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his article details a new transfer function
approach in passive harmonic filter design
for industrial and commercial power system applications Filter placement along with six
common filter configurations are presented. Harmonic impedance, voltage division and current division transfer functions are derived and used in a
practical filter design procedure that incorporates
IEEE-5 19distortion limits directly into the design
and component specification process. A simple
four-step filter design procedure is outlined and
used in a variable speed motor drive pumping
plant application
Several factors need to be considered before a filter design is undertaken. In all cases, there will be a
number of reasons why filters are required. These
may include utility-imposed distortion limits,
telephone interference complaints for existing
drive installations, parallel resonance and system
problems, poor power quality resulting from one
or more motor drives or rectifier loads sharing a
common coupling, engineering specification requirements, or simply that the drive manufacturer
is just a nice guy. (Although this last example is
rare in industry ) Drive manufacturers notoriously
do not want to deal with harmonic distortion unless they are forced to by other political or economical factors, since i t increases the cost and
complexity oftheir product and tends to make each
installation specialized However, harmonic distortion is quickly becoming a very hot topzc
throughout the power industry-especially with
the new version of IEEE-519 Since the drive
manufactures tend to be slow to change their basic
designs incorporating new technology such as
high-quality rectification 111,and since active filter systems still appear to be a few years away from

Thzs artzcle uppeared zn zts orzgznalfirm at the 1995
Petroleum C Chemzcal Industry ConJrence The authvr,
an IEEE Member, zs aprznczpal with Peak Power Engzneerzng, Golden, Colo.

I

I

IEEE Industry Applicufians Muguzine 1 Murch/April I997

being readily available on the market, passive harmonic filter systems are being used extensively to
interface both existing and new large motor drive
converter systems Therefore, the need for an effective filter design procedure is justified
Currently, passive harmonic filter application is
the method practiced most often and is readily
available to power system engineers and designers
for reducing harmonic voltage and current distortion through alternate circuit path operation Several IEEE transaction papers have been written and
published that introduce the theory and implementation of advanced techniques for controlling
harmonic current flow such as magnetic flux compensation, harmonic current injection, dc ripple
injection, series and shunt active filter systems, and
pulse-width modulated static var harmonic compensators However, practical systems have not
been extensively developed and are not yet available on the market It may still be some time before
these advanced techniques are fully developed and
are readily available so as to successfully compere
with passive harmonic filter systems, by the time
they can compete, advanced rectifiericonverter designs that use active line current-shaping techniques will reduce the need for large-scale
harmonic filtering systems in new installations, assuming industry implements the technology
Hence, the life expectancy and success of these advanced harmonic control techniques may be limited Until that time arrives, if it even does, passive
harmonic filters can be designed and applied alone
or in combination with transformer phase shifting
and/or higher pulse number rectifier configurations to control waveform distortion on the power
system
This article deals exclusively with passive harmonic filter design Six common filter configurations are presented Possibly for the first time, a
transfer function approach to filter design and system modeling performance is presented that can he
setup to account for harmonic distortion control
limits directly in the filter design process The
1077-2618/971$10.000 1997 IEEE

ifthe system were to operate unbalanced. however. Filter impeddnce representation. I ANSUIEEE-5 19 harmonic distortion limits and guidelines are incorporated into a practical filter design procedure. 2. the basic single-phase design relations can still be used to calculate the initial component values.-'y-J Infinite Source Equivalent System Impedance Power Transformation Finite Load One or More Non-Linear Harmonic Sources I I I I I I I I I I Fig. the analysis begins with the generalized frequencydependent filter system impedance representation ZfiThis impedance can take on several forms depending on the desired response. symmetrical component harmonic models and transfer functions could. one of the main design goals is to maintain balanced voltages and currents in the network and to maintain reliability and efficiency. at the same voltage level. Similar to power factor correction capacitor placement. I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Filter Impedance Transfer Function I This transfer function is the basic building block on which the modeling begins.. Fortunately. There are both advantages and disadvantages for either filter location as well as several economic alternatives to consider. sponses. and it is the basic building block on which several useful filter system design transfer functions can be defined. When filter systems are used in unbalanced loading conditions. preferably at the motor drive terminals) results in the greatest attenuation of harmonic distortion for a given filter reactive power rating. With these in mind. the following transfer functions are based on single-phase equivalent circuits assuming that the system is designed and operated under balanced conditions. Therefore. In any case. 2. As shown in Fig. and a simple example that applies these steps is presented.I I I I I I I Harmonic Locations I I I I I I I L. with moderate effort. Those values can then be inserted into a full three-phase unbalanced model for further analysis and design refinement. 1. FilterlSystem impedance representation. 3. I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Fig. there are two practical locations where passive harmonic filters may be effectively applied. the need for unbalanced harmonic analysis and filter operation is much less than it is for balanced operation. if I I lfff hdusfiy Applicafionr Magozhe m Marrh/Aprill997 I I I I I . represent only a small fraction of harmonic producing loads in general. Practical filter locations. It is defined to be the complex impedance frequency response of the filter system expressed in the s-domain of the individual filter circuit elements. placing the filter system as near to the nonlinear load as possible (i. As in all three-phase power system analysis. Although it is beyond the scope of this article to discuss unbalanced harmonic systems.e. the optimum location results in maximized harmonic reduction performance and minimized equipment costs and system losses. therefore. the application of single-phase rectifier loads that cause unbalanced harmonic systems are of the low power type and. be derived and used in addition to a complete three-phase computer simulated model to approximate the unbalanced conditions and system re- Zf(S) 'I-1 I I I I If(@ I I I I I VfW I I I - I I I I Fig. Many times. Fiher Transfer Functions [Z] There are a number of important transfer functions that can be derived for filter design and system modeling purposes. 1. Filter Placement As shown in Fig.

Zf(si can be factored into a combination of denominators (poles) and numerators (zeros) substituting to derive the parcicular tuning and damping relations between component variables. I -20dBlD +20dB/D If other energy storage elements such as capacitances and/or inductances exist in the power system network. j. Wye.. Fig. 1 Z"=-z 3 A where Zy = 20 = Line-to-neutral. they will affect the overall performance of the filter system when it is installed HfiS(s)is a powerful tool that can be used to gain insight into the combined frequency response of the filter connected to the system. (1)can be defined as follows: I I I I I I I I I where H f (si = Filter impedance s-domain transfer function Z f ( s ) = Filter s-domain complex impedance Vf(s) = Single-phase equivalent filter s-domain voltage I f ( s ) = Filter branch s-domain current I I I I I I I I I I As mentioned above. If the actual filter is configured in a delta connection.df (s) is the ratio of filter current to injected current. impedance H f ( s ) can be used to design and tune the filter as a separate system before it is modeled in the power system network Depending on the type and complexity of the filter configuration. this impedance can be connected to the power system network to derive the filterlsystem impedance transfer function Hfi(s) where Zs(s) is represented as the system Thevenin equivalent system network impedance. FilterlSystem Impedance Transfer Function After the filter system is configured and Zf(J-) is known. Current Divider Transfer Function There are two types of the current divider transfer functions that can be derived for the filter system connected to the power system network. I IF€€Industry Applications Magazine = March/Aprill997 . First-order high-pass. 3. Hcds(s)is the ratio ofsystem current to injected current and H. impedance Line-to-line.First-order damped high-pass. 4. Zf(s) is considered to be a single phase equivalent impedance when used to model a three-phase system. Referring to Fig. care must be taken not to confuse line-to-line and line-to neutral impedances when using (1) For balanced three-phase systems. Fig.I I I I a general filter branch is defined at its terminals. Delta. (2) is used as the wye-delta transform.

First-order damped high-pass filter behind a series reactance. the IEEE-5 19 current distortion limits can be used in conjunction with the expected harmonic current injection from the converter rectifier to compute the minimum current divider ratios required to meet the imposed limits These ratios can then be used to define the minimum filter attenuations for which Hcds(l)is based. This class of transfer functions is based on a voltage division between an equivalent harmonic voltage source and harmonic sensitive loads. Z.(s) = sL. the impedances of the transfer functions can be used to assess the overall system performance After the filter system is installed and operational. I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Fig. I I I I I I I I I I I First-Order High-Pass Filter A first-order filter consists of a capacitor bank con- I nected directly to the power system bus and it is typically intended to filter high frequency harmonics from the system as shown in Fig. 4. the harmonic current flows can be measured and the appropriate current divider ratios can be computed and plotted on the same graph for a filter performance comparison of designed vs measured response Equation ( 5 ) is useful for designing and determining harmonic current distortion limit compliance with IEEE5 19 limits [31 As discussed later. I I I I shunt power factor capacitor parallel or series resonant amplification effects of voltage distortion at locations where harmonic sensitive loads exist or high power quality is desired. A typical use for this type of system representation is in solving I I I I I I I I I I I I I Fig.Fig. 6. I I I + I I I Transfer functions (9) and (10) are very important because they serve two roles When the filter system is being designed. The nomenclature for this class of transfer functions is typically expressed as Hods (s). Voltage Divider Transfer Functions A similar class of transfer functions can be developed for systems where harmonic voltage sensitive loads exist and the designer is mainly interested in developing filter systems to provide frequency detuning or voltage distortion control. 8. 7. with the system impedance assumed to be a simple inductance. The “order” of the filter. Second-order series resonant filter. in IEF Industry Applications Magazine m March/April I I I I I I I I997 .. where vds refers to the harmonic voltage division with respect to the source. Second-order filter impedance transfer function.

Secondorder t r a n s f e r f u n c t i o n s with L. (20) When the transfer functions contain a few simple terms. I \\ I L + L and \ '. Rs. as in the case shown above. i /€FE Industry ApplicationsMagazine I Murch/Aprill997 I Hrn. the primary application of this type filter is to attenuate highfrequency harmonic current components that cause telephone interference and reduce the voltage notching caused by SCR rectifier commutation as well as provide partial power factor correction of the fundamental load current When used unintentionally. For the plot shown in Fig. 4 . 10. then the maximum can be found as follows: Fig. the algebra . the system natural par- allel resonant frequency may fall near one or more critical driving harmonic current frequencies. the roll-off of the high frequency 2 components is 1/0 or -40 dB per decade when (12) is expressed in dB form.I I I I I this case the lst. > L. I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I When used intentionally. and significant voltage distortion may result. is takenas the highest exponent of the characteristic s-domain polynomial of H f i s ) . 1 __ 1 --b- E Fig. as in the case of 60 H z power factor correction capacitor banks. If the system impedance is assumed to have some resistance.i 1 1 As shown by (16). Therefore. the construction of Hcds (10) consists of evaluating the function at both low and high frequencies Starting with 1 (12) and considering low frequencies. Second-order t r a n s f e r f u n c t i o n with L. 9. L. I and For high frequencies.- L L+L. - and WC with 1 .= Q.

Second-order damped series resonant filter impeddnce transfer function. however. when the parallel resonant frequency resulting from the cancellation of the system inductive reactance by the high-pass filter capacitive reactance falls on or near a critical har- monic frequency. Iff€Industry ApplicationsMagazine m March/Aprill997 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I m . a first-order damped high-pass filter is commonly used as the last filter section in the bunch The damping resistance then serves to reduce the highest order parallel resonance formed between the high-pass filter capacitance and the effective equivalent inductive reactance resulting from the parallel combination of the utility system inductance and the secondorder filter branch inductances In certain power factor correction applications. the application of the series damping resistance significantly limits high frequency performance over that of the undamped first-order high-pass This tends to make it less desirable for telephone interference reduction applications In certain instances. 12. the roll-off of the high frequency components above the frequency 1/(RC) is only liO or -20 dB per decade Hence. a series resonant circuit will be formed between the filter capacitance and the series inductance (I e . the inductive leakage reactance of a power transformer.. a high-pass damping resistance can be connected in series with the capacitance to control and reduce the amplification Such a resistance. a series connected resistance is sometimes used to provide a damping characteristic to the high-pass filter. 5 . unwanted harmonic current may flow through the capacitance and cause overheating or excessive system voltage distortion A damping resistance can then be added to limit the harmonic current flow. the following equations can be written: I I I I I I I I I Z$) = SL. 11. (22) I I I I I I I I I and 1 I 1 I GL I RbpC I I I Fig. can be determined analytically by evaluating the transfer function Hc&O) at the resonant frequency. H f (s) = sc I I I I I I I I 5- +R Fig. As shown in the previous section. when a capacitor bank is connected behind a series inductance from a harmonic generating source. Second-order damped series resonant filter showing the connection of and inductor bypass resistance. H. Assuming the source impedance is a simple inductance. r I O+ I I I I I First-Order Damped High-Pass Filter I I I As shown in Fig.I I I I required to derive analytical closed-form expressions for the asymptotes and local maxima and minima is fairly straightforward. for example) as shown in Fig 6 If this resonance falls on a driving harmonic. where Q=- 'P R L C The high-frequency asymptote is found by considering since [%)2 >> 1 As shown by (27). increases the fundamental frequency power loss and reduces the effectiveness of the high-pass attenuation above the frequency lI(RC)as shown by Hcds(s) In applications involving several second-order series resonant filter sections connected in parallel and tuned to increasing discrete harmonic frequencies.

8. or. the current flowing in the filter is typically of low RMS magnitude and does not require large current carrying conductors or gapped inductor cores with an abundance of iron In fact. Fig. Those expressions are indicated in Fig. < L To find the local maxima of I Hcds (10) I or I Hfi (si I requires much more work.filter is entirely resistive Obviously. At high frequencies. r Series Resonant Filter I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I The single most used harmonic filter topology is. However. there are practical limits to R. distribution. the capacitive reactance cancels the inductive reactance and the /€€€ lndusfry Apphtions Magazine I Marchv’April1997 1 sc where A = Gain coefficient a0= Series resonant frequency Q = Filter quality factor For high-voltage applications with a given filter reactive power rating. air-core inductors are regularly used. provides reactive power to the system. hand. perhaps. Third-order filters. Second-order damped series resonant filterlsystem impedance and current divider transfer functions. therefore. and utilization For example. 9 for the case where the system is considered to be a simple inductance and L. The filterisystem current divider transfer function Hcds (s) can be evaluated at high and low frequencies to determine the asymptotes similar to the above discussion for the first-order filters (13) and (15 ) . 10 shows the case for L. for low voltage applications. and small damping resistance as shown in Fig. however. on the other typical [4]. Fig. large HVDC transmission converters typically use several second-order filter sections tuned to discrete frequencies and connected in parallel at the ac terminals of each converter to provide both reactive power and the desired harmonic filtering On distribution systems. the second-order series resonant type. usually require gapped iron inductor cores and large current carrying conductors. The damping resistance is usually set by the physical limitations of the equivalent series inductor resistance and the equivalent series capacitor resistance and no external resistance is added to the circuit The representation of the second-order series resonant filter can be expressed in an equation form as given by (29) and (30). how- . the filter is inductive and provides little attenuation for high-frequency distortion At the resonant frequency. inductance. they are typically employed where power factor capacitor banks require detuning to control the natural system parallel resonant frequencies from landing on a critical driving harmonic in which case the capacitor bank is configured into a detuned filter The most common location. > L. 13. seventh.or it can be expressed graphically as shown in Fig. eleventh. filter quality factors of 10 5 Q 5 50 are typical. 7 and is typically used to filter a single discrete harmonic frequency such as the third. Both forms show the classical series resonant circuit At low frequencies. It consists of a series combination of a capacitance. the more attenuation. second-order filters are typically used to provide filtering for applications where several harmonic producing loads share a common coupling.(s)=R+sL+- Fig. the filter is dominantly capacitive and. In these cases. The 2nd-order series resonant type filters are commonly applied at practically all power system voltage levels: transmission. the lower the filter resistance. etc. The result is 2 higher I R and core losses with increased heating and a higher temperature rise These factors tend to raise the effective series resistance and lower the quality factor Hence. 14. fifth. filter quality factors of 50 5 Q 5 150 are Low-voltage applications. is mostly at the utilization voltage level since individual converter loads often exist alone and economic and operating constraintsdo not justify filter applicationsor costs at the higher voltage levels. H.

noting the typical case where R < < Rbp. 15. therefore. as shown in Fig. - Hluher-Order Filters Higher-order filters are possible and used where the economics and desired harmonic response justify their applications. Fortunately. Two possible solutions exist: ( 1 ) I the transfer functions can be evaluated numerically and plotted graphically to determine the approximate maxima.ever. Also. Second-Order Damped Series Resonant Filter Another popular topology of the second-order series resonant filter is to provide an inductor bypass resistance as shown in Fig. by contrast. I I I I I I I I I A = -1 I . Higher Qbp factors allow more series resonant attenuation and less high-pass. The main application of this filter is to provide attenuation for harmonic frequency components over a wide frequency range. the evaluation proves to be quite laborious indeed! Hence. a tradeoff between the series-resonant and high-pass responses exists. I While ( 3 2 ) may look innocent as shown above. with the final design being based more on art than science. or (2) the derivatives of the functions can be evaluated numerically to determine frequencies where the maxima occurs. The tuning ofthis filter is accomplished similar to the second-order series resonant filter using (34) for a0. the series resonant frequency &. C2 can be connected in series with L and sized to form a series resonant branch at I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Fig. 14(b). These frequencies can then be back substituted and a short iterative procedure can be used to gain any numerical degree of precision desired. Hmdx does not occur at the parallel resonant frequency formed by the filter capacitance and the system inductance. the quality factor Qbp. recommended for this estimate. Because of the interaction between the capacitive reactance and the filter inductive reactance. the filter impedance transfer function can be expressed in normalized form by ( 3 3 ) . 11. lower Qbp factors provide less series resonant attenuation and greater high-pass response. 16. and the bypass resistance is chosen based on the desired high-pass response and the series resonant attenuation. the normalized polynomial coefficients of ( 3 3 ) can be equated to find the gain coefficient A.5 < Qbp 4 2. It should be noted that finding a closed form expression for these functions involves finding ( 3 2 ) . the approximations given in (34) can be made.. Using a little algebra.The series resistance R is typically chosen based on practical values for the second-order series resonant filter quality factor. As defined in (30). Line reactance placement for a "harmonictrap. many different transfer function characteristics are possible. As shown in Fig. especially when the system and filter impedances increase in complexity. Hence." I I I I I I Iff€Industry Applicotionr Mogozine Morch/April I 997 @ .0 are typical E>]. numerical methods become very attractive. I I I I I I I I Depending on the value selected for the inductor bypass resistance. Bypass quality factors of0. and the simple pole frequency 03. the minima of the transfer functions is very close to the series resonant frequency and typically only tends to increase by a few percent worst case when Ls < L. 14(a). Nth-order filter configurations. or.L I I I A numerical method is. Fig. a third-order filter can be made by adding a series capacitance C2 to the inductor bypass resistance to 2 reduce the fundamental frequency Ibp losses.

I I I Fig. a fifth and seventh filter system would be fourth-order. there is an economic crossoverpoint which can justify their existence When harmonic filtering is viewed from the line reactor application standpoint. the application of C2 does not provide any significant increase in filter performance or the filter transfer function since it is typically sized to optimize the filter losses at the fundamental frequency and not the tuning harmonic frequency.PCC I I I ’I I Fig. With the addition of the line reactance. 17. complexity. where LLR = line reactor inductance When external line reactors are used in combination with shunt harmonic filters as shown in Fig 16.PCC . padmount with Z > 5 % ) . 19. since the filter requirements are lowered along with the resultant equipment costs. S t e p #3: Representation of HrPec the fundamental frequency to reduce the Ibp2 losses Other than increasing the filter energy efficiency. S t e p #2: D e f i n i n g t h e PCC. S t e p #1: S y s t e m i m p e d a n c e and c u r r e n t source h a r m o n i c spectrum representation. several second-order series resonant filters are connected in parallel and individually tuned to selected discrete frequencies to provide filtering over a wide frequency range The order of the resulting filter is then taken as the total number of energy storage elements in the combined filter system For example. the filter size can be reduced and the additional expense of external line reactance can be eliminated I I I I H spec I 1 I I I I I I I I I (35) fine Reactors and Harmonic Traps I I 1 One method for controlling harmonic current flow is to provide a low impedance at a certain frequency so that a high current division is obtained with the system The higher the current division. I Fig. the application is commonly referred to as a “harmonic trap ” One of the obvious disadvantages to using line reactors is higher costs since they are sized to carry the full-line current of the load However. . a fifth. the lower the filter system impedance has to be This equates to larger filter reactive power ratings and higher equipment costs A simple and practical method for obtaining the same current division ratio while using a smaller filter system is to increase the series line reactance of the system impedance as shown in Fig. 16. eleventh. some additional line inductance is automatically added to the system in the form of the transformer leakage reactance By selecting transformers with fairly high impedances (1 e . and reliability factors do not normally justify them As shown in Fig. the benefits and additional justification of applying filter systems to low voltage loads is clarified Since large rectifier loads are commonly connected to the power system through isolation step-down transformers. seventh. the filterisystem current divider transfer function becomes I I - I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I€€€ /ndusfry Apphfions Maguzine Morch/Apri/ 1997 . 18. 15. I I I I I I I I I I I The mathematics describing multiple-order filter systems is very detailed and complex when trying to derive factored closed form expressions of poles and zeros Hence. thirteenth and high-pass filter system would be ninth-order Multiple second-order filters are only applied where the even-order harmonics generated by a nonlinear load are very small since a parallel resonance will occur between any two adjacent series resonant filter branches and cause amplification of distortion energy in that range. It should be noted that these type filters are not commonly used for low-voltage or mediumvoltage applications since the economic. the numerical transfer function design approach becomes very attractive and justified As shown in ( 3 5 ) . any number of filter branches can be combined numerically to define H f (si The solution can then be plotted graphically and an iterative design procedure can be used to optimize the configuration I ”-ttz0 vsFq+l z.

If more complexity is required in the analysis. this would mean that more real power was being delivered to the load. the short circuit ratio (lSc/h. This would change the harmonic spectrum as well. where m I /E€Industry Applications Magozine March/Apri/ I997 . the PCC where the limits are to be applied needs to be defined. With this in mind. this representation may overestimate the drive current when the filter system is applied due to the system voltage rise resulting from the filter’s capacitive reactance shown in Fig. the last step consists ofwriting an engineering specification for the final design. Once the filter system impedance transfer function H f ( s ) is optimized to the system and the design control limits. (37) Fig. As shown in Fig. As shown in Fig. and as a result.I I I I I I Now that some of the system transfer functions and filter configurations have been discussed. Step #I: System Data The first step consists of gathering the system impedance information and motor drive current source harmonic spectrum. If constant motor speed control is used. this level of complexity is omitted. The detail to which the system is modeled is ultimately a function of the particular engineering requirement. the motor drive would act as a constant power type load and an iterative power flow procedure would be required to find a value of IL. 18. and the harmonic sources can be modeled as one or more Norton equivalents connected to a common bus or distributed throughout the network. I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Step #S: Calculate Filter Design Template The next step in the process is to determine how much filtering is necessary based on the system established in Step #1 and the IEEE-519 limits established in Step # 2 . where Isc = system short circuit current IL = maximum fundamental demand load current I 1 = fundament drive rectifier current I F = fundamental filter system current I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I The motor drive current contribution has been approximated as a constant current at 60 Hz. based on the defined “goal”of this procedure. the question of how much filtering is required needs to be answered. the power system can be modeled as a network of impedances taking into account power factor and cable capacitances. and one example is given to show how it can be used in a real-world application. If the drive current remained constant with an increased system voltage rise. This result alone helps justify the need ofa harmonic load flow model of the system.) of the system and harmonic generating source maximum demand load current can be calculated from (37) and (38). Under these conditions. The following steps detail this procedure. The filter system current has been included to account for its contribution at 60 Hz. step #4: Fitting Hcds t o H. Depending of the type of motor drive control. and assuming that harmonic filters are required. 19. once the PCC is defined. for a 5th harmonic filter. the following procedure basically consists of obtaining the system information and building the filterisystem current divider transfer function Hcds(s) based on the applicable IEEE-5 19 distortion limits and harmonic current source spectrum of the rectifier load. 18 as an equivalent capacitance. 20. the rectifier firing would be phased back and the fundamental frequency component of the drive current would tend to reduce in magnitude and lag further in phase from the fundamental voltage. the motor would accelerate to account for the difference. I I I I I I I A Passive Harmonic Filfer Design Procedure One of the main goals for outlining an engineering design procedure is to keep it simple $it is going t o be zls&l. 17. However. Step #2: Define the PCC If the IEEE-5 19 limits are to be used as the design guidelines. The main goal is to control the distortion so that when actual field measurements are taken they meet the limits and no adverse system distortions result. the system can be represented as a single-phase Thevenin equivalent and the harmonic spectrum as a simple lumped current source equivalent for a first-order approximation. The minimum filter attenuation ratios required to meet the established distortion limits can then be calculated and given by Hspecas defined by (39) and shown graphically in Fig.

if a single fifth harmonic filter was being designed. the distortion current a harmonic producing load is allowed to inject into the power system is not constant It is dynamic. Fig 20 shows graphically how the transfer functions can be used together Step #5: Check Loadings a n d Modeling As a last step in the design process. 21. /E€lndusfryApplicutions Muguzine I Murch/Aprili997 I FUTURE FUTURE .~= ~Applicable ~ IEEE-5 19 current distortion limit spectrum I = Harmonic current spectrum based on I L The maximum and minimum levels in Fig 19 are intended to indicate a design range based on changing system conditions and filter component tolerance variations The maximum design is based on both filter overloading and system impedance changes (i.if the harmonic spectrum is scaled in percent based on I L as calculated in (37). an increased system impedance) The minimum design is based on meeting the IEEE519 limits.I I I I I E E E . actual components need to be selected based on available and practical power system apparatus At that point. second and thirdorder filter sections H f ( s j is then used to build H.i: VFD FUTURE Fig. and it changes with load This tends to make the application of IEEE519 tedious to work with from a modeling and compliance standpoint because the actual system loading tends to be composed of several random variables all ofwhich cannot be accounted for during design When compliance is verified by actual harmonic measurements. This last step is typically done using a computer- PRIMARY SOURCE ALTERNATE SOURCE CONDUCTOR TYPE A 6" 750MCM AL UNDERGROUND DUCT BANK A ~ ~ ACSR ~M OVERHEAD cM n 3 9 7 M C M AL OVERHEAD A FAULT LEVELS PROVIDED BY 4'4' .ds(s) and plotted graphically with the filter design template H. For example. the maximum demand can be measured and the applicable IEEE-5 19 limits can be applied However. as is usually the case. H f und Hcds Step #4 consists of configuring a filter system by building a filter impedance transfer function Hfir) using a combination of first.then Hspeccan easily be calculated directly from the IEEE-519 current distortion tables It should also be noted that if the filter size is changed during the design process. common sense and experience are both required when applying the IEEE-5 19 current distortion limits for the purposes of filter design and measurement compliance Step #4: F i t Filter t o System. I L and Hspecwill both change Since the IEEE-5 19 current distortion limits are based on the maximum demand load current IL. after the filter system is optimized and fit to the system. the filter component ratings need to be compared to the harmonic loadings calculated from the model and appropriate design margins applied.e .pec to determine IEEE compliance under both ideal and component tolerance variations An iterative procedure is used to optimize H f (s) and Hcds(s)based on the consideration ofpractical operating conditions and economic alternatives. P u m p i n g plant one-line d i a g r a m . the actual maxi- I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I mum load will usually be different from what was modeled during the design process Therefore. It should be noted that when using (39).

or the existing harmonic components at those frequencies are below the limits and filtering is not necessary. etc.L0glo(Hspec)= 0 dB. Some of these include (1)filter reliability. I I i ik - 0 - - -800 0 I I I 0. positive x's are taken to mean that amplification is required before the limits are exceeded. and PSPICE are typical software packages which can be used for this purpose. Essentially. (12) component materials. Current waveform and harmonic spectrum of one VFD shown i n Fig. one pump is normally operated alone during light load conditions As the loading increases. As a first approximation. 21 and 22.Hspecwas calculated by (39) and it is shown graphically in Fig. using the IEEE-519 cuttent distortion limit spectrum along with the harmonic spectrum shown in Fig. (16) grounding and zero sequence performance. 23 as agroup ofx's at the harmonic frequencies. As shown in the one-line diagram.I simulated model of the system considering various worst-case harmonic loading conditions and component tolerance variations to verify proper operation VHARM. This assumes that the pump is operated at its full-load nameplate rating of 600 hp. I -n 0 0 n 80 Fig.0166 .47 kV using 1 kVAIhp with no filters on-line. (3) voltage distortion conditions. the utility primary meter defines the PCC and this point is where the IEEE-5 19 current distortion limits are to apply. nineteenth. A typical current waveform and harmonic spectrum of a single VFD is shown in Fig 2 1 Each drive is connected to a separate step-down power transformer. separate filter systems applied at each VFD are being considered as one possible solution The main objective is to design an individual filter system for each VFD rectifier and estimate the equipment costs I I I 800. ratings. Remember that if the existing harmonic components are equal to the limits. thirteenth. (2) 1 T product calculations for telephone interference. Step # 1 has been completed and the data is shown in Fig. HARMFLO. The negative x's are taken to mean that attenuation is tequired to meet the limits. ( 4 ) filter equipment standards. (8) system voltage rise considerations.3 linl li. (7) filter system switching control. (10) overcurrent and overload protection and indication. 22. etc. a pumping plant is served by two 12 47 kV distribution feeders through an automatic transfer switch (ATS) arrangement with a weaker primary source and a stronger alternate source from two separate utility substations. (11) voltage and current imbalance protection. A Transfer Function Application Example As shown in Fig 2 1. This completes the filter design process as far as meeting the current distortion limits are concerned There are still many other factors that need to be considered before a technical specification can be written. (14)commissioning and acceptance testing. 21. and if one VFD operates alone. considering only the operation of the primary source. (9) allowable component tolerance variations and design margins.As shown. ( 5 ) quality control. (6)filter configurations and switching sequences. Next. with three planned for the future. the full-load current at the PCC from one VFD is approximately 28 amps at 12. the other two pumps are used as needed In this particular example. The seventh. or that the existing harmonic components at those frequencies are above the limits and filtering is necessary. (15) damping and tuning adjustments and methods. and construction. the ratio given in (39) would be unity and 20. each with alternating wye/delta secondary winding configurations to achieve harmonic component cancellation between VFDs The operation of the plant can have any one pump on at a time so the benefits of harmonic reduction from the transformer phase shifting is dependent on the coincidence of the loads It has been requested by the utility that the waveform distortion be controlled so that IEEE-519 limits are met when the primary source feeder is in operation Because of the characteristics of the plant. 22 and assuming the pump typically operates at 80% load or 600 amps at 460 volts fundamental with a lagging displacement factor of 7 7 % . because of the opetation of the individual pumps. The plant has facilities for six 600 hp variable frequency motor drives (VFD). but their detailed discussion here is beyond the scope of this article. It should be noted that the majority ofx's less than zero occur at the characteristic harmonic frequencies corresponding to a sixpulse rectifier load as expected. the short circuit ratio is in the 50 to 100 range of the IEEE-519 limits. For Step # 2 . (1 3) mechanical and physical considerations such as component layout and cooling. harmonic components are Iff€ IndustryApplicationsMagazine March/Aprill997 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I m I .

24. The design process from now on becomes more of a creative art than a defined science since an almost infinite number of filter possibilities exist This is one aspect to filter design that makes it very challenging and quite enjoyable' It is customary to start with the lowest order harmonic component. taking into account the 460 volt application and the inductive reactance cancellation as given by (40). there is an experience factor at work here). 25. 2?. as a function of the harmonic index with a 147 kvar equivalent filter branch. the limits are met at the fifth harmonic but not at some of the higher-order harmonics In Fig. Hspcgiven in dB as a function of the harmonic index n for one of the VFDs in Fig. as power capacitor cells age. this configuration consists of a 150 kvar rated at 480 volt (1727 mF) and has good high-frequency attenuation.I I I I I I I I 40 301 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 20 10 HsPecn 0 ty -10 -20 -30 1 -404 I I I I I I I I I Hcds(f1) -30\ I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I ' I ''''I 10 I I IIIIIII 100 _ fl -f 2 .WY I jWC (40) The detuning frequency of 288 Hz (i e .. At $65/kvar.n Fig. 21 and with the harmonic spectrum shown in Fig. Hcdiand H. )r -20 -30. 4 8 60 Hz = 288 Hz) is used to compensate for capacitive tolerance variations over time Basically. The objective for Step #4 is to configure a filter system transfer function Hfand insert it into Hcds so that. when it is plotted with Hspec. Addition of an 18 kvar 1 Ith harmonicfilter t o Fig. The majority of x's above zero dB are even-order and zerosequence-order harmonic components. the equivalent reactive power rating is 18 kvar at 460 volts and 60 Hz The configuration of Fig 25 nearly meets the limits except for one or two of the high-frequency components. this would total nearly $9.000 Instead of an 11th harmonic filter. n fa'fb Fig. nearly equal to the limits at zero dB. say a 150 kvar high-pass was used. As shown in Fig. Using this approach along with practical components which are readily available (i e . Low voltage filter costs typically range from $5O/kvar to $iO/kvar for a complete package depending on the size and complexity of the system. Using (40). but the eleventh and thirteenth harmonic components are over the limits Also. I I I I I ' first-order high-pass sections until an acceptable design is achieved. Based on a conservative $65/kvar. an eleventh harmonic filter section was added to the system In this case. the following sequence of figures illustrates the iterative nature to the design process Fig. 30 20 10 WS(f2)-.fb. in this case the fifth. Straight out power factor cor- . this combination would cost approximately $11. they tend to lose capacitance as the dielectric material degrades and the series resonant frequency of the filter increases as a result.600 Hspec. ' I I IIIIIII 10 _ fl _ f2 100 fb.its transfer function plot will be somewhere below the IEEE519 limits. therefore. and work up in frequency using combinations of second-order series resonant filter branches and /E€€ lndustry ApplicutiunsMuguzine m Murch/Apri/ I997 . 24. small for this particular VFD and are. a significant parallel resonance is formed right at the eleventh harmonic This resonance would produce significant voltage and current distortion in the high-pass capacitance and the utility system inductance and is. 0 I 100 n Hcdm. the equivalent reactive power rating of this filter is 147 kvar. As shown inFig. This tends to indicate that the rectifier waveform has a high degree of negative half-wave symmetry with very insignificant even-order harmonic components as a result. 24 shows the application of a second-order series resonant fifth harmonic filter branch tuned to the 4 8th harmonic using a 240 kvar three-phase capacitor bank rated at 600 volts (1768 pF wye equivalent) with a series tuning inductor of 173 m H and quality factor of 20 (15 6 mQ) At 60 Hz. the lower the parallel resonant frequency becomes. 24. 26. a 30 kvar 600-volt rated capacitor (221 pF) was used with a 283 m H inductor so that a 10 6th harmonic tuning characteristic was obtained using a quality factor of 20 (57 mQ). x -20 I I I I IIIII 20 10 Hcds(f1) I I 30 I I I 1 1 ' ' 1 110 1 Fig. considered unacceptable It should be obvious that the larger the highpass capacitance is. 22 assuming 80% loading. 25.0 Hspec. therefore.

this filter system meets all of the IEEE-519 limits and totals approximately 165 kvar of tuned 2nd-order filter sections with a 150 kvar 1st-order damped high-pass. 28.500 at $10/kvar. this filter would have an equivalent 60 Hz reactive power rating of 12 kvar at 460 volts and would add approximately $1. Therefore. a 100 mi2 series damping resistance was added to the high-pass filter and the result is shown in Fig. Capacitor banks are typically rated to carry 135% full-load RMS current. a 150 kvar bank would cost $1.. To be conservative. it consists of a 60 H z component and a fifth harmonic component. Adding the 11th harmonic filter back into the system results in Fig. consider the total worst-case RMS current flowing in the fifth harmonic filter section. As shown.I I I rection capacitors for 480 volt systems average around $5lkvar to $12/kvar.0 Hspec. capacitor was used for the filter section. At 60 Hz. 0 I I I 30 20 10 Hcds(f1) 30 I a quick approximation can be used to get a rough Hspec.. hence. = per-unit voltage rise resulting from the reactive power flow Qeq = equivalent 60 Hz filter power rating (var) s b = system base apparent power (VA) X . This would produce a system voltage rise of nearly 3% as approximated by (41) and correct the 60 Hz power factor to near unity as given by (37). Addition of a 150 knar high-pass to Fig. = system per unit inductive reactance to the point of connection As the last step in the design process. 26. To a first-order approximation. This same technique can be used to approximate the minimum ratings for each filter component in the system. ~~ fi' fi Fig. a 20 kvar rated 600 volt capacitor bank (221 pF) tuned to the 6. the development and application of the IEEE-5 19 guidelines and standards has necessitated the need for sound engineering and design of voltage and current waveform interfacing between rectifier loads and the electric power source.7th harmonic using an 1064 m H inductor and an assumed quality factor of 20 (134 m a ) . the full load RMS current rating at 600 volts is 23 1 amps. a small seventh harmonic filter section could be added. (41) where V. -20 8 7 -30 10 _ fl _ f2. the fifth harmonic filter inductors should be rated for at least 228 amps. the equivalent reactive power flow in the fifth harmonic filter section is around 185 amps corresponding to 460 volts and 147 kvar. 28 was adopted as the final design. 29. 8 -20 -30. There are many more practical engineering factors which need to be considered for this design. In the United States. 20 10 Hcds(f1) HcdW. the fifth harmonic filter appears to be adequate.50 kvar high-pass filter of Fig.000 to the overall design. The total cost is now on the order of (4 12. approximately 133 amps of fifth harmonic current would flow in the filter section. 24.500per VFD. the total reactive power rating of the filter at 60 Hz and 460 volts would be approximately 3 15 kvar. This example was presented to illustrate some of the details of using the transfer function approach with the IEEE-5 19 current distortion limits. The true RMS equivalent current would then be 228 amps. fh'fb 100 Fig. 26. If Fig. To control the parallel resonance. With more and more large nonlinear power electronic converters being utilized. Since a 240 kvar. 27.. the filter component ratings need to be checked along with the resulting voltage distortion at the PCC. Using (do). power system waveform distortion has warranted the development of stringent harmonic distortion control limits by several agencies around the world. idea of the filter component loadings as well as to double-check the computer. as shown in Fig. Assuming the filter section is tuned right to the fifth harmonic and -15 dB of attenuation results while the VFD is operating at 600 amps full-load. While a computer model should be used to check ratings. ILis intended to be used both as an analytical formulation based on the Laplace transform solution to linear circuit dif- '' I " ' I " 10 INlllll 100 f l f2. For example. rated 600 volt. Assuming the filter carried 100% of the 5th harmonic current would yield nearly 246 amps.. 22. the 11th harmonic component remains over the limits. just in case the drive characteristics changed and produced a more significant seventh harmonic component than what was mcasured in Fig. /E€€ industry Applications Mogozine Morch/Apd I997 I I I I I I I I I I m . I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I WS(f2)-. In this case. Therefore. 100 rnW dumbing resistance added to the 1. The transfer function approach to passive harmonic filter design presented in this article is a generalized approach that can easily be applied to rvrryday engineering problems. While good highfrequency response is still attained. 27.

Ismail. April 1993. therefore.Z. Bradley.System Harmonics Design Guide. a practical example was given that directly incorporate the presented theory. however.W. Bodger. Due to the usual time constraints and the limited scope of this article. PhaseShrfting TransfomzersandPassiveHarmonrc Filters: Interfucmg for Power Electronic Motor Drive Converters. Phipps. John Wiley and Sons. "doing algebra on the graph" [b])when designing filter systems can go Izght-years beyond trying to think of filter design only in terms of symbolic equations with multiple poles and zeros. "Power Electronics 1. thesis.C. Bulletin 87011. 1993.A. Erickson." IEEE Std 5 191992.. McGruw-Edison Pwer Systems. trial and error with visualization feed-back based on "algebra on the graph"). McGranaghan.I I I I I I I I I Hcds(f1) Hspec. I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 30 20 10 Ws(f1) Hcds(f2)-. University of Colorado at Boulder. . 27. 131 "IEEE Recommended Practices and Requirements for Harmonic Control in Electric Power Systems. 28. the material given has made a significant advance toward an optimistic future. In an effort to make this article useful.. While it may be somewhat challenging to factor the Laplace equations I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I /€€E Industry App/ications Mugazine m Murch/Apri/ I 997 References [l] E. The philosophy that governs the design procedure is based on a numericaligraphical iterative solution (i.H. [ 5 ] R. 29. many of the finer details associated with the example and the theory were not covered. Dugan and M. "Three-phase High Quality Rectification.K.D." ECEN 5797 Course Notes (Fall 1991). 28. 1985. There are so many interesting facets to this material that this article could not cover them in the quality and detail which Ehey deserve. Arrillaga. 0 Hspec. P. August 1984." 2nd ed. Addition of a 12 kvar 7th harmonicfilter to Fig. it is very time-consuming and prone to algebra mistakes. I I I I I 30 20 10 -20 -30. "Electric Power. MSEE thesis. x H-O 2t- -30 I I I 100 _ si _ f2$ fb' fb I I 10 Fig.S. 121J. 161R." Ph. Addition of an 18 kvar 11th harmonicfilter t o the system of Fig. ' """' 10 ' ' I " ' " ' 100 I I I I I Fig.. New York. ferential equations using the theory of superposition and as a graphical formulation so that a visualized insight into the interaction and response of individual filter and system elements can be attained It cannot be stressed enough that having a graphical picture in your mind (I e . University of Colorado at Boulder. a practical and effective harmonic design procedure was developed. University of Colorado. D. This procedure uses the transfer function approach in conjunction with the new IEEE-S 19 harmonic distortion limits. Power system Harmonia. September 1988. 1st ed.e. [4]J . I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I into poleizero form.