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A. Session objective:
After the session the student will be able to understand:

Business Research,
Significance of research,
Some important research terminologies

What is research?
What is business research?
Why to study research?
What is theory? Purpose, Levels, Approaches
Classifications of research

B. Session outline

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What is Research?
In simple words Re-search means “Search again”
“It is a process if gathering information to answer a question”

What is Business Research?
In simple words it is a systematic and objective process of: Gathering, recording and analyzing
data for making good business decisions.

Examples of Business Research

What is the best strategy to promote a particular product? (Marketing)

What are the main reasons for employee turnover? (HRM)

What is the rate of return on particular investment? (finance)

Why to study research
The best reason for learning about research methods is that these methods are used by
Managers to answer questions regarding day to day business problems. Following are some other
implications of the research
1. Management is a Science: Management is a science to gather and interpret information
in order to make effective decisions.
2. Reduce Uncertainty: The prime managerial value of business research is that it reduces
uncertainty by providing the required information and improves the following four stages
of decision making:
a. Identifying problems and opportunity.
b. Diagnosing and assessing problems or opportunities.
c. Selecting and implementing a course of action.
d. Evaluating the course of action.
3. Conducting a study: Research methods course is very useful for you as you have to do
your master’s thesis in order to complete your degree requirement and it can be helpful to
you at some time in the future because being a professional everyone wants to read and
understand the most recent research in order to be up-date their profession.
4. Reading and evaluating other people’s study: A grasp of research terminology will
allow you to read and understand research articles and critically evaluate them. Rather
than reading a summary of someone else’s research in a magazine, news-paper, or
textbook, you can read the original article your-self and draw your own conclusions.
5. Understanding brief descriptions of studies: A research method course will help you
understand abbreviated descriptions of studies given as evidence supporting some
conclusion or theory.
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7. 9. Empirical level At the empirical level theory is concerned with variables and testable hypothesis. Concepts and propositions are the elements of theory 2. Theory “Theory is a standardized principle on which basis we can explain the relationship between two or more concepts or variables.BUSINESS RESEARCH 6. Thesis is based on Research: Besides all the business relatedMETHODS benefits of the research studies.” Purpose of Theory   Prediction about the relationship among the variables and. Empirical level Figure 1: levels of Theory Page 4 . Abstract level At the abstract level. it is also useful for your academic requirement of thesis as being compulsory for your degree. 8. the empirical counterparts of concepts and propositions. to be an effective participating member of the 21st century one must understand the research process in order to evaluate and act on research results. Understanding the association among the concept Levels of Theory 1. Being a better thinker: Research methodology will improve your thinking as it is a logical and objective method of finding answers to questions which may apply to all aspects of life. Making decisions in our daily lives: Besides becoming a researcher. Secrets of success: Finally as described by Aristotle: “The secret of success is to know something nobody else knows”.

 Data is then gathered and this information is used to test whether the hypotheses really does describe reality. The outcome of the enquiry is to suggest / build a credible exlanation of behaviours that have been observed There is less concern with the need to generalize although further avenues for research may be identified DEDUCTION  Deduction involves the formulation of hypotheses (statements which theory suggest as true)  Hypotheses are then irrationalized such that the variables involved can be identified and measured in an objective way.BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS THEORY APPROACHES There are two types of research theory approaches that are as follows: INDUCTION      Induction involves observation and investigation into the relationship between meanings and actions of human subjects Data is collected without proior assumptions about catgorization and measurement The context of the situation is incorporated into the analysis process as the research seeks to undersand the internal logic and purposive nature of human actions. but the same approach could be repeated in a different situation. as shown against the original hypotheses. is either to modify or to confirm the theory from which the hypotheses were derived Page 5 . Such measurements can be undertaken for the enquiry.  The outcome of the enquiry.


less theory. On the basis of Objective a) Exploratory Research: The purpose of exploratory research is to seek new insights Page 7 .g. b) Applied Research: “Research done with the intention of applying the results of the findings to solve specific problems currently being experienced in the organization is called applied research” e. On the basis of Objective 3. On the basis of Inquiry Mode On the basis of Application a) Basic Research: “Research done mainly to enhance the understanding of certain problems that commonly occur in an organizational setting and seeking methods of solving them is called basic or fundamental research” Basic research contributes to the body of knowledge by generating new ideas. On the basis of Time Dimension 4. Applied research is frequently descriptive research. Central and main strengths are its immediate practicalities. principles and theories which may or may not be immediately utilized.BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS Induction Deduction Classification of research 1. On the basis of Application 2. Reasons to find out decline in sale of certain products.

usually in the form of casual relationships. Quantitative Research: Is "a formal. and mixing both quantitative and qualitative data in a single study or series of studies. It can be defined as research in which: (1) data are collected for two or more distinct periods. b) Longitudinal Research: ‘Longitudinal’ is a broad term.(2) the subjects or cases analyzed are the same. A more qualitative approach often underpins this sort of enquiry and the focus is on obtaining new insights into current situations and issues. objective. and 'who?'. There is an attempt to ask questions and asses phenomena in a new light. Qualitative Research: Is “an informal. In that it tests theory. Mixed Method Research: Mixed methods research focuses on collecting. 3. analyzing. or at least comparable. It focuses on 'what?'. On the basis of Time Dimension a) Cross Sectional Research: Cross-sectional survey collects data to make inferences about a population of interest (universe) at one point in time. subjective research approach that usually emphasizes words rather than numbers in the collection and analysis of data” it is inductive in nature and generates theory. Page 8 . and (3) the analysis involves some comparison of data betwen or among periods On the basis of Inquiry Mode 1. 2. 'where?'. from one period to the next.BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS and find out what is happening. It is inclined to be deductive. The focus is on 'Why?' and 'How?'. people or events. c) Descriptive Research: This type of research sets out to provide an accurate profile of situations. Its central argument is that the use of quantitative and qualitative approaches in combination provides a better understanding of research problems than either approach alone. systematic process in which numerical data is utilised to obtain information about the world“. b) Explanatory Research: This research explains a situation or problem. 'when?'.



Session objective: After the session the student will be able to understand:    Research Paradigms. Session outline Page 11 . Paradigm philosophy. Elements of a research   What is meant by research paradigm? Different research paradigms? o Positivism Paradigm o Interpretivism Paradigm o Pragmatism Paradigm Philosophical assumptions of research paradigms Different Elements of research with reference to each paradigm   B.BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS RESEARCH PARADIGMS A.

an individual seeks an understanding of the world in which they live and work. Post Positivism and Quantitative Research. the Paradigm employed must match the particular phenomenon of interest.) Positivism Interpretivism Pragmatism Determination Understanding Reductionism Multiple participant meanings Consequences of actions Empirical observation and measurement Theory verification Social and historical construction Theory generation Problem centered Pluralistic Real-world practice oriented SOURCE: Creswell. They develop subjective meanings of their experiences or towards certain objects or things. The goal of pragmatic research is not to replace either of these approaches but rather to draw from the strengths and Page 12 . 1996).BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS RESEARCH PARADIGMS/ WORLD VIEWS The term ‘paradigm’ described as essentially a collection of beliefs shared by scientists. Positivistic thinkers adopt scientific methods as a means to generate knowledge. i. 2005). 1996). positivism. Social Constructivism and Qualitative Research. Different phenomena may require the use of different Table: (Three worldviews/paradigms used in research. In this paradigm. interpretivism and pragmatism WHY THESE PARADIGMS ARE IMPORTANT: All researchers’ need a foundation for its inquiry and researchers need to be aware of the paradigms they bring to their study. Empirical Science. Positivism is called “Scientific Method”. Pragmatism: The final paradigm is typically associated with mixed method research. 2003 Positivism:Positivist assumes that true knowledge is based on experience of senses and can be obtained by observation and experiment. different paradigms have taken birth due to the remarkable growth in social sciences research. Interpretivism: Interpretivism sometimes also called Constructivism. a set of agreements about how problems are to be understood. These paradigms contain a basic set of beliefs or assumptions that guide our inquiries (Guba & Lincoln.e. how we view the world and thus go about conducting research. There are mainly three paradigms to the verification of theoretical propositions. Different modes of research allow us to understand different phenomena and for different reasons (Deetz. The Paradigm chosen depends on what one is trying to do rather than a commitment to a particular paradigm (Cavaye. Thus.”During the past century.

What is the process of research (methodology) etc. what it looks like. what units make it up and how these units contrast with each other divide research into the different paradigm details of which is given below (Creswell. and pragmatism. researchers make claim about what are knowledge (Ontology). 2003) Each of the paradigms discussed above has definite research methods which can be used in carrying out scientific investigation. 2004). and choose the appropriate methodology accordingly. TOWARDS SELECTION OF RESEARCH PARADIGMS AND PHILOSOPHICAL ASSUMPTIONS Starting with a certain research paradigm means researchers starts their research with certain assumptions about how they will learn and what they will learn during the research. Philosophically. and how knowledge can be acquired and disseminated? What is the relationship of an individual with his environment? Is he conditioned by the environment or is the environment created by him? Based on the above questions. how we know it (epistemology). How we write about it (rhetoric). and what value go into it (axiology). researchers can identify whether the research questions pertain to positivism. For a concrete understanding of research paradigms and their philosophical assumptions please see table below: Page 13 .BUSINESS minimize the weaknesses of both in single research studies RESEARCH and across METHODS studies (Johnson & Onwuegbuzie. The question arises: how does a researcher select a research paradigm and corresponding methodology? The following questions may be raised by the researcher:     What is the nature or essence of the social phenomena being investigated? Is social phenomenon objective in nature or created by the human mind? What are the bases of knowledge corresponding to the social reality. Interpretivism. Such assumptions related to what exists.

(e. researchers test hypothesis and provide multiple perspectives. Objective + Subjective What is regarded as acceptable knowledge and how we know it? 3 Axiology: What is the role of values? Page 14 Multiple stances. 2 Epistemology: What is the relationship between the researcher and that being researched? e.g. (Objectivism) Multiple realities shaped by researcher’s prior understanding and assumptions.g. (Subjective) Unbiased (e.g. researchers reject or fail to reject hypothesis. researchers provide quotes to illustrate different perspectives. (Objective) It is cased on the perceptions of the individuals about the world. (constructionism).BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS Table: Research Paradigms & Philosophical Assumptions Sr. researchers visit participants at their sites to collect data) Acceptable knowledge is gained through sense and is objectively real. e. researchers actively talk about their biases and interpretations) e.g.g. researchers use checks to eliminate bias) Biased (e. researchers collect data by “what work” to address research question).g. Distance and impartiality (e. researchers objectively collect data on instruments.g. # Philosophical assumption 1 Ontology: What is the nature of reality? OR what is knowledge? Positivism Interpretivism Pragmatism Singular reality existing apart from researcher’s perception and cultural biases. Practicality (e. Singular and multiple realities. researchers include both biased and unbiased perspectives) .g.g.) Closeness (e.

predetermined approaches numerical data. concurrent and transformative. researchers start with participants views and build “up” to patterns. What is the language of research? 5 Methodology: What is the process of research? Adapted from: Creswell. J. emerging approaches. (e. 7 Methods Closed ended questions. researchers use agree on definitions of variables) Informal style.g. Deductive (e. case study and narratives Sequential. experiments and field work Grounded theory. (Qualitative) Both open and closed ended questions.g. statistical analysis (Quantitative) Open ended questions.g.g. informal style) Formal or informal (e.g.g. W and Clark. researchers write in literary.BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS 4 Rhetoric: - Formal style (e. both quantitative and qualitative data and analysis. and text and image analysis. researchers may employ both formal and informal styles of writing). researchers collect both Quantitative and Qualitative data and mix them ) 6 Strategies of Inquiry Surveys. both emerging and predetermined approaches. 2007 Page 15 . V.P. ethnography. researchers test a priori theory) Inductive (e. theories and generalizations) Combining (e.

BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS Elements of interpretivism and Positivism Research in the Process of Research  Interpretivism  Point of view of participants  Understand meaning individuals give to a phenomenon inductively  Contextual understanding  Paradigm Intent of the research Positivism  Point of view of researcher  Test a theory deductively to support or refute it  Generalization  Major role  Justifies problem  Identifies questions and hypotheses  Ask closed-ended questions  Test specific variables that form hypotheses or questions  Numbers  From many participants at many research sites  Sending or administering instruments Minor role How literature is used   Justifies problem  Ask open-ended questions  Understand the complexity of a single idea (or phenomenon)  Words and images  From a few participants at a few research sites How intent is focused How data is collected Page 16 .

statistics to participants How data is analyzed Role of the researcher Page 17 How data is validated .BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS  Studying participants at their location. Rejecting hypotheses or determining effect sizes  Researcher is close  Researcher is distant  Identifies personal stance  Remains in background  Reports bias  Take steps to remove bias  Using validity procedures that rely on the participants. or the reader  Using validity procedures based on external standards.  Natural setting  Artificial setting  Data is collected at Micro level  Data is collected at Macro level  Text or image analysis  Numerical statistical analysis  Themes   Larger patterns or generalizations. such as judges. the researcher. past research.

and transformative Employ these methods Open-ended questions. predetermined approaches. text or image data Closed-ended questions. Grounded theory. numeric data Both open and closed-ended questions.Table: Quantitative. emerging approaches . Page 18 . concurrent. ethnography. and narrative Surveys and Experiments Sequential. and both quantitative and qualitative data and analysis. Qualitative and Mixed Methods Approaches Tend to or typically Qualitative Approaches Quantitative Approaches Mixed Methods Approaches Use these philosophical assumptions Constructivist Paradigms Positivist Paradigms Pragmatic Paradigms Employ these strategies of inquiry Phenomenology. case study. both emerging and predetermined approaches.

Positions himself or herself Collects participant meanings Focuses on a single concept or phenomenon Brings personal values into this study Use these practices of research. as the researcher Studies the context or setting of participants Validates the accuracy of findings Makes interpretation of the data Creates an agenda for change or reform Collaborates with the participants Page 19 Tests or verifies theories or explanations Identifies variables to study Relates variables in questions or hypothesis Uses standards of validity and reliability Observe and measures information numerically Uses undecided approaches Employs statistical procedures Collects both quantitative and qualitative data Develops a rationale for mixing integrates the data at different stages of inquiry Presents visual pictures of the procedures in the study Employs the practices of both qualitative and quantitative research .

R. C. Boulder. Handbook of Qualitative Research. 33. Deetz. 227–242. Competing Paradigms in Qualitative Research. CA: Sage. and mixed methods approaches’ (2nd ed. and Bell. Cherryholmes. Chicago : University of Chicago Press. Information Systems Journal. G. B. Kuhn.J (2004). Denzin and Y. L. Educational Researcher. and Clark. J. Oxford University Press. J. Case study research: A multi-faceted research approach for IS. CA: Sage.. (1996). A. CA: Sage Page 20 . Sage. A. V. 6. C. J. (2003) ‘Business Research Methods’. Thousand Oaks. M.). (1992) ‘Notes on Pragmatism and scientific realism. R. (2003) ‘Research design: Qualitative. 7. (1998) Mixed methodology: Combining qualitative and quantitative approaches. W. Mixed Methods Research: A Research Paradigm Whose Time Has Come. Creswell. Tashakkori. K. No. 13-17. Lincoln. 14–26 Murphy. Thousand oaks.B and Onwuegbuzie. Cavaye. D. (1962) The Structure of Scientific Revolution. Describing differences in approaches to organization science: Rethinking Burrell and Morgan and their legacy.S. S. Vol.. Thousand Oaks. L. 14. Thousand Oaks. & Teddlie. Organization Science. and Y. CA: Sage. CO: West view Press. CA. Lincoln. thousand Oaks. T. Vol : 105-117. & Williams. Johnson. Educational Researcher. second edition. W. (1995) ‘What’s behind the research? Discovering hidden assumptions in the behavioural sciences. Slife. N. (2007) ‘Designing and conducting mixed methods research’.References: BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS Bryman. Creswell. (1996). 7. A. H. A. (1994). S. 191–207 Guba. pp. S. quantitative. (1990) ‘Pragmatism: From pierce to Davidson. N. P. E. E.


and their views about the possible causes of violence. Page 22 . Either approach would have yielded valuable data about this problem (indeed.BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS Discussion on Short Case Study Deductive and Inductive Research Sadie decided to conduct the research project on violence at work and its effects on the stress levels of staff. 2. Standardize the stress responses of the staff. both may be used in this project. 4. how they coped with problems they experienced. at different stages). Neither approach should be thought of as better than the other. She might have been interested in their feelings about the events that they had experienced. Decide to research a population in which she would have expected to find evidence of violence. for example. Start with the hypothesis that staffs working with the public are more likely to experience the threat or reality of violence and resultant stress. for example. a sizeable social security office. she would have to: 1. 3. days off sick or sessions with counselor. if she decided to adopt an inductive approach she might have decided to interview some staff who had been subjected to violence at work. It depends where her research emphasis lies. She considered the different ways she would approach the work were she to adopt:   The deductive approach The inductive approach If she decided to adopt the deductive approach to her work. They are better at different things. Be particularly careful about how she defined violence. Administer a questionnaire to large sample of staff in order to establish the extent of violence (either actually experienced or threatened) and the levels of stress experienced by them. On the other hand. 5.


Session objective: After the session the student will be able to understand:    Literature Review. Referencing   What is literature Review? How to conduct literature review? o Select a topic o Locate resources o Read the literature o Analyze the literature o Annotated bibliography Literature review writing APA Referencing style   B. Literature review process. Session outline Page 24 .BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS LITERATURE REVIEW A.

evaluate. Its ultimate goal is to bring the reader up to date with current literature on a topic and forms the basis for another goal. evaluate and summarize the literature. the discussion moves into the actual process of reviewing the literature. and state-of-the-art developments databases from library or electronic sources. Establishing the context of the topic or problem 6. journals etc) that How Literature Review are central to the topic focusing on the fact that whether they will make a useful contribution to the of the literature. there is need to Steps in conducting literature review 4 analyze the literature from different selected articles with the help of following methods that are given in the following pages of this chapter) 5 •Annotated bibliography: (After analyzing the literature. Then. summarize. Distinguishing what has been done from what needs to be done 2. placing the research in a historical context to show familiarity with •Locate sources of literature: (Locate related articles.) . •Analyze the literature: (After reading the relevant literature. relating ideas and theory to applications with some experts in concerned fields) identifying the main methodologies and research techniques that 10. Literature review help researchers limit the scope of their inquiry and convey the importance of studying a topic to readers. Rationalizing the significance of the problem 7. Enhancing and acquiring the subject vocabulary 8. But before starting on reviewing literature the researchers must select and refine his research topic and also needs to consider whether the topic can and should be researched.27) •Readto theconduct literature:a(Look over and read the material (books.) There is no one wayunderstanding to conduct a literature review. we should use annotated bibliography that provides a brief account of the available research on a given topic.BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS LITERATURE REVIEW “A literature review is a body of text that aims to review the critical points of current knowledge on a particular topic”. such as the justification for future research in the area. books. have been used 11. we should write the literature Page 25 carefully according to specified instructions. journals. but many scholars proceed in a systematic way to capture. Purpose of the Literature Review The literature review in a research study accomplishes several purposes that are as follows: 1 2 3 1. Discovering important variables relevant to the topic 3. Identifying relationships between ideas and practice 5. Synthesizing and gaining a new perspective 4.) Adapted from “Doing Literature Review” by Chris Hart (p. clarify and/or integrate the content of previous researches". It seeks to describe.) 6 •Writing the literature: (After this detail work. •Topic understanding identification: the structure (Begin by of identifying the subject the topic that might emerge from preliminary readings in the library or discussing 9.

The sources of literature can be divided into three following categories    Primary Sources Secondary Sources Tertiary Sources The different categories of literature resources represent the flow of information from the original resources. we will first consider techniques useful in accessing the literature quickly through databases. Recognizing this information flow helps you to identify the most appropriate sources of information for your needs. The topic should be simple. Often as information flows from primary to secondary to tertiary sources it becomes less detailed and authoritative but more easily accessible.e. Primary Sources Secondary Sources Tertiary sources Indexes Reports Abstracts Thesis Newspapers Catalogues Emails Books Conference reports Encyclopedia Primary literature sources (also known as grey literature) are theJournals first occurrence Dictionnaires Company reports Bibliographies Page 26 publications Some government Internet Some government publications . resource availability and value adding to the body of knowledge) 2. Sources of Literature To build on key points in Literature Review Process. The literature sources available to help you to develop a good understanding of and insight into previous research. willing participants. straight forward.BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS 1. brief. and researchable (i.34) Before considering what literature to use in a project first we identify topic of the study. Topic identification Adapted from “Research Design” by Creswell (p.

They include published sources such as reports and some central and local government publications such as white papers and planning documents.BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS of a piece of work. Monthly Mainly printed but also available online or on CD-ROM Academic journals are well covered but others need to browse actual copies of journals > library holding > Internet Once but subsequent editions may be published As same for academic journals well covered by abstracts and indexes Widely available Likely availability Journals >Academic Journals >Professional Journals >Trade Journals Books Page 27 .    Reports Conference proceedings Thesis Secondary literature sources such as books and journals are the subsequent publication of primary literature. memos and committee minutes that may be analyzed as data in their own right. weekly. They are easier to locate than primary literature as they are better covered by the tertiary literature  Journals  Books  Newspapers Sources Frequency of publication Format of publication Coverage by abstracts and indexes (Tertiary resources) Quarterly. They also include unpublished manuscript sources such as letters. These publications are aimed at a wider audience.

google. also called search Some other sources are as follows: Name Type Internet address Google Search engine www. Dependent on conference > As for academic journals > May be published in books form > May be published on internet Limited but Depends on conference. They therefore include indexes and abstracts as well as encyclopedias and bibliographies. are designed either to help to locate primary and secondary literature or to introduce a Page 28 .edu.BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS Newspapers Conference proceedings Daily or Weekly Mainly printed but also in internet format >Specialized indexes available >CD-ROM and Internet format are easy to search. Specialized indexes sometime available Not widely available or held by library Poor compared with most secondary sources although some specialized indexes exist Not widely available or held by library Good for PhD and MPhil research by clicking on Digital Library link on the right bottom of the web page.digitallibrary.html Or Through Superior website www. otherwise poor > library holding > Internet Reports Once As for academic journals Thesis On the awarding of the research degree Mainly printed but increasingly available on microfiche > library holding > Internet Tertiary literature sources. Tertiary resources available at superior can be accessed via following address:

com Yahoo Search engine www. Following are the purposes of reading Arguments Concepts Conclusions Definitions Ethics Events Evidence Hypothesis Interpretations Justification Motives Perspective Politics problem Questions Standpoint Styles Techniques Theory Ways of thinking Reading Process Survey the main parts – this means quickly glancing through each part to Page 29 .com Oxford press Publisher http://www.html University Of Chicago Press Publisher http://www. general reasoning. At first skimming through the material is most Ebscohost Database Springer link Database Blackwell synergy http://www.springerlink. But before reading we must be clear about the purpose of reading in order to identify the information components in a literature to be extracted.journals.BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS Google Scholar Search engine for scholarly material www.uchicago. x. Initially skim through the material (Book.scholar. How to read Literature Reading analytically in research is a process that progresses from the general to the particular. article) noting its structure. style. data and bibliographical references.

Look for signposts the author provides for the logic of the work. How to read Books How to read articles Skim Through the Book Read abstract of the article Survey the parts of the book Skim through the article Read the preface and introductions Survey the main parts of the article Read in detail the selected important parts Read in detail the selected important articles Adapted from “Doing Literature Review” by Chris Hart (p. Read the parts that you have identified as being important to your needs. you will need to explicate the claim. 4. aims and logic for the work. These might be found in overviews / abstracts of the material. In this way.53) 4. You can play around with the parts. If a range of arguments is being analyzed. trying to identify the ideas. There is a degree of exploration in analysis. article) as a whole and to identify the key chapters. 3. Analysis and Synthesis Analysis is the job of systematically breaking down something into its constituents parts and describing how they relate to each other – it is not random dissection but a methodological examination. Skim over and then read the preface and introduction. You do not need to read the whole yet focus those which provide the rationale for the study.BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS get a general idea of the structure of the material (Book. the identification of the individual and similar elements in a range of items can be compared and contrasted. data and warrant for each argument. rearranging them in various configurations to explore possible leads. Page 30 .

but rarely state. Analysis Select. As analyst-cum-evaluator you will be seeing how others have managed information and ideas in order to construct what they take to be a plausible argument. and break up. This process will enable you to dig beneath the surface of an argument and be able to see the origins of the pieces of research or theory. That arrangement should show connections and patterns that have not been produced previously. combing recast. Rearranging the elements derived from analysis to identity relationship or show main organizing principle or show how these principles can be used to make a different phenomenon. It is about recasting the information into a new or different arrangement. dissect.BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS The kinds of analysis relevant to literature reviewing are those which have systematically extract key ideas. methodologies stances often require connecting. Before knowing how to analyze and synthesize. This means that as an analyst you will usually find yourself battling to keep control of a large amount of information. Unpacking a thing into its constituent parts in order to infer or determine the relationship and/or organizing principle between them. It is not simply a matter of reassembling the parts back into the original order. first know the concept of some terms that are as follows. theories. concepts and methodological assumptions from the literature. Synthesi s Integrate. differentiate. thereby isolating the main variables. Synthesis requires you to have a comprehensive knowledge of the subject and a capacity to think in broad terms. reorganize. In other words you will come to know the typology of origins and assumptions which most authors on a subject employ. but looking for a new order. in their work. because a range of viewpoints. Page 31 . formulate. Synthesis is the act of making connections between the parts identified in analysis. The foundation of analysis is thinking in various ways about what you are reading.

Comparing and Contrasting


A common practice in the social sciences is to make comparisons between the
works and ideas of different authors. This usually involves finding common points of
interest between, definitions of main concepts, kinds of data collected and the
interpretations of findings. The practice can be useful in identifying common areas
of interest and differing positions on similar topic areas. Following figure points out
the levels of comparison and contrast. The point to note, however, is that
comparing theorists has inherent difficulties, mainly to do with the selection of
criteria or points of reference that are valid and comparable

Theorist A

Theorist B
Area of difference

Area of similarity


Area of difference

Points of reference for making a comparison between theorists

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An argument involves putting forward reasons to influence someone’s belief that
you are proposing in the case (Hinderer, 1992). Whichever way someone makes an
argument they are attempting to convince others of way someone makes an
argument they are attempting to convince others of the validity (or logic) of how
they see the world and convince us that we should see it the way they do. An
argument has therefore at least two components: a point and a reason

Making a point (or statement)

Providing sufficient reasons (or evidence) for the point to be accepted by

These elements are related and the movement can go either way to form the

A movement form either a point to reason

From evidence to conclusion (the point).


Analyzing and evaluating arguments
There are many ways to analyze and evaluate arguments but here we will discuss
only two that are as follows
a) Toulmin’s method of argumentation analysis
b) Fisher’s method of critical reading
a) Toulmin’s method of argumentation analysis.
Toulmin developed an approach to argumentation analysis that was rooted in the
practice rather than the theory of logic. Toulmin provides a flexible approach to the
examination of actual procedures used in practical argument.
He proposes that an argument can be broken up into a number of basic elements
that are as follows:

an arguable statement
Data used to support the claim
Warrant (or permit) an expectation that provides the link between the
evidence and claim
Context and assumptions used to support the
validity or the warrant
and evidence

A challenge can be made to any or all elements. Is the claim justified? What the
evidences, warrant and backing justified? Added to these we can ask whether the
claim stands up to major challenges. Is it sufficiently robust or does it needs to be

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For example a challenge to the warrant might be made on any or all of these
grounds: the research was out of date; the conclusions in the reports did not
logically follow from the data collected; the evidence was inappropriate; or the datacollection techniques were unreliable.
Following is an example from everyday life. In dry summers consumers are asked
and expected to save water through careful and limited use. This is normally taken
to mean water should only be used for essential things-watering lawns, filling
swimming pools and washing cars are prohibited. The argument for this could have
the following structure:


Car washes can use upto 250,000 gallons of water in the main summer weeks. This quantity depletes water re
Car owners should restri


Water is essential and people


Water shortage cause inconvenience, ar
Adapted from “Doing Literature Review” by Chris
Hart (p.87)
b) Fisher’s method of critical reading

Fisher (1993) provides a method for a systematic reading of texts. This initial
reading technique enables the reader to systematically extract the main elements
(words) of any argument for the purpose of evaluation. It enables the evaluation of
any argument to be done by analysis of its formal structure. Words that are used to
structure an argument are the focus for the analysis. Words such as thus and

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ask yourself what reasons are presented in the text for believing this conclusion or why you are being asked to accept this conclusion. since. hence. The main assertability question is: what argument (what you would need to believe) or evidence (what you would need to know) would justify the acceptanceAdapted of the conclusions. The reasons provided for the argument can be ranked into a structure go through each reason (R) asking whether it is essential or secondary reasons for the argument. Look for conclusions and any stated reasons for theses. Typical indication of reasons is words and phrases such as: because. adapted from Fisher (1993). The purpose of the following procedure.BUSINESS METHODS therefore are highlighted. is to extract the conclusions (C) and reasons (R) of an argument. 5.) as you read. For example. because they are usedRESEARCH to link evidence with claims and suggest inference. 7. 1. Be careful not to assume that a summary or formulation provided by the author of their argument so far must be the conclusion. Taking the main conclusion. a main conclusion might be supported by an interim conclusion and several basic reasons. 6. and so on. So. it follows. etc. taking the first equation above R1 + R 2 C1 or R3 = = (Therefore) C1 (Interim conclusion) (Therefore) C2 (main conclusion) Fisherman method is base on “assertability question” involving questioning both the premises and conclusions of an argument. You will then be able to construct an argument diagram with the following structure: any inference indicators (thus. Read the text again circling therefore. Typical indication of a conclusion is the use of the following words: therefore. thus. First look quickly through the text in order to get an initial sense of the author’s project and purpose 2. ask what point(s) the author is trying to make and why. Identify what you take to be conclusions by marking them up with a C – remember that there may be interim conclusions as well as the main one. R1 + R 2 = (Therefore) C (Interim conclusion) R1 or R2 = (Therefore) C [for dependent reasons] Variations on these structures are common. reasons and conclusions. 3. Attempt at this stage to summarize the author’s argument. the structure of the argument can be seen or even rewritten as an argument diagram. 4. If there is no clear argument.79-95) Page 35 . consequently. Form this. Underlines the conclusion and place in brackets <> any reasons. and so on. from “Doing Literature Review” by Chris Hart (p.

 Demonstrate the quality and depth of reading that you have done. An annotation is simply a summary of a book. A bibliography is a list of sources on a particular topic. The second part is the summary paragraph.200 words per citation. the standard annotated bibliography consists of a citation followed by a short paragraph. Both parts taken together are called an “entry. an annotated bibliography is a list of sources on a topic that offers a summary for each source. As with a normal reference list or bibliography. Purpose of an Annotated Bibliography An annotated bibliography may serve to:  Review the literature of a particular subject. What does an annotated bibliography look like? An annotated bibliography has two parts. books. evaluate or analyse the source.” Entries are typically organized in alphabetical order according to the bibliography information. While an annotation can be as brief as one sentence.  Highlight sources that may be of interest to other readers and researchers. article. Annotated bibliography BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS The word “annotated” is the past tense form of the verb “to annotate” which means to summarize.  Exemplify the scope of sources available—such as journals. Depending on your assignment you may be asked to reflect. such as the last name of an author or the title of a book. which could be MLA format. web sites and magazine articles. an annotated bibliography is usually arranged alphabetically according to the author’s last name. An annotated bibliography provides a brief account of the available research on a given topic. or some other written source. APA format.  Explore and organize sources for further research. Put together. summarise. It is a list of research sources that includes concise descriptions and evaluations of each source.5. critique. . Contents of an Annotated Bibliography An annotation may contain all or part of the following elements depending on the Page 36 . An annotated bibliography summary should be about 100 . The first part is the bibliography line which should be written according to the format your teacher requires. The annotation usually contains a brief summary of content and a short analysis or evaluation. An annotated bibliography may be a component of a larger assignment or it may be a stand-alone assignment. or some other format.

vol 15.P. pages 68. no 4.)  Discuss the relevance or usefulness of the text for your research  Point out in what way the text relates to themes or concepts in your course  State the strengths and limitations of the text  Present your view or reaction to the text Contents of annotated bibliography Sample Annotation The citation goes first and is followed by the annotation.J. (2005) HRM and Performance.83. Make sure that you follow your faculty’s preferred citation style.BUSINESS word limit and the content of the sources you areRESEARCH examining. What next? Human Resource Management journal. In the sample annotation below. The summary needs to be concise (please note the following example is entirely fictitious). graphs etc./Hypotheses Important Themes Paauwe. each element is described: ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY Reference AIM/ PURPOSE RQs. A linkage between HRM and performance. Boselie.. multi-dimensional concepts of HRM RQ: RQ1: what is HRM? RQ2: What is performance? RQ3 : what is the nature of link between HRM and performance HRM theories Top four HRM practices Individual and bundle HRM practices Page 37 .METHODS  Provide the full reference and citation  Indicate the background of the author(s)  Indicate the content or scope of the text  Outline the main argument  Indicate the intended audience  Identify the research methods (if applicable)  Identify any conclusions made by the author/s  Discuss the reliability of the text  Highlight any special features of the text that were unique or helpful (charts.

Different theories are defined 2. Why reference? In your assignment.Best 12 HR practices 1. If you use someone else’s ideas in your work. illustrations. you will use ideas and information from other sources to support points and arguments you want to make.only models are proposed 2.METHOD/APPROA CHES FINDINGS/CONCL USION RELATIONSHIP TO TOPIC/SUBTOPIC & OTHER ARTICLES STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS 4 different fits HRM and employee perception Indicators of performance HR competitive advantage HRWP & HIWP (1) Paradigm and Approach (2) Population and sampling: (3) Measures: (4) Method: Literature based (5) Analysis: Empirical evidence supported best practice approach rather than best fit approach Other articles you annotated: Your topic :HRM and Performance Defines HRM Measurement of performance Linkages HRM with performance Prior researches: 1. in order to:     Acknowledge other people’s ideas. either by using your own words or making a direct quotation.  All work done by other researchers  Other writers' words Page 38 . or when you paraphrase by putting someone else’s ideas in your own words. You must also reference when you summarise ideas and information from someone’s work. you must reference the source. Failure to do any of the above is considered plagiarism. Referencing means systematically showing what information or ideas you are quoting or paraphrasing. no measures or assumptions define Referencing Referencing is a way of crediting all sources of information and ideas that you have used in any piece of academic work. Allow the reader to find the original material you have used. Show you are aware of other people’s ideas and are including them. Avoid plagiarism What must I reference? You must reference whenever you copy (diagrams. and where they come from.Different fits and bundles of hr given 3. tables) or directly quote from someone’s work.

Components of referencing Referenci ng Intext Referencing (Citation) End list Referencing In-Text Reference: An in-text reference to show that a piece of information. DIFFERENT REFERENCING SYSTEMS  APA Referencing  Harvard Referencing  Oxford-Cambridge Referencing  MLA  AMA  APA (American Psychological Association) Style: This system is primarily used by those writing in the social sciences. etc.49). If you are unsure about how to reference. it will still be regarded as plagiarism. even though you did not set out with the intention of plagiarizing. published or unpublished) as though they were his or her own (Queen Margaret University 2005. p. WHAT DO I NOT NEED TO REFERENCE?  General knowledge  Common knowledge in your field  Ideas that are definitely your own  Findings or insights from your own research. It is Page 39 . quotation. and fail to reference correctly in an assignment. Plagiarism is considered to be a major breach of academic regulations. idea.BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS What is Plagiarism? The presentation by an individual of another person’s ideas or work (in any medium.

Health and safety in outdoor activity centers.. Sourc e In-text Example End-List Example Article Wharton (1996) Wharton. A good age. Academy of Management Journal. Journal of Adventure Education and outdoor Leadership. 12(4). Volume (issue if given). (1996). (1997). A. continuance and normative commitment and turnover’. Page number ◦ Allen. Journal (or Publisher). J. 1996). and Meyer. Initials. & Meyer. N. 8-9 Book Comfort (1997. J. N. N. (1996) ‘Affective. J. p. (year). . It includes following contents Contents Example Author Name Allen.RESEARCH METHODS always designed to be short because itBUSINESS is interrupting the text. London: Mitchell Page 40 . 37: 670-87. (1996) Year 1996 Title Affective. Example: Much of this research has demonstrated that there is a relationship between HR practices and firm profitability (Allen. J. 58) Comfort. P. P. title. continuance and normative commitment and turnover Journal Academy of Management Journal Volume no 37 Page no 670-87 Example: ◦ Author last name. Author name year End – list reference An End list reference to show the detailed information of source.

(2002).. theories.. Retrieved october 31. 2. This means that your review of the literature must provide a methodological rationalization for your research. L. (2002) Dawson. 2002. identifying leading concepts. The primary objective of literature review is to furnish necessary but sufficient information to demonstrate that you have thought carefully about the knowledge on the topic that is contained in the literature. have been identified and analyzed. Page 41 . In each part of your methodological story you are aiming to make recommendation for your research. Websi te Dawson & Smith. to provide the story of how the topic was defined. definitions and theories. You need to investigate the history of assumption and definitions other researchers have employed to study order. Consideration of the ways in which definitions were developed and operationalized as solutions to problems seen in previous work 3. A literature review can be    a summary of existing work on the topic a critical evaluation of previous work it can be some general and specific conclusions about work done to date on the topic One of the main reasons for writing the review is to make a proposal for the research you intend to do. Knowledge-based elements: 1. These means demonstrating that all the main How to write the literature review The literature review as a piece of academic writing must be clear. have a logical structure and show that you have acquired a sufficient range of skills and capabilities at an appropriate level. the literature review should show all relevant documents.BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS Beazley. J. from http://studytrekk.curtin. published and unpublished.lis. established and developed. As a recommendation your research needs to be a structured argument that in its simplest format achieves the following. A description of previous work on the Smith. As a whole. and methodological approaches relevant to the topic that have been identified understood and critically evaluated. Identification and description of matters other researchers have considered important.

(2003). 3. W. UK Creswell J. Lewis P. A description of what you find wrong in previous work on the topic 2. Form your notes. Research Methods for Business Students.. India Hart C. to make a proposal for your own research. A proposal for action that might solve the problem – you research. California. References Saunders M. (2007). and Mixed Methods Approaches. London. Research Design Qualitative. Pearson education. Sage Pub. An explanation of the benefits that might result from adopting the proposal 4. three kinds of resources you should employ are. 3. USA Page 42 . (2003). A refutation of possible objections to the proposal The analysis that you will have done when reading the literature should provide sufficient material. Quantitative. the relevant vocabulary with alternative definitions of words and concepts 2.Argumentation elements: BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS 1. Sage Pub. new Delhi. Releasing the social science research imagination. and understanding of that material.. your assessment of how key definitions and methodological assumptions have been operationalized The result of your analysis might also provide you with ideas for the structure of your review. summaries of the methodological arguments found in key texts.. Doing a literature review. 1. Thornill A.


BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS LITERATURE REVIEW Class Activity 1 Group discussion  Argument analysis on a provided topic by the resource person Class Activity 2 Reading article o o o Identification on contents of annotated bibliography as discussed in the lecture In-text referencing End-list referencing Page 44 .


Session outline Page 46 . Quantitative Research process.BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH METHODS A. types of validity Reliability. Session objective: After the session the student will be able to understand:      Quantitative Research. Reliability and Validity Sampling Survey Methods       What is meant by Quantitative Research Method? How to conduct Quantitative Research? Validity. types of validity Sampling techniques Methods of data collection B.

Quantitative research is inclined to be deductive. In other words it tests theory. objective. General aims of quantitative research o To generalize o To be objective o To test theories or hypotheses Quantitative Research Process Steps:- Page 47 . systematic process in which numerical data is utilised to obtain information about the world" (Burns and Grove cited by Cormack 1991).BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH METHODS Quantitative research is "a formal.

1. safe and supporting for the researcher. to develop ways of presenting the results of the analysis to others and so on. 8. the researcher will consider the connection between the findings that emerged out of the step 8 10th step. or distributing a selfcompletion questionnaire. 7. book or journal article in a convincing language for the readers Page 48 . quantification involves coding of the information. Hypothesis At 2nd level hypothesis is deduced from the theory.e. 8th step involves a number of techniques of quantitative data analysis to reduce the amount of data. selected in step 1. A study cannot take onup significance beyond satisfying the researcher’s 10. Process data 7th step simply refers to the fact that once information has been collected it must be transformed into data. Data analysis ad interpretation 9. Devise measures of concepts 4th step covers devising measures of the concepts in which the researcher is interested in this process is often referred to as operationalization 5. test for relationships between variables. Theory Quantitative research is started from theory for the fact that it signifies a broadly deductive approach to the relationship betweenMETHODS theory and research to BUSINESS RESEARCH be undertaken. 3. 4. 6. Select research site(s)/ Respondents 5th step relates the selection of a research site. interviewing the sample members by structured interview schedule. Write findings /conclusions personal curiosity until it enters the public domain in some way by being written up as a paper. 2. or sites and sample respondents that are convenient. Research Design 3rd step is to select appropriated research design that fulfils the research objectives and justifies the related issues such as external validity of finding etc. Administer research instruments / collect data 6th step involves the administration of the research instruments i. in order to test through data collection and analysis. On the basis of the analysis. Findings / Conclusions 9th step.

An operational definition specifies a measurement procedure for measuring external factors. managerial identity. followers. Now the question is what motivation is. functional subcultures. which is Page 49 . motivation. attributes. be it physical or non physical. Example: Probably the most familiar example of an operational definition is IQ test. stress etc Variable Anything that may have varied (different) numerical or categorical values is called variables Example: Gender is a variable: it can take two values male or female. agency. occurrence or process as that have been given a name for identification. charismatic. Operational Definition An operational definition is a procedure for measuring and defining construct. How we can measure it is low or high? Such variables are called Construct. TQM. In many theories construct can be influenced by external stimuli. Hypothetical of In-tangibles variables. productivity. Family income is also a variable as it can take values from zero to billions of rupees. morale. Examples Achievement motivation. leadership. Example A bright boy does poor work in college because he has low motivation. All these may be considered as empirical abstracts realities. Concepts are the building blocks of theory. technology. deskilling. Structure. Although constructs are intangible but the play vary important role in behavioral theories.BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS Concepts and their Measurement Concept Concepts are the generalized ideas about objects. If concept is to be employed in quantitative research it will have to be measured as followed. Construct Variable A construct is a hypothetical mechanism that helps to explain and predict behavior in a theory. organizational size. knowledge.

Steps of Operationalization Concept Dimension Element Concept Questions Concepts are the building blocks of theory. you must use operational definition to define and measure the variables. Concepts are abstract realities. Happiness.BUSINESS RESEARCH intended to measure intelligence . you must use operational definition to define and measure the variables. occurrence or process that have been given a name for identification. be it physical or non physical. serves to measurably define a particular concept. Usually the best method for determining how a variable should be measured is to consult previous research involving the same variable. All these may be Scales considered as empirical realities. Productivity. Operationalization Operationalization is the process of defining a concept so that it becomes measurable variable. Unable to relax. attributes. Example: Driven by work. Which is measured through questionnaire? Whenever the variables in the research study are hypothetical or construct. Example: Achievement Motivation. It is a generalized idea about objects. which is achieved by looking at behavioral dimensions denoted by the concept and categorizing them into observable and measurable elements? Whenever the variables in the research study are hypothetical or construct. Seeks moderate Page 50 . Height. Family income etc Dimension A magnitude that independently or in conjunction with other such magnitudes. Impatience with ineffectiveness. Assets.Notice that Intelligence is METHODS constructive. Inflation. In other words. the observable instance that refers to the concept. Leadership.

Seeks feedback. or rating of the categories of the construct. Reluctant to take time off 3. Constantly working 2. ranking. Does not have any hobbies Questions To get quantified measurable data from delineated elements the questions are being developed that are validating the concept and fulfills our objectives of data collection for the study Example: 1. Thinks of work even at home 2. Scales Scale is the process of nominating. How difficult do you find it to continue to do your work in the face of initial failures or discouraging results 3. Persevering despite setbacks Unable to relax 1. BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS Element A component or constituent of a whole or one of the parts into which a whole may be resolved by analysis. To what extent would you say you push yourself to get the job done on time 2. How frequently do you think of your work when you are at home etc. Page 51 .challenge. Example: Driven by work 1.


Example: Gender (Male. Scales of Measurement: BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS Scale of measurement A question/statement can be scaled on the basis of Nominal Scale Nominal Ordinal Scale Interval Ratio Scale Scale Scale A scale in which object or individual is broken into categories that have no numerical property is called Nominal Scale. Less motivated) Interval Scale A scale in which the unit of measurement (intervals) between the numbers of the scale is all equal is called Interval Scale. Hinduism. American. Example: Motivation (More Motivated. Female). Christianity) Ordinal scale Scales in which categories of object or individual are ranked in sequential (ascending/descending) order are called ordinal scale. religion (Islam.1. nationality (Pakistani. Example: Time – a man who were requiring 10 seconds to solve the problem (10 more than 0) Page 53 . Indian). Example: Measurements of temperature in Fahrenheit Ratio Scale A scale in which in addition to order and equal units of measurement there is an absolute zero that indicates and absence of the variable being measured is called Ratio Scale.

Page 54 Add Subtract To give 10 sec. in addition to order and equal units of measurement. Example Math Statistical tool Gender Difference Race Mode & Chi-square none Religion A scale in which objects or individuals are categorized and the Directiona Ordinal Scale Order categories form a rank l order along a continuum. If Ali is placed in low reading group & Akber is placed in better Rank reader. we know Akber is better reader. but we don’t know how much order Mode & Median A scale in which the units of measurement Equal unit Interval Scale (intervals) between the Magnitude numbers on the scale Size are all equal. Measurements of temperature in Fahrenheit.BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS Scale Definition Propertie Base s A scale in which objects or individual is broken Nominal scale into categories that Identity have no numerical properties. to some individual to solve the Absolute zero problem. mode 7 Median Ratio Scale A scale in which. Mean.(10 more than Add 0) Subtract . there is Ratio an absolute zero that indicates an absence of the variables being measure.


Types of Validity (Where 5 means strongly agree and 1 mean strongly disagree) Following are the different types of validity: Face Validity Face validity is the validity where measure apparently reflects the content of the concept in question. The king used in tips and skills ‘formatting a likert scale’ Binary response format My job is usually interesting enough to keep me from getting bored Agree _____disagree________ (This format is sometime elaborated to include a don’t know response) To ensure that a particular concept is actually and accurately measured. Example: IQ test ought to include questions that require logic.BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS Response formats for scales Response formats for scales Binary ResponseNumerical formats Response formats Verbal formatsBipolar numerical formats Frequency formats Response formats for scales There are several ways of presenting the response formats for the individual items that make up a scale like a likert scale. background . the reliability and validity Validity My job is usually interesting enough to keep me for getting bored 5 Validity refers to of whether or not an indicator really measures the 4 3 2 the issues 1 concept that it is devised to measure. reasoning. we check Numerical response format of the scales. It might be established by asking other experienced or expert people in the field to determine whether extrinsically (on the face) the measure seems to reflect the concerned concept or not.

and good memory. spent on various activities. Predictive validity Here the researcher employs the criterion whereby a new measure predicts a future event or correlates with the criterion measure administrated at a later time. Example: The entry test scores predicts the future behavior of the students Concurrent validity A type of criterion validity whereby a new measure predicts a current event or correlates with a criterion measure administrated at a same time. As been approved by previous researches that there will be a construct validity Face Validity (Validity where measure apparently reflects the content of the concept in question) Convergent validity A test has convergent validity if it has a high correlation with another test that measures the same construct. Example: If an indicator claims to measure aggression and it proves a positive relationship between aggression and temperature. then it is Predictive called convergent validity. Example: If there is high correlation between a questionnaire and observation schedule in order to measure managers’ time. Example: The Semester exams measure the current level of students' behaviors Construct validity It is the degree to which a measuring instrument accurately measures a theoretic construct or trait that it is designed to measure. Such questions to be METHODS appropriate for measuring intelligence and therefore have high face validity. (Researcher employs the criterion whereby a new scale predicts a future event) Validity (Are we Measuring the Right thing) Concurrent (Researcher employs the criterion whereby a new scale measures a current event ) Convergent (A test has convergent validity if it has a high correlation with another test that measures the same Construct (Instrument accurately measures a theoretic construct ) .BUSINESSappear RESEARCH knowledge. Face validity is based on subjective judgment and is difficult to quantify.

Test-retest reliability Stability Reliability (Accuracy in (Stability means Whether or not a measurement is Consistency Parallel-form reliability Interterm consistency reliability Split. In this method two alternative instruments are designed to be as equivalent as . a reliable measurement procedure (Instrument) will produce identical (or nearly identical) measurements.BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS Reliability Reliability is the stability or the consistency of measurement.half reliability (Every time when you measure the Test-retest reliability (Successive measurement) Types of Reliability The reliability estimate determined by comparing the scores obtained from two successive measurements. It can be measured as (Test Score) / (Re-Test Score) = 1 Parallel-form reliability (equivalent-form reliability) The reliability estimate determined by comparing the scores obtained from two simultaneous but different forms of measurements. If the same individuals are measured under the same conditions.

It is a subset of the population. the universe of units from which the sample is to be selected. If there is a high correlation between the two forms. Sample: – the segment of the population that is selected for the investigation.BUSINESS METHODS possible. The term ‘units’ is employed because it is not necessarily people who are being sampled. firms. Important Terms in Sampling Population: . ‘population’ has a much broader meaning than the everyday use of the term.basically. . A computed alpha coefficient will vary between 1 (denoting perfect internal reliability) and 0 (denoting no internal reliability). The method of selection may be based on a probability or a non-probability approach (see below). It essentially calculates the average of all possible split-half reliability coefficients. whereby it tends to be associated with a nation’s entire population. thus. It can be measured with Cronbach Alpha It is a commonly used test of internal reliability. In this method we divide the measure is divided into two halves and then checked for the consistency of respondents’ answers in the two halves. SAMPLING What is sampling? Sampling is the process of selecting segment of the population for investigation. The researcher may want to sample from a universe of nations. the researcher concludes that the scale is reliable. regions. Example As temperature can be measured with Fahrenheit and Celsius scales and then checked whether both have given same values or not? If value is same that reliability is high or vice versa Inter-item consistency reliability It relates that a measure to test the consistency of respondents’ answers to all the items in a measure to the degree that items are independent measures of the same concept.70 is typically considered as a rule of thumb to denote an acceptable level of internal reliability Split.half reliability Split half reliability reflects the correlation between two halves of an instrument. cities. Each of the two measurement scales is RESEARCH administered to the same group of subjects. etc. The figure 0.

and then the cases are selected at regular intervals. Systematic Random Sampling Probability sampling procedure in which the initial sampling point is selected at random. Cluster Sampling It is a sampling technique in which we derive samples out of aggregations of populations (clusters) that are geographically dispersed and possibly unable to access at the same time.45.55 etc. Non probability Sampling .e 10 companies (clusters) from around the Pakistan. numbered case. Sampling error: – the difference between a sample and the population from which it is selected. In this method we develop a numeric list of all sample size and using a table random numbers or computer program we generate random numbers.35. It can be derived from sampling fraction that is n / N where n stands for sample size and N for the population size. It gives equal proportionate representation to each stratum. Stratified Random Sampling It is the process of sampling in which each subgroup (department. 25.e. Representative Sample: – a sample that reflects the population accurately so that it is a microcosm of the population. Sampling Techniques There are two major sampling techniques that are as follow: Probability Sampling Probability sampling is an approach of sampling in which each unit has equal chance / probability to be selected. 5 and then we will choose 15. even though a probability sample has been selected. Gender etc) called strata is given equal chance to be selected randomly.BUSINESS METHODS Sampling frame: – the listing of all the units in RESEARCH the population from which the sample will be selected. i. Simple Random Sampling It is a sampling procedure in which each unit of the population has an equal probability of inclusion in the sample. In this method we systematically choose the first number i.

and region of residence etc. However. age groups. Example: researcher wanting to conduct survey/research on manager’s behavior selects an MBA executive class comprising of managers at his university Snowball Sampling In this technique the researcher makes initial contract with a small group of people who are relevant to the research topic and then uses them as referrals to contacts with others. rather. Quota Sampling Non-probability sampling is the process of selecting a sample that reflects a population in terms of the relative proportions of people in different categories such as gender. the sampling is if individuals are not carried out randomly. Sampling Sampling Technique Probability Non-Probability Simple random sample Convenience sampling Stratified random sample Snowball sampling Systematic sample Quota sampling Multi-stage cluster sampling . ethnicity. Convenience Sampling Convenience Sampling is the technique of sampling in which the research selects the sample that is convenient and easily accessible to researcher.BUSINESS RESEARCH Non probability sampling is the sampling approach in which METHODS the chance or probability of each unit to be selected is not known or confirmed.

Structured interview 3. It involves following methods 1. and mainly have lower response rate. read and answered by respondents by themselves. Structured observation Questionnaires Survey Questionnaire Structured Interview Structured Observation Self administered questionnaires Participant Non Observation -Participant Observation On-line questionnaires Telephone Interviews Face to face interview Postal questionnaires “Questionnaire is pre-formulated written set of questions to which respondents record their answers” Questionnaires are self explanatory. sometimes irrelevant to respondents. quicker to administer unbiased and convenient for respondents as well as researcher but on the other hand they are limited with respect to information gathered. They are relatively cheaper. Questionnaire 2. Questionnaires can be  On-line questionnaires  Postal questionnaires  Self administered questionnaires The choice of questionnaire will be influenced by a variety of factors related to your  Research question(s)  Research objective  Characteristics of respondents  Size of sample  Dimensions of the concept to be measured and .BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS Quantitative Survey Methods Survey is a quantitative research strategy that involves the structured collection of data from a pre-determined sample.

Disagreed The sequence of questions in the questionnaire should be from general to specific. rating or dichotomous  The wording should be simple. Designing a Questionnaire Designing a questionnaire is based on following principles Principle of wording  The nature of the variable will determine what kind and number of questions will be asked i.Agreed Always avoid double barreled. Are you satisfied with your performance in I feel I have been able to accomplished a number of different things in my job . and enhanced comparability. leading or loaded questions . and easy to more difficult.Highly agreed   . It is also called funnel approach. BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS Availability of required resources.g. Example Closed Ended:  Add both positively as well as negatively worded questions e. Structured interviewing is the process of . ambiguous.e ranking. at last and ended with a courteous note. easy and appropriate  Closed ended questions will be used with the intention to have ease. Only relevant personal information should be demanded that is not sensitive. Structured Interviewing “Any person to person interaction between two or more individuals with a specific purpose in mind is called an interview”. recall dependent. Principle of Measurement  Interval and Ratio scales should be used in preference to nominal or ordinal scales  The measure must be assessed through tests of validity and reliability General getup As a whole the questionnaire should cover the following aspects  The questionnaire should start with a good introduction followed by well organized questions with instructions and guidance and sequence.

e. After the interaction. watching and listening to its activities and drawing conclusions from this. It’s a type of field stimulation. Data Description Advantages Disadvantages .BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS administering an interview schedule by an interviewer.  When the subjects are so involved in the interaction that they are unable to provide objective information about it Types of Observations There are two types of observations. 1. It is when a researcher participates in the activities of the group being observed in the same manner as its members. Participant Observation.g. 2. Observation is suitable when  Researcher is more interested in the behavior rather in the perceptions of individuals. observing through cameras Mystery Shopping Mystery shopping is a popular technique used in consumer research that involves sending people (mystery shoppers) into a shop to buy products with the intention to evaluate the effectiveness of retail staff. systematic and selective way of watching and listening to an interaction or phenomenon as it takes place”. It means when a researcher do not get involved in the activities of the group but remains a passive observer. Hawthorne studies.g. Structured Observations “It is a purposeful. E. In this way the interviewers are supposed to read questions exactly. with or without their knowing that they are being observed. Non-participant observation. The aim is for all interviewees to be given exactly the same context of questioning. the shoppers typically fill out rating sheet detailing the nature of the interaction and service they receive.

Follow-up procedures for no respon necessary Token gifts can be enclosed to seek compliance Respondent can take more time to respond at convenience Can be administered electronically. Self-questionnaire is a questionnaire in which interviewee answer the question by himself   Can reach a wide geographic area  Greater anonymity than personal interviews. if desired The questionnaire which you send through internet  Easy to administer  Computer literacy is a must  Can reach globally  Respondents must have access to facility . clear doubts is covered add new questions  Respondents may be concerned ab Can read nonverbal cues confidentiality of information given  Can use visual aids to clarify points. and unlisted ones omitt the sample  Organizations may be reluctant to company time for the survey with employees assembled for the purp     ion nnaire nnaire ic  nnaire The interviewer and interviewee confronted each other Interview which were conducted through communication.  Interviewers need to be trained  Rich data can be obtained  Can introduce interviewer biases  CAPI can be used and responses entered in a portable computer  Respondents can terminate the int any time  Less costly and speedier than personal interviews. Anonymity is high Response rate is almost always ca clarify questions Wide geographic regions can be reached.  Can establish rapport and motivate respondent  Doubts can be clarified  Less expensive when administered to groups  Almost 100 % response rate ensured  Anonymity of respondent is high It is a type of questionnaire which can be sending to the respondent through mail or any other postal mode.or face ws ne ws  BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS Can establish rapport and motivate  Takes personal time respondents  Costs more when a wide geograph Can clarify the questions.  Nonverbal cues cannot be read  Interviews will have to be kept sho  Obsolete telephone number could contacted.

ants ation ants ation  BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS Very inexpensive  Respondent must be willing to com survey Fast delivery  Convenient for Respondents  Better accuracy  Less cost  Researcher is collecting observed data not reported data     Researcher participates in the activities of the group being observed in the same manner Researcher do not get involved in the activities of the group but remains a passive observer  Participant observation takes time commitment  Usually does not examine motivati attitude or feeling toward particula behavior Can obtain data from those unable to communicate in written or oral form  Time cost  The individual may simply be unaware of how they behave in a particular situation.   Saves the researcher’s time The lack of interaction may. howev it difficult for the researcher to be clarify or interrupt the phenomena investigated  Difficulty in data storing .


Service levels of the facility are superior to levels observed at similar setups. In view of the increasing outlets in the city. Arwen Tech’s solution provided KFC with Call center facility and infrastructure. Order Delivery software. For this purpose. KFC’s customers have benefited immensely from the home-delivery service since the inception of the KFC call center. management at KFC wants to conduct research to determine and enhance the level of customer’s satisfaction. For this KFC Pakistan outsourced the services of Arwen Tech (Pvt. software and network.) Ltd.BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS Discussion on Short Case Study KFC KFC Pakistan operates 30 restaurants around the country. Comprehensive reporting solution and 100% maintenance of hardware.  What will be the research question for this study and why?  Identify the variables of the study and research approach that they should use during research and why?  What will be the significance of this study?  Identify the most appropriate sampling technique and target population? Why?  Identify the possible data collection techniques that can be used during research process? Why? . You have to answer the following questions with respect to their underlying need and also explain the suitability/appropriateness of your responses. Now KFC wants to examine the effectiveness of home-delivery service. the need was felt to link all the outlets on one network and to provide home delivery services as well. with 14 outlets in Lahore.


BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH METHODS A. Qualitative Research process. Reliability and Validity Sampling Qualitative Methods        What is meant by Qualitative Research Method? How to conduct Qualitative Research? Pre-occupations of Qualitative Research Validity and Reliability Sampling techniques Methods of data collection Qualitative Data Analysis B. Session outline . Session objective: After the session the student will be able to understand:      Qualitative Research.

subjective. 3. Quantitative research starts from the development of research questions that is based on inductive method. semi systematic research approaches that usually emphasizes words rather than numbers in the collection and analysis of data” and that is inductive in nature. The 3rd step is the collection of data from the respondents. . which is convenient. 4. At 2nd step the subjects (respondents) and relevant site are selected. 2. General aims of qualitative research    To add understanding to a phenomenon or the complexities of human behavior It does not claim to generalize To generate theory therefore it is inductive rather than deductive Qualitative Research Process Steps:- 1. 4th step involves classification (thematic analysis) and organization (stage structure analysis) of data collected in step three. safe and supporting of both researcher and the respondents. In other words it generates theory. which should be concise and relevant to the research topic.BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS QUALITATIVE RESEARCH METHODS Qualitative research is “an informal.

6th step involves writing up the finding and conclusion of the entire research just like quantitative research report in a convincing way on the basis of credibility and significance of the outcomes of research process. 1994). actions.416) Reliability and Validity Validity refers to the issues of whether or not an indicator really measures the concept that it is devised to measure whereas Reliability is the stability or the consistency of measurement.)  Epistemologically focuses on acquiring knowledge regarding how people see and interpret concepts by participating in their minds face to face.  Keep data collection unstructured / less structured supposing to enhance the opportunity of openly and genuinely revealing the perspectives of people under study.BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS 5. the issues of validity and reliability would have little bearing on it and also some alternative terms will be used in qualitative research (Guba and Lincoln. Since measurement is not a major preoccupation among qualitative researches. and activities unfolding over time in a specific context.  Inductively generates theory through research. but here are some important points that are particularly noteworthy. Business Research Methods.aRefinement and specification of topic 5.  Ontologically implies that concepts are outcomes of interactions between individuals through process (sequence of individuals and collective events. 402. Reliability and validity of data in qualitative research is checked through following procedures: Member Checking It is a process in which the researcher provides back each research participant . 5th step reveals the conceptual and theoretical understanding of the data that involves 5. The Pre-occupations in Qualitative Research: Qualitative research tends to be concerned with words rather than numbers. Both terms are quantitative in nature. (2007). (Bryman & Bell E. Researcher starts out with a broad outline of a concept which is revised and narrowed down during the course of data collection as well as in subsequent researches as per difference in social contents or research questions. p.bThrough repeated data collection and preliminary observations 6.

Triangulation It is a process of using more than one methods (interview. data analysis decision and so on in an accessible manner. credibility refers parallel internal validity (The credibility criteria involve establishing that the results of qualitative research are credible or believable from the perspective of the participant in the research). to which the research is fair with equal representation of all contrary point of views. It’s another type of credibility. fieldwork notes. and Mixed methods Approaches. Besides this quality can be ensured by providing rich and thick descriptions on findings. observation. Business Research Methods. p. spending prolong time in the field. (2007). 196). It will resonate well with the readers. Authenticity Authenticity relates to the degree. The respondent’s feedback confirms the credibility of the outcome. Self Reflection and Rich Thick Description It is a process of clarifying all the biases that researcher has brought to the study. selection of research participants. . (Bryman & Bell E. clarifying personal biases. interview transcripts. which parallel reliability. Research Design: Qualitative. (Dependability emphasizes the need for the researcher to account for the ever-changing context within which research occurs).(member) with an account of what he BUSINESS or she hasRESEARCH said to the METHODS researcher during data collection procedure and verified by him/her the account that the researcher has understood and arrived at. debriefing peers and getting external auditors review. This term also called transferability (Transferability refers to the degree to which the results of qualitative research can be generalized or transferred to other contexts or settings). researcher should not eliminate any controversies / negative / discriminative statement while reporting the data. documentation) or sources of data in research process. which parallels external validity. P. It implies that the data collected through one method or strategy is cross checked with data. collected through another method or strategy. 411) (Creswell (2003). The researcher also provides rich thick description to convey findings in order to discuss an element of shared experience. Quantitative. sharing both positive and negative information. This entails ensuring that complete records are kept of all phases of research process problem formation. External Audit Researchers adopt an auditing approach.

However. and region of residence etc. the sampling is if individuals are not carried out randomly. age groups. researcher preferably uses non probability sampling that includes:  Convenience sampling  Snow ball sampling  Quota sampling Non probability Sampling Non probability sampling is the sampling approach in which the chance or probability of each unit to be selected is not known or confirmed.  Quota Sampling Non-probability sampling is the process of selecting a sample that reflects a population in terms of the relative proportions of people in different categories such as gender. Qualitative Methods: .  Convenience Sampling Convenience Sampling is the technique of sampling in which the research selects the sample that is convenient and easily accessible to researcher. ethnicity. rather.BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS Qualitative Sampling: In qualitative research. Example Researcher wanting to conduct survey/research on manager’s behavior selects an MBA executive class comprising of managers at his university  Snowball Sampling In this technique the researcher makes initial contract with a small group of people who are relevant to the research topic and then uses them as referrals to contacts with others.

Unstructured observation Interview Interview is an interactive process of “listening in” and asking questions. Document analysis 4. OR Interview a person to person interaction or debate between two or more individual with a specific purpose in mind. Focus group 3. between interviewer and interviewee about research topic.  Can combine virtues of survey sampling and in-depth interviewing  Gen nui unw  Has some of the qualities of face-to-face interviewing  Non mis  Interviews not bound by geographical distance  Dur lim . One-on-One Interview 5. Research Interviewing: the range of techniques) Type of interview Definition Advantages Disadv telephone interview It is an interview method in which the researcher conducts interview on telephone in a mutually responsive way in order to get highly productive and quality information from persons at a distant location. (2005). Ethnographic Interview 4. Telephone Interview 2. Group Interview (Gilham B.BUSINESS METHODS In qualitative research four methods are used forRESEARCH data collection that is as follows: 1. Types of interviews: There are several types of interviews that are as follows 1. Email Interview 3. Interview 2.

desires. speedy and flexible way. It is an exploratory interview method to have deep understanding of the people who come to your site one-onone by probing their attitudes.  lim que  inte per  inte exp con group dynamics Full attention to the interviewee It is an exploratory interview method in which open and unspecific discussion is performed on a research topic by the group members in order to get deep understanding of research topic. beliefs.  Extremely economical on time   can rese  can edit  can igno Response is at interviewee’s convenience No transcription  required Ethnograp hic interview One-onone /Individual Interview It is an interview method in which the interviewer acts as participant observer and collects data in a natural setting from the respondents.  Valuable as an initial. and experiences. ‘unguarded’  Can be crossreferenced to other data  Gives access to people who could not be interviewed in other ways In-depth exposure to a person’s experiences More time to discuss topics in detail. accessing reluctant to participate in a face-toenormous information in an face interview instant. exploratory technique  May reveal dynamics through interaction.Email interview BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS It is an interview method in  Instant which the researcher conduct communication access worldwide interview using email based on  Acceptable to those internet technology.      High validity: naturalistic. and issues not apparent in individual interviews   diffi cha  be . rec imm No worry about the   Group interview on  ind is s per bet inte  Customized interviewing style to draw out a shy user or keep another user on topic.

BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS  Provides early indication of a range of views .

their sequence. roughly equivalent coverage can be achieved  Equival ent interview time is allowed in each case  Analysi s is facilitated by the levels of structure  Useful as an exploratory techniques Good  for achieving a  time(i transc plus w  c deve phase  is requ adequ  difficu  can be . no schedule of questions is decided and quite open in order to yield unexpected material regarding personal experiences. although still allowing for a degree of flexibility and openness. It is a mode of interview in which there is nothing pre-planned. Prompts are used to keep the interviewee on track and through probing deep insight is gained.MODES OF INTERVIEW BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS Interviews can be conducted in different modes that are discussed in the following tables Mode of Interview Structured interview Definition It is a mode of interview in which questions to be asked. and detailed information to be gathered are all predetermined. used where maximum consistency across interviews and interviewees is needed. Advantages Quick  D  to administer  cover Overco mes disadvantages of postal questionnaires  Analysi s is straightforward  Easy to  often  free fl conve code and enter  Semistructured interview Unstructure d interview It is a mode of interview in which individuals are asked a pre-defined set of question parameters.   More interviews in less time Provide s a balance between structure and openness With the use of prompts.

BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS narrative   Minimu m interference from the interviewer Explori ng a topic broadly (Gilham B. (2005). Research Interviewing: the range of techniques)  consu  can be .

As been mentioned in our exemplary research report Example: “I decided to choose semi-structured interview that could be argued as the most important way of conducting a research interview because of its flexibility balanced by structure and the quality of the data so obtained. cost and type of respondents. semi-structure and structured mode of interview is made depending upon the Purpose of interview. It consists of following steps: 1.BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS Interview Procedure Interview procedure is a set of sequential interdependent activities that result in collection of comprehensive information regarding the research topic. literature availability. Interview Composition At 3rd step criteria for selection of interviewees (screener) will be set. Only those persons will be allowed to participate in research who will qualify the composition criteria.” 3. Example: To explore the Concepts of HRM practices POS. nature of topic. . Methodology At 2nd step decision regarding selection of unstructured. commitment and job satisfaction in Pakistan 2. Interview Objectives At first step it is essential to set the objectives of the interview aligned with overall research objectives so that we could evaluate the data collected as per requirements.

20% Inter level . 1 Activity Objective setting and Screener development Dates 14th Nov’ 08 . Example: S. college. Karachi. University(HEC recognized) 4. Interview Schedule The 4th step involves the development of interview schedule.30% Bachelors level .a formal timeline in which researcher and his team do all activities and able to conclude the results on time.N o. Rawalpindi Gender: -Males & Females Age: - Job Tenure: Positions in organizations Usage Prerequisites: - - 25 plus Minimum 3 years faculty members (minimum lecturer) .50% Masters level Organization type -Private or Public (Private must be affiliated educational institute.BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS Example: Geographical coverage: -Lahore.

Sample screener is attached herewith (Annexure A) at the end of the document 6. Before conducting interviews we ask some necessary questions to see that the person is eligible or not for our research for what we are going to conduct interviews. summary publicity. The key ethical aspects to be addressed involves   Identifying yourself as researcher Developing respondent consent form defining o the research purposes o types of information required o confidentiality and anonymity statement o surety of security.Interviews (Karachi) 24th – 28th Nov' 08 8 Transcripts 9 Analysis and Report writing 15th Dec’ 08 Report submission 17th Dec’ 08 10 24th – 8th Dec’ 08 5. fair uses of information and wastage of data after due time period . Recruitment Screener Development At 5th step Recruitment screener a short questionnaire of 6 .8 questions is developed.Interviews (Islamabad) 24th – 28th Nov' 08 7 05. Deciding about the Ethical Issues The 6th step involves deciding about the ethical standards to be practiced throughout the interview process in order to deal with social and legal bindings.Interviews (Lahore) 22nd – 28th Nov' 08 6 05.BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS 15th Nov’ 08 2 Approval of objectives and screener 3 Selection of sites and respondents 16th – 20th Nov’ 08 4 Development of guidelines and arrangements 16th – 20th Nov’ 08 5 05.

He is interested to know about the Ramadan. Discussion guide is developed from the objective of the research.  What would we tell him about this particular event?  How do we feel about it?  How is the atmosphere and ambience when it’s the time of the Ramadan?  What role does it play in our lives?  What is the main satisfaction that we get out of being part of this time of the year?  What are the values associated with the Ramadan?  Which are the best possible expressions for this value in our opinion?  How do we feel about Pakistan’s connection to the Ramadan? . The main strategy to develop discussion guide is:  Putting question together according to objective of study  Grouping them into the topics they seem to relate  Identifying the narrative sequence – How questions & Topics lead one into the other Example of (Coca Cola Export Corporation): Objective:  To come up with a concept which will be able to make Coca-Cola an integral part of the Iftar table Question/ Guideline:  Introducing Research Company  Reassuring the respondents: creating a safe atmosphere  Respondents’ introduction & warm-up Let’s imagine that a foreigner was listening to us who has never visited Pakistan and does not know Pakistanis.Example BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS Sample consent form is attached herewith (Annexure B) at the end of the document 7. Discussion Guide This has a set of questions used in the interview.

. SAQ: Which one soft drink do we associate with Ramadan? ---------------------------Which soft drink do we associate with Iftar? ---------------------------Thinking of our personal idea of Ramadan that we have just defined and discussed a while ago. senior or expert in the field. he wants to know about carbonated soft drinks and what role do they play in our lives. 8. repeating or irrelevant questions are diminished for being closer to desired purpose. and exploratory in nature using literature review. we revise them through pruning process that involves reducing questions to their essentials and all unnecessary. After pre-piloting adjustments the researcher process a stage further towards piloting stage by recording the interview and transcribing it and carrying out an analysis of contents. The quality of words and format is also improved through rechecking by peer. Questions Preparation 8th step involves comprehensive process of compiling a set of main questions and sub-questions (if necessary) that are generalized. Questionnaire finalization goes through following stages 8. Trailing After pruning and revising the questions researcher passes through the trialing process that is your first attempt to try out the questions live and face-to-face to persons (two or three maximum) that are involved in your research but not the member of the group to be actually studied. Pruning and Revising Possible Questions After developing initial set of questions.1. This practical exercise will reveal some particular practical problems with some questions to be dealt now otherwise cause regret at final stages. 8. BUSINESS How do we feel about what it shows to theRESEARCH rest of the METHODS world? Now. let’s imagine that the foreigner wishes to know more. Piloting and Pre-Piloting After pruning restructuring and reorganizing the questions researcher goes through the pre-piloting stage when he conducts interviews from subjects (actual respondents) asking them feedback and comments on interview schedule observing how they responded and how you yourself mange the interview schedule: further adjustments to questions and process will emerge.2. brainstorming or Delphi techniques.3. It will enhance your understanding of the actual phenomena and help in reducing topics as well as questions. non-directional. which brand of soft drink comes close? 8.


and any other thing as per requirement. Gifts for the interviewees as thanks for sparing time . On the other hand this exercise develops interviewing skills like probing in the researcher. Research area office to be in upright condition (illumination. pencils and other stationery items 6. Preparation Phase This stage involves preparation of all necessary documents/elements including selection of respondents. Refreshment for the interviewee 8. and time. 9. Besides this making available all required equipment (microphone. Moderator guidelines printed and set on the table 7. Prompts and Probing BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS Pre-Piloting and piloting will not only improve the quality of interview schedule but also it enables researcher develop prompts-something as simple as this (diffidently composed for different contexts) will enable you to get a feel for interviewing and also provided material for self scrutiny resulting in listening with intense concentration. Example: Sample questionnaire is attached herewith (Annexure C) at the end of the document 9. Board markers.8. 3. Cassettes (new) to be ready with tags and coding 5. Probing is about getting the respondent to tell even the hidden aspects of the concepts which you sense from his answers and to make them going on and on producing in-depth information. tape recorder and clipboard) rooms. It also involves the decisions regarding interviewer’s appearance and dressing as well. Walkman with new batteries (verified twice). etc) 2. Conducting the interview Next step is conducting interview actually. plain papers. noise free. information required from them and getting their consent in signatures. It involves five following stages but before entering this actual interview process researcher must visit the respondent to brief him/her about research purpose. Pick and drop facility for the interviewees 9.4. Required documents (screener summary sheets) designed and ready 4.1. seating arrangement. place. Checklist for Preparation Phase (Yes/No) 1.

Job satisfaction Job commitment……it is very comprehensive research that will let you identify your own status regarding employment while on the other hand it will help employers to redesign their HR policies in order to facilitate their employee grievances” 9. Certain transcription formats and symbols must be followed. the time is 9:30 am approximately.4. Orientation Phase At this stage you will (once again) explain him/her the purpose of interview as well as the purpose of the whole research with respect to the significance of its outcomes making him feel that his contribution is highly valuable. offering them for checking and feedback after transcription and get them off the premises with courtesy. I am ABC from XYZ institute First of all I would like to welcome you and thank you for giving us your precious time 9.RESEARCH colour choice etc 1 0.5. clarifying the questions where necessary. 9.2. as an active listener and leaving not even a single cue to probe into the discussion. Substantive Phase After orienting the interviewee you will commence the proper interviewing in easy comfortable language. 9. Basic rules for transcription . POS. thanking them for sparing time in an enthusiastic manner.METHODS Interviewee dress code suitability. Simply it is a winding up function to departure.BUSINESS matching. “We are working on an international research project regarding HRM practices. Transcribing the Interviews Transcription is the process of producing a valid written record of an interview without losing any feature of speech in a way that it could present the true picture of verbal as well as non verbal clues. keeping relevant to the topic through examples and justifications.3. introducing him about you as well as making him feel relaxed by offering him some refreshment and asking him about his travelling towards interview place etc. showing appreciation and nodding to be understood. in simple words it is an introduction and warm-up phase Example: Today is 22nd of November 2008. After that rechecking the quality of your tape-recorder you will head towards substantive phase. 10. Initial Contact Phase Initial contact involves welcoming the respondent at interview. Closure Phase It is a closing phase involving appreciation of what the interviewee has contributed.

Transcribe as soon as possible after the interview (Ideally transcribe the day after the interview) 3. These impressions may be useful later. structuring. If you have tape recordings. How to conduct QDA: a step by step process There are four steps involved in Qualitative data analysis 1. signs) throughout the transcription process 7. Don’t spend more than one hour at a time on the transcription. and  Supporting decision making. Clearly identify tapes and transcripts through labeling and coding 6. 5. and transforming qualitative data with the goal of:  highlighting useful information  suggesting conclusions. . Identify a few key questions that you want your analysis to answer. Before beginning any analysis. Do not let the tapes accurate BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS 2. you listen to them several times. Be realistic about the time transcription will take as there is no fast method for transcription 4. Get to know your data Good analysis depends on understanding the data. Once transcribed interview should be peer reviewed for ensuring accuracy Example Sample Transcription format and transcriptions are attached herewith (Annexure D) at the end of the document. For qualitative analysis. Write down any impressions you have as you go through the data. this means you read and re-read the text. Qualitative data analysis Qualitative Data analysis is a process of gathering. Use standard format (codes.1. Analyze your data Before proceeding to analysis review the purpose of the evaluation and what you want to find out. consider the quality of the data and proceed accordingly 2. symbols.

They are called preset themes.1 Preset themes: In case of semi-structure interview there can be certain themes that are predefined in the interview schedule for which you search the data. These questions may change as you work with the data. Like (0. go through them and highlighting the important statements from each portion as called substantive statements. This is an organization which gives you a plenty of (0. These themes provide direction for what you look for in . The full process of analyzing a transcription can be split into different stages that were discussed one by one: 1. that is the process of deriving themes out of the substantive statements.2) you see! Opportunities in which you can participate in decision making. Themes can be of two categories. 2. 3. It is the process of reducing the transcript to perhaps a third of its original length. EXAMPLE Excerpt First of all I would like to say few things before I give an answer to it.2) if there are anything regarding hiring faculty or there is any matter regarding curriculum improvement. They have always asked me to participate in decision making and I have always give then decisions and they have always cater those decisions implemented in their systems. 3. but will help you get started. The first step is just to read each transcription. Following are the steps involved in data analysis. These will help you BUSINESS decide howRESEARCH to begin. How you focus your analysis depends on the purpose of the evaluation and how you will use the results. that is theSubstantive process of deriving Statement themes out of the substantive statements. After identifying the substantive statements you should conduct thematic analysis. I always:::: been allowed by top management to participate in decision making.METHODS Write these down. Themes can be of two categories. After identifying the substantive statements you should conduct thematic analysis.

so they are more abstract and more revealing of what is going on in the text.2 Organizing theme (middle-order theme): This is a middle-order theme that organizes the basic themes into group of similar issues.2. Example (Basic themes) 1.3 Global theme (super-ordinate theme): Global themes are superordinate themes that encompass the principal metaphors in the data as a whole.BUSINESS the data. They may be ideas or concepts that you had not thought about.1 Basic theme (lowest-order theme): This is the most basic or lowest-order theme that is derived from the textual data. The can be of following three levels that are as follows: 3. decision acceptable by top management 3. They are group of signification that summarize the principle assumptions of a group of basic themes. you read through the text and find the themes or issues that recur in the data. Plenty of opportunities regarding decision 2.2. Basic themes are the simple premises characteristics of the data. You identify the themes before you RESEARCH categorize METHODS the data. and search the data for the text that matches the theme. They are both the summary of the main themes and revealing interpretation of the texts. decision regarding hiring faculty and curriculum improvement (organizing themes) Participation in decision making (global themes) . But in case of unstructured interview the themes are emergent that are as under 3. and on their own they say very little about the text or group of texts as a whole 3.2 Emergent themes: The new theme that emerges out of the narrative are called emergent themes.2. Global themes group sets of organizing themes and tell us what the texts as a whole are about within the context of a given analysis. Rather than using preconceived themes. 3.

while in semi structured interviews it is predefined to some extent. decision to have powers and authority regarding the ideas are so much considered by the organization Supportive HR 1. I feel myself lucky to be a part of this organization practices Fairness of rewards 3. reward is one thing which has made this organization a singular success 2.BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS 4. the maximum skills and knowledge are gained ((by me)) IN THIS ORGANIZATION 2. Stage structure analysis Recruitment and selection Participation in or decision making It is the process of identifying the stages levels of the themes while working on Training and development the successive interview transcripts. up-todate information Growth Opportunities HR PRACTICES 4. that well done and keep up the good work. ideas . The effort has been appreciated and they ((management)) have pat on the back. suggestions are taken when hire any person and implementing any system 5. the rewarded ratio is quite high as compare to been unrewarded 4. Job commitment Job Satisfaction Performance . It is performed in unstructured narrative preferably to clarify the flow of your working. knowledgeable. in order to develop the general flow of different Compensation and reward stages in the narrative to show the progression. 1. growth in my career. when the rewards compare with any competitive institution.

In this process the researcher will define codes for each interviewee. Analysis Grid After having done all the analysis and the code book the researcher will develop an analysis grid (spreadsheet) manually or using Microsoft excel integrating all major categories taking categories at one side and the interviewees at top.b.C….) 12.1 Interviewee Code: Capital letters (A. subcategory. question. Coding the Data It is the process of developing a code book for being able to refer to certain respondents’ words in transcription.a.2.. Code: A.i.. Then reviewing all the transcripts the researcher will fill in all the statements with coded reference against each statement.) Example: sample code book is attached herewith (Annexure H) at the end of the document.BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS 11. Example ..B.c…. category. and substantive statement. Question Code: Small letters (a.

How to interpret 1. (Research Interviewing. Explain the background and objectives of your work with the justification of topic. Bill Gillham) Focus Group Focus group is the data collection method in which specifically defined groups of individuals (Group composition focus) are interviewed in a . 2. Interpreting the data involves attaching meaning and significance to the analysis. the major lessons 4. Read through the grid 2. 13. Brief about the step by step process of interview and the rationale for the selection of interviewee 3. 4. Elaborate the qualitative analysis done on the basis of transcripts and the interpretation. Think about what have you learned. Give references both in-text and end-list to authenticate your report. Develop a list of key points or findings 3. How to write report 1. Write down the meanings you derive as per your understanding from the set of categories and the quotes from the edited version of transcripts. Stress on the more significant findings with the help of excerpts with proper coding. and categories derived from the interview process using analysis grid.BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS Sample Analysis grid is attached herewith (Annexure I) at the end of the document. Interpret the findings On getting completed the analysis grid as outcome of the analysis process the researcher needs to explain his finding using the themes. Develop an outline for presenting your findings 5. Preparing your report Finally the researcher will write down a report on the outcomes of the data debating on the key themes. and the interview method you selected supported of literature. categories and the connections between them.

 You desire ideas to emerge from the group.  The focus group practitioner is invariably interested in the ways in which individuals discuss a certain issue as members of a group rather than simply as individuals. Uses of Focus Group Focus Group method is used in following cases when:  Insights are needed in exploratory or preliminary studies. However. focus groups are not carried out for this reason. Conducting Focus Groups Following steps are involved in conduct of focus group interviews: 1. have only a few questions (maximum 4-5).  Sometimes group interviews are carried out so that the researcher is able to save time and money by carrying out interviews with a number of individuals simultaneously. . OR A focus group discussion is a tool in which a small group of people (8-10 individuals) engages in a roundtable discussion of selected topics of interest in an informal setting. Focus Group vs. if possible. Pre test your questions.  There is a communication or understanding gap between groups or categories of people. 2.BUSINESS aRESEARCH METHODS discussion format by a moderator regarding tightly defined topic (content focus) and the accent is upon interaction within the group and the joint construction of meaning. limit the size of the group to 8 or less participants. nametags are helpful. Choose a room with few distractions. Group Interview  Focus groups typically emphasize a specific theme or topic that is explored in depth.  The purpose is to uncover factors relating to complex behavior or motivation. start from more general toward specific questions.  The clients or intended audience places high value on capturing the openended comments of your target audience.  The researcher needs additional information to prepare for a large-scale study. whereas group interviews often span very widely.

14. Pick n drop facility if the interviewees don't have transport facility.” to “what would you say are the two most useful….BUSINESS 3. 1. New pencil cells in the walkman for back-up recording. Back-up cassettes should be marked as Back-up 1 and Back-up 2. and group names written clearly on both the covers and the cassettes (with pencil).Moderator’s Guideline printed & set on the table 12. both with remote controls along with the connecting lead in the conference room. Consider having tape recording or another researcher taking detailed process notes – (if you want to capture comments verbatim) that is subsequently transcribed. Most important points need to be addressed early 5. . New mike cell in place 3.Refreshments for the interviewee to accommodate then. drawing/visualizing. Mike to be turned on half-hour before the Interview starts 5.. You may use different discussion methods (Nominal.Additional: TV (Channel 0 set) with VCR. Volume 1 should be of 90 min & Vol 2 of 60 min. plain papers. Cassettes to be ready (reject those with broken recording tags). 8. 9. Research area office to be in upright condition (files. Delphi. and brainstorming). Use flip charts to make recording process as open/visible as possible 7. and walkman be placed in the interviewing room (with Back-up 1 cassette inside and Back-up 2 cassette placed aside) 10. Screener Summary sheets designed & ready (participants’ eligibility to be verified thru these sheets before the group starts) 7. Any stimulus material to be used in interview (SAQ to be shown beforehand to the interviewer to help him/her set the flow later) 8. papers neatly in place) 2.METHODS from “what is your perspective on …. Keep the discussion to less than 2 hours 6. Questions may vary in their levels ofRESEARCH structure. 10 pencils to be kept in the conference room 11.. storytelling.Plain papers in the darkroom for the client’s notes-taking along with small sheets for passing notes when moderation is in process 13.” 4. Essentially checking the recording first thing before the interview 4.Board markers. role playing. Checking the Speakers’ sound 6.

Public documents (Public inquiry transcripts. (2007). whether it is primary source of data or supporting source for any other data collection method 2nd step. can be employed in relation not only to documentary sources but also to all kinds of other data because of its commitment to treating phenomena as text. newspaper. evaluating and using a very heterogeneous set of documents including:   Personal documents (Diaries. and autobiographies etc).Gifts for the interviewees as thanks he/sheRESEARCH gave time METHODS to us. magazines. we decide on the objective of the document analysis i. Limitations  Less control of researcher over proceedings of the discussion  Data is difficult to be analyzed  Difficult to organize group of people  Transcription is difficult and time consuming  Dominance of one speaker  Potential for discomfort among members of the group (Bryman A. . and arranging them in a very organizing manner. Business Research Methods. daily reports etc) Steps Involved in Document Analysis       At 1st. This can be done through following techniques. It is an approach to the analysis of symbols in everyday life. TV  programs etc) Organizational documents (Memos.511525) Document Analysis It is a systematic process of gathering analyzing. Semiotics Semiotics refers to the ‘Science of signs’.e. minutes of meeting. p. 3rd step involves the acquisition of the desired documents from the concerned sources. 4th step involves conducting content analysis for object extraction and recognition of main categories 5th step involves the interpretation of the documents. It comprises a sign constituting the relationship between the signifier (word.BUSINESS 15. we decide on what types of documents are to be used and how to access them. letters. & Bell E.

or picture that attracts our attention communicates message) and the signified (the message or concept itself). & Bell E. 5. Look for more evidence. Qualitative content analysis can be hermeneutic when it is sensitive to the context within which texts were produced. The central idea behind hermeneutics is that the analyst of a text must seek to bring out the meanings of text from the perspectives of its author. 3. and how to make and record observations.BUSINESSand RESEARCH METHODSa particular sound. How to conduct Take a notebook and pen: 1.  Hermeneutics Hermeneutics refers to an approach that was originally devised in relation to the understanding or interpretation of texts. Business Research Methods. informal. watching and recording of behaviors as they occur in a natural environment. what specific aspects of the setting or behavior to observe. 2. It is an early phase of the research that may become specific to when and where to observe.554-575) Unstructured Observation Unstructured observation is the unplanned. (Bryman A. 4. Write down theories as you form them. (2007). Ask people to confirm things Limitations  Needs high level of expertise (preferably by subject matter specialists)  Relatively expensive and time consuming  Hard to fine grain the observed material . Note down when you see something interesting. Don’t jump to conclusions straight away. p.

Observation s Complete participant  Researcher has a firsthand experience with participants  Researcher can record information as it is revealed  Unusual aspects can be noticed during observation  Useful in exploring topics that may be uncomfortable for participants to discuss  Useful when participant cannot be observed directly  Participants can provide historical information  Allows researcher “control” over the line of questioning Researcher is hidden Observer as participant Role of researcher is known  Advantages Participant as observer Observation role secondary to participant role  Complete observer Researcher observes without participating Interview is an interactive process of “listening in” and asking questions.  Face to Face interview Ethnographic interview Elite interview Interviews Group interview Video interview  Distance . between interviewer and interviewee about research topic.BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS Data Collection Definition Types  A non-verbal means of obtaining primary data by watching and recording behaviors  within a clearly defined area.

 Group focused Interview  Several people discussed a number of topics Topic Focused interview   Interviewees are selected because they are known to have a particular situation and asked about  their involvement   Personal documents  Public documents  Organizational document    Relatively easy to assemble inexpensive and flexible in terms of format Open recording allows participants to confirm their contributions Rich data through direct interaction Spontaneous. evaluating and using a very heterogeneous set of documents.BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS interview Telephone interview Email interview   Focus group is the data  collection method in which specifically defined groups of individuals (Group composition focus) are interviewed in a  discussion format regarding a tightly defined topic (content focus) and the accent is upon interaction within the group and the joint construction of meaning. Focus Groups Documents Analysis It is a systematic process of gathering analyzing. in that participants have given attention to compiling As written evidence. it saves a researcher the time and expense of transcribing . participants not required to answer every question. able to build on one another's responses Help people build new connections Enables a researche to obtain the language and words of participant Can be accessed at time convenient to the researcher—an unobtrusive sources of information Represents data tha are thoughtful.


Bryman A. & Bell E. (2007), Business Research Methods, Oxford University press,
New York, America
Creswell J. W. (2003), Research Design Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods
Approaches, Sage Pub., California, USA
Gilham B. (2005), Research Interviewing: the range of techniques, Open University
press, Berkshire, England




Short Case Study for Discussion
Traffic Police and Business Research Consultant
Business research consultant is a business research and design firm in Pakistan that
specializes in observing and identifying the behavior of people and also understand
and develop why these behavior exist. The company then uses the knowledge that
it gains as a framework in the product development process. Traffic police used
business research consultant to investigate the mobility, connectivity, and
communications needs of law enforcement officers, which led to ideas for a set of
computing and communications product. Business research consultants spent 320
hours shadowing police officers in three departments of traffic police. Shadowing
involves asking question during observation. They spent time with crowd control,
narcotics and dispatch. They recorded their observation and interviews on paper,
digital camera and video. A number of interesting findings emerged from all this
research. First police officers are social, so it was important to develop such product
that can enhance socialization rather than detract from it. Secondly, police officers
are not driven by procedures and the third, officers rely on informal information
about people and activities. Business research consultant concluded that traffic
police should develop such product to compile and share informal information.

1. Identify the research design used by business research
consultant? Justify your answer
2. Compare this qualitative research design with quantitative
survey. What advantages, if any, did this research design have
over a survey?



BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS Mixed Methods Research A. Classifications of Mixed Method research. Data collection methods in Mixed Method research      What is meant by Mixed Method Research? Mixed Method v/s Multi Method Classifications of mixed Method Research Methods of data collection Report Writing B. Session outline . Session objective: After the session the student will be able to understand:    Mixed Method Research.

on interview) so that the final database represents both quantitative and qualitative information.. It is also called “Multi-trait. General aims of mixed methods research   To offer a logical and practical alternative to conventional research paradigm To legitimate the use of multiple approaches in answering research questions.g. Its central premise is that the use of quantitative and qualitative approaches in combination provides a better understanding of research problems that either approached alone.. rather than restricting or constraining researchers’ choices Note: mixed methods ≠ multi methods A Multi-method designs Use more than one method but restricted to methods selected from within one worldview (i. The data collection also involves gathering both numeric information (e. Multi-method. on instruments) as well as text information (e.e. a mixed methods Research is one that integrates both quantitative and qualitative research approaches by collecting both numeric as well as text data (simultaneously or sequentially) with a central premise to better understand the research problems that either approached alone. integrated or combined” research. Mixed Method is a philosophical assumption that integrates quantitative and qualitative research approaches within a single project. quantitative or qualitative Mixed methods designs Use and mix both qualitative and quantitative data and methods.BUSINESSResearch RESEARCH METHODS Mixed Methods Based on pragmatic paradigm. .g.

BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS approaches). the researcher provides a better understanding of the problem that if either dataset had been used alone. Connecting These were the two datasets by having one build on the other Embedding The only one dataset within the other so that one type of data provides a supportive role for the other dataset Merger the data: Qualitative data Quantitative data Results Connect the data: Qualitative data Quantitative data Results Embed the data: Qualitative data Quantitative data Results Rationale for Use of Mixed Methods Research:  Mixed Methods Research provides strengths that offset the weaknesses of . There are three ways in mixing the data. By mixing the datasets. Types: Multi-method quantitative studies Multi-method qualitative studies Types: Mixed method studies Mixed model studies. Merging or converging These were the two datasets through which both methods (qualitative and quantitative) by actually bringing together. 2003:11) Mixing the data The mixing of the data is a unique aspect of our definition. (Adapted and abbreviated from Tashakkori and Teddlie.

They combine inductive and deductive thinking. Mixed Methods Research encourages the researcher to collaborate across the sometimes adversarial relationship between qualitative and  quantitative researchers. strengths. common variants. RESEARCH METHODS both qualitative and quantitativeBUSINESS research. Major Types (Approaches) of Mixed Method Design The four major types of mixed methods designs are the Triangulation Design. Mixed Methods Research provides more comprehensive evidence for studying a research problem than either qualitative or quantitative  research alone. Here we discussed brief overview of each of these designs: their use. . Mixed Methods Research is practical in the sense that the researcher is free to use all methods possible to address a research problem. and the Exploratory Design. procedures. the Explanatory Design. It is also practical because individuals tend to solve problems using both numbers and words. Mixed Methods Research helps answering questions that cannot be  answered by qualitative and quantitative alone. the Embedded Design. and challenges.

BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS Types/Approa ches of Mixed Method Study Triang ulatio n Desig n Embe dded Desig n Conve rgenc e Model Experi menta l Model Data tranfo rmati onMo del Correl ationa l Model Valida ting quanti tative Model Multil evel Model Expla nator y Desig n Follow -up explan ation Partici pant selecti on Model Explo rator y Desig n Instru ment devel opme nt model Taxon omy devel opme nt model .

Variants of the Triangulation Design The four variants are the convergence model.1. the data transformation model. and the multilevel model. Triangulation Design Procedures: QUAN QUAL Interpretation based on QUAN + QUAL results The triangulation design is a one-phase design in which researchers implement the quantitative and qualitative methods during the same timeframe and with equal weight. the validating quantitative data model. The Triangulation design BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS The most common and well-known approach to mixing methods is the Triangulation Design. The purpose of this design is” to obtain different buy complementary data on the same topic” to best understand research problem. The intent in using this design is to bring together the differing strengths and non-overlapping weaknesses of quantitative methods with those of qualitative methods. The all four models were discussed below in detail . This design is used when a researcher wants to directly compare and contrast quantitative results with qualitative data.

the researcher Data Data Collection uses proceduresAnalysis to transform one data type into the other data type. However. Researchers use this model when they want to compare results or to validate. This transformation allows the data to be mixed during QUAN QUAN data QUAN the analysis of the two data sets. Either quantifying qualitative findings or qualifying quantitative results accomplishes this. after the initial analysis. b) Data Transformation Model QUAN Data Collection QUAN data analysis Compare & Interpretation Interrelate QUAN + QUAL Two QUAN data sets This model also involves the separate Transform QUAL intocollection quan dataand analysis of quantitative QUAL QUAL and qualitative data sets. Results Collection: c) Validating Data Quantitative Data Model Survey Analysis Validate QUAN results with qual results Interpretation QUAN + QUAL qual data Collection: Open ended Survey items qual data Analysis qual Results . or confirm quantitative results with qualitative findings.BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS a) Convergence model QUAN Data Collection QUAN Data Analysis QUAN Results Compare & Contrast Interpretation QUAN + QUAL QUAL QUAL QUAL It represents the traditional model Results of mixed methods triangulation design. In Data Data Collection Analysis this model the researcher collects and analyzes quantitative and qualitative data separately on the same phenomena and then the different results are converged during the interpretation.

results Overall Level 3: Interpretation QUAN In a multilevel model. analysis. d) Multilevel Research Level 1: QUAN Data collection. However. 2. the items generally do not result in a thorough qualitative data set.analysis.BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS When the researcher want to validate and expand the quantitative findings from a survey by including a few open-ended qualitative questions. analysis. the researcher collects both types of data within one survey instrument because the qualitative items are add-on to a quantitative survey. results Level 2: QUAL Data collection. The findings from each level are merged together into one overall interpretation. within a system. they provide the researcher with interesting quotes that can be used to validate and exaggerate the quantitative survey findings. differentresults methods are used to address different levels Data collection. In this model. Researchers use this design when they need to include qualitative or . The Embedded Design The Embedded Design is a mixed method design in which one data set play a supportive or secondary role in a study based primarily on the other data type.

Embedded Design Procedures QUAN qual Interpretation Based on QUAN (qual) Results QUAL Or quan Interpretation Based on QUAL (quan) Results The Embedded Design mixes the different data sets at the design level. Variants of the Embedded Design The two variants are the experimental model and the correlational model. The embedded design includes the collection of both quantitative and quantitative data. The all four models are discussed below in detail a) Experimental model qual Before Intervention QUAN premeasure QUAN premeasure Interpretation based on QUAN(qual) results qual after Intervention qual The embedded experimental During model may be the most commonly used variant intervention of the embedded design.BUSINESS RESEARCH quantitative data to answer a research question within METHODS a largely conducted quantitative or qualitative study. The priority of this model to establish the quantitative. as in the case of an experimental or co relational design. but one of the data types plays a supplemental role within the overall design. experimental methodology. This design is particularly useful when a researcher needs to embed a qualitative component within a quantitative design. in which the timing reflects the purpose for including the qualitative data. with one type of data being embedded within a methodology framed by the other data type. This model is defined by as qualitative data embedded within an experimental design. the qualitative dataset is subservient within that methodology. This design can either be used as a one-phase or a two-phase approach. .

qualitative phase of the study is designed. 3. Variants of the explanatory Design . researcher collects qualitative Qual process data as part of their correational study to help explain how the mechanisms work in the correlational model. This design starts with the collection and analysis of quantitative data. The overall purpose of this design is that qualitative data helps to explain or build upon initial quantitative results Explanatory Design Procedures QUAN qual Interpretation based QUAN qual results The explanatory design is a two-phase mixed method design.BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS b) The co relational model QUAN Predictors QUAN Predictors Interpretation Based on QUAN (qual) Results QUAN Outcome QUAN Predictors This is another embedded variant. so that it follows from the results of the first quantitative phase because this design begins quantitatively. investigators typically place greater emphasis on the quantitative methods than the qualitative methods. in which qualitative data are embedded within a quantitative design. The Explanatory Design The Explanatory Design is a two-phase mixed methods design. In this design. The second. The first phase is followed by the subsequent collection and analysis of qualitative data.

b) The participant selection model quan quan Data collection Data analysis QUAL participant selection QUAL Data collection QUAL Data analysisQUAL results quan Results This model is used when a researcher needs quantitative information to identify and purposefully select participants for a follow-up in-depth qualitative phase. or to explore a phenomenon in depth and then measure its . such as statistical differences among groups. to test aspects of an emergent theory or classification. This design is particularly useful when a researcher needs to develop and test an instrument when one is not available or identify important variables to study quantitatively when the variables are unknown. individuals who scored at extreme levels. the researcher identifies specific quantitative findings that need additional explanation.BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS There are the two variants of the Explanatory Design: the follow-up explanations model participant selection model and their explanation are given below a) The follow-up explanations QUAN QUAN Data collection Data analysis Identify results for follow-upqual qual Data collection Data analysis QUAN Results This model is used when a researcher needs qualitative data to qual results Interpretation QUAN explain or qual expand on quantitative results. or unexpected results. The Exploratory Design quan QUAL The exploratory design is the results of the first method that can help in develop or the second method. In this model. It is also appropriate when a researcher wants to generalize results to different groups. The researcher then collects qualitative data from participants who can best help explain these findings. In this model. Interpretation 4. the primary emphasis is usually on the quantitative aspects.

This design starts with qualitative data. In the second data collection phase. the researcher implements and validates this instrument quantitatively. quantitative phase. to explore a phenomenon. and writers refer to it as the exploratory sequential design. The variants of Exploratory Design This design have two common variants: the instrument development model and the taxonomy development model and the explanation of these models are given below: a) The instrument development model qual qual Data collection Data analysis qual Results Develop instrument QUAN Data collection QUAN Data analysis QUAN results When a researcher need to develop and implement a quantitative instrument Interpretation QUAN based on qualitative findings . b) Taxonomy development model QUAL Data collection QUAL Data analysis QUAL Results Develop taxonomy or theory testing Quanfor Data collection Quan Data analysis Quan results Interpretation QUAN Qual . The qualitative findings then guide the development of items and scales for a quantitative survey instrument. identifying variables or starting propositions for testing based on an emergent theory or framework. the researcher firstquan qualitatively explores the research topic with a few participants. and then builds the second. Exploratory design procedures Interpretation based The exploratory design is also a two-phase approach.that in this design. Researcher using this design to builds on the results of the qualitative phase by developing an instrument.BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS frequency.

the initial qualitative phase produces specific categories or relationships. In this model.BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS The taxonomy development model occurs when the initial qualitative phase is conducted to identify important variables. These categories or relationships are then used to direct the research questions and data collection used in the second quantitative phase. The major mixed method design types Design Type Variants Timing Weighting Mixing Triangulatio  Convergence n  Data transformation  Validating quantitative data  multilevel Concurrent : quantitativ e and qualitative at same time Usually equal Merge the data during the interpretatio n or analysis Embedded  embedded experimental  embedded correlational Concurrent or sequential Unequal Embed one type of data within a larger design using the other type of data Explanatory  follow-up explanation  participant selection Sequential: quantitativ e followed by qualitative Usually quantitati ve Connect the data between the two phases Notation QUAN + QUAL QUAN(qual) OR QUAL(quan) QUAN qual . develop a taxonomy or classification system or develop an emergent theory and the secondary quantitative phase tests or studies these results in more detail.

BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS Exploratory  instrument development  taxonomy development Sequential: qualitative followed by quantitativ e Usually qualitativ e Connect the data between the two phases QUAL quan .

The review of these phases will be discussed in a table form. Phases in the Data Collection Process for Qualitative and Quantitative Research Qualitative Data Collection    Purposeful sampling strategies small number of participants and sites   from individual providing access to sites institutional review boards individuals     open-ended interviews open-ended observations documents audiovisual materials Phases in the process of Research Sampling Procedures Quantitative Data Collection   random sampling adequate size to reduce sampling error and provide sufficient power  Permissions needed   from individual providing access to sites individual review boards individuals Information to be collected    instruments checklist public document . Before discussing the mixed method procedures. there is a discussion on the basic elements of both quantitative and qualitative data collection within a process approach to research Procedures in Qualitative and Quantitative Data Collection There are some phases of data collection that. forms for recording the data.BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS Data Collection in Mixed Methods Research Researcher collects data in mixed methods study to address the research questions or hypothesis. These phases are the sampling procedures. in combination. and the activities involved in administering the data collection. permissions. comprise the data collection step in research. types of information collected.

BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS   interview protocols observational protocols   attending to field issues attending to ethical issues Recording the data Administering data collection  instrument with scores that are reliable and valid   standardization of procedures attending to ethical issues Procedures Qualitative and Quantitative Data Analysis Quantitative Procedures            General Procedures in Data Analysis Qualitative Procedures Coding data by assigning numeric values Cleaning the database Recoding or computing new variables for computer analysis Establishing codebook Preparing the  data for analysis   Visually inspecting data Conducting a descriptive analysis Checking for trends and distributions Exploring the data    Reading through the data Writing memos Developing qualitative codebook Choosing an appropriate statistical test Analyzing to answer research questions or test hypotheses Reporting inferential tests. effect sizes. confidence intervals using quantitative statistical software programs Analyzing the  data   Coding the data Assigning labels to codes Grouping codes into themes (or categories) Interrelating themes (or categories) or abstracting to smaller set of themes Using qualitative software programs   Organizing documents and visual data Transcribing text Preparing the data for computer analysis .

triangulation.g. tables    Using researcher. participant. peer review) .. figures. and reviewer standards Employing validation strategies (e. member checking.BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS      Representing results in statements of results Providing results in tables and figures Representing the data analysis Using external standards Validating and checking the reliability of scores from past instrument use Establishing validity and reliability of current data Validating the data  Representing findings in discussions of themes or categories Presenting visual models.

and when the design is mixed method.BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS Structure of a Proposal for a Dissertation or Thesis A proposal for a dissertation or thesis needs to convince graduate committees and advisors that the topic is worth pursuing and that it will be studied in a thorough and understandable way. which is given below: . There is a specimen for writing a proposal or thesis that will focus on the following sections. The proposal needs to be convincing. special components need to be included in the overall plan that relate to mixed methods and the type of design.

if they are available) Methods         A definition of mixed methods research The type of design used and its definition Challenges in using this design and how they will be addressed Examples of use of the type of design Reference and inclusion of a visual diagram in appendix Quantitative data collection an analysis Qualitative data collection and analysis and qualitative data transformation.BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS Outline of the structure of a proposal for a Dissertation or Thesis Title  Foreshadows mixed methods study and type of design Introduction     The research problem Past research on the problem Deficiencies in past research and one deficiency related to a need to collect both quantitative and qualitative data The audiences that will profit from the study Purpose  The purpose or study aim of the project and reasons for design types  The research questions and hypotheses o Quantitative research questions or hypotheses o Qualitative research questions o Mixed methods research questions Philosophical Foundations (worldview and assumptions for using mixed methods and the type of design) Literature Review (include quantitative. and mixed methods studies. place qualitative before quantitative) Validity approaches in both quantitative and qualitative research . if used (in exploratory design. qualitative.

(2007) ‘Designing and conducting mixed methods research’. (2003) ‘Research design: Qualitative. Oxford University Press. CA: Sage. V. J. quantitative. thousand Oaks. Thousand Oaks. Bryman. P. (2003) ‘Business Research Methods’. CA: Sage. and Bell.BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS Researcher resources and skills Potential Ethical issues Timeline for completing the study Reference and appendixes with instrument and protocols and visual diagram References: Creswell. E. and mixed methods approach’ (2nd ed.). second edition. and Clark. A. . W. Creswell. J. W.


Session outline .BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS Research Design A. Session objective: After the session the student will be able to understand:    Components of Research design Proposal writing Research Ethics   What is meant by Research Design? Components of Research Design o Introduction o Purpose statement o Significance of the study o Research Question and Hypothesis o Limitations of the study How to write a proposal Ethical consideration   B.

The purpose of Introduction The purpose of the introduction is to establish a framework for the research.  It establishes the issue or concern leading to the research by conveying information about a research problem  It carries the weight of encouraging the reader to read further and to begin to see significance in the study. The Importance of Introduction  It is the first passage in a journal article.1.  It creates readers interest in the topic  It establishes the problem that leads to the study  It places the study within the larger context of the scholarly literature  It enables the study to reach out to a specific audience. 1. framing this problem with the existing literature. so that readers can understand how it is related to other research. Qualitative research is exploratory and researcher uses it to explore a topic when the variable and the theory base are unknown.BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS Research Design After having completed a framework and a preliminary literature review. 1. Quantitative And Mixed Methods Introductions In qualitative project the researcher will describe a research problem that can best be understood by exploring a concept or phenomenon. dissertation. This requires identifying the research problem or issue.  Introduction is always challenging to write and understand as all of this is achieved in a concise section of a few pages. In quantitative project the problem is best addressed by understanding what factors or variables influence an outcome.3. a researcher turns to the actual design of a study. 1. or scholarly research study that provides readers with the background information for the research reported in the research project. Research Design is elaborated as 1 The Introduction It is important to properly introduce a research study. A mixed method study can employ either the qualitative or the quantitative approach to writing an introduction. and targeting the study for an audience. Following is the systematic method for designing a scholarly introduction to a proposal or study. . and having given consideration to writing. pointing out deficiencies in the literature.4.    Qualitative . In the first paragraph researcher identify a distinct research problem that needs to be addressed.2. A Model for An Introduction An introduction model consist of 5 steps which are discussed one by one  The Research Problem : When researchers begin their studies they start one or more paragraphs that convey the specific research problems or issues. 1.

 Importance Of A Study For An Audience : All good writers have audience in mind. the researcher then identifies deficiencies in the literature. quantitative. case study. The nature of deficiencies varies from study to study. 1. or other type) study is (was? Will be?) to …………………….  Deficiencies In Past Literature : After the problem and reviewing the literature about the problem. According to Locke. Introduction by mentioning information of the study to requires. groups. Script The purpose of this …………………… (Strategy of inquiry.2. such as the individual.  It establishes the direction for the research. (The participants.  It is helpful to set it apart from other aspects of the proposal or study and to frame it as a single sentence or paragraph the readers can identify easily.2. (Understand? Describe? Develop? Discover?) The ……………………. each will be identified below and illustrated with “scripts for constructing a thorough but manageable purpose statement for a proposal or study. and mixed methods purpose statements share similar topics.  It conveys the overall intention of a proposed study. It is a major guiding element of any research study. Script Of Purpose Statement “A “script” contains the major words or ideas of a statement and provides space for the researcher to insert information that relates to a project the “script” for a purpose statement” Although qualitative. and Silverman (2000) it indicates “why you want to do the study and what you intend to accomplish” 1. Characteristics and Significance Of purpose Statement. . BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS Review Studies Addressing The Problems : The purpose of reviewing studies that have addressed the problem is to justify the importance of the study and to create distinctions between past studies and a proposed study.  The purpose statement needs to be written as clearly and concisely as possible.. (Central phenomenon being studied) for …………………….  It is the most important statement in an entire research study.1. 1.Qualitative Purpose Statement A mixed methods proposal or study needs to convey both quantitative and qualitative purpose statements. 1. Spirduso. The Purpose Statement A purpose statement is the statement that orients the reader to the central intent on the study.  Purpose Statement : Good introduction to research studies end with a statement of the purpose or intent of the study the purpose study. such as ethnography.1.

Job motivation was defined . dependent.) and information about the respondents’ thoughts of changing jobs. social. The design of a quantitative purpose statement .Quantitative Purpose Statement Quantitative purpose statement differs considerably from the qualitative models in terms of the language and a focus on relating or comparing variables or constructs. drawing a visual model to clearly identify this sequence.BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS organization) at ……………………… (Research site). The second part of the study asked the respondents to identify those motivational factors of concern to them. the ………….(identify the control and intervening variables) will be statistically controlled in the study. Based on these points. personal characteristics were divided into background information about the respondent (i. The independent variable(s) …………………………….. ………………………………. (Provide a general definition). reading improvement was not the focus of the study. The following example may not illustrate perfectly all elements of this “script. Example The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between personal characteristics and the job motivation of certified educators who taught in selected state adult correctional institutions in the United States. This was not an intervention study and. institutional information.e.. Example The purpose of this study was to explore affective. education level. survey?) study is (was? Will be?) to test the theory of …………………………that ………………………………. and the control and intervening variable (s).” but they represent adequate models to study and emulate. 876-877) 1.will be generally defined as ………………………………… (provide a general definition). (Control variables) for (participants) at………………(the research site). and educational factors that my have contributed to the development of reading disabilities in four adolescents. control) for a study. The study also sought explanation as to why students’ reading disabilities persisted despite years of instruction. (Central phenomenon being studied) will be generally defined as ……………….(Experiment.2. intervening.(compares? relates?) the …………… (Independent variable) to ………………………… (Dependent variable). prior training. Finally. therefore.2. pp. although some students may have improved their reading. (Kos. etc. a quantitative purpose statement “script” can include these ideas: Script The purpose of this………………………. begins with identifying the proposed variables (independent. The examination of backg4round information was important to this study because it was hoped it would be possible to identify characteristics and factors contributing to significant differences in mobility and motivation. 1991. At this stage in the research.” but they represent adequate models to study and emulate. locating and specifying how the variables will be measured and observed. The following examples may not illustrate perfectly all elements of this “script. the intent to use the variables quantitatively will be either to relate variables (as one typically finds in survey) or to compare samples or groups in terms of an outcome (as commonly found in experiments). controlling for……………………….

tolerance for work pressures. or hypotheses) can be tested that ………………………………(relate. 4. 5) 1.(theory. and willingness to seek reward in spite of uncertainty vs.RESEARCH METHODSstudy (EWCS) by six general factors identified in the BUSINESS educational work components questionnaire (Miskel & Heller. such as “the purpose of” or “the statement of intent.”  Indicate the type of mixed methods design. or transformational. 1984.  To obtain statistical.  Discuss a rationale for combining both quantitative and qualitative data in the proposed study. Using action words and non-directional language. pp. such as sequential. sequential mixed methods study will be to explore participant views with the intent of using this information to develop and test an instrument with a sample from a population. quantitative results from a sample and them follow up with a few individuals to probe or explore those results in more depth  Include the characteristics of a good qualitative statement such as focusing on a single phenomenon.  Consider adding information about the specific types of both qualitative and quantitative data collection. 1973) these six general factors are: potential for personal challenge and development. conservative security.…(dependent variable) for…………. avoidance. These statements need to be identified early in the study in an introduction. compare) …………………………. (DeGraw.(independent variable) with ………………. Mentioning the strategy of inquiry and identifying the participants and the research site  Include the choristers of a good quantitative purpose statement such as identifying a theory and the variables.Mixed Methods Purpose Statement Script A mixed methods proposal or study needs to convey both quantitative and qualitative purpose statements. desirability and reward of success.3. . (Research site).  To explore participant views with the intent to use these views to develop and test an instrument with a sample from a population. placing these variables in order from independent to dependent.…(sample of population) at………………… (Research site) The following example may not illustrate perfectly all elements of this “script. The first phase will be a qualitative exploration of…………… (Central phenomenon) by collecting ……………………… (Data) from ………………… (Participants) at ………………………. Script The purpose of this two-phase. Themes from this qualitative data will then be developed into an instrument so that …………………………………. Relating variables or comparing groups in terms of variables.” but they represent adequate models to study and emulate. concurrent. competitiveness. and they provide a major signpost for the reader to understand the quantitative and qualitative parts of a study.2. This rationale could be  To better understand a research problem by converging (or triangulating) both broad numeric trends from quantitative research and the detail of qualitative research. research questions. Several guidelines might direct the organization and presentation of the mixed methods purpose statement:  Begin with signaling words. mentioning the strategy of inquiry and specifying the participants and research site for the research.

The central question is the statement of the questions being examined in the study in its most general form. mixed methods study was to first explore and generate themes about student use of Book laptops in three teacher education classes using filed observations and face-to-face interviews.e. native language. inquirers state research questions. These research questions assume two forms: a central question and associated sub questions. based on these themes. The first signpost is the purpose statement.e. or hypotheses in a proposal..tour. similarly. These questions. p. Research Questions and Hypotheses Investigators place signposts in their research to carry the reader through a plan for a study. who recommended that researcher should write no more than a dozen research questions in all. experience. general purpose statement. 1993. specific goals for the research) or hypotheses (i. For example. The inquirer poses this question consistent with the emerging methodology of qualitative research. predictions that involve variables and statistical tests).. the rationale for using both qualitative and quantitative data was that a useful survey of student experience could best be developed only after a preliminary exploration of student use. Spradly (1980) advanced taxonomy of the ethnographic questions that included mini. 2.35). the questions might be broadly stated without specific reference to the existing literature or a typology . hypotheses) to be tested. the specificity of the questions at this stage of the design differs from that in other qualitative strategies. in critical ethnography. to limit the inquiry. and documents and archival material. observations. From the broad. One might ask” What is the broadest question that can be asked in the study?” The followings are guidelines for writing broad. the second phase was to develop an instrument to survey students about the laptop use on several dimensions. in turn. Alternatively in phenomenology. contrast and verification questions. as a general issue so as not.BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS Example The purpose of this sequential. not objectives (i. they might be used as key questions the researcher will ask himself or herself in the observational procedure or during an open ended interview Relate the central question to the specific qualitative strategy of inquiry. Then. As recommended by Miles and Huberman (1994). which establishes the central direction for the study. For example.e. Qualitative Research Questions In a qualitative study. qualitative research questions      Ask one or two central questions followed by no more than five to seven sub questions. the researchers narrows the focus to specific questions to be answered or predictions (i. These questions become “working guidelines” rather than “truths” to be proven (Thomas. that addresses the second signpost – the research questions. become topics specifically explored in interviews. the research questions may build on a body of existing literature.

such as a dissertation or thesis. the questions may be related to procedures in the data analysis such as open coding (“What are the categories to emerge from interactions between caregivers and patients?”) or axial coding (“How does care giving relate to actions by nurses?”)  Begin the research questions with the words” what” or “how” to convey an open and emerging design. These verbs tell the reader that the study will  Discover(e. p. the questions are under continual review and reformulation (as in a grounded theory study). Hypotheses. Hypotheses typically are used in experiments in which investigators compare groups. “determine”.  In grounded theory. specify the participants and the research site for the study. They are used infrequently in social science research... and “relate”. “impact”.  Focus on a single phenomenon or concept. As such. 1993.  Use exploratory verbs that convey the language of emerging design of research.g. Advisers often recommend their use in a formal research project. “Why “suggests cause and effect. Quantitative Research Questions and Hypotheses In quantitative studies.151). Objectives on the other hand indicate the goals or objectives for a study . the focus here will be on research questions and hypotheses Guidelines for writing good quantitative research questions and hypotheses include the following. Phenomenology)  Report the stories (e. narrative research)  Use non-directional language. Often in qualitative studies. Delete words that suggest or infer a quantitative study words with a directional orientation such as “affect”.g. Research questions are interrogative statements or questions that the investigator seeks to answer. They are used frequently in a social science research and especially in a survey studies. They are numeric estimates of population values based on data collected from samples.METHODS of questions.g. case study)  Describe the experience (e. “cause”. investigators use research questions and hypotheses to shape and specifically focus the purpose of the study. An example is “What BUSINESS is it like forRESEARCH a mother to live with a teenage child who is dying of cancer?” (Nieswiadomy. ethnography)  Explore a process (e. Testing of hypotheses employs statistical procedures in which the investigator draws inference about the population from a study sample. grounded theory)  Seek to understand (e. are predictions the researcher holds about the relationship among variables.  If the information is not redundant with the purpose statement.g.ended questions without reference to the literature or theory unless otherwise indicated by a qualitative strategy of inquiry. “influence”. This approach may be problematic for individuals accustomed to quantitative designs.  Expect the research questions to evolve and to change during the study in a manner consistent with the assumptions of van emerging design. an approach consistent with quantitative research.g. on the other hand. .  Use open. in which the research questions remain fixed throughout the study. as a means of stating the direction a study will take.

not both. Choose the form based on tradition. the investigator might write. recommendations from an adviser or faculty committee. A null hypotheses represents the traditional approach to writing hypotheses. lower. or dependent variables The most rigorous form of quantitative research follows from a test of a theory (see chapter 7) and the specification of research questions or hypotheses that are included in the theory. “There is a difference” between the two groups. The second form of hypotheses popular in journal articles is the alternative hypotheses. income level. use non demographic variables(i. Use the same pattern of words order in the questions or hypotheses to enable a reader to easily identify the major variables this calls for repeating key phrases and positioning the variables beginning with the independent and concluding with the dependent variables (as also discussed in chapter on good purpose statements). It makes a prediction that in the general population. mediating. there are two forms: null and alternative. age. the researcher may describe responses to the independent. The investigator makes a prediction about the expected outcome for the population of the study. The independent and dependent variables must be measured separately. more. The researcher may compare groups on an independent variable to see its impact on the dependent variable. Third . These examples illustrate a directional hypotheses. no relationship or no difference exists between groups on a variable. because an expected prediction (e. higher. Alternatively. This prediction often comes from prior literature and studies on the topic that suggests a potential outcome that the researcher may expect. The wording is “There is no difference (or relationship)” between the groups. To eliminate redundancy.g. Another type of alternative hypotheses is non-directional .e. A MODEL FOR DESCRIPTIVE QUESTIONS AND HYPOTHESES . or whether past research indicates a prediction about outcomes. thus. or less) is not specified because the researcher does not know what can be predicted from past literature. If hypotheses are used. Unless the study intentionally employees demographic variables as predictors. higher change more) is made.        BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS The use of variables in research questions or hypotheses is typically limited to three basic approaches.g. the investigator may relate one or more independent variables to a dependent variable. measuring attitudes or behaviors) rather than personal demographics as independent variables > Because quantitative studies attempt to verify a theory demographic variables (e. the researcher may predict that “scores will be higher for group A than for group B” on the dependent variable or that “Group A will change more than Group B” in the outcome.a prediction is made. This procedure reinforces the cause and effect logic of quantitative research. unless the hypotheses build on the research questions (as discussed below ).g. For example. but the exact form of differences (e. write only research questions or hypotheses. Educational level and so forth) typically enter these models as intervening or control variables instead of major independent variables.

however it is possible to identify some characteristics that might guide the design of the questions. the writer specifies descriptive questions for each independent and dependent variable (and important control or intervening variables) in the study inferential questions (or hypotheses) that relate variables and compare groups follow these descriptive questions. Some attention should be given to order of the research questions and hypotheses.RESEARCH Consider a model for writing questionsBUSINESS or hypotheses basedMETHODS on writing descriptive questions that are followed by inferential questions or hypotheses. These questions or hypotheses include both independent and dependent variables. it is possible to identify the qualitative and quantitative research questions in the proposal because one set of questions is not contingent on the other set of questions. In a two phase project. and a longer list of descriptive and inferential questions would result. then. MIXED METHODS RESEARCH/ QUESTIONS AND HYPOTHESES Mixed methods research presents challenges in writing research questions or hypotheses because so little of the literature has addressed this design step (Creswell.     Mixed methods studies need to have both qualitative and quantitative research questions(or hypotheses) included in the studies to narrow and focus the purpose statements These questions and hypotheses need to incorporate the elements of good questions and hypotheses already addressed in the quantitative and qualitative approaches In a two phase sequential project in which the second phase elaborates the first phase. After the study is completed. and the control variables in the third position. a researcher may want to compare group. the researchers can state the questions of both phases in the final report. It specifies the independent in the second. 1999). In other studies many more independent and dependent variables may be present in the model being tested. It is difficult to specify the second phase questions in a proposal or plan. A final set of questions. In this model. Authors prefer to make purpose statements rather than specify their research questions. This example illustrates how to organize all the research questions into descriptive and inferential questions. in a single phase project. In another example. Thus there is a distinct lack of models on which to base guidelines for writing research questions into mixed methods studies. It employs demographics as controls rather than central variables in the questions and a reader needs to assume that the questions flow from a theoretical model. and the language may change to reflect this comparison in the inferential question. I would recommend this descriptive inferential model This example also illustrates the use of variables to describe as well as relate. the order would consists of the first phase . may add inferential questions or hypotheses in which variables are controlled.

The chapter begins by focusing on theory use in a quantitative study. Qualitative inquirers use different terms. and propositions that present a systematic view of phenomena by specifying relation among variables. or hypotheses. definitions. such as a focus on feminist. In other qualitative study. The metaphor of a rainbow can help to visualize how a theory operates. the qualitative research question appears. in a qualitative study. the inquirer may generate a theory during a study and place it at the end of a project . When the qualitative phase is addressed. A variation often seen in sequential mixed methods studies is to introduce those questions at the beginning of each phase. the definition of a theory is “ a set of interrelated constructs (variables) .the transformative strategy that emerged recently in the literature. The investigator might introduce hypotheses later in the study.64) In this definition. 3. For example. researchers may both test theories and generate them. in a quantitative dissertation. Assume . Finally. QUANTITATIVE THEORY – USE Definition of a Theory In quantitative research some historical precedent exists for viewing a theory as a scientific prediction or explanation (see G. In a single phase strategy of inquiry the questions might be ordered according to the method that is given the most weight in the design. It reviews definition of a theory. a theory is an interrelated set of constructs (or variables) formed into propositions. to describe the understanding occur at the beginning of the study at other times at the end. such as theories. Procedures in identifying a theory are next presented followed by a “script” of a “theoretical perspective” section of a quantitative research proposal. with the purpose of explaining natural phenomena”(p. in qualitative research the use of theory is much more varied. alternatively. BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS questions followed by the second phase questions so that readers see them in the order in which they will be addressed in the proposed study. patterns. in contrast. the placement of it in a quantitative study and the alternative forms it might assume in a written plan. then it comes at the beginning and provides a lens that shapes what is looked at and the questions asked. Thus this pack introduces the use of theory at this time in the design process because theory provides an explanation for the variables in questions and hypotheses in quantitative research. and naturalistic generalizations. racial or class issue that guides the entire study.Thomas.such as in grounded theory . Then the discussion moves to use of a theory in a qualitative study. assume that the study begins with a quantitative phase. an entire section of a research proposal might be devoted to explicating the theory for the study. the chapter turns to the use of theories in mixed methods research and the use of theory in a type of strategy of inquiry. Examples illustrate the alternative available to qualitative researcher. the hypotheses and research questions are often based on the theories that the researcher seeks to test. For example . that specify the relationship among variables (typically in terms of magnitude or direction). 1997 for different ways of conceptualizing theories and how they might constrain thought). such as in ethnographies or in advocacy research. Moreover mixed methods research may contains a theoretical lens. The use of Theory In quantitative research. in mixed methods research.

the degree of their linking for one another will increase. These are theories of organizations. These hypotheses or questions provide information about the type of relationship (positive.then” logic statements. or visual models. For example. a theory of attribution). then.BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS that the rainbow bridge the independent and dependent variables (or constructs) in a study. such as Goffman’s theory of “ face work” that explains how people engage in rituals during face. 3. the greater his conformity. Micro –level theories provide explanations limited to small slices of time. This rainbow. theory develops explanation to advance knowledge in particular fields (G. Meso – level theories link the micro and macro levels. Form of Theories Researchers state their theories in several ways. 6. The hypotheses might be written. and vice versa……… persons who feel sentiments of liking for one another will express those sentiments in activities over .. the greater her observability. the greater her conformity. increases with the development of the society.g. a theory emerges and someone gives it a name (e. Neuman (2000) reviews theories at three levels: micro.level. the greater the disenfranchisement of the followers.g. the greater his conformity. a Presbyterian church. Then” statements that explain why one would expect the independent variables to influence or cause the dependent variables. social movement. 2. The higher her rank. The greater his observability. Lenski’s marco – level theory of social stratification. Homans (1950) explains a theory of interaction: If the frequency of interaction between two or more persons increases.level. or communities. cultural systems. Marco – level theories explain larger aggregates. such as institutions.level. for example. The greater his centrality. 4. Another aspect of theories is that they vary in their breadth of coverage.” When researcher test hypotheses such as this over and over in different setting and with different populations (e. explains how the amount of surplus. the greater her centrality. and marco. and whole societies. The higher her rank. the greater her observability. Theories develop when researchers test a prediction many times recall that investigators combine independent.Thomas. Hopkins (1964) conveyed his theory of influence processes as a series of 15 hypotheses (slightly altered to remove all the – face interactions. The higher her rank.g. such as a series of hypotheses. high or low).” if…. mediating. (p. the Rotary Club. such as Collins’s theory of control in organization. 5. For example. and dependent variables based on different forms of measures into hypotheses or research questions. First some researchers state theories in the form of interconnected hypotheses. ties together the variables and provides an overarching explanation for how and why one would expect the independent variable to explain or predict the dependent variable. and a group of high school students). For any member of a small group. The greater his centrality. 1997). 7. or unknown) and its magnitude (e. the greater his observability. space or numbers of people. The greater her conformity. the Boy Scouts. Thus. “The greater the centralization of power in leaders. negative. a society produces.specific pronoun).51) A second form is to state a theory as a series of “if…. some hypotheses are: 1. meso.

The model follows the rules for constructing a visual model introduced earlier. After identifying these factors in the literature. It is useful to translate variables into a visual picture. Setting up a diagram such as this one shows the possible causal sequence among variables. . 1985. the model presented here portrays a basic model of limited variables. presented a complex visual model as shown in figure 7. For example. Use positive and negative valences the postulate or infer relationship  Use two –headed arrows connected to show unanalyzed relationship between variables not dependent upon other relationship in the model Though more complicated causal diagrams can be constructed with additional notation. 1988).3. and 1991) advocates causal modeling and recasts verbal theories into causal models so that a reader can visualize the interconnections of variables. the intervening variables in the middle.112. This design is a between – groups experimental design. Junfnickel (1990). the more alike in some respects both their activities and their sentiments tend to become. and the dependent variables on the right. he adapted a theoretical framework found in nursing research (Megel. leading to path analytic modeling and more advance analysis using multiple measure of variables as found in structural equation modeling (see Kline. As shown in figure 7. He developed a visual model portraying the relationship among these factors.118. At an introductory level Duncane (1985) provides useful suggestion about the notation for constructing these visual casual diagrams  Position the dependent variables on the right in the diagram and the independent variables on the left  Use one way arrow leading from each determining variables to each variable dependent on it  Indicate the “strength” of the relationship among variable by inserting valence signs on the paths.“valences to indicates the hypothesized direction.120) Third an author may present a theory as a visual model. such as typically found in a survey research study. He listed the independent variables on the far left. 1998).(pp. Jungnickel asked what factors influence a faculty member’s scholarly research performance.2 two groups on variables X1 ( Xa and Xb) are compared. along with variables X2 ( a control variable) as they influence Y1 the dependent variable. 1985). Two simplified examples are presented here.BUSINESS of RESEARCH METHODS and above to further strengthen the sentiments liking. and he used “+” and “. The direction of influence flowed from the left to the right. The same rules of notation discussed above apply. Blalock (1969. The more frequently persons interact with one another.1 three independent variables influence a single independent variables mediated by influence of two intervening variables. These two visual models are meant only to introduce possibilities for connecting independent and dependent variables to build theories. in a doctoral dissertation proposal about research productivity among faculty in pharmacy schools. Langston & Creswell. A variation on this theme is to have two independent variables in which one variable compares a control and experimental group and a second variable simply measures an attribute or characteristics. As shown in Figure 7. more complicated designs employ multiple independent and dependent variables in elaborate models of causation (Blalock 1969.

Look in the discipline – based literature for a theory. the theory may be found in economics) 2.g. What theories were used by other authors? Limit the number of theories and try to identify one overarching theory that explains the central hypotheses or research question in the study. With the objective of testing or verifying a theory rather than developing it. look in the sociological literature. 3. This means that the researcher presents it in the introduction in the literature review section. Such a separate passage provides a complete explication of the theory section. 1. or in a separate section of the study. a general guide is to introduce the theory early in a plan or study. and how it relates to the study I am proposing. If the project examines individuals and groups. immediately after hypotheses or research questions ( as a rationale for the connections among the variables). its use.RESEARCH METHODS Placement of Quantitative BUSINESS Theories: In quantitative studies. ask the rainbow question that bridges the independent and dependent variables: Why would the independent variables influence the dependent variables? 4. Of course.4 the researcher tests or verifies a theory by examining hypotheses or questions derived from the theory. the following presents a model for writing a quantitative theoretical perspective section into a research plan. Each placement has its advantages and disadvantages I prefer to write the theory into a separate section so that readers can clearly identify the theory from other components of the research process. an acceptable definition might be found in the literature. This deductive approach to research in the quantitative approach has implications for the placement of theory in a quantitative research study. consider the social psychology literature. Script out the theory section. collects data to test it. If the unit of analysis for variables is individuals. the researcher advances a theory. an organizing model for the research question or hypotheses and for the data collection procedure. one uses theory deductively and places it toward the beginning of the plan for the study. From here the investigator locates an instrument to use in measuring or observing attitudes or behaviors of participants in a study then the investigator collects scores on these instruments to confirm or disconfirm the theory. alternatively. Look also at prior studies that address the topic or a closely related topic. too (e. The deductive model of thinking used in a quantitative study is shown in figure 7. These hypotheses or questions contain variables (or constructs) that the researcher needs to define. to study an economic issue. and reflects on the confirmation or disconfirmation of the theory by the results. look in the psychology literature to study groups or organizations. theories from other discipline may be useful. As mentioned earlier. Follow these lead sentences: “The theory that I will use will be _______ (name of theory). The following procedure might be used. It was developed by . The theory becomes a framework for the entire study. A Model for Writing a Quantitative Theoretical Perspective Using these ideas. Assume that the task is to identify a theory that explains the relationship between independent and dependent variables.

VII) [author identifies the theory] While social learning theory accepts the application of the reinforcement such as shaping principles.1941. reinforcement. A general formula for behavior was proposed which states: “the potential for a behavior to occur in any specific psychological situation is the function of the expectancy that the behavior will lead to a particular reinforcement in that situation and the value of that reinforcement” (Rotter. symbolic.1954 . the central hypotheses or propositions of the theory. expectancles. and psychological situations.1977. Ratter (1954) indicated that four classes of variables must be considered.Ratter. This construct af generalized expectancy has been defined as internal locus of control when an individual believes that reinforcement are a function of . this theory holds that I would expect my independent variables ____ (state independent variables) to influence or explain the dependent variables ____ ( state dependent variables) because ______ ( provide a rationale based on the logical of the theory).1968. 1977. 1977. deviance. 1968). Bower & Hilgard. Thus. Rotter. and statements that reflect how the theory relates to a proposed study. p.aggressiveness.Mischel. Staats. and behavior modification in clinical and educational setting (Bandura.BUSINESS METHODS ______ (identify the topics where one finds theRESEARCH theory being applied). It also addresses techniques of personality assessment (Mischel. and self regulating processes (Bandura. As applied to my study. it tends to see the role of rewards as both conveying information about the optimal response and providing incentive motivation for a given act because of the anticipated reward. and pathological behavior (Bandura&Walter. 1971). 1975. 1981. the principles of social learning theory have been applied to a wide range of social behavior such as competitiveness . but seeks to describe how a group of social and personal competencies (so called personality) could evolve out of social conditions within which the learning occurs. Basically. p. information about past use of theory and its application.Miller&Dollard. social learning theory provides a useful prototype. This conception of behavior attempts to achieve a balanced synthesis of cognitive – psychology with the principles of behavior modification (Bower & Hilgard. the learning principles of this theory piace special emphasis on the important roles played by vicarious. 1954) [Authors describes the use of the theory] Further. Social learning theory not only deals with learning. this unified theoretical framework “approaches the explanation of human behavior in terms of a continuous (reciprocal) interaction between cognitive behavioral and environmental determinants” (Bandura. In addition. 57) Expectancy within the formula refers to the perceived degree of certainty (or probability) that a causal relationship generally exists between behavior and rewards. behavior.1975) [ Author describes the use of the theory].Bandura. sex roles. Explaining social learning theory. This model is illustrated in the example by Crutchfield (1986) Theoretical Perspective In formulation of a theoretical perspective for studying the scholarly productivity of faculty. This theory indicates that ______ (identify the propositions or hypotheses in the theory). the topics to be included in a quantitative theory discussion are the theory to be used.1963. 1981).

113) to study in their qualitative projects. Scholarly productivity is the desired behavior or activity 2. p. the four classes of variables identified by Rotter (1955) will be defined in the following manner 1. 1999.doctoral fellowships.or as external locus BUSINESS of control when the effects are attributed to luck. stability and change. such as educational preparation. Themes in this context provide a . If faculty believe that a) Their efforts and actions in producing scholarly works will lead to rewards (locus of control) b) Others can be relied upon to follow through on their promises (interpersonal trust) c) The rewards for scholarly activity are worthwhile (reward values) d) The rewards are available within their discipline or institution ( institutional setting) Then they will attain high levels of scholarly productivity (pp. post . or full time versus part.time employment may be associated with the scholarly productivity of nurse faculty in a manner similar to that seen within other disciplines (Author applied the concept to her study) The following statements represent the underlying logic for designing and conducting this study. the interaction of interpersonal trust with locus of control must be considered in relation to the expectancy of attaining rewards through behaviors as recommended in subsequent statements by Rotter (1967).16) [ author concluded with the “if ……then” logic to relate the independent variables to the dependent variables] Qualitative Theory Use Variation in Theory – Use in Qualitative Research Qualitative inquirers use theory in their studies in several ways they employ theory as a broad explanation. This theory provides an explanation for behavior and attitudes and it may be complete with variables. chronological age. constructs. tenure. much like in quantitative research. certain characteristics. The perceptions of causal relationships need not be absolute positions. For example. the formula for behavior which was developed by Rotter (1975) would be adapted to read: the potential for scholarly behavior to occur within an educational institution is a function of the expectancy that this activity will lead to specific rewards and of the value that the faculty member piaces on these rewards.RESEARCH METHODS specific behavior . ethnographers employ cultural themes or “aspects of culture” (Wolcott.or powerful others. 1966) [Author explains variables in the theory] In the application of social learning theory to this study of scholarly productivity. These might be themes such as social control. and hypotheses. or social organization such as kinship or families (see Wolcott’s 1999 discussion about texts that address cultural topics in anthropology). In addition. but rather tend to vary in degree along a continuum depending upon pervious experiences and situations complexities (Rotter.12. With these specific variables. Locus of control is the generalized expectancy that rewards are or are not dependent upon specific behaviors 3. language. The educational institution is the psychological situation which furnishes many of the rewards for scholarly productivity. Reinforcements are the rewards from scholarly work and the value attached to these rewards. Finally.fate. 4.

g. Rossman and Rallis (1998) capture. without further marginalizing individuals. gendered. up front or biased from personal. Thomas. class. They also indicate how the researchers position himself or herself in the qualitative study (e. empowerment) and the people that need to be studied (e. contained in Chapter1. and race (or some combination) they would like to address. minority group). homeless. traditional social science has come under increasing scrutiny and attack as those espousing critical and postmodern perspectives challenge objectivist Generalizations or theories to past experiences and literature Researcher looks for broad patterns. In critical ethnography studies. 1993). interviews. and gender are crucial for understanding experience d) Historic. Alternatively. They provider a lens (even a theory) to guide the researchers as to what issues are important to examine (e.BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS ready – made series of hypotheses to be tested from the literature. classed. in a few words. It is an inductive Researcher gathers information (e. traditional research has silenced members of oppressed and marginalized groups(p. class.g. researchers begin with a theory that informs their studies. observations) . and politically oriented individual Researcher asks open-ended questions from participants or records field notes c) Race.g.g.66) Distinct from this theoretical orientation are qualitative studies in which theory (or some other broad explanation) becomes the end point for a study. and historical contexts) and how the final written accounts need to be written (e. women. cultural. Generalizations. qualitative researchers increasingly use a theoretical lens or perspective to guide their study and raise the questions of gender. by collaborating with participants). the sense of theory as critical and postmodern perspectives in qualitative inquiry As the 20th century draws to a close. The case could easily be made that qualitative research of the 1980s under. This causal theory might be a theory of emancipation or repression (J. Although researchers might not refer to them as theories.g. These are the theories mentioned earlier in this book.went a transformation to broaden its scopes of inquiry to include these theoretical lenses. or theories from themes or categories Researcher analyzes data to form themes or categories Assumptions and traditional norms for the conduct of research Central to this attack are four interrelated notions: a) Research fundamentally involves issues of power b) The research report is not transparent but rather it is authored by raced. they provide broad explanations that anthropologists use to study the culture – sharing behavior and attitudes of people. marginalization.

However. (p.86). Still. these “pattern theories” or “generalizations” represent interconnected thoughts or parts linked to a whole.  Locate the theory in the proposal in a manner consistent with its use. Neuman (1991) provides additional information about “pattern theories”.L. as an end point. see Riemen. or generalizations that are then compared with personal experiences or with existing literature on the topic. 1998). Consistent with the emerging design of qualitative inquiry. For example.BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS process of building from the data to broad themes to a generalized model or theory (see Punch. 1998).g. As another example. such as an up .1993). such as in phenomenology. or as an advocacy lens. like causal theory. In those studies with a cultural theme or a theoretical lens. the theory occurs in the opening passages of the study. some qualitative studies do not employ any explicit theory.38) Finally. in case study research. Locating the theory or Pattern in Qualitative Research How theory is used affects its placement in a qualitative study. 1986). theories. Lincoln and Guba (1985) refer to “pattern theories” as an explanation that develops during naturalistic or qualitative research.5 The researchers begins by gathering detailed information from participants and forms this information into categories or themes. Pattern theory does not emphasize logical deductive reasoning. The concepts and relations within them form a mutually reinforcing closed system. The logic of this inductive approach is shown in figure 7. Pattern theories are systems of ideas that inform. Even in the most theory – oriented qualitative design. In these studies. Inquirers hope to discover a theory that is grounded in information from participants (Strauss & Corbin. W. The development of themes and categories into patterns. Rather than the deductive form found in quantitative studies. My advice on theory – use in a qualitative proposal is this  Decide if theory is to be used in the qualitative proposal  If it is used.front explanation. the case can be made that no qualitative study begins from pure observation and that prior conceptual structure composed of theory and method provides the starting point for all observations (Schwandt. in which inquirers attempt to build the essence of experience from participants (e. but it does not require casual statements Instead. one sees qualitative studies that contains no explicit theoretical orientation. grounded theory provides a different end point. theories or generalizations suggests a varied end point for qualitative studies. such as critical ethnography. then identify how the theory will be used in the study. They specify a sequence of phases or link parts to a whole. the inquirer constructs a rich detailed description of a central phenomenon. the theory may appear at the beginning and be modified or adjusted based on participant views. Lather (1986) qualifies the uses of theory: . pattern theory uses metaphor or analogies so that relationship “makes sense”. called “naturalistic generalizations” (p. These themes or categories are developed into broad patterns. Stake (1995) refers to an assertion as a propositional generalization the researcher’s summary of interpretations and claims to which is added the researcher’s own personal experiences. it contains an interconnected set of concepts and relationships.

(P. so that readers understand its parameters. Define term when they first appear so that a reader does not read ahead in the proposal operating with one set of definitions only to find out later that the author is using a different set. at the beginning of the study to use excepted definition found in the literature. In mixed method study. 5. The definition can be elaborated in a separate section of a research proposal. In quantitative study operating more with in the deductive model. In the qualitative research plan a writer may advance tentative definitions. reservation and qualification inherent in every study. Definition of terms:The researcher defines terms so that reader can understand their precise meaning. but which keeps a particular framework from becoming the container into which the data must be poured. In qualitative study because of the inductive. limitations and significance The researcher needs to delimit the proposal. the approach to definition might be to include a separate section. Delimitations and limitation are found in proposal for qualitative. Data must be allowed to generate propositions in a dialectical manner that permits use of a prior theoretical framework. inquiries may define few terms in the proposal instead in the final study they defined terms that arouse during data collection. and quantitative and mixed method studies. exception. Definitions. 267). The scripts for a purpose statement including a brief definition of the major variables or the central phenomena.BUSINESS RESEARCHrelationship METHODS between data Building empirically grounded theory requires a reciprocal and theory. Define terms as they are introducing in all section of research plans. Terms to define:Define terms that individuals outside the field of study may not understand and that going beyond common language. quantitative and mixed method study. Defined terms not understood by readers as found in this section  The title of the study  The purpose statement  The research question hypothesis and objectives  The literature review  The theory base of the study  The method section Special terms that need to be defined appear in qualitative. if the study begins with quantitative data collection. If it begins with qualitative data collection then the term will emerge during the research and will be defined in the finding or result section of the final research study. The researcher tries to comprehensively define all related terms. design. Delimitations and limitations To more parameters for a research study establish the boundaries. If both quantitative and qualitative data collection occur at the same time then the priority given to an approach will govern whether the researcher uses a quantitative or qualitative approach. involving methodology. methodology of fixed and set research objectives including extensive definition early in the research proposal. .

Provide limitations to identify the potential weaknesses of the study at the proposal stage it is often difficult to identify weaknesses in the study before it has begun. In designing the section one might include  3 or 4 ways in which the study adds to scholarly research and literature in the field  3 or 4 ways in which the study helps improve practice  3 or 4 reasons why the study will improve policy The authors stated the significance of the study in the opening paragraph of the journal article. Significance of proposed study In dissertation writers often include a specific section describing the significance of the study for selected audiences A significance section elaborates the importance and implication of a study for researcher. practitioners. . and policy maker.RESEARCH METHODS Use delimitations to narrow the scope BUSINESS of study for example the scope may focus on specific variables or central phenomena delimited to specific participant or site or narrowed to one type of research design.


With this issue in mind she is bound to conduct a survey as per the preference of Mr. Amina. It is important to get to know about the reasons for the dissatisfaction of the patients with the hospital. If you are at Ms. Ms amina is more interested to explore the reasons for knowing about the dissatisfaction of the customers regarding hospital staff. He is more interested to conduct a quick survey to get the results as soon as possible. Give rationale for your choices a. Population and sample (technique and size) c. salman who has sole authority to approve any marketing research that is done at the hospital. Amina’s hospital). The hospital is under new management and is interested in re-positioning itself in the market as having the best medical care in the area (there are four other hospitals in the area that are in direct competition with Ms. However. salman. metropolitan hospital. Design the methodology suitable as per the selected research paradigm. she has been meeting with all of the other directors and employees in her research department. Method of data collection d. Paris. Salman. After a week. Amina place than which research paradigm you will prefer to follow for this research? Justify your choice 2. The results of the focus group and interviews were generally found positive regarding the patient’s dissatisfaction with the hospital staff. Director of public relations for the hospital welcomes amina as a new member of the team and makes an appointment with her later in the week regarding the discussion on some research he needs to have done for the hospital. salman has met with Ms. He told her that the patients are getting depressed day by day which is ruining the image of the hospital. He preferred survey because Mr. As a new member of the team. Mr. She is continuously thinking to adapt such mid way which help her to explore all the reasons and then to develop an instrument on the basis of those reasons for the generalization of the results. 1. But she knew the preference of Mr. the ex director of research department conducted in-depth interviews and focus group discussion. Mr . the sample sizes used in previous research were too small and not representative enough to generalize to the whole customer’s opinion. Method of data analysis . Research approach b.BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS Short case study for discussion Metropolitan Hospital  Amina islam was recently hired as director of marketing research for a large.