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CHEMISTRY LAB PROJECT

UNIVERSITY OF PETROLEUM AND ENERGY STUDIES

Submitted to:Mr. SAKAIT DUTTA
Course
:B.Tech. Chemical
nd
Semester :2
Batch
:B2

Submitted by:SIDHARTH KWATRA(62)
KASHISH DHAMIJA
ABHINEK KUMAR
DEEPANSHU KANJOLIA

We would like to express my gratitude towards my parents & member of UNIVERSITY OF PETROLEUM AND ENERGY STUDIES for their kind co-operation and encouragement which help us in completion of this project. I would like to extend our sincere thanks to all of them. it would not have been possible without the kind support and help of our individuals and organizations.ACKNOWLEDGMENT We have taken efforts in this project. SAKAIT DUTTA for their guidance and constant supervision as well as for providing necessary information regarding the project & also for their support in completing the project. We would like to express our special gratitude and thanks to industry persons for giving such attention and time. . However. We are highly indebted to Mr. Our thanks and appreciations also go to our colleague in developing the project and people who have willingly helped us out with their abilities.

Preface 1 2.No. Observations and Calculations Results Page No. TOPIC 1. 6. Objective 3 4. 6-13 14 . Theory 3-5 5.INDEX S. Introduction 2 3.

The project collects different samples of water and then the above mentioned experiments are performed on the sample to get the results. The conclusions are drawn from these observations and at last there are some precautions to be taken during performing the experiment.PREFACE Our project provides complete information on the topic” COLLECTION OF DIFFERENT SAMPLES OF WATER AND THEIR CHARATISATION” and maximum efforts have been taken to make the project more comprehensive and lucid to understand. and CONDUCTIMETRY. Our project covers a variety of sub topics like HARDNESS. . ALKALINITY. PH METRY.

The carbonate and hydrogencarbonate levels in water is increasing due to which there is corresponding shift in ALKALINITY and HARDNESS of water. The aim of the experiments performed is to analysis the quality of water sample and the compare their values to give an overall view of the quality of different samples collected.INTRODUCTION:Due to increasing level of pollution in the present conditions the water quality is exponentially falling . In addition of change in hardness and alkalinity there is also a shift in ph and conductivity of water because of the presence of acid content in the sample. .

. This wine red complex on titration against standard EDTA solution changes black to blue. THEORY: For hardness: The amount of dissolved calcium and magnesium in water is the hardness of water.OBJECTIVE:Collection of various water samples and their characterization. Erichrome Black T gives a wine red unstable complex with calcium ions and magnesium ions present in hard water around pH 10 .

. These can be estimated separately by titration against standard acid (HCL). bicarbonate ion present in given sample of water. Phenolphthalein Methyl Orange For conductometry: Electrolytic conduction is a measure of the ability of a solution to carry electric current. carbonate ions. These ions are hydronium ions. hydroxyl ions. In these water samples some ion are there which are responsible for conduction. using phenolphthalein and methyl orange as indicators. carbonate ion.For alkalinity: The alkalinity in water is due to the presence of hydroxyl ion .

Because the water samples was having hydrogen ions therefore they were having PH. one can use hydrogen ion concentration.For phmetry: In order to express the acidity or alkalinity of a solution. The PH of a solution is defined as negative log of hydrogen ion concentration. .

2.no Volume of water sample 1. 3. 10 ml 10 ml 10 ml Volume of HCL used Phenolphthalein (ml) 0 0 0 Volume of HCL used Methyl orange (ml) Volume of HCL used Phenolphthalein (ml) 0 0 0 Volume of HCL used Methyl orange (ml) 0.1 For sample 2: S. 10 ml 10 ml 10 ml 0.no Volume of water sample 1. 3. 10 ml 10 ml 10 ml Volume of HCL used Phenolphthalein (ml) 0 0 0 Volume of HCL used Methyl orange (ml) 1.1 For sample 3: S.7 1.6 1.7 0. 2. 2.OBSERVATION AND CALCULATIONS:For Alkalinity For sample 1: S. 3.5 1.5 0.7 1.6 .no Volume of water sample 1.

005 N Hence. the strength of bicarbonate ion = 0.25 g/lit .1)/10)=0. 3 . 10 ml 2. Hence no carbonate ions are present there: In all the samples bicarbonate ion is present When P<M/2: Standard HCL equivalent to bicarbonate ion= M ml Normality of water w. 10 ml Volume of HCL used Phenolphthalein(ml) 0 0 0 Volume of HCL used Methyl orange(ml) 0.t bicarbonate ion = ((M)*N2)/V1 Hence. 2.r.4 volume of HCL used for phenolphthalein is 0.5 0. the strength of bicarbonate ion = ((M)*N2*61)/V1 g/lit Equivalent wt.7 When P<M/2: In samples 1.r.005*50=0. 10 ml 3.For sample 4: S.5 0.305 g/lit Strength of Bicarbonate ion terms of CaCO3 = 0.no Volume of water sample 1.5)*0.t bicarbonate ion = ((0.005*61=0. of bicarbonate ion =61g 61 g of bicarbonate ion = 50 g of CaCO3 Strength of Bicarbonate ion terms of CaCO3 = ((M)*N2*50)/V1 g/lit For sample 1: Normality of water w.

8g/lit For sample 4: Normality of water w. the strength of bicarbonate ion = 0.r.35g/lit For sample 3: Normality of water w.005*61=0.25g/lit .016 N Hence.5)*0.r.t bicarbonate ion = ((1. the strength of bicarbonate ion = 0.1)/10)=0.1)/10)=0.7)*0.976 g/lit Strength of Bicarbonate ion terms of CaCO3 = 0.305 g/lit Strength of Bicarbonate ion terms of CaCO3 = 0.r. the strength of bicarbonate ion = 0.For sample 2: Normality of water w.6)*0.t bicarbonate ion = ((0.005 N Hence.427 g/lit Strength of Bicarbonate ion terms of CaCO3 = 0.007*61=0.005*50=0.007 N Hence.1)/10)=0.007*50=0.016*50=0.016*61=0.t bicarbonate ion = ((0.

6 1.8 3.6 1.3 3.no 1.3 2. 3.6 3.2 Reading of burette Initial(ml) final(ml) 0 1.2 5.2 Volume of EDTA used V1 (ml) 2 2 2. Volume of solution 10 ml 10 ml 10 ml For sample 3 S.8 5.3 1. 10 ml 2.6 1.5 6 Volume of EDTA used V1 (ml) 1. 10 ml 2.2 3.5 4. 2.5 1. 3. 10 ml 3.0 Volume of EDTA used V1 (ml) 1.For Hardness: Before boiling For sample 1 S.8 Reading of burette Initial(ml) final(ml) 4 6 6 8 8 10. 2.no Volume of solution 1.5 1.no Volume of solution 1. Volume of solution 10 ml 10 ml 10 ml Reading of burette Initial (ml) final(ml) 0 2.5 For sample 2 S.5 4.5 3 1. 10 ml .5 Reading of burette Initial (ml) final(ml) 0 1.3 Volume of EDTA used V1(ml) 2.no 1. 10 ml For sample 4 S. 10 ml 3.

10 ml 2.no Volume of solution 1.8 Volume of EDTA used V2 (ml) 1 1.6 15.3 15.5 12.3 2.5 Reading of burette Initial Final 10.3 For sample 2 S.5 13.8 Volume of EDTA used V2 (ml) 1 1.5 Volume of EDTA used V2 (ml) 1.2 11.2 12. 10 ml For sample 3 S.2 11.3 Reading of burette Initial (ml) Final 13 14.5 12. 10 ml 3. 10 ml 2.5 22 Volume of EDTA used V2 (ml) 1.3 1. 10 ml 2. 10 ml 2.5 13.2 11. 10 ml Reading of burette Initial(ml) Final(ml) 10.5 19. 10 ml 3.3 1.6 18.no Volume of solution 1.no Volume of solution 1.no Volume of solution 1.After boiling For sample 1 S.9 Reading of burette Initial Final 18 19. 10 ml 3.2 11. 10 ml 3.3 1. 10 ml For sample 4 S.5 20. 10 ml .2 12.3 14.5 1 1.5 20.

5*1000)/10 =1500 ppm .5*1000)/10 = 1500 ppm For sample 2: Total Hardness: 1.6*1000)/10 =1600ppm For sample 3: Total Hardness: 2 ml of CaCO3 = 2.5 ml of CaCO3 =1.6 ml of CaCO3 =1.5 mg of CaCO3 (1.5 ml of CaCO3 = 1.5 mg of CaCO3 (1.0*1000)/10 =2000 ppm For sample 4: Total Hardness: 1.0 mg of CaCO3 (2.6 mg of CaCO3 (1.Before boiling: For sample 1: Total Hardness: 1.

0*1000)/10 =1000 ppm For sample 2: 1.3*1000)/10 =1300 ppm Temporary Hardness: For sample 1: 1500-1000 =500 ppm For sample 2: 1600-1300 =300 ppm .0 mg of CaCO3 (1.5 ml of CaCO3 =1.After boiling: Permanent Hardness: For sample 1: 1 ml of CaCO3 =1.5 mg of CaCO3 (1.3*1000)/10 =1300 ppm For sample 3: 1.3 mg of CaCO3 (1.3 ml of CaCO3 =1.5*1000)/10 =1500 ppm For sample 4: 1.3 mg of CaCO3 (1.3 ml of CaCO3 =1.

10 .For sample 3: 2000-1500 =500 ppm For sample 4: 1500-1300 =200 ppm Conductivity of different samples of water: For sample 1: Conductivity: 1.90 mS For sample 4: Conductivity: 1.67 mS For sample 3: Conductivity: 1.65 For sample 4: pH = 7.86 For sample 3: pH = 5.63 mS pH of different samples of water: For sample 1: pH = 7.10 For sample 2: pH = 6.64 mS For sample 2: Conductivity: 1.

hardness. .Result:The characteristics (alkanity.pH and conductance) of various water sample are determined.