目]
Other funding

31

7
2
2
> 70
1
9
3 (including 2
sub-topics)
1
> 70
~ 10

Baidu was selected as the search engine for this exercise rather than the more internationally-famous Google as it is more
reliable and more commonly used within China where there are issues with access to international websites.

62

DragonSTAR: Task 3.3 Tackling Societal Challenges

Table 6. NSRC-funded urban agriculture projects identified using English search terms
Funding Programme

Project Name

National Science & Technology Pillar

Agricultural safety use technology of heavy metal

Program (2008BADA7B02 - 03)[74]

exceeding soil in suburban (2008 - 2010)

Grant (RMB)

Note
Daoyou Huang as Team Leader. Director of Agricultural Resources and Environment Branch, China

1,000,000

Agricultural Association, Society of Peri - urban Agriculture of Hunan Province in Changsha
(http://sourcedb.cas.cn/sourcedb_isa_cas/yw/expert_e/200905/t20090507_52464.html )
Jianming Cai as Coordinator of Multi stakeholder action planning. Key results are
•Agreement has been established among farmers, citizens, experts and policy makers on the
important roles of multi-functional agriculture in peri-urban development.
•Explicit attention is given to socio-economic and land-use planning, that includes urban

221' Programme in Beijing[75]

agriculture, by Beijing and local governments.

Urban Agriculture in Beijing

•Three pilot projects have been developed, which serve as examples for both farmers and policy

(http://www.ruaf.org/node/495#intro )

makers.
•Frequent communication between practitioners, policy makers and researchers via personal
contact, domestic meetings and an international workshop, has been established.
•A network on peri-urban agriculture has been established, which is expanding to other cities
N/A

including Shanghai, Chengdu, Lijiang, and Nanjing.

63

DragonSTAR: Task 3.3 Tackling Societal Challenges

Table 7. NSRC-funded urban agriculture projects identified using Chinese search terms
Funding Programme

Project Name

Grant

Note
Available information in Chinese; It took 2 years and was submitted on 28th Dec, 2013.

Beijing Natural Science

Research into the Integration of Urban Agriculture, Ecotourism, and

Foundation Programme/

Cultural Innovation Industry 《都市农业、生态旅游和文化创意产业融

北京市自然科学基金资

合研究》(http://news.bvca.edu.cn/article/2014-1-

助项目 (9122010) [76]

2/article59_13952.html )

Produced a main report, 8 sub-reports, 1 monograph, and 7 research papers; Participants
are 市农委副主任李成贵(研究员、博导)任组长,成员包括中国农业大学农民问题
N/A

研究所所长朱启臻(教授、博导)、中国人民大学农业与农村发展学院副院长郑风
田(教授、博导)、市农业局科教处处长程晓仙(高级农艺师)、市农林科学院信
息所副所长张峻峰(研究员)。
Available information is n Chinese; Published in 《自然科学进展》 in 2009; Participants
are 周斐红,刘力行,陈捷,姜雪,刘铜,黄秀丽,翟羽红 from 上海交通大学农业与生物学院
植物病理系,都市农业(南方)
重点开放实验室,上海 200240
摘要: 采用 RT-PCR 方法,研究了玉米弯孢菌的弱致病性分化型 WS18 在抗性玉米自

寄主抗性胁迫下玉米弯孢叶斑病菌致病力相关蛋白与基因表达的分析
National Natural Science
Foundation [77]

交系 Mo17,沈 135,78599-1 上分别继代接种后所得的各个世代菌株中 Sod,Scd1,

(http://pub.nsfc.gov.cn/pinscn/ch/reader/view_abstract.aspx?file_no=199

Brn1 三种基因表达量的变化.Sod 基因变化比较灵敏,继代前期有剧烈变化,而后

36&flag=1)

恢复与原始菌株相当;而 Scd1 与 Brn1 基因表达量在继代前后均未发生显著性变
化;这与基因所编码蛋白的表达量变化趋势有所差异.因此,在寄主一定程度的选
择压力下病菌致病力相关蛋白的变化可能在 mRNA 水平并没有发生同步改变.
关键词: 玉米弯孢病菌,mRNA,致病力
N/A
The Joint Funding

陈松笔 from 中国热带农业科学院 cooperates with Hernán Ceballos from 国际热带农业

木薯种质资源转录组与蛋白质组分子评价及品种高效选育研究

中心(CIAT)

Programme between

杨小红 from 中国农业大学 cooperates with Buba Roman from 国际玉米小麦改良中心

CGIAR (国际农业研究磋
商组织) and National

有机结合连锁和关联分析剖析玉米籽粒营养品质的遗传基础

(CIMMYT)

Natural Science
Foundation of China in
2013 (国家自然科学基

李在峰 from 河北农业大学 cooperates with Singh Ravi from 国际玉米小麦改良中心
基于关联分析和连锁分析的小麦抗叶锈病基因分子定位

(CIMMYT)

64

DragonSTAR: Task 3.3 Tackling Societal Challenges
金委员会)
[78](http://www.nsfc.go
v.cn/Portal0/InfoModule

谢传晓 from 中国农业科学院作物科学研究所 cooperates with Prasanna Boddupalli M

`

国际玉米小麦改良中心(CIMMYT)

气候变化对农用树种植物—土壤反馈系统的作用

余世孝 from 中山大学 cooperates with Barrios Edmundo 世界农用林业中心(ICRAF)

_396/52267.htm )
These 9 programmes

赵书红 from 华中农业大学 cooperates with Kemp Steve 国际家畜研究所(ILRI)

have been approved and

四个东南亚猪种免疫及生长性状全基因组关联分析与特色基因挖掘

sponsored with

全球气候变化之增温对水稻产量和品质形成及氮代谢与氮效率的影响

19,700,000 RMB in total

及机理研究

黄见良 from 华中农业大学 cooperates with Jagadish Krishna 国际水稻所(IRRI)

from China, to conduct

Thomas Reardon from 中国人民大学 cooperates with Minten Bart 国际食品政策研究所

5-year project, from 1st

变化市场中农产品价值链转型及价格、食品安全的互动关系——以蔬

Jan, 2014 to 31st Dec,

菜、渔产品和乳制品为例

(IFPRI)

2018.

钟甫宁 from 南京农业大学 cooperates with DIAO XINS HEN 国际食品政策研究所
(IFPRI)
人口变化,城乡人口流动,和中国的农业与农村发展

面上项目 General
Programme 国家自然科

《上海郊区农业的特色及都市农业的发展方向》

胡雪峰主要研项目,2012 年 1 月—2016 年 12 月
2013-1-1-2016-12-31 (2012 年度陕西师范大学国家自然科学基金资助项目清单) 周忠

学基金重点项目子课题
[]

西安-咸阳城市化对都市农业功能时空演变的影响研究

学 旅游与环境学院面上项目

700,000

65

DragonSTAR: Task 3.3 Tackling Societal Challenges

3.5.3

Chinese Urban Agriculture Experts

The importance of acknowledging senior experts in research proposals cannot be underestimated when applying for
Chinese research grants. Applications which do not cite the evaluators’ research are unlikely to be approved.
The names and contact details of the primary Chinese experts working in urban agriculture are listed in Table 8.

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DragonSTAR: Task 3.3 Tackling Societal Challenges

Table 8. Key Urban Agriculture Experts in China

Name

Institution

Title
Director of Agricultural
Resources and

Daoyou
Huang
黄道友

Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, The
Chinese Academy of Science

Environment Branch,
China Agricultural
Association, Society of
Peri - urban Agriculture
of Hunan Province

Contact

Experience

Yuanda Road (Second) # 644, Mapoling, Changsha,
Hunan, China. 410125

Research Interest

He has undertaken more than 40 projects such as
National Natural Science Foundation, Natural

Tel: (86)-731-84615227
Fax: (86)-731-84612685
E-mail: dyhuang@isa.ac.cn
Web:
http://sourcedb.cas.cn/sourcedb_isa_cas/yw/expe
rt_e/200905/t20090507_52464.html

Science Foundation of Hunan Province, National

Majored in the field environment

Science & Technology Pillar Program, Knowledge

conservation and preservation of

Innovation Project of Chinese Academy of

polluted soils.

Sciences, Special fund for the State Environmental
Protection

Datun Rd.11 A, Anwai, Chaoyang District, Beijing,
Jianming
Cai
蔡建明

Department of Urban & Rural Studies,
Institute of Geographic Sciences and
Natural Resources Research, Chinese
Academy of Sciences

Coordinator of China
Regional Centre of RUAF
Foundation

China. 100101
Tel: +86-10-64889279
Fax: +86-10-64889279
Email: caijm@igsnrr.ac.cn
Website: http://www.cnruaf.com.cn/
Research areas in soil biology and

Director in Chief, the
Jinshui Wu
Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, The
吴金水

Chinese Academy of Science

Institute of Subtropical
Agriculture, the Chinese
Academy of Sciences
(CAS), China

Yuanda Road (Second) # 644, Mapoling, Changsha,
Hunan, China. 410125
Tel: (86)-731-84615224
Fax: (86)-731-84612685
Email: jswu@isa.ac.cn
Web:http://sourcedb.cas.cn/sourcedb_isa_cas/yw
/expert_e/200905/t20090516_68826.html

67

In recent 5 years, he has taken charge of one issue

biochemistry, soil fertility, and

of National Science Fund for Distinguished Young

resources and environment

Scholars, National Science Foundation of China,

management, with the specialty in

the Knowledge Innovation Program of the Chinese

microbial transformations of

Academy of Sciences and National Key Basic

organic C, N and P, and the impacts

Research Specific Foundation (973 programme),

on rural environment, and soil

respectively.

carbon sequestration on
agricultural systems

DragonSTAR: Task 3.3 Tackling Societal Challenges
Deputy director of a
department ; Professor

Huang Biao
黄标

Key Lab. of Soil Environment and
Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil
Science,Chinese Academy of Science

in the Chinese Academy

No.71 East Beijing Road, Nanjing, China. 210008

of Sciences and trustee

Emai:bhuang@issas.ac.cn

of Minerology,

Web:http://sourcedb.cas.cn/sourcedb_issas_cas/y

Petrology, and

w/rc/fas/200907/t20090724_2239510.html

Geochemistry Society of

Taking change of 1 project from Chinese Academy
of Sciences, 2 from Minstry of Sciecne and
Technology, 1 from National Natural Science
Foundation of China, and 1 from Ministry of
Environmental Protection.

Soil Geochemistry. Also a member
of Trustee of Mineralogy,
Petrology, and Geochemistry
Society of China

China
State Key Lab. of Soil and Sustainable
Xuezheng

Agriculture, the Institute of Soil Science,

No.71 East Beijing Road, Nanjing, China. 210008

Soil resources and information

Shi

the Chinese Academy of Sciences,

xzshi@issas.ac.cn

system

Nanjing of China as a professor.
2007-2009: "Scaling Effects and Scale Transfer
Methodology in Landscape Patterns and Ecological
Processes", Key Project of Knowledge Innovation
Program by CAS, project coordinator
Deputy director, State

2006-2010: "Exploitation and Integrated

Land evaluation, land-use/cover

Key Laboratory of Urban

18 Shuangqing Road, Haidian District, Beijing,

Ecological Management in the Loess Hilly Area",

change and environmental effects,

Key Laboratory of Urban and Regional

and Regional Ecology,

China. 100085 Tel: 010-62943840

National Advanced Project of the Eleventh Five-

sustainable land-use planning;

Weiping

Ecology Research Center for Eco-

Research Center for Eco-

Fax:0086-10-62849014

year Plan. Sub-project coordinator

Landscape pattern analysis, design

Chen

Environmental Sciences, Chinese

Environmental Sciences

liding@rcees.ac.cn

2005-2010: “Farm Ecosystem management, Its

and bio-diversity

Academy of Sciences, Beijing

(RCEES), Chinese

http://sourcedb.rcees.cas.cn/yw/fs/200906/t2009

Environmental Effect and Agricultural Landscape

conservation;Landscape

Academy of Sciences

0612_1038163.html

Optimization in Chinese Traditional Agricultural

management and non-point source

Area”, National Basic Research Program of China.

pollution control

Email:
Web:

(CAS)

Sub-project coordinator
2004-2009: “Land use pattern and ecological
processes”. Sponsored by the Natural Science
Foundation of China. Project co-coordinator

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DragonSTAR: Task 3.3 Tackling Societal Challenges

3.5.4

Case studies promoted by the 2014 No.1 Document

The press release used to announce the 2014 No.1 Document was illustrated using several case studies of successful
agriculture projects, including efficient use of urban spaces through the co-location of a photovoltaic power stations
in Yancheng City, Jiangsu Province. The solar panels were mounted above a water body allowing aquaculture to
operate beneath [54].

3.5.5

Commercial Investment in Urban Agriculture

Part of the attraction of investing in urban areas is that talents and capital tend to cluster in these areas. Plus there
are market motivations related to the increasing price of food, a growing market demand for high quality of fresh
(and safe) food in cities [79] and the revocation of agricultural tax in 2006 which was aimed at boosting the
agricultural industry and reduce the disparity between the rural and urban areas.
Commercial companies made at least 114 investments in agriculture in general in China between 2006 to the first
half of 2011 [79]. Of this, 1.76 billion USD were invested in 104 cases. In 2010, 0.891 billion USD of investment were
made in 47 cases suggesting that investments in agriculture are on the increase.
Several state-owned companies are investing in research and development in urban agriculture. These include
COFCO (中粮集团) which is state-owned company and the largest supplier of agricultural and food products in
China32 with its own product research and innovation division [80]. China Grain Reserves Corporation (中储粮), and
China National Agricultural Development Group Co., LTD (中国农业发展集团) are investing likewise in this area.

3.5.5.1 IEDA and Vertical Farming
IEDA was the first company to invest in research and technology to promote urban horticulture and it has completed
more than 100 projects internationally. Its business service covers planning and design, construction, and supporting
services related to agricultural parks and green houses.
Its current project includes Vertical Hydroponic Cultivation, Vegetable Tree – Hanged Potato Tree, Greenhouse Park
and Eco-Restaurant. IEDA also developed the Chinese National Agricultural Science & Technology Demonstration
Park is platform for research achievements demonstration, communication, training and guiding. Technology
promotion and application are its aim.
The company lists its main achievement as:
1) Vertical Cultivation: More than 20 multi-layers vertical hydroponics systems have been installed to enhance
space utilisation.

32

COFCO-branded products includes Fortune Edible Oil, Great Wall Wine, Mengniu Dairy, Lohas Fruit and Vegetable Juice, Le
Conte chocolate, Tunhe tomato products and Joycome meat products.

69

DragonSTAR: Task 3.3 Tackling Societal Challenges

2) LED Artificial Light for Plant Growth: Application of LED in seeding, planting leafy vegetable with LED,
application of LED in tissue culture.
3)

Remote Control: Realise online management and remote monitoring to control the vegetables growth
everywhere, with mobile phones, laptops, PDAs and other terminals, through the network transmission
systems.

4)

Quality Control Technology: Nitrogen Interruption before harvest [81].

5) Energy-saving environmental control technology: Mobile Plant Factory, Product Line of Home Digital Plant
Factory, such as Angel Garden, E-Garden, and the first low-carbon intelligent plant factory in the world [82]
IEDA are currently seeking collaboration opportunities in vertical farming as it aims to develop skyscraper agriculture.

3.5.6

RUAF and Chinese Demonstrator Cities

RUAF (国际都市农业基金会) is using Beijing, Shanghai, Chengdu and Wuhan as demonstrator cities for urban
agriculture development. These schemes have largely been funded using municipal level funds.
The population of Beijing is still on the increase but stood at 20.6 million in 2011 in 2007 [75]. This has resulted in a
severe deterioration of its urban environment and a massive loss of farmland. In order to counter these impacts, the
Beijing Municipal Government established the “221 Programme” which aimed to better promote urban agriculture
in three main areas:

Maximise utilization of resources and the market

Mobilise the supportive inputs of capital and technology

Facilitate an information platform for sharing agricultural technology and experience

The 221 project was considered a success as it led to dialogue between stakeholder groups, higher productivity
though more intensive farming, the creation of cooperatives to facilitate capacity building and a better
understanding of Beijing’s urban planning policy.
There have also been significant developments in urban agriculture in Chengdu where a Multi Stakeholder
Policymaking and Action Planning on Urban Agriculture (MPAP) was established. This resulted in the establishment
of models of participatory and multi-stakeholder planning, new models for urban agriculture related development
and support in finding technology assistance.
Whilst RUAF considered these initiatives a success, they have not moved beyond their pilot stages through a lack of
support and financial investment for urban agriculture [83]. However there is a greater government interest in
promoting agricultural tourism with plans for 100 agro-tourism villages and 1000 agricultural leisure parks to be
developed by the end of 12th Five-Year.

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DragonSTAR: Task 3.3 Tackling Societal Challenges

4. Acknowledgements
The authors would like to thank those researchers who have participated in the pilot study interviews for giving up
their time and allowing us to ask for their thoughts on how to improve EU-China scientific collaboration.
We are also grateful for the support of the whole DragonSTAR team, particularly Nondas Christofilopoulos, Daoliang
Li and Keqin Dong.

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DragonSTAR: Task 3.3 Tackling Societal Challenges

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